INTRODUCTION: We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients
Rogelio Palomino-Morales; Carlos Gonzalez-Juanatey; Tomas R Vazquez-Rodriguez; Luis Rodriguez; Jose A Miranda-Filloy; Benjamin Fernandez-Gutierrez; Javier Llorca; Javier Martin; Miguel A Gonzalez-Gay
Introduction We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients with RA. Methods Six hundred and twelve patients fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA, seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Hospital Xeral-Calde, Lugo and Hospital San Carlos, Madrid, were studied. Patients and controls (n = 865) were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies for the MTHFR gene polymorphisms between RA patients and controls were found. Also, no association between the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism and CV events or endothelial dysfunction was observed. However, the MTHFR 1298 allele C frequency was increased in patients with CV events after 5 years (38.7% versus 30.3%; odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 2.10; P = 0.04) and 10 years (42.2% versus 31.0%; odds ratio = 1.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.08 to 2.43; P = 0.01) follow up. Moreover, patients carrying the MTHFR 1298 AC and CC genotypes had a significantly decreased flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (4.3 ± 3.9%) compared with those carrying the MTHFR 1298 AA genotype (6.5 ± 4.4%) (P = 0.005). Conclusions Our results show that the MTHFR 1298 A>C gene polymorphism confers an increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis and CV events in patients with RA.
BACKGROUND: Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T and A1298C, lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect chemosensitivity of tumor cells. We investigated whether these MTHFR SNPs were associated with breast cancer survival in African-American and Caucasian women. METHODS: African-American (n = 143) and Caucasian (n = 105) women, who had incident breast cancer
Damali N Martin; Brenda J Boersma; Tiffany M Howe; Julie E Goodman; Leah E Mechanic; Stephen J Chanock; Stefan Ambs
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Patients with severe MTHFR deficiency have hyperhomocysteinemia, hypomethioninemia, and a range of neurological and vascular findings with a variable age at onset. We have previously described nine mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. A mild form of MTHFR deficiency, associated with a thermolabile enzyme, has been proposed as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and for neural tube defects. We have shown that a common missense mutation (an alanine-to-valine substitution) encodes this thermolabile variant. We now report an additional five mutations causing severe MTHFR deficiency and an analysis of genotype (alanine/valine status) and enzyme thermolability in 22 patients with this inborn error of metabolism. Six of these patients have four mutations in the MTHFR gene-two rare mutations causing severe deficiency and two mutations for the common alanine-to-valine mutation that results in thermolability. Even in severe MTHFR deficiency, the thermolabile variant is frequently observed, and there is a strong relationship between the presence of this variant and increased enzyme thermolability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Goyette, P.; Christensen, B.; Rosenblatt, D. S.; Rozen, R.
Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India.
Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi
Stroke is currently the leading cause of functional impairments worldwide. Folate supplementation is inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variants in MTHFR gene are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) level. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 543 ischemic stroke cases and 655 healthy controls in China. We found that subjects with the rs1801133 TT genotype and rs1801131 CC genotype had significant increased risks of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-2.61, p=0.004; adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.12-3.56, p=0.01) compared with subjects with the major alleles. Haplotype analysis also found that carriers of the MTHFR CTTCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had a significant reduced risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.82) compared with those with the CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 and rs9651118 were significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (p<0.0001 and p=0.02). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of ischemic stroke and serum tHcy. PMID:24853127
Zhou, Bao-Sheng; Bu, Guo-Yun; Li, Mu; Chang, Bin-Ge; Zhou, Yi-Pin
Stroke is currently the leading cause of functional impairments worldwide. Folate supplementation is inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The aim of this study is to examine whether genetic variants in MTHFR gene are associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and fasting total serum homocysteine (tHcy) level. We genotyped nine tag SNPs in the MTHFR gene in a case-control study, including 543 ischemic stroke cases and 655 healthy controls in China. We found that subjects with the rs1801133 TT genotype and rs1801131 CC genotype had significant increased risks of ischemic stroke (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27–2.61, p = 0.004; adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56, p = 0.01) compared with subjects with the major alleles. Haplotype analysis also found that carriers of the MTHFR CTTCGA haplotype (rs12121543-rs13306553-rs9651118-rs1801133-rs2274976-rs1801131) had a significant reduced risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35–0.82) compared with those with the CTTTGA haplotype. Besides, the MTHFR rs1801133 and rs9651118 were significantly associated with serum levels of tHcy in healthy controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02). These findings suggest that variants in the MTHFR gene may influence the risk of ischemic stroke and serum tHcy.
Zhou, Bao-Sheng; Bu, Guo-Yun; Li, Mu; Chang, Bin-Ge; Zhou, Yi-Pin
The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3?-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype.
Spellicy, Catherine J.; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C.; Martinez, Carla A.; Au, Kit Sing
INTRODUCTION Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital anomalies caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. A defect below the head region resulting in protuberance of meninges and nervous tissue is termed myelomeningocele (MM). MM, the most common NTD compatible with survival, occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 births worldwide. Maternal pre- and periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of NTDs by up to 70%. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is 5, 10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). OBJECTIVES Sequence the 12 exons of the MTHFR gene among 96 subjects with MM to identify variants potentially contributing to the disease trait. METHODS Exons were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the products were sequenced by Sanger method to reveal sequence variants compared to MTHFR reference sequences. Association of variants was examined by Fisher’s test. RESULTS A novel variant c.171+3G>T was identified in intron 1 in one affected subject. The variant was not found in the subject’s unaffected mother’s DNA and the unaffected father’s DNA was unavailable. We found significant differences in allele frequencies for seven SNPs in MM subjects compared to ethnically matched reference populations reported in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database (dbSNP). CONCLUSION We identified a novel variant c.171+3G>T in the MTHFR gene that potentially affects splicing in an affected subject. Also, we observed five SNPs (rs13306561, rs2274976, rs2066462, rs12121543, and rs1476413) in the MTHFR gene not previously shown to associate with MM. The current study provides additional evidence that multiple variations in the MTHFR gene are associated with MM.
Aneji, Chiamaka U; Northrup, Hope; Au, Kit Sing
Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…
Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.
Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 µmol/L) is highly prevalent in South Asian populations including Pakistan. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of this condition, we studied 6 polymorphisms in genes of 3 enzymes - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T; A1298C), methionine synthase (MS; A2756G), cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS; T833C/844ins68, G919A) involved in homocysteine metabolism and investigated their interactions with nutritional and environmental factors in a Pakistani population. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males and 517 females; age 18–60 years) were recruited from a low-income urban population in Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum homocysteine; folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal phosphate and blood lead. DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment-length- polymorphism) based assays. The average changes in homocysteine levels for MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were positive [?(SE ?), 2.01(0.63) and 16.19(1.8) µmol/L, respectively]. Contrary to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the average changes in plasma homocysteine levels for MS 2756AG and GG variants were negative [?(SE ?), ?0.56(0.58) and ?0.83(0.99) µmol/L, respectively]. The average change occurring for CBS 844ins68 heterozygous genotype (ancestral/insertion) was ?1.88(0.81) µmol/L. The combined effect of MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G and CBS 844ins68 genotypes for plasma homocysteine levels was additive (p value <0.001). Odds of having hyperhomocysteinemia with MTHFR 677TT genotype was 10-fold compared to MTHFR 677CC genotype [OR (95%CI); 10.17(3.6–28.67)]. Protective effect towards hyperhomocysteinemia was observed with heterozygous (ancestral/insertion) genotype of CBS 844ins68 compared to homozygous ancestral type [OR (95% CI); 0.58 (0.34–0.99)]. Individuals with MTHFR 677CT or TT genotypes were at a greater risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and high blood lead (p value <0.05) level. Conclusions Gene polymorphism (especially MTHFR C677T transition), folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies, male gender and high blood lead level appear to be contributing towards the development of hyperhomocysteinemia in a Pakistani population.
Yakub, Mohsin; Moti, Naushad; Parveen, Siddiqa; Chaudhry, Bushra; Azam, Iqbal; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz
Background Migraine is a common disorder that often coexists with depression. While a functional polymorphism in methyleneterahydrofolate\\u000a reductase gene (MTHFR C677T) has been implicated in depression; the evidence to support an association of MTHFR with migraine\\u000a has been inconclusive. We aim to investigate the effect of this variant on propensity for migraine and to perform a systematic\\u000a review and meta-analysis of
Zainab Samaan; Daria Gaysina; Sarah Cohen-Woods; Nick Craddock; Lisa Jones; Ania Korszun; Mike Owen; Andrew Mente; Peter McGuffin; Anne Farmer
Background The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk was inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effects of MTHFR gene polymorphisms on the risk of HCC, a meta-analysis of all available studies relating C677T and/or A1298C polymorphisms of MTHFR gene to the risk of HCC was conducted. Methods The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to July 2012. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Metaregression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Results Finally, 12 studies with 2,351 cases and 4,091 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1,333 cases and 1,878 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. With respect to A1298C polymorphism, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in the overall population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.660, 95%CI 0.460–0.946, P?=?0.024; recessive model: OR?=?0.667, 95%CI?=?0.470–0.948, P?=?0.024). In subgroup analyses, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in Asian population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.647, 95%CI?=?0.435–0.963; P?=?0.032) and population-based studies (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.519, 95%CI?=?0.327–0.823; P?=?0.005). With respect to C677T polymorphism, no significant association with HCC risk was demonstrated in overall and stratified analyses. Conclusions We concluded that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may play a protective role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.
Deng, Yan; Huang, Shan; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Haiwei; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jinmin
In order to investigate the influence of genetic factors in childhood stroke, we compared the distributions of mutations/ polymorphisms affecting hemostasis and/or endothelial function (factor V [FV] Leiden, factor II [FII] G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] C677T, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] insertion/deletion [ID], and endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] G894T) among children with stroke and controls. A total number of 26 children with arterial ischemic stroke and a control group of 50 healthy children were included in the study. No statistically significant differences in allelic and genotypic distribution were detected in comparisons between groups. However, when combined genotypes were analyzed, statistical significance was observed for the association of MTHFR CT and eNOS TT gene variants. The results of our study suggest that this genotype combination represents a risk factor of 7.2 (P = .017) for arterial ischemic stroke in children. PMID:19372095
Djordjevic, Valentina; Stankovic, Marija; Brankovic-Sreckovic, Vesna; Rakicevic, Ljiljana; Radojkovic, Dragica
Genetic factors related to cancer have been extensively studied and several polymorphisms have been associated to breast cancer. The FGFR4, MTHFR, and HFE genes have been associated with neoplastic diseases development. The current report outlines the analysis of the polymorphisms G388A (FGFR4), C677T (MTHFR), C282Y, and H63D (HFE) in Brazilian breast cancer patients. We studied 68 patients with invasive ductal and operable breast carcinoma and 85 women as a control group. The polymorphism frequencies in the breast cancer and control groups were analyzed, but no significant difference was observed by comparing the two groups. The presence of each polymorphism was analyzed according to the clinical features and markers already established as prognostic in the breast cancer group. The C677T, H63D, and G388A polymorphisms were not associated to histological grade, age of diagnosis, expression of HER2 receptor, or estrogen and progesterone receptor. The H63D polymorphism showed a significant association (P = 0.02) with the presence of p53 mutations, and C667T showed association to lymph node involvement (P = 0.05). Lymph node involvement, G388A polymorphism, and histological grade were independently associated to metastasis/death. Our data suggests that the polymorphisms G388A, C677T, and H63D are not useful in breast cancer diagnosis, but they may be significant additional prognostic markers related to breast cancer survival. PMID:21625954
Batschauer, Anna P; Cruz, Nathalia G; Oliveira, Vanessa C; Coelho, Fernanda F; Santos, Izabela R; Alves, Michelle T; Fernandes, Ana P; Carvalho, Maria G; Gomes, Karina B
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine/methionine metabolism. It catalysis the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF), which is the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine (Hcy). Decreases in folate consumption due to MTHFR polymorphism may affect production rate of keratinocytes of which had faster reproduction rates with a continuous DNA turnover and this may affect the clinical picture of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate correlation of C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene with severity of psoriasis and to evaluate the status of plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The study included 60 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The C677T polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR (Qiagen). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score below 7 was defined as mild, between 7 and 12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe disease. There was a significant difference between the severity of disease classification (p<0.05) with respect to the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Severe involvement (PASI score >12) was observed in 38.46% of wild type (CC), but only 12.50% of homozygote (TT) and 7.69% of heterozygote (CT) patients. Significant differences between gene polymorphism and Hcy levels were noted in TT and CT genotypes respectively (p=0.025 and p=0.040). Plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not correlated with the PASI score. Our data indicate a possible correlation of MTHFR polymorphism with severity of psoriasis. PMID:24753765
Karabacak, Ercan; Aydin, Ersin; Ozcan, Omer; Dogan, Bilal; Gultepe, Mustafa; Cosar, Alpaslan; Muftuoglu, Tuba
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a crucial enzyme in homocysteine/methionine metabolism. It catalysis the formation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF), which is the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine (Hcy). Decreases in folate consumption due to MTHFR polymorphism may affect production rate of keratinocytes of which had faster reproduction rates with a continuous DNA turnover and this may affect the clinical picture of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate correlation of C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene with severity of psoriasis and to evaluate the status of plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The study included 60 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The C677T polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR (Qiagen). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score below 7 was defined as mild, between 7 and 12 as moderate, and above 12 as severe disease. There was a significant difference between the severity of disease classification (p<0.05) with respect to the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene. Severe involvement (PASI score >12) was observed in 38.46% of wild type (CC), but only 12.50% of homozygote (TT) and 7.69% of heterozygote (CT) patients. Significant differences between gene polymorphism and Hcy levels were noted in TT and CT genotypes respectively (p=0.025 and p=0.040). Plasma Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels were not correlated with the PASI score. Our data indicate a possible correlation of MTHFR polymorphism with severity of psoriasis.
Karabacak, Ercan; Aydin, Ersin; Ozcan, Omer; Dogan, Bilal; Gultepe, Mustafa; Cosar, Alpaslan; Muftuoglu, Tuba
Aims: To determine the frequency of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and correlate them with homocysteine serum levels in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) and controls. Methods: This case–control study included 78 women with TS and a control group of 372 healthy individuals without personal or family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer. C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment-length polymorphism and the TaqMan system, respectively. Homocysteine serum levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results were analyzed statistically, and p<0.05 was considered to represent a significant difference. Results: The homocysteine levels change was 13.9+3.3 nM in patients with TS and 8.8+3.2?nM in the control group. No significant difference between groups was found (p=0.348). Single-marker analysis revealed no association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and TS when genotype (p=0.063) or allelic (p=0.277) distribution was considered. Regarding MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a statistical difference was found between the TS group and the control group, for both genotype (p<0.0001) and allele (p<0.0001) distribution. Haplotype analysis of 2 MTHFR polymorphisms identified 2 haplotypes—CC and TC—associated with TS (p<0.001 and p=0.0165, respectively). However, homocysteine levels were not higher in patients with haplotype risk. Conclusion: The results suggest that the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene are not related to homocysteine levels in Brazilian patients with TS, despite the differential distribution of the mutated allele C (A1298C) in these patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible genetic interaction with homocysteine levels in TS.
Oliveira, Kelly C.; Verreschi, Ieda T.N.; Sugawara, Eduardo K.; Silva, Vanessa C.; Galera, Bianca B.; Galera, Marcial Francis; Bianco, Bianca
Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methyl donors. The methyl donors are required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Mutation of MTHFR 677 C > T disrupts its thermostability therefore leads to defective enzyme activities and dysregulation of homocysteine levels. Methods This case-control study (n = 367) was conducted to investigate the correlation of the MTHFR gene polymorphism [NM_005957] and psoriasis vulgaris amongst the Malaysian population. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from a subgroup of consented psoriasis vulgaris patients and matched controls (n = 84) for the quantification of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Results There was no significant increase of the MTHFR 677 C > T mutation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris compared with controls (?2 = 0.733, p = 0.392). No significant association between homocysteine levels and MTHFR gene polymorphism in cases and controls were observed (F = 0.91, df = 3, 80, p = 0.44). However, homocysteine levels in cases were negatively correlated with vitamin B12 (r = -0.173) and folic acid (r = -0.345) levels. Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in cases were also negatively correlated (r = -0.164). Conclusions Our results indicate that there was no significant association between the MTHFR gene polymorphism and psoriasis vulgaris in the Malaysian population. There was no significant increase of the plasma homocysteine level in the psoriasis patients compared to the controls.
Along with aging, human body composition undergoes notable changes and may incur sarcopenia, obesity or osteoporosis. Sarcopenia\\u000a is related to a wide series of human health problems and can be largely characterized by loss of lean body mass (LBM). Studies\\u000a have showed relevance of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with variation in LBM and fat body mass (FBM). To test\\u000a if polymorphism
Xiaogang Liu; Lan-Juan Zhao; Yong-Jun Liu; Dong-Hai Xiong; Robert R. Recker; Hong-Wen Deng
Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is a rare but potentially serious neonatal disease. Its epidemiology and its clinical and biological expression are currently well known, but its etiological exploration, like that of venous thromboembolism, is increasingly complex. Perinatal risk factors such as prematurity, dehydration, and birth asphyxia have lost their direct accountability at the expense of their interaction with constitutional disorders of hemostasis. We report a case of RVT in a newborn who was a heterozygous carrier of both factor V Leiden and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation. We recall the clinical and epidemiological characteristics. A search for inborn blood coagulation disorders should be systematic in the newborn infant with venous thrombosis because of the risk of recurrence, taking into account perinatal factors and maternal thrombophilia (especially if RVT is established during the prenatal period). PMID:22361411
Wannes, S; Soua, H; Ghanmi, S; Braham, H; Hassine, M; Hamza, H A; Ben Hamouda, H; Sfar, M-T
The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene has been associated to maternal risk of Down syndrome, due to the detection of an higher prevalence of the T allele among mothers of children with trisomy 21, compared to control mothers. In order to confirm this association, we studied the presence of the C677T in 64 mothers of Down syndrome children and 112 controls from central Italy. An higher incidence of the mutant T allele in controls (48.2%) than in Down syndrome children mothers (44%) was detected. These results do not support the presence of an increased risk of Down syndrome in mothers carriers of the T allele in the Italian population. PMID:12080391
Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina; Gaspari, Anna Rita; Antonucci, Ivana; Morizio, Elisena; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Palka, Giandomenico
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which include the prototypic autistic disorder (AD), Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are complex neurodevelopmental conditions of unknown aetiology. The current study investigated the metabolites in the methionine cycle, the transsulphuration pathway, folate, vitamin B(12) and the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene in three groups of children diagnosed with AD (n= 15), AS (n= 5) and PDD-NOS (n= 19) and their age- and sex-matched controls (n= 25). No metabolic disturbances were seen in the AS patients, while in the AD and PDD-NOS groups, lower plasma levels of methionine (P= 0.01 and P= 0.03, respectively) and alpha-aminobutyrate were observed (P= 0.01 and P= 0.001, respectively). Only in the AD group, plasma cysteine (P= 0.02) and total blood glutathione (P= 0.02) were found to be reduced. Although there was a trend towards lower levels of serine, glycine, N, N-dimethylglycine in AD patients, the plasma levels of these metabolites as well as the levels of homocysteine and cystathionine were not statistically different in any of the ASDs groups. The serum levels of vitamin B(12) and folate were in the normal range. The results of the MTHFR gene analysis showed a normal distribution of the C677T polymorphism in children with ASDs, but the frequency of the 677T allele was slightly more prevalent in AD patients. Our study indicates a possible role for the alterations in one carbon metabolism in the pathophysiology of ASDs and provides, for the first time, preliminary evidence for metabolic and genetic differences between clinical subtypes of ASDs. PMID:19267885
Pa?ca, Sergiu P; Dronca, Eleonora; Kaucsár, Tamás; Craciun, Elena C; Endreffy, Emõke; Ferencz, Beatrix K; Iftene, Felicia; Benga, Ileana; Cornean, Rodica; Banerjee, Ruma; Dronca, Maria
Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association
Timothy M. Frayling; Nicholas J. Timpson; Michael N. Weedon; Eleftheria Zeggini; Rachel M. Freathy; Cecilia M. Lindgren; John R. B. Perry; Katherine S. Elliott; Hana Lango; Nigel W. Rayner; Beverley Shields; Lorna W. Harries; Jeffrey C. Barrett; Sian Ellard; Christopher J. Groves; Bridget Knight; Ann-Marie Patch; Andrew R. Ness; Shah Ebrahim; Debbie A. Lawlor; Susan M. Ring; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Ulla Sovio; Amanda J. Bennett; David Melzer; Luigi Ferrucci; Ruth J. F. Loos; Inês Barroso; Nicholas J. Wareham; Fredrik Karpe; Katharine R. Owen; Lon R. Cardon; Mark Walker; Graham A. Hitman; Colin N. A. Palmer; Alex S. F. Doney; Andrew D. Morris; George Davey Smith; Andrew T. Hattersley; Mark I. McCarthy
Background\\/Objectives:Unlike most Western populations, MTHFR 677T is a rare allele and a risk factor for a variety of disorders in India. What kind of nutritional (environmental) and\\/or genetic factors could contribute to the genetic risk is not known. To assess the incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia and its correlation with the polymorphism in homocysteine (Hcy)-pathway genes and associated cofactors in the native
K K Sukla; R Raman
Purpose: Folate is essential to DNA methylation and synthesis and may have a complex dualistic role in prostate cancer. Alcohol use may increase risk and epigenetic factors may interact with lifestyle exposures. We aimed to characterize the independent and joint effects of folate intake, alcohol consumption, and the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism on prostate cancer risk, while accounting for intakes of vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, total energy, and confounders. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Kingston General Hospital of 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls, all with normal age-specific PSA levels (to exclude latent prostate cancers). Participants completed a questionnaire on folate and alcohol intakes and potential confounders prior to knowledge of diagnosis, eliminating recall bias, and blood was drawn for MTHFR genotyping. Joint effects of exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and significance of multiplicative and additive interactions using general linear models. Results: Folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, methionine, and the CT and TT genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The highest tertile of lifetime alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.12–3.86). Consumption of >5 alcoholic drinks per week was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among men with low folate intake (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.01–5.57), and higher risk among those with the CC MTHFR genotype (OR = 4.43; 95% CI: 1.15–17.05). Increased risk was also apparent for average weekly alcohol consumption when accounting for the multiplicative interaction between folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype (OR = 3.22; 95% CI: 1.36–7.59). Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased prostate cancer risk, and this association is stronger among men with low folate intake, with the CC MTHFR genotype, and when accounting for the joint effect of folate intake and MTHFR C677T genotype.
Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Limburg, Heather; Miao, Qun; Woolcott, Christy; Bedard, Leanne L.; Massey, Thomas E.; Aronson, Kristan J.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in the folate cycle, catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Methionine serves as the precursor of the active methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, which provides methyl groups for many biological methylations. It has been reported that MTHFR is highly phosphorylated under unperturbed conditions and T34 is the priming phosphorylation site. In this report, we generated a phospho-specific antibody that recognized T34-phosphorylated form of MTHFR and revealed that MTHFR was phosphorylated at T34 in vivo and this phosphorylation peaked during mitosis. We further demonstrated that the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/Cyclin B1 complex is the kinase that mediates MTHFR phosphorylation at T34 and the MTHFR immunocomplex purified from mitotic cells exhibited lower enzymatic activity. Inhibition of MTHFR expression resulted in a decrease of H3K9me3 levels, and an increase of transcription of the centromeric heterochromatin markers. Taken together, our results demonstrated that CDK1/Cyclin B1 phosphorylates MTHFR on T34 and MTHFR plays a role in the heterochromatin maintenance at the centromeric region. PMID:24769206
Zhu, Bingtao; Xiahou, Zhikai; Zhao, Heyu; Peng, Bin; Zhao, Hongchang; Xu, Xingzhi
The mechanism of posttransplantation avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) is controversial. Besides an increased bone marrow pressure due to reduced blood supply, enhanced coagulation has been considered. We investigated the associations of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations as well as cumulative corticosteroid doses with AVN in renal allograft recipients. The records of 39 volunteer patients and 11 patients
A. Celik; D. Tekis; F. Saglam; S. Tunali; N. Kabakci; D. Ozaksoy; M. Manisali; M. A. Ozcan; M. Meral; H. Gülay; T. Camsari
The mechanism of posttransplantation avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) is controversial. Besides an increased bone marrow pressure due to reduced blood supply, enhanced coagulation has been considered. We investigated the associations of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations as well as cumulative corticosteroid doses with AVN in renal allograft recipients. The records of 39 volunteer patients and 11 patients in whom osteonecrosis was previously identified were reviewed for cumulative corticosteroid dosages during the first year. All patients were screened for factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations by direct sequencing of genomic DNA. The cumulative corticosteroid dosages at 3, 6, and 12 months in the osteonecrotic group (5033.5 +/- 1565.3, 7164.9 +/- 2063.1, 8835.1 +/- 2216.8 mg) were significantly higher than in the control group (3629 +/- 1504.1, 4784.5 +/- 1568.7, 6322.4 +/- 1686.6 mg; P = .013, P = .001, P = .001, respectively). No significant difference in factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations was observed between the osteonecrotic and control groups (P > .05). In conclusion, an association between the first year (3, 6, and 12 month) cumulative corticosteroid dosages and AVN was demonstrated in renal transplant recipients. However, no correlation was determined between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations and osteonecrosis. PMID:16549163
Celik, A; Tekis, D; Saglam, F; Tunali, S; Kabakci, N; Ozaksoy, D; Manisali, M; Ozcan, M A; Meral, M; Gülay, H; Camsari, T
Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…
Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR = 2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P = 0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P = 0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR = 1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P = 0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR = 1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P = 0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR = 1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P = 0.024; OR = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P = 0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy.
Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F
Purpose Focal neurodegeneration of the optic nerve in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is primarily due to a maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, the markedly reduced penetrance of LHON and segregation pattern of visual failure within families implicates an interacting nuclear genetic locus modulating the phenotype. Folate deficiency is known to cause bilateral optic neuropathy, and defects of folate metabolism have been associated with nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Methods Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes a critical step in folate metabolism, and genetic variation in MTHFR has been associated with several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Results We therefore determined whether functional genetic variants in MTHFR could account for the reduced penetrance in LHON by studying 414 LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. We found no evidence of association between visual failure in LHON and MTHFR polymorphisms or the MTHFR haplotype. Conclusions Genetic variation in MTHFR does not provide an explanation for the variable phenotype in LHON.
Hudson, Gavin; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Zeviani, Massimo
Breast cancer (BC) is a complex disease influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The disease has important genetic and environmental components, most of them are still unknown. An important role of gene polymorphisms related to the risk of developing BC has been reported. However, the results have been controversial. We investigated the association of TSER, MTHFR C677T, p53 codon 72 and MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphisms with breast carcinoma in women from Canary Islands (Spain). Blood samples collected from 135 patients with BC and 304 healthy controls all of them Caucasian, were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, a structured questionnaire including patient history and risk factors in relation to BC development was filled out. Allelic frequencies of these genetic variations were: TSER, (2) 0.55 and (3) 0.45 in cases, 0.49 and 0.51 respectively in controls (P=0.240); MTHFR C677T, (C) 0.63 and (T) 0.37 in cases, 0.60 and 0.40 respectively in controls (P=0.568); p53 Arg72Pro, (Arg) 0.74 and (Pro) 0.26 in cases and controls (P=0.910); MDR1 C3435T, (C) 0.52 and (T) 0.48 in cases, 0.55 and 0.45 respectively in controls (P=0.523). We did not observe any gene polymorphism as a risk factor to develop BC. A statistical association was observed between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and family history of breast cancer in both groups, as well as between MDR1 C3435T and smoking habits in cases (P<0.05). Gene polymorphisms vary by regions. The present study contributes to the characterization of the genetic pattern of the Canary population. PMID:19885596
Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Murias-Rosales, A; Hernández González, A; Cabrera De León, A; Díaz-Chico, B N; Mori De Santiago, M; Fernández Pérez, L
SUMMARY PTEN is an essential tumor suppressor that antagonizes Akt/PKB signaling. The zebrafish genome encodes two Pten genes, ptena and ptenb. Here, we report that zebrafish mutants that retain a single wild-type copy of ptena or ptenb (ptena+/?ptenb?/? or ptena?/?ptenb+/?) are viable and fertile. ptena+/?ptenb?/? fish develop tumors at a relatively high incidence (10.2%) and most tumors developed close to the eye (26/30). Histopathologically, the tumor masses were associated with the retrobulbar vascular network and diagnosed as hemangiosarcomas. A single tumor was identified in 42 ptena?/?ptenb+/? fish and was also diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumor cells in ptena+/?ptenb?/? and ptena?/?ptenb+/? fish proliferated rapidly and were of endothelial origin. Akt/PKB signaling was activated in the tumors, whereas Ptena was still detected in tumor tissue from ptena+/?ptenb?/? zebrafish. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of the genes encoding Pten predisposes to hemangiosarcoma in zebrafish.
Choorapoikayil, Suma; Kuiper, Raoul V.; de Bruin, Alain; den Hertog, Jeroen
Spina bifida cystica (SB) is one of the most common and disabling of birth defects. Folic acid supplementation in mothers during the periconceptional period has been shown to prevent more than 70% of neural tube defects (NTD) including SB. However, the mechanism is unknown. We tested a series of multicase SB families in which 224 individuals were genotyped and a group of 215 unrelated unaffected (external) control individuals for association of SB with the T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism that produces a heat-labile enzyme protein. The data were analyzed using first the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and second a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods. No association of SB with the MTHFR T allele was found by either method. Presently, association between SB and the T allele has been found in four studies, a Dutch study, an Irish study, a North American study, and an Italian study. But no association was found in four other studies, a British study, a French study, a Turkish study, and a German study. A California population-based study found only modestly increased risk of SB with this allele that was not significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present study finds no evidence of the association. Only one other study, the German study, has used TDT analysis. The present study is the first to use a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods to test this association. Thus, it appears that the MTHFR T allele is a risk factor for SB in some populations but not others. Major genetic risk factors for folate-related SB remain to be found. PMID:10594879
Johnson, W G; Stenroos, E S; Heath, S C; Chen, Y; Carroll, R; McKoy, V V; Chatkupt, S; Lehner, T
Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which predispose to infections. Here we describe Activated PI3K-? Syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation E1021K in the p110? protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3,346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased IgM and reduced IgG2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110?. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110? inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, suggesting a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS.
Angulo, Ivan; Vadas, Oscar; Garcon, Fabien; Banham-Hall, Edward; Plagnol, Vincent; Leahy, Timothy R.; Baxendale, Helen; Coulter, Tanya; Curtis, James; Wu, Changxin; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Perisic, Olga; Smyth, Deborah; Maes, Mailis; Fiddler, Christine; Juss, Jatinder; Cilliers, Deirdre; Markelj, Gasper; Chandra, Anita; Farmer, George; Kielkowska, Anna; Clark, Jonathan; Kracker, Sven; Debre, Marianne; Picard, Capucine; Pellier, Isabelle; Jabado, Nada; Morris, James A.; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Fischer, Alain; Stephens, Len; Hawkins, Phillip; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Abinun, Mario; Clatworthy, Menna; Durandy, Anne; Doffinger, Rainer; Chilvers, Edwin; Cant, Andrew J.; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Williams, Roger L.; Condliffe, Alison; Nejentsev, Sergey
This case-cohort designed study prospectively investigated whether elevated homocysteine levels measured in blood samples drawn before the event and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) were associated with subsequent first venous thrombosis (VT) in a general population. Between August 1995 and June 1997, blood was collected from 66 140 people in the second Norwegian Health Study of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT2). During a seven-year follow-up, 505 VT cases were identified. 1458 age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the original cohort. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and MTHFR genotype were measured in stored samples that were drawn a median of 33 months before the events. The overall odds ratio (OR) was 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.30] for homocysteine levels above versus below the 95th percentile. There was no graded association with VT over quintiles of homocysteine. In men the OR was 2.17 (95% CI 1.20-3.91) for levels above versus below the 95th percentile, but no association was found in women (OR 1.00). Stratification by age, predisposing risk factors or time to event did not change these results. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was not related to risk for VT. In conclusion, elevated homocysteine levels in the general population predicted subsequent first VT in men but not in women. PMID:18318759
Naess, Inger Anne; Christiansen, Sverre C; Romundstad, Pål R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Blom, Henk J; Rosendaal, Frits R; Hammerstrøm, Jens
Associations of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 with gastric cancer and their relation with MTHFR status in gastric patients who were confirmed with pathological diagnosis were assessed. Aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 and polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T were assayed. The proportional DNA hypermethylation in P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 in cancer tissues was significantly higher than in remote normal-appearing tissues. DNA hypermethylation of P16 and MGMT was correlated with the T and N stages. Individuals with homozygotes (TT) of MTHFR C677T had significant risk of hypermethylation of MGMT in cancer tissues [OR (95% CI)= 3.47(1.41-7.93)]. However, we did not find association between polymorphism in MTHFR C677T and risk of hypermethylation in P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 genes either in cancer or remote normal-appearing tissues. Aberrant hypermethylation of P16, MGMT, hMLH1 and hMLH2 could be predictive of gastric cancer. PMID:23803092
Xiong, Hai-Lin; Liu, Xun-Qi; Sun, Ai-Hua; He, Ying; Li, Jun; Xia, Yuan
Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N?=?522) and confirmed fertile (N?=?315) individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included ‘Pubmed’, ‘Ovid’ and ‘Google Scholar’. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR) and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2). The frequency of mutant (T) allele (p?=?0.0025) and genotypes (CT+TT) (p?=?0.0187) was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR) for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p?=?0.000), 1.310 (p?=?0.000), respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. Conclusions/Significance 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.
Gupta, Nishi; Gupta, Saraswati; Dama, Madhukar; David, Archana; Khanna, Geeta; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh
Two common mutations, 677 C?T and a1298 A?C, in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) reduce the activity of\\u000a MTHFR and folate metabolism. Familial aggregation in a variable but significant proportion of gastric cancer (GC) cases suggests\\u000a the importance of genetic predisposition in determining risk. In this study, we evaluate MTHFR polymorphisms in 57 patients\\u000a with a diagnosis of GC, in
Valli De Re; R. Cannizzaro; V. Canzonieri; E. Cecchin; L. Caggiari; E. De Mattia; C. Pratesi; P. De Paoli; G. Toffoli
Objective The 677 C>T and 1298 A>C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been widely reported and considered to have a significant effect on breast cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis based on 57 eligible studies was carried out to clarify the role of MTHFR gene polymorphisms in breast cancer. Methods and Results Eligible articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and CBM for the period up to August 2012. Finally, a total of 57 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed with additive model, dominant model and recessive model, respectively. Subgroup analysis was also performed by ethnicity. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with ?2-based Q-test. A meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the 677 C allele was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.942, 95%CI?=?0.898 to 0.988) when compared with the 677 T allele in the additive model, and the same results were also revealed under other genetic models. Simultaneously, the 1298 A allele was not associated with the breast cancer susceptibility when compared with the 1298 C allele (OR?=?0.993, 95%CI?=?0.978 to 1.009). Furthermore, analyses under the dominant, recessive and the allele contrast model yielded similar results. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene may contribute to breast cancer development. However, the 1298 A>C polymorphism is not significantly associated with increased risks of breast cancer.
Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Dong, Xi
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification of the genome that has the potential to silence gene expression. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene inactivation was recognized as a predisposing factor of hyperhomocysteinemia in renal patients. The current study aimed to determine the methylation status within the MTHFR promoter region in DNA isolated from peripheral blood of ESRD patients and controls and the correlation of this methylation with the clinical and biochemical characteristics in ESRD patients. Ninety-six ESRD patients and 96 healthy ethnically, age and gender matched controls were included within the study. MTHFR promoter methylation was assessed using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. The frequency of MTHFR methylation was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (P = 0.003), additionally, MTHFR methylation was associated to a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and an increase in both serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data generated from this study suggest the possible involvement of MTHFR promoter methylation in the pathogenesis of ESRD and support a new dimension of MTHFR inactivation. PMID:24363223
Ghattas, Maivel; El-Shaarawy, Fatma; Mesbah, Noha; Abo-Elmatty, Dina
An elevated concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is considered to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Homocysteine (Hcy) levels are influenced by folate concentrations and numerous genetic factors through the folate cycle, however, their role in the pathogenesis of PD remains controversial. Hcy exerts a neurotoxic action and may participate in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, calcium accumulation, and apoptosis. Elevated Hcy levels can lead to prooxidative activity, most probably through direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and sensitization of dopaminergic neurons to age-related dysfunction and death. Several studies have shown that higher concentration of Hcy in PD is related to long-term administration of levodopa (L-dopa). An elevation of plasma tHcy levels can also reflect deficiencies of cofactors in remethylation of Hcy to methionine (Met) (folates and vitamin B12) and in its transsulfuration to cysteine (Cys) (vitamin B6). It is believed that the increase in the concentration of Hcy in PD can affect genetic polymorphisms of the folate metabolic pathway genes, such as MTHFR (C677T, A1298C and G1793A), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), whose frequencies tend to increase in PD patients, as well as the reduced concentration of B vitamins. In PD, increased levels of Hcy may lead to dementia, depression and progression of the disease.
Rozycka, Agata; Jagodzinski, Pawel P.; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta
We have identified a subset of metabolically obese, but normal weight individuals, with potentially increased risks of developing the metabolic syndrome, despite their normal body mass index. We determined the relationship among body fat distribution, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total body water amount (%TBW), selected gene polymorphism on interleukin-15 receptor-alpha (IL-15Ralpha) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T (MTHFR 677C-->T), to distinguish normal weight obese (NWO) from nonobese with a normal metabolic profile and obese individuals. We analysed anthropometric variables, body composition by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), RMR by indirect calorimetry, %TBW by bioimpedence analysis (BIA), MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15Ralpha genotypes of 128 clinically healthy Caucasian individuals. We compared a group of female, defined as NWO and characterised by a BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2) and FM > or = 30% with groups of others female, and males, represented by nonobese with a BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2) and FM < or = 30%, and preobese-obese individuals with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) and %FM > or = 30%; none of the males was classified as NWO. Significant correlations were found among body fat mass distribution, metabolic variables, percentage of total body water distribution and selected genetic variations. The variables that contributed significantly to the separation of classes were body tissue (Tissue), %TBW, RMR, the volumes of both oxygen (VO2) and carbon dioxide (VCO2). The distribution of MTHFR 677C-->T and IL-15 genotypes was significantly different between classes. Our data highlight that NWO individuals showed a significant relationship between the decrease in the basal metabolism (RMR), body fat mass increasing and total water amount. Possession of wild type homozygotes genotypes regarding IL-15Ralpha cytokine and 677C-->T MTHFR enzyme characterised NWO individuals. PMID:17121316
Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Bottini, F G; Del Gobbo, V; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
BACKGROUND: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant C677T has been implicated as a genetic risk factor in migraine susceptibility, particularly in Migraine with Aura. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO) have many diagnostic characteristics in common. It is postulated that migraine symptomatic characteristics might themselves be influenced by MTHFR. Here we analysed the clinical profile, migraine symptoms, triggers
Annie Liu; Saraswathy Menon; Natalie J Colson; Sharon Quinlan; Hannah Cox; Madelyn Peterson; Thomas Tiang; Larisa M Haupt; Rod A Lea; Lyn R Griffiths
An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This ‘synaptic autism pathway’ notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2 ?knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2 ?as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD.
Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amelie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A.; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick
An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This 'synaptic autism pathway' notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2 ?knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2 ?as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174
Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amélie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick
A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic–nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common
Ilan Weisberg; Pamela Tran; Benedicte Christensen; Sahar Sibani; Rima Rozen
Examination of gene functions in specific tumor types improves insight in tumorigenesis and helps design better treatments. Due to the rarity of histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcoma in humans, it is difficult to accrue such knowledge. Therefore, comparative research of these cancers in predisposed dog breeds, such as the Flatcoated retriever, can be of value. Histiocytic sarcoma in the dog can be grouped into a soft tissue- and visceral form. The soft tissue form at first is localized, while the visceral form progresses more quickly to a terminal state, which might be related to variations in gene expression. Microarray analyses were performed on fresh-frozen tissue from Flatcoated retrievers with either soft tissue- or visceral histiocytic sarcoma. Expression differences of ten most significantly differentially expressed genes were validated with quantitative real-time PCR (q PCR) analyses. Q PCR analyses confirmed the significantly aberrant expression of three of the selected genes: C6 was up-regulated; CLEC12A and CCL5 were down-regulated in the visceral histiocytic sarcoma compared to the soft tissue form. The findings of our study indicate that these two forms of histiocytic sarcoma in the dog display a variation in gene expression and warrant analysis of functional changes in the expression of those genes in these rare sarcomas in man.
Boerkamp, Kim M.; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Penning, Louis C.; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; van Leenen, Dik; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; Rutteman, Gerard R.
The NBN (NBS1) gene belongs to a group of double-strand break repair genes. Mutations in any of these genes cause genome instability syndromes\\u000a and contribute to carcinogenesis. NBN gene mutations cause increased tumor risk in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) homozygotes as well as in NBN heterozygotes. NBS patients develop different types of malignancies; among solid tumors, medulloblastoma (MB), an embryonal
El?bieta Ciara; Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk; Ewa Popowska; Wies?awa Grajkowska; S?awomir Barszcz; Danuta Perek; Bo?enna Dembowska-Bagi?ska; Marta Perek-Polnik; Ewa Kowalewska; Aneta Czaj?ska; Ma?gorzata Syczewska; Kamila Czornak; Ma?gorzata Krajewska-Walasek; Marcin Roszkowski; Krystyna H. Chrzanowska
Vinculin and its muscle splice variant metavinculin link focal adhesions and cell-to-cell contact sites to the actin cytoskeleton. We hypothesized that normal expression of vinculin isoforms would be essential for integrity of cardiomyocytes and preservation of normal cardiac function. We studied heterozygous vinculin knockout mice (Vin+/-) that develop and breed normally. The Vin+/- mice displayed: 1) a 58% reduction of vinculin and a 63% reduction of metavinculin protein levels versus wild-type littermates; 2) normal basal cardiac function and histology but abnormal electrocardiograms, intercalated disks, and ICD-related protein distribution; 3) increased mortality following acute hemodynamic stress imposed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC); 4) cardiac dysfunction by 6 weeks post-TAC; and 5) misalignment of alpha-actinin containing Z-lines and abnormal myocardial ultrastructure despite preserved cardiac function. Decreased expression of vinculin/metavinculin leads to abnormal myocyte structure without baseline physiological evidence of cardiac dysfunction. These structural changes predispose to stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:15331426
Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Ponrartana, Sornya; Avalos, Roy T; Jordan, Maria C; Roos, Kenneth P; Dalton, Nancy D; Phan, Vinh Q; Adamson, Eileen D; Ross, Robert S
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder related to germline mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. It is characterized by the detection of numerous adenomatous polyps that, if untreated, develop into colorectal cancer. We studied an Italian family with FAP history and the related colorectal tumor sample of the proband. Sequencing analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of a never-reported germline mutation in the APC gene (exon 15): an heterozygous G deletion at position c.2126 resulting in a premature stop codon (p.Gly721GlufsX6) and in a truncated protein. This mutation was also identified in the colorectal tumor tissue, together with a second known pathogenic heterozygotic somatic mutation, c.4348C>T (p.Arg1450X), which generates a premature truncated protein. The novel identified germline mutation is therefore related to FAP and, in accordance with Knudson's "two hit" hypothesis, can be considered the first event predisposing to the insurgence of colorectal cancer in these patients. The somatic hit inactivating the second allele of the APC gene is located in the mutation cluster region of the gene; this is not a random event since it depends on the position of the germline mutation. The inactivation of APC generates the neoplastic growth advantage to the cell. PMID:23873622
Schirosi, Laura; Pellegrino, Marcello; Tarantino, Paolo; Mauro, Salvatore; Tinelli, Andrea; Greco, Marilena
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) accounts for approximately 15% of all pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It has distinct clinical features, including frequent involvement of extranodal sites and rare localization to the central nervous system. As some presenting features of ALCL are in common with the hemophagocytic syndrome, we previously analyzed a small series of patients with ALCL for PRF1 mutations and found that 27% of them carried mutations. We now expanded our preliminary study by increasing the cohort of ALCL patients to a total of 84 consecutive cases, in whom we extended mutation analysis to the genes SH2D1A, PRF1 e UNC13D, all related to familial HLH. Furthermore, perforin expression in tumor cells was investigated on paraffin-embedded tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Mutations were observed in 23/84 patients (27.4%). Twenty-one patients (25%) carried a total of 10 different mutations of PRF1; they were monoallelic in 20 patients, biallelic in 1. No mutations were found in the gene SH2D1A. Two additional patients had missense mutations of the UNC13D gene. These data show that monoallelic germline mutations of PRF1 are frequent in patients with childhood ALCL, suggesting that partially impaired cytotoxic machinery may represent a predisposing factor for ALCL. Involvement is less frequent for UNC13D and absent for SH2D1A. PMID:24309606
Ciambotti, Benedetta; Mussolin, Lara; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Pillon, Marta; Sieni, Elena; Coniglio, Maria L; Ros, Martina D; Cetica, Valentina; Aricò, Maurizio; Rosolen, Angelo
Background The recessive disorder trimethylaminuria is caused by defects in the FMO3 gene, and may be associated with hypertension. We investigated whether common polymorphisms of the FMO3 gene confer an increased risk for elevated blood pressure and/or essential hypertension. Methods FMO3 genotypes (E158K, V257M, E308G) were determined in 387 healthy subjects with ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, and in a cardiovascular disease population of 1649 individuals, 691(41.9%) of whom had a history of hypertension requiring drug treatment. Haplotypes were determined and their distribution noted. Results There was no statistically significant association found between any of the 4 common haplotypes and daytime systolic blood pressure in the healthy population (p = 0.65). Neither was a statistically significant association found between the 4 common haplotypes and hypertension status among the cardiovascular disease patients (p = 0.80). Conclusion These results suggest that the variants in the FMO3 gene do not predispose to essential hypertension in this population.
Dolan, Ciara; Shields, Denis C; Stanton, Alice; O'Brien, Eoin; Lambert, Deborah M; O'Brien, John K; Treacy, Eileen P
Background The determination of altered expression of genes in specific tumor types and their effect upon cellular processes may create insight in tumorigenesis and help to design better treatments. The Flatcoated retriever is a dog breed with an exceptionally high incidence of histiocytic sarcomas. The breed develops two distinct entities of histiocytic neoplasia, a soft tissue form and a visceral form. Gene expression studies of these tumors have value for comparable human diseases such as histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcoma for which knowledge is difficult to accrue due to their rare occurrence. In addition, such studies may help in the search for genetic aberrations underlying the genetic predisposition in this dog breed. Methods Microarray analysis and pathway analyses were performed on fresh-frozen tissues obtained from Flatcoated retrievers with localized, soft tissue histiocytic sarcomas (STHS) and disseminated, visceral histiocytic sarcomas (VHS) and on normal canine spleens from various breeds. Expression differences of nine genes were validated with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses. Results QPCR analyses identified the significantly altered expression of nine genes; PPBP, SpiC, VCAM1, ENPEP, ITGAD (down-regulated), and GTSF1, Col3a1, CD90 and LUM (up-regulated) in the comparison of both the soft tissue and the visceral form with healthy spleen. DAVID pathway analyses revealed 24 pathways that were significantly involved in the development of HS in general, most of which were involved in the DNA repair and replication process. Conclusions This study identified altered expression of nine genes not yet implicated in histiocytic sarcoma manifestations in the dog nor in comparable human histiocytic/dendritic sarcomas. Exploration of the downside effect of canine inbreeding strategies for the study of similar sarcomas in humans might also lead to the identification of genes related to these rare malignancies in the human.
Boerkamp, Kim M.; van Wolferen, Monique E.; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; van Leenen, Dik; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; Penning, Louis C.; Wiemer, Erik A. C.; Rutteman, Gerard R.
High blood concentration of the N-terminal cleavage product of the B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is strongly associated with cardiac dysfunction and is increasingly used for heart failure diagnosis. To identify genetic variants associated with NT-proBNP level, we performed a genome-wide association analysis in 1325 individuals from South Tyrol, Italy, and followed up the most significant results in 1746 individuals from two German population-based studies. A genome-wide significant signal in the MTHFR-CLCN6-NPPA-NPPB gene cluster was replicated, after correction for multiple testing (replication one-sided P-value = 8.4 × 10?10). A conditional regression analysis of 128 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the region of interest identified novel variants in the CLCN6 gene as independently associated with NT-proBNP. In this locus, four haplotypes were associated with increased NT-proBNP levels (haplotype-specific combined P-values from 8.3 × 10?03 to 9.3 × 10?11). The observed increase in the NT-proBNP level was proportional to the number of haplotype copies present (i.e. dosage effect), with an increase associated with two copies that varied between 20 and 100 pg/ml across populations. The identification of novel variants in the MTHFR-CLCN6-NPPA-NPPB cluster provides new insights into the biological mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction.
Del Greco M., Fabiola; Pattaro, Cristian; Luchner, Andreas; Pichler, Irene; Winkler, Thomas; Hicks, Andrew A.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Franke, Andre; Melville, Scott A.; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H. Erich; Schreiber, Stefan; Heid, Iris M.; Krawczak, Michael; Minelli, Cosetta; Wiedermann, Christian J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.
Common multi-allelic copy number variants (CNVs) appear enriched for phenotypic associations compared to their biallelic counterparts. Here we investigated the influence of gene dosage effects on adiposity through a CNV association study of gene expression levels in adipose tissue. We identified significant association of a multi-allelic CNV encompassing the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) with body mass index (BMI) and obesity, and we replicated this finding in 6,200 subjects. Increased AMY1 copy number was positively associated with both amylase gene expression (P = 2.31 × 10(-14)) and serum enzyme levels (P < 2.20 × 10(-16)), whereas reduced AMY1 copy number was associated with increased BMI (change in BMI per estimated copy = -0.15 (0.02) kg/m(2); P = 6.93 × 10(-10)) and obesity risk (odds ratio (OR) per estimated copy = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.26; P = 1.46 × 10(-10)). The OR value of 1.19 per copy of AMY1 translates into about an eightfold difference in risk of obesity between subjects in the top (copy number > 9) and bottom (copy number < 4) 10% of the copy number distribution. Our study provides a first genetic link between carbohydrate metabolism and BMI and demonstrates the power of integrated genomic approaches beyond genome-wide association studies. PMID:24686848
Falchi, Mario; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia Sarah; Takousis, Petros; Pesce, Francesco; Bonnefond, Amélie; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Sudmant, Peter H; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Al-Shafai, Mashael Nedham; Bottolo, Leonardo; Ozdemir, Erdal; So, Hon-Cheong; Davies, Robert W; Patrice, Alexandre; Dent, Robert; Mangino, Massimo; Hysi, Pirro G; Dechaume, Aurélie; Huyvaert, Marlène; Skinner, Jane; Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Vaillant, Emmanuel; Field, Sarah; Balkau, Beverley; Marre, Michel; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Weill, Jacques; Poulain-Godefroy, Odile; Jacobson, Peter; Sjostrom, Lars; Hammond, Christopher J; Deloukas, Panos; Sham, Pak Chung; McPherson, Ruth; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Sladek, Robert; Carlsson, Lena M S; Walley, Andrew; Eichler, Evan E; Pattou, Francois; Spector, Timothy D; Froguel, Philippe
Inherited mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) were described recently in three Maori kindreds with familial gastric cancer. Familial gastric cancer is genetically het- erogeneous and it is not clear what proportion of gastric cancer susceptibility in non-Maori populations is due to germline CDH1 mutations. Therefore, we screened eight familial gastric cancer kindreds of British and Irish origin for germline
Frances M. Richards; Shane A. McKee; M. Helen Rajpar; Trevor R. P. Cole; D. Gareth; R. Evans; Janusz A. Jankowski; Carole McKeown; D. Scott; A. Sanders; Eamonn R. Maher
A genome-wide association study of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) pinpointed two independent SNPs (rs944289 and rs965513) located in regions containing no annotated genes (14q13.3 and 9q22.33, respectively). Here, we describe a unique, long, intergenic, noncoding RNA gene (lincRNA) named Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Susceptibility Candidate 3 (PTCSC3) located 3.2 kb downstream of rs944289 at 14q.13.3 and the expression of which is strictly thyroid specific. By quantitative PCR, PTCSC3 expression was strongly down-regulated (P = 2.84 × 10?14) in thyroid tumor tissue of 46 PTC patients and the risk allele (T) was associated with the strongest suppression (genotype [TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.004). In adjacent unaffected thyroid tissue, the genotype [TT] was associated with up-regulation of PTCSC3 ([TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.034). The SNP rs944289 was located in a binding site for the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) ? and ?. The risk allele destroyed the binding site in silico. Both C/EBP? and C/EBP? activated the PTCSC3 promoter in reporter assays (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0014, respectively) and the risk allele reduced the activation compared with the nonrisk allele (C) (P = 0.026 and P = 0.048, respectively). Restoration of PTCSC3 expression in PTC cell line cells (TPC-1 and BCPAP) inhibited cell growth (P = 0.002 and P = 0.019, respectively) and affected the expression of genes involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair, cellular movement, tumor morphology, and cell death. Our data suggest that SNP rs944289 predisposes to PTC through a previously uncharacterized, long intergenic noncoding RNA gene (PTCSC3) that has the characteristics of a tumor suppressor.
Jendrzejewski, Jaroslaw; He, Huiling; Radomska, Hanna S.; Li, Wei; Tomsic, Jerneja; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Nagy, Rebecca; de la Chapelle, Albert
A genome-wide association study of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) pinpointed two independent SNPs (rs944289 and rs965513) located in regions containing no annotated genes (14q13.3 and 9q22.33, respectively). Here, we describe a unique, long, intergenic, noncoding RNA gene (lincRNA) named Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Susceptibility Candidate 3 (PTCSC3) located 3.2 kb downstream of rs944289 at 14q.13.3 and the expression of which is strictly thyroid specific. By quantitative PCR, PTCSC3 expression was strongly down-regulated (P = 2.84 × 10(-14)) in thyroid tumor tissue of 46 PTC patients and the risk allele (T) was associated with the strongest suppression (genotype [TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.004). In adjacent unaffected thyroid tissue, the genotype [TT] was associated with up-regulation of PTCSC3 ([TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.034). The SNP rs944289 was located in a binding site for the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) ? and ?. The risk allele destroyed the binding site in silico. Both C/EBP? and C/EBP? activated the PTCSC3 promoter in reporter assays (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0014, respectively) and the risk allele reduced the activation compared with the nonrisk allele (C) (P = 0.026 and P = 0.048, respectively). Restoration of PTCSC3 expression in PTC cell line cells (TPC-1 and BCPAP) inhibited cell growth (P = 0.002 and P = 0.019, respectively) and affected the expression of genes involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair, cellular movement, tumor morphology, and cell death. Our data suggest that SNP rs944289 predisposes to PTC through a previously uncharacterized, long intergenic noncoding RNA gene (PTCSC3) that has the characteristics of a tumor suppressor. PMID:22586128
Jendrzejewski, Jaroslaw; He, Huiling; Radomska, Hanna S; Li, Wei; Tomsic, Jerneja; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Davuluri, Ramana V; Nagy, Rebecca; de la Chapelle, Albert
Manic-depressive illness (MDI), also known as "bipolar affective disorder," is a common and devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Although pivotal biochemical alterations underlying the disease are unknown, results of family, twin, and adoption studies consistently implicate genetic transmission in the pathogenesis of MDI. In order to carry out linkage analysis, we ascertained eight moderately sized pedigrees containing multiple cases of the disease. For a four-allele marker mapping 5 cM from the disease gene, the pedigree sample has > 97% power to detect a dominant allele under genetic homogeneity and has > 73% power under 20% heterogeneity. To date, the eight pedigrees have been genotyped with 328 polymorphic DNA loci throughout the genome. When autosomal dominant inheritance was assumed, 273 DNA markers gave lod scores < -2.0 at recombination fraction (theta) = .0, 174 DNA loci produced lod scores < -2.0 at theta = .05, and 4 DNA marker loci yielded lod scores > 1 (chromosome 5--D5S39, D5S43, and D5S62; chromosome 11--D11S85). Of the markers giving lod scores > 1, only D5S62 continued to show evidence for linkage when the affected-pedigree-member method was used. The D5S62 locus maps to distal 5q, a region containing neurotransmitter-receptor genes for dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Although additional work in this region may be warranted, our linkage results should be interpreted as preliminary data, as 68 unaffected individuals are not past the age of risk.
Coon, H; Jensen, S; Hoff, M; Holik, J; Plaetke, R; Reimherr, F; Wender, P; Leppert, M; Byerley, W
Objectives:The genetic basis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not completely specified. Part of the difficulty in mapping predisposition genes for CRC may be because of phenotypic heterogeneity. Using data from a population genealogy of Utah record linked to a statewide cancer registry, we identified a subset of CRC cases that exhibited familial clustering in excess of that expected for all CRC cases in general, which may represent a genetically homogeneous subset of CRC.Methods:Using a new familial aggregation method referred to as the subset genealogic index of familiality (subsetGIF), combined with detailed information from a statewide tumor registry, we identified a subset of CRC cases that exhibited excess familial clustering above that expected for CRC: CRC cases who had at least one other primary tumor at a different site. A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed on a set of high-risk CRC pedigrees that included multiple CRC cases with additional primaries to identify evidence for predisposition loci.Results:A total of 13 high-risk CRC pedigrees with multiple CRC cases with other primary cancers were identified. Linkage analysis identified one pedigree with a significant linkage signal at 22q11 (LOD (logarithm (base 10) of odds)=3.39).Conclusions:A predisposition gene or variant for CRC that also predisposes to other primary cancers likely resides on chromosome 22q11. The ability to use statewide population genealogy and tumor registry data was critical to identify an informative subset of CRC cases that is possibly more genetically homogeneous than CRC in general, and may have improved statistical power for predisposition locus identification in this study. PMID:24572700
Teerlink, Craig; Nelson, Quentin; Burt, Randall; Cannon-Albright, Lisa
Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are important genetic determinants for homocysteine (Hcy) levels, and are associated with several disorders. These polymorphisms are heterogeneously distributed worldwide. Our objective was to explore the geographical distributions of these polymorphisms in China. Methodologies 15357 healthy adults were recruited from 10 regions. Buccal samples were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Genotyping was performed using the fluorogenic 5?-nuclease assay. Principal Findings The prevalence of the three polymorphisms among different populations from China varied significantly and showed apparent geographical gradients. For MTHFR C677T, the frequencies of the 677T allele and the 677TT genotype were significantly higher among northern populations and ranged from the lowest values (24.0% and 6.4%, respectively) in Hainan (southern) to the highest values (63.1% and 40.8%, respectively) in Shandong (northern). For MTHFR A1298C, the 1298C allele and the 1298CC genotype frequencies were significantly higher among southern populations and increased from low values (13.1% and 1.4%, respectively) in Shandong to high values (25.7% and 6.7%, respectively) in Hainan. For A66G, the 66G allele and the 66GG genotype frequencies increased from lower values (23.7% and 5.4%, respectively) in Shandong to higher values (29.2% and 8.6%, respectively) in Hainan. The overall frequency of the 677T allele, 677TT genotype, 1298C allele, 1298CC genotype, 66G allele and 66GG genotype in the Chinese Han population was 45.2%, 23.2%, 18.6%, 3.9%, 25.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. No gender differences were found in the prevalence of both the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Conclusions This study indicates that there are marked geographical variations in the prevalence of the three polymorphisms among Chinese Han populations. Our baseline data may be useful for future researches in related fields.
Yang, Boyi; Liu, Yuyan; Li, Yongfang; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Lu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Sun, Guifan
Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that usually presents with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) within 6 months of a first pregnancy and delivery. Spontaneous improvement is typical. There is no known genetic basis for PAO. A 26-year-old primagravida with a neonatal history of unilateral blindness attributable to hyperplastic primary vitreous sustained postpartum VCFs consistent with PAO. Her low bone mineral density (BMD) seemed to respond to vitamin D and calcium therapy, with no fractures after her next successful pregnancy. Investigation of subsequent fetal losses revealed homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated both with fetal loss and with osteoporosis (OP). Because her neonatal unilateral blindness and OP were suggestive of loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), LRP5 exon and splice site sequencing was also performed. This revealed a unique heterozygous 12-bp deletion in exon 21 (c.4454_4465del, p.1485_1488del SSSS) in the patient, her mother and sons, but not her father or brother. Her mother had a normal BMD, no history of fractures, PAO, ophthalmopathy, or fetal loss. Her two sons had no ophthalmopathy and no skeletal issues. Her osteoporotic father (with a family history of blindness) and brother had low BMDs first documented at ages ?40 and 32 years, respectively. Serum biochemical and bone turnover studies were unremarkable in all subjects. We postulate that our patient's heterozygous LRP5 mutation together with her homozygous MTHFR polymorphism likely predisposed her to low peak BMD. However, OP did not cosegregate in her family with the LRP5 mutation, the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism, or even the combination of the two, implicating additional genetic or nongenetic factors in her PAO. Nevertheless, exploration for potential genetic contributions to PAO may explain part of the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disorder and identify some at-risk women. PMID:24014470
Cook, Fiona J; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah
Several polymorphisms related to hypertension, thrombophilia, and oxidative stress has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the frequency of M235T angiotensinogen (AGT), A222V 5,10 methylenete-trahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), L33P glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa), and I105V glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphisms in 285 individuals belonging to Mexican-Mestizo and five Amerindian population from México, by real time PCR allelic discrimination. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using ?2 tests. All populations followed the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for assay markers with the exception of the Triki, whose were in Hardy Weinberg dysequilibrium for the glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism. Interestingly, according to all the analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the Triki population was the most differentiated and homogeneous group of the six populations analyzed. A comparison of our data with those previously published for some Caucasian, Asian and Black populations showed quite significant differences. These differences were remarkable with all the Mexican populations having a lower frequency of the 105V allele of the glutathione S-transferase P1 and reduced occurrence of the 222A allele of the 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Our results show the genetic diversity among different Mexican populations and with other racial groups.
Juarez-Velazquez, Rocio; Canto, Patricia; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Rodriguez, Maricela; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Velazquez Wong, Ana Claudia; Ordonez-Razo, Rosa Maria; Vilchis-Dorantes, Guadalupe; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon Mauricio
The exact nature of the events which may predispose a person to substance abuse is not known. This paper provides a theoretical discussion and review which emphasizes three contexts which have been shown to predispose on individual to drug abuse: (1) prenatal exposure to a given substance; (2) environmental conditions present upon first exposure…
Cheney, Carl D.; Phelps, Brady J.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene located on chromosome 1p36.3 catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,methyltetrahydrofolate, the major methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene have been identified, 677C>T in exon 4, leading to substitution of alanine by valine and 1298A>C in exon 7 which leads to the replacement of glutamic acid by alanine resulting into reduced enzyme activity. The potential influence of MTHFR activity on DNA methylation and on the availability of uridylates and thymidylates for DNA synthesis and repair makes MTHFR an attractive candidate for cancer predisposing gene. In order to elucidate the role of MTHFR polymorphism in cervical cancer, both the exons for 677C>T and 1298A>C mutations were analyzed among 219 females, including 77 females with normal cervical cytology, 80 with cervical dysplasia and 62 with squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. Females with mutant allele at 677 position (CT/TT genotypes) were found to be almost three times the risk of cervical dysplasia than females with CC genotype [OR, 2.9; (CI, 1.5-5.7)], but were less likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma [OR, 1.5 (CI, 0.7-3.2)]. Similar findings were observed for mutation at 1298 position, females with AC/CC genotypes were almost four times the risk of cervical dysplasia [OR, 4.3 (CI, 2.1-9.0)], as compared to AA genotype. Our study lends further support to the hypothesis that the MTHFR polymorphism (677C>T or 1298A>C) is involved in susceptibility to cervical dysplasia. PMID:19356065
Nandan, Naveen Kumar; Wajid, Saima; Biswas, Shilpie; Juneja, Sominder Singh; Rizvi, Moshahid; Prakash, Raminder; Naqvi, Samar Husain
Autism spectrum disorder, severe behaviour problems and duplication of the Xq12 to Xq13 region have recently been described in three male relatives. To describe the psychiatric comorbidity and dysmorphic features, including craniosynostosis, of two male siblings with autism and duplication of the Xq13 to Xq21 region, and attempt to narrow down the number of duplicated genes proposed to be leading to global developmental delay and autism. We performed DNA sequencing of certain exons of the TWIST1 gene, the FGFR2 gene and the FGFR3 gene. We also performed microarray analysis of the DNA. In addition to autism, the two male siblings exhibited severe learning disability, self-injurious behaviour, temper tantrums and hyperactivity, and had no communicative language. Chromosomal analyses were normal. Neither of the two siblings showed mutations of the sequenced exons known to produce craniosynostosis. The microarray analysis detected an extra copy of a region on the long arm of chromosome X, chromosome band Xq13.1-q21.1. Comparison of our two cases with previously described patients allowed us to identify three genes predisposing for autism in the duplicated chromosomal region. Sagittal craniosynostosis is also a new finding linked to the duplication. PMID:23974867
Wentz, Elisabet; Vujic, Mihailo; Kärrstedt, Ewa-Lotta; Erlandsson, Anna; Gillberg, Christopher
The 677T allele of the MTHFR gene has been suggested to represent a factor of risk for male infertility. In order to confirm this association, we investigated the presence of the 677T allele in 93 Italian infertile patients, selected after the exclusion of other possible genetic causes of infertility, and in 105 Italian fertile controls. The homozygous 677TT genotype was present in 20.4% of patients and 27.6% of controls. These results do not support an association between the MTHFR 677T allele and male infertility in Italy. PMID:14594111
Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Scarciolla, O; Colosimo, A; Guanciali-Franchi, P; Calabrese, G; Palka, G
The Eker rat hereditaryrenal carcinomais an excellent exampleof a Mendeliandominantpredispositionto a specific cancer in an experimen tal animal. We recently reported that a germline insertion in the rat homologue of the human tuberous sclerosis gene (TSC2) gives rise to dominantlyinherited cancer in the Eker rat model, as well as a tumor suppressor nature for the Tsc2 gene function. We also
Haruo Tsuchiya; Kenji Orimoto; Toshiyuki Kobayashi; Okio Hino
DNA profiles (immunoprints) were generated for 120 patients suffering from early onset pauciarticular chronic arthritis (EOPA-JCA) and > 500 healthy controls utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellites in the vicinity of immunorelevant genes. Six T cell receptor (TCR) markers for the CD3D, TCRDVAJ, TEA, TCRBV6S1, BV6S3, BV6S7 and BV13S2 genes were analysed. Furthermore markers for the cell surface molecule CD40L, for cytokine genes (IL-1A, IL-2, IFN-alpha, FGF-alpha, TNF-alpha), the chromosomal region of the IRF2 and the cytokine receptor gene IL5RA were studied as well as two polymorphisms within the promotor region of the TNF-alpha gene. Coding region polymorphisms were evidenced indirectly by repeat length variation or they were predicted from the microsatellite distribution profiles and then confirmed by direct sequence analysis. Statistical evaluations were performed with respect to known predispositions, predominance of females (> 80%) and HLA-DR and -DQ haplotypes. Cell surface molecules (TCR, CD40L, IL5RA) as well as almost all cytokines (IL-1A, IFN alpha, FGFA, IRF2 region) were excluded as predisposing in our JCA panel. The TNF-alpha microsatellite alleles (GT)10-12 contribute considerably to manifestation of the disease, in HLA-DRB1*11(12) individuals (RR = 12.8). The TNF-alpha allele is not found in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1*11(12) and may be present on either chromosome 6. Thus, a novel susceptibility factor probably within the TNFA/TNFB gene region has been identified via linkage with the TNF-alpha microsatellite allele. Apparently complex compositions of the genetic background rather than single genes provide the precondition for manifestation of the autoimmune disease EOPA-JCA. Immunoprinting unravels the variability of the immunological genome via the semi-directed microsatellite approach efficiently. PMID:7495783
Epplen, C; Rumpf, H; Albert, E; Haas, P; Truckenbrodt, H; Epplen, J T
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. The C677T substitution variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Higher blood levels of homocysteine have also been reported in MS. Thus, the C677T mutation
Lotti Tajouri; Virginie Martin; Claudia Gasparini; Micky Ovcaric; Rob Curtain; Rod A. Lea; Larisa M. Haupt; Peter Csurhes; Michael P. Pender; Lyn R. Griffiths
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction in part as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. Function and survival of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as sca1(+) c-kit(+) flk-1(+) bone marrow-derived cells), which significantly contribute to neovascularization and endothelial regeneration, depend on controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mice heterozygous for the gene deletion of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr(+/-)) have a 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in plasma homocysteine. This mild HHcy significantly reduced the number of circulating EPCs as well as their differentiation. Mthfr deficiency was also associated with increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) generation in Mthfr(+/-) EPCs. Treatment of EPCs with sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), significantly reduced ROS and improved NO production. mRNA and protein expression of eNOS and the relative amount of eNOS dimer compared with monomer were decreased by Mthfr deficiency. Impaired differentiation of EPCs induced by Mthfr deficiency correlated with increased senescence, decreased telomere length, and reduced expression of SIRT1. Addition of sepiapterin maintained cell senescence and SIRT1 expression at levels comparable to the wild type. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mthfr deficiency impairs EPC formation and increases EPC senescence by eNOS uncoupling and downregulation of SIRT1. PMID:21169404
Lemarié, Catherine A; Shbat, Layla; Marchesi, Chiara; Angulo, Orlando J; Deschênes, Marie-Eve; Blostein, Mark D; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L
Relative deficiency of pentraxin proteins is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The C-reactive protein (CRP) response is defective in patients with acute flares of disease, and mice with targeted deletions of the serum amyloid P component gene (Sap) develop a lupus-like illness. In humans, the genes for CRP (CRP) and SAP (APCS) map to 1q23.2 within an interval linked with SLE. We have investigated the candidate genes CRP and APCS in two cohorts totalling 586 UK simplex SLE families. The inheritance of an intronic dinucleotide repeat and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRP and APCS genes was examined by application of family-based tests of association and linkage. Basal levels of CRP were influenced independently by two polymorphisms at the CRP locus, CRP 2 and CRP 4. Furthermore, the latter polymorphism was linked/associated with SLE and antinuclear autoantibody production. Thus, the polymorphism associated with reduced basal CRP was also associated with the development of SLE. These data support the hypothesis that defective disposal of potentially immunogenic material is a contributory factor in lupus pathogenesis. The identification of polymorphisms that determine basal CRP levels has implications in ischaemic heart disease, where CRP level is an important predictor of risk.
Russell, Andrew I.; Graham, Deborah S. Cunninghame; Shepherd, Christopher; Roberton, Cheri A.; Whittaker, John; Meeks, John; Powell, Richard J.; Isenberg, David A.; Walport, Mark J.; Vyse, Timothy J.
Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architectural changes in the bone tissue. The risk of osteoporosis is partly determined by genetic factors. The role of C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been investigated in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphism and BMD is still controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis of 5,833 subjects to evaluate the association of MTHFR and BMD in postmenopausal women. Databases of MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus and CNKI were retrieved for all publications relating to MTHFR polymorphism and BMD in postmenopausal women. Five eligible studies were selected for meta-analysis. All these articles studied the association of MTHFR polymorphism and BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Our analysis suggested that postmenopausal women with the TT genotype had lower femoral neck BMD than the women with the CC/CT genotype, and the weighted mean difference (WMD) was -0.01 g/cm2 [95% confidence interval (CI): (-0.01, -0.01), P < 0.01]. However, BMD of the lumbar spine of postmenopausal women with the TT genotype was not significantly different from that of women with the CC/CT genotype. In the random effects model, the WMD between the TT and TC/CC genotype was -0.01 g/cm2 [95% CI: (-0.04, 0.01), P = 0.32]. The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is associated with BMD of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women. Women with the TT genotype of the MTHFR gene have lower BMD, suggesting that the TT genotype may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Li, Donghua; Wu, Jie
The objective of this study was to explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CD244 gene with several clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Two hundred and forty-three patients with SLE and 369 healthy controls were enrolled. Two SNPs (rs6682654 and rs3766379) in the CD244 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using a specific TaqMan probe. Only SNP rs3766379 was significantly associated with susceptibility to SLE [P = 0.009; odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.57]. The association was preferentially observed in subsets of SLE patients with nephritis and neuropsychiatric lupus. The frequency of the rs6682654 C allele was strongly associated with nephritis and neuropsychiatric lupus (P = 0.00065; OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.34-2.95, and P = 1.6 × 10(-7); OR 3.47; 95% CI 2.12-5.70, respectively), as was the frequency of the rs3766379 T allele (P = 0.0014; OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.71, and P = 2.6 × 10(-7); OR 3.15; 95% CI 2.00-4.96, respectively). In this study, an SNP of the CD244 gene was associated with susceptibility to SLE. There was a strikingly strong association in SLE patients with nephritis and neuropsychiatric lupus, suggesting that this genetic marker could predict involvement of those severe complications. PMID:20437071
Ota, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Takagi, Kae; Tochimoto, Akiko; Kawamoto, Manabu; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Gono, Takahisa; Masuda, Ikuko; Ikari, Katsunori; Momohara, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Hisashi
Neural tube defects (NTDs), including anencephaly and spina bifida, are multifactorial diseases that occur with an incidence of 1 in 300 births in the United Kingdom. Mouse models have indicated that deregulated expression of the gene encoding the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor (Pdgfra) causes congenital NTDs (refs. 2-4), whereas mutant forms of Pax-1 that have been associated with NTDs cause deregulated activation of the human PDGFRA promoter. There is an increasing awareness that genetic polymorphisms may have an important role in the susceptibility for NTDs (ref. 6). Here we identify five different haplotypes in the human PDGFRA promoter, of which the two most abundant ones, designated H1 and H2 alpha, differ in at least six polymorphic sites. In a transient transfection assay in human bone cells, the five haplotypes differ strongly in their ability to enhance reporter gene activity. In a group of patients with sporadic spina bifida, haplotypes with low transcriptional activity, including H1, were under-represented, whereas those with high transcriptional activity, including H2 alpha, were over-represented. When testing for haplotype combinations, H1 homozygotes were fully absent from the group of sporadic patients, whereas H1/H2 alpha heterozygotes were over-represented in the groups of both sporadic and familial spina bifida patients, but strongly under-represented in unrelated controls. Our data indicate that specific combinations of naturally occurring PDGFRA promoter haplotypes strongly affect NTD genesis. PMID:11175793
Joosten, P H; Toepoel, M; Mariman, E C; Van Zoelen, E J
The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique with the MboII enzyme is used by a number of researchers as a methodology for the identification of the genetic polymorphism MTHFR A1298C. However, the reliability of this enzyme for genotyping this polymorphism has been questioned, since the silent polymorphism T1317C, located close to the polymorphic region A1298C on gene MTHFR, also has a recognition site for MboII. Thus, the fragments formed by the digestion of MboII present similar sizes, making it difficult to differentiate the allele MTHFR 1298A in the presence of the allele MTHFR 1317C. Hence, we investigated the A1298C polymorphism in a Brazilian population of renal transplant patients, using the RFLP technique with digestion by Mbo II and using sequencing, in order to examine the concordance between the two techniques. Our results showed an 8.6% difference in genotyping between RFLP and sequencing, but the statistical concordance test presented a kappa coefficient equal to 0.81 (CI 95% 0.74-88), which indicates a virtually perfect concordance, according to the criterion of Landis and Koch. Therefore, we concluded that the RFLP technique is concordant with automated sequencing in the detection of polymorphism A1298C under our laboratory conditions. PMID:19137091
de Alvarenga, Maria Paula Sanches; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria
PROBLEM? Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism are commonly associated with defects in folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism, which can result in DNA hypomethylation and chromosome nondisjunction. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations between MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms and spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. METHOD OF STUDY? Subjects included 33 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 24 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy and 155 normal controls. Polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and QF-PCR analysis. RESULTS? The frequencies of MTHFR 1298AC and combined 1298AC/CC genotypes were higher in SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy than in controls. The 1298C allele frequency was also significantly higher in SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy than in controls. Moreover, the 1298C allele frequency was higher in SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy than in SA with normal fetal karyotype. The combined 1298AC/CC genotype was significantly associated with the risk of SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy compared with that of the 1298AA genotype (adjusted OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.11-7.69). There was no association between SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy and other polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS? Our findings indicate that MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism may be an independent risk factor for SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. PMID:21410812
Kim, Shin Young; Park, So Yeon; Choi, Ji Won; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Shin Yeong; Lim, Ji Hyae; Han, Jung Yeol; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Kim, Min Hyoung
Background Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China. Methods Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated. Results T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P?=?0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P?>?0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P?0.05 for each). These differences did not however remain through further subdivision by hyperlipidemia and normolipidemia. Conclusion The higher prevalence of MTHFR 677?T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a non-autoimmune, complex, heterogeneous and polygenic metabolic disease condition characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). India as said to be the diabetic capital of the world is likely to experience the largest increase in T2DM and a greater number of diabetic individuals in the world by the year 2030. Identification of specific genetic variations in a particular ethnic group has a critical role in understanding the risk of developing T2DM in a much efficient way in future. These genetic variations include numerous types of polymorphisms among which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is the most frequent. SNPs are basically located within the regulatory elements of several gene sequences. There are scores of genes interacting with various environmental factors affecting various pathways and sometimes even the whole signalling network that cause diseases like T2DM. This review discusses the biomarkers for early risk prediction of T2DM. Such predictions could be used in order to understand the pathogenesis of T2DM and to better diagnostics, treatment, and eventually prevention.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a non-autoimmune, complex, heterogeneous and polygenic metabolic disease condition characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). India as said to be the diabetic capital of the world is likely to experience the largest increase in T2DM and a greater number of diabetic individuals in the world by the year 2030. Identification of specific genetic variations in a particular ethnic group has a critical role in understanding the risk of developing T2DM in a much efficient way in future. These genetic variations include numerous types of polymorphisms among which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is the most frequent. SNPs are basically located within the regulatory elements of several gene sequences. There are scores of genes interacting with various environmental factors affecting various pathways and sometimes even the whole signalling network that cause diseases like T2DM. This review discusses the biomarkers for early risk prediction of T2DM. Such predictions could be used in order to understand the pathogenesis of T2DM and to better diagnostics, treatment, and eventually prevention. PMID:24156506
Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Ahmed, Faisal; Ahmad, Absar; Rizvi, Saliha; Mahdi, Farzana
Recent studies suggest that multiple interacting loci, with possible additional environmental factors, influence the risk for nonsyndromic oral clefts, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Advances in high-throughput genotyping technology allow the testing of multiple markers, simultaneously, in many candidate genes. We tested for associations between 176 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 candidate genes/loci and nonsyndromic clefts in a case-control study in an Estonian sample (153 patients, 205 controls). The most significant associations with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) were found for SNPs in MSX1, MTHFR, and PVRL2, including several common haplotypes in the MTHFR and MSX1 genes. The strongest association was observed for rs6446693 in the MSX1 region, which remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. The strongest association with nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) was found for the SNP rs11624283 in the JAG2 gene. Epistatic interactions were observed for SNPs within PVRL2, between BCL3 and EDN1, and between IRF6 and MSX1 genes. This study provides further evidence implicating MSX1 and MTHFR in the etiology of nonsyndromic CL/P across different populations. PMID:20572854
Jagomägi, Triin; Nikopensius, Tiit; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Tammekivi, Veronika; Viltrop, Triin; Saag, Mare; Metspalu, Andres
Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme for folate metabolism in humans; it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Several studies have assessed the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), while the results were inconsistent. Methods and Findings Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published up to July 22, 2012. Data from case-control and TDT studies were integrated in an allelic model using the Catmap and Metafor software. Twenty-nine publications were included in this meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHDs risk in children with heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity?=?0.000) and publication bias (Pegger?=?0.039), but it turned into null after the trim-and-fill method was implemented (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI?=?0.95–1.31). Nevertheless, positive results were obtained after stratified by ethnicity and sample size in all subgroups except the mixed population. For mothers, there was significant association between the variant and CHDs without heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity?=?0.150, OR?=?1.16, 95% CI?=?1.05–1.29) and publication bias (Pegger?=?0.981). However, the results varied across each subgroup in the stratified analysis of ethnicity and sample size. Conclusions Both infant and maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of CHDs.
Gong, Fangqi; Zhu, Weihua; Fu, Songling
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in Brazilian women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. A prospective study was conducted in the Human Reproduction Department at the ABC University School of Medicine and the Ideia Fertility Institute between December 2010 and April 2012. The patient population was 82 women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C were evaluated and compared with laboratory results and pregnancy rates. The C677T variant was associated with proportions of mature (P=0.006) and immature (P=0.003) oocytes whereas the A1298C variant was associated with number of oocytes retrieved (P=0.044). The polymorphisms, whether alone or in combination, were not associated with normal fertilization, good-quality embryo or clinical pregnancy rates. This study suggests that the number and maturity of oocytes retrieved may be related to the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C. It is believed that folate has a crucial function in human reproduction and that folate deficiency can compromise the function of the metabolic pathways it is involved in, leading to an accumulation of homocysteine. The gene MTHFR encodes the 5-MTHFR enzyme, which is involved in folate metabolism, and C677T/A1298C polymorphisms of this gene are related to decreased enzyme activity and consequent changes in homocysteine concentration. Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia can also compromise fertility and lead to pregnancy complications by affecting the development of oocytes, preparation of endometrial receptivity, implantation of the embryo and pregnancy. In folliculogenesis, hyperhomocysteinaemia can activate apoptosis, leading to follicular atresia and affecting the maturity of oocytes and the quality of embryos cultured in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. PMID:24746944
D'Elia, Priscila Queiroz; Dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Aoki, Tsutomu
Purpose Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the main regulatory enzyme for homocysteine metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated whether the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C gene polymorphisms are associated with SBI and plasma homocysteine concentration in a Korean population. Materials and Methods We enrolled 264 patients with SBI and 234 healthy controls in South Korea. Fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured, and genotype analysis of the MTHFR gene was carried out. Results The plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in patients with SBI than in healthy controls. Despite a significant association between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and hyperhomocysteinemia, the MTHFR 677C>T genotypes did not appear to influence susceptibility to SBI. However, odds ratios of the 1298AC and 1298AC + CC genotypes for the 1298AA genotype were significantly different between SBI patients and normal controls. The frequencies of 677C-1298A and 677C-1298C haplotypes were significantly higher in the SBI group than in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism is a risk factor for SBI in a Korean population. The genotypes of 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms interact additively, and increase the risk of SBI in Korean subjects.
Han, In Bo; Kim, Ok Joon; Ahn, Jung Yong; Oh, Doyeun; Hong, Sun Pyo; Huh, Ryoong; Chung, Sang Sup
Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene. Methods PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls. Results c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P?=?0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’?=?0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio?=?1.035, P?=?0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.97, P?=?0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.92, p?=?0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p?=?0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis suggested that risk factors on the MTHFR locus do not extend too long on the DNA string.
Gupta, Nishi; Sarkar, Saumya; David, Archana; Gangwar, Pravin Kumar; Gupta, Richa; Khanna, Gita; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh
Aims: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of common polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the toxicity and clinical responses of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from their inception through November 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted with the use of the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Seven clinical cohort studies with a total of 815 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. Two common polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298?A>C) in the MTHFR gene were assessed. Results: The results from our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms might significantly decrease the rate of grade 3/4 toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms strongly correlated with good clinical responses (complete response+partial response) to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.04, p=0.024). Conclusions: Our findings provide empirical evidence that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may decrease the toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy and increase the clinical benefits for CRC patients. Thus, MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may be screened to predict the clinical responses to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients. PMID:24611457
Li, Ping; Chen, Quan; Wang, Ya-Di; Ha, Min-Wen
The aim of this study was to detect the possible role of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms and to investigate the influence of this polymorphism on methotrexate toxicity in adult ALL patients treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. There was a statistically significant increase in the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with CT genotype (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3; P = 0.007) and combined CT + TT genotype (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5-6.6; P = 0.006). While no significant association was found between this polymorphism and ALL risk. The patients with ALL treated with methotrexate during maintenance therapy were observed for signs of toxicity. MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism (CT + TT) was significantly overrepresented among cases with hepatic toxicity (OR = 15.6; 95% CI, 2.6-81.3; P = 0.001). In addition, they were overrepresented among cases with mucositis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. However, it did not reach statistical significance level. Further studies on larger number of subjects are necessary. Additional studies on the role of MTHFR gene polymorphism with environment (folate intake) interaction are needed to confirm the role of these genetic polymorphisms. PMID:24592886
Ayad, Mona W; El Naggar, Amel A; El Naggar, Mostafa
Oxidative stress is increased in chronic kidney disease, owing to an imbalance between the oxidative and antioxidant pathways as well as a state of persistent hyperhomocysteinemia. The enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are implicated in the regulation of these pathways. This study investigates the association between polymorphisms in the Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and MTHFR genes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. A Case-control study included 110 ESRD patients and 125 healthy individuals. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was studied using a PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In ESRD patients, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were 61% and 7% respectively. GSTM1 genotype frequencies differed significantly between groups, showing that homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene was associated with susceptibility to ESRD of unknown etiology (P = 0.007, odds ratios = 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.45). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotype and allele distributions were similar in both groups (P > 0.05), and the CT genotype was the most common genotype in both groups (45.5% and 46.6%). Our findings suggest that the GSTM1 null polymorphism appears to be associated with the ESRD of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico.
Gutierrez-Amavizca, B. E.; Orozco-Castellanos, R.; Ortiz-Orozco, R.; Padilla-Gutierrez, J.; Valle, Y.; Gutierrez-Gutierrez, N.; Garcia-Garcia, G.; Gallegos-Arreola, M.; Figuera, L. E.
Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA methylation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. In addition, it is a possible risk factor in neural tube defects (NTDs). The association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and NTD susceptibility has been widely demonstrated, but the results remain inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis with 2429 cases and 3570 controls to investigate the effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on NTDs. Methods An electronic search of PubMed and Embase database for papers on the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD risk was performed. All data were analysed with STATA (version 11). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Results A significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD susceptibility was revealed in our meta-analysis ( TT versus CC: OR ?=?2.022, 95% CI: 1.508, 2.712; CT+TT versus CC: OR ?=?1.303, 95% CI: 1.089, 1.558; TT versus CC+CT: OR ?=?1.716, 95% CI: 1.448, 2.033; 2TT+CT versus 2CC+CT: OR ?=?1.330, 95% CI: 1.160, 1.525). Moreover, an increased NTD risk was found after stratification of the MTHFR C677T variant data by ethnicity and source of controls. Conclusion The results suggested the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for NTDs. Further functional studies to investigate folate-related gene polymorphisms, periconceptional multivitamin supplements, complex interactions, and the development of NTDs are warranted.
Zou, Peng; Ji, Guixiang; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng
The study aimed to investigate the association between MTHFR C677T, ENPP1 K121Q, and ADIPOQ 45 T/G gene polymorphisms and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in Egyptian patients. The study included 60 unrelated patients suffering from their first MI and 60 unrelated controls. Patients were recruited from Kasr-El Eini hospital, Cairo University. The previously mentioned polymorphisms were determined in all participants by PCR-RFLP. There was no significant difference in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of MTHFR C677T between groups. In contrast, significant difference was found in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of ENPP1 K121Q and ADIPOQ 45 T/G between MI patients and controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.004, P = 0.009, P = 0.001, respectively). Univariate analysis revealed that 121Q ENPP1 and 45 G ADIPOQ alleles were associated with the increased risk of MI (OR = 3; 95 % CI = 1.45-6.2; P = 0.004 and OR = 5.8; 95 % CI = 1.92-17.54; P = 0.001, respectively). The mutant homozygous genotypes of MTHFR, ENPP1, and ADIPOQ were more prevalent in diabetic hypertensive MI patients than it was among non-diabetic normotensive MI patients. Regarding the coagulation profile, INR (P = 0.009) and PC % (P = 0.022) were significantly different among the three genotypes of MTHFR C677T. The 677 T, 121 Q, and 45G variants were associated with MI in Egyptian patients; however, more studies are needed to determine the possible protective effect for these polymorphisms in our population. PMID:24242286
Shaker, Olfat Gamil; Ismail, Manal Fouad
Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant C677T has been implicated as a genetic risk factor in migraine susceptibility, particularly in Migraine with Aura. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO) have many diagnostic characteristics in common. It is postulated that migraine symptomatic characteristics might themselves be influenced by MTHFR. Here we analysed the clinical profile, migraine symptoms, triggers and treatments of 267 migraineurs previously genotyped for the MTHFR C677T variant. The chi-square test was used to analyse all potential relationships between genotype and migraine clinical variables. Regression analyses were performed to assess the association of C677T with all migraine clinical variables after adjusting for gender. Findings The homozygous TT genotype was significantly associated with MA (P < 0.0001) and unilateral head pain (P = 0.002). While the CT genotype was significantly associated with physical activity discomfort (P < 0.001) and stress as a migraine trigger (P = 0.002). Females with the TT genotype were significantly associated with unilateral head pain (P < 0.001) and females with the CT genotype were significantly associated with nausea (P < 0.001), osmophobia (P = 0.002), and the use of natural remedy for migraine treatment (P = 0.003). Conversely, male migraineurs with the TT genotype experienced higher incidences of bilateral head pain (63% vs 34%) and were less likely to use a natural remedy as a migraine treatment compared to female migraineurs (5% vs 20%). Conclusions MTHFR genotype is associated with specific clinical variables of migraine including unilateral head pain, physical activity discomfort and stress.
Understanding how risk genes cumulatively impair brain function in schizophrenia could provide critical insights into its pathophysiology. Working memory impairment in schizophrenia has been associated with abnormal dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex, which is likely under complex genetic control. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) 158Val ? Met polymorphism (rs4680), which affects the availability of prefrontal dopamine signaling, consistently stratifies prefrontal activation during working memory performance. However, the low-dopamine COMT 158Val allele does not confer increased risk for schizophrenia, and its effects on prefrontal function are not specific to the disorder. In the setting of other genetic variants influencing prefrontal dopamine signaling, COMT 158Val ? Met genotype may exert disease-specific effects. A second polymorphism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C ? T (rs1801133), has been associated with overall schizophrenia risk and executive function impairment in patients, and may influence dopamine signaling through mechanisms upstream of COMT effects. We found that the hypofunctional 677T variant was associated with decreased working memory load-dependent activation in the prefrontal and insular cortices in 79 schizophrenia patients, but not in 75 demographically matched healthy controls. Further, significant MTHFR × COMT genotype interactions were observed, which differed by diagnostic group: Reduced prefrontal activation was associated with the 677T and 158Val alleles in patients, but with 677C/C and 158Met/Met genotype in controls. These findings are consistent with epistatic effects of the COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms on prefrontal dopamine signaling, and suggest that in schizophrenia patients, the MTHFR 677T allele exacerbates prefrontal dopamine deficiency. The findings also suggest the importance of weighing COMT effects on prefrontal function within the context of MTHFR genotype.
Roffman, Joshua L.; Gollub, Randy L.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weiss, Anthony P.; Ho, Beng C.; White, Tonya; Clark, Vincent P.; Fries, Jill; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Goff, Donald C.; Manoach, Dara S.
Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the association of Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate in patients with AAA has not been studied in China. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the relationship of vitamin B12, folic acid, and Hcy levels in AAA. Patients and methods: 463 patients who had AAA were included in this study. 463 control subjects were age- and sex-matched with the patients. In all of the subjects, we evaluated total plasma levels Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and the distribution of the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation. Results: The mean plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher in patients with AAA compared with controls (18.37 ± 6.97 vs. 12.89 ± 4.08 ?mol/L, P < 0.001). The frequency of homozygous (TT) genotype in MTHFR C677T mutation was significantly higher in patients with AAA than that in control subjects (19.4 % vs. 11.9 %, P = 0.002). The fasting Hcy correlated negatively with folate (AAA: r = - 0.311, P < 0.01; Control: r = - 0.348, P < 0.01). The aneurysm size was significantly greater (P < 0.001) in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia than that in patients with normal Hcy plasma levels. The size of the AAA had a linear correlation with the plasma Hcy level (r = 0.286; P< 0.001). Conclusions: Serum folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia were associated with an increased risk of AAA in Northeast China. The homozygous (TT) genotype of MTHFR gene mutation may be a crucial hereditary risk factor in AAA. PMID:24797049
Cao, Hui; Hu, Xinhua; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Liu, Bing; Wang, Junpeng; Shao, Yang; Zhang, Zhishen; Liu, Chengwei; Hu, Haidi; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shijie
Fanconi anemia (FA) and dyskeratosis congenita (DC) are rare inherited syndromes that cause head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prior studies of inherited forms of cancer have been extremely important in elucidating tumor suppressor genes inactivated in sporadic tumors. Here, we studied whether sporadic tumors have epigenetic silencing of the genes causing the inherited forms of HNSCC. Using bisulfite
Ian M. Smith; Suhail K. Mithani; Wojciech K. Mydlarz; Steven S. Chang; Joseph A. Califano
Our aim in this study was to investigate the association between elevated homocysteine levels and the two MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, with several pregnancy complications such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, placental abruption and intrauterine growth retardation. In 203 women with different placental vasculopathies, we determined the MTHFR C677T and the A1298C prevalence and their relative association to elevated homocysteine levels. The mean plasma homocysteine level was significantly higher in the pathologic groups when compared with the control group. We identified the carriage of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism as a significant risk factor for vascular-related pregnancy complications. Women with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism or elevated homocysteine levels have an increased risk of placental vasculopathies. The MTHFR A1298C mutation also had a positive impact on elevated homocysteine levels. The lack of association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and pregnancy morbidities needs further studies. PMID:21577095
Klai, Sarra; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; El Housaini, Sonia; Kaabechi, Naziha; Nsiri, Brahim; Rachdi, Radhouen; Gritli, Nasredine
Methotrexate (MTX), one of the important pillars in the treatment of different forms of cancer, is associated with the development of hepatotoxicity. The 677C>T variant (rs1801133) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene might affect the development of hepatotoxicity. Results in literature are, however, contradictive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in MTX-induced hepatotoxicity by analyzing a Dutch cohort of pediatric patients treated with high doses of MTX and subsequently performing a meta-analysis. Ninety-eight patients receiving 542 courses of high-dose MTX were genotyped for the MTHFR 677C>T variant. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated retrospectively according to common terminology criteria for adverse events-National Cancer Institute criteria. The influence of MTHFR 677C>T on hepatotoxicity was examined using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. A fixed-effect meta-analysis based on this and previous studies investigating the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and uniformly coded hepatotoxicity was performed. The GEE analysis showed an increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity for T versus C allele (odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.2, P=0.04). This finding was not supported by the meta-analysis including seven studies and 1044 patients; the OR for the 677T versus C allele was 1.1 (95% CI 0.84-1.5, P=0.25). Heterogeneity between studies was observed, possibly related to differences in MTX dose and leucovorin rescue. In conclusion, in patients with cancer, the MTHFR 677T allele has only a minor role in the development of MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Observed heterogeneity between studies warrants further study into (tailored) leucovorin rescue. PMID:23648444
Hagleitner, M M; Coenen, M J H; Aplenc, R; Patiño-Garcia, A; Chiusolo, P; Gemmati, D; De Mattei, M; Ongaro, A; Krajinovic, M; Hoogerbrugge, P M; Vermeulen, S H H M; te Loo, D M W M
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. A common C677T mutation in the MTHFR gene renders the enzyme approximately 50% less active than the wild-type enzyme as shown in in vitro studies using cell extracts. We developed an immortalized cell culture model to determine whether the lower in vitro activity imparted by the homozygous (T/T) genotype is demonstrated in situ when exposed to adequate and marginal physiologic concentrations of folate and riboflavin. T/T MTHFR activity was compared with that of C/C genotype cell extracts by an in vitro assay and in intact cells by measuring the distribution of folate forms, the accumulation of homocysteine in the medium and the synthesis of methionine from formate and homocysteine. Under adequate nutrient conditions, the in vitro activity of the T/T MTHFR enzyme was approximately half that of the C/C genotype. Similarly, the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cells with the T/T genotype was approximately half that of the cells with wild-type MTHFR. In contrast, homocysteine accumulation in the culture medium was low and not different between genotypes, nor was there a difference in methionine synthetic capacity. Significant differences were observed between genotypes only when the supply of both folate and riboflavin was limited in the medium, which resulted in increased homocysteine accumulation and decreased methionine production in the T/T genotype. These data are consistent with the current understanding of the molecular interaction of the MTHFR mutant with folate substrates and the FAD prosthetic group. PMID:12949355
Lathrop Stern, Lori; Shane, Barry; Bagley, Pamela J; Nadeau, Marie; Shih, Vivian; Selhub, Jacob
Although cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare condition in the neonatal period, high rates of morbidity and mortality necessitate the establishment of an early diagnosis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in the folate cycle and mutations of MTHFR are associated with vascular disease. While the C677T common missense mutation is the most well-defined MTHFR polymorphism, another common missense mutation, A1298C also exists. There has been no reported case of CSVT associated with MTHFR A1298C mutation in the neonatal period. Herein, we report a neonate with CSVT who was found to have MTHFR A1298C homozygosity. PMID:22797907
Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Donmez, Ahsen; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Polat, Aziz; Kosehan, Dilek; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was diagnosed in a 1-month-old baby with signs of cerebral distress. Under a classic treatment using methionine supplementation, methyl donor (betaine) folinic acid, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12), the neuromotor development was satisfactory. At 15 years of age, however, despite no clear modification of the biochemical markers in body fluids, she developed a clinically overt peripheral axonal neuropathy. Only partial clinical improvement was obtained after reinforcement of betaine doses. Surveillance of the peripheral nerve is indicated in MTHFR deficiency, including in the infantile form with a good therapeutic compliance. PMID:19697151
Chaabene-Masmoudi, A; Mesrati, F; Zittoun, J; Landrieu, P
Germline mutations in CDKN2A and/or red hair color variants in MC1R genes are associated with an increased susceptibility to develop cutaneous melanoma or non melanoma skin cancer. We studied the impact of the CDKN2A germinal mutation p.G101W and MC1R variants on gene expression and transcription profiles associated with skin cancer. To this end we set-up primary skin cell co-cultures from siblings of melanoma prone-families that were later analyzed using the expression array approach. As a result, we found that 1535 transcripts were deregulated in CDKN2A mutated cells, with over-expression of immunity-related genes (HLA-DPB1, CLEC2B, IFI44, IFI44L, IFI27, IFIT1, IFIT2, SP110 and IFNK) and down-regulation of genes playing a role in the Notch signaling pathway. 3570 transcripts were deregulated in MC1R variant carriers. In particular, genes related to oxidative stress and DNA damage pathways were up-regulated as well as genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer and Huntington. Finally, we observed that the expression signatures indentified in phenotypically normal cells carrying CDKN2A mutations or MC1R variants are maintained in skin cancer tumors (melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma). These results indicate that transcriptome deregulation represents an early event critical for skin cancer development.
Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Escamez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Fabra, Angels; Martinez-Santamaria, Lucia; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Pevida, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquin; del Rio, Marcela; Puig, Susana
Germline mutations in CDKN2A and/or red hair color variants in MC1R genes are associated with an increased susceptibility to develop cutaneous melanoma or non melanoma skin cancer. We studied the impact of the CDKN2A germinal mutation p.G101W and MC1R variants on gene expression and transcription profiles associated with skin cancer. To this end we set-up primary skin cell co-cultures from siblings of melanoma prone-families that were later analyzed using the expression array approach. As a result, we found that 1535 transcripts were deregulated in CDKN2A mutated cells, with over-expression of immunity-related genes (HLA-DPB1, CLEC2B, IFI44, IFI44L, IFI27, IFIT1, IFIT2, SP110 and IFNK) and down-regulation of genes playing a role in the Notch signaling pathway. 3570 transcripts were deregulated in MC1R variant carriers. In particular, genes related to oxidative stress and DNA damage pathways were up-regulated as well as genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer and Huntington. Finally, we observed that the expression signatures indentified in phenotypically normal cells carrying CDKN2A mutations or MC1R variants are maintained in skin cancer tumors (melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma). These results indicate that transcriptome deregulation represents an early event critical for skin cancer development. PMID:24742402
Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Escámez, María José; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Fabra, Àngels; Martínez-Santamaría, Lucía; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Pevida, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín; del Río, Marcela; Puig, Susana
The tea polyphenol (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been reported to act as a cancer preventive agent through folate pathway inhibition in experimental studies. We hypothesized that if folate pathway inhibition is the mechanism of cancer preventive activities of EGCG, then the protective effect against breast cancer would be stronger among women with low dietary folate intake and the high-activity methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) genotypes. In a nested case–control study of 380 women with incident breast cancer and 662 controls within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, we found no association between either green tea intake or gene polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and TYMS (1494 ins/del) and breast cancer risk. However, among women with low folate intake (<133.4 ?g/day), weekly/daily green tea intake was inversely associated with breast cancer risk compared with less green tea intake [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26–0.79, P for interaction = 0.02]. Among women with high folate intake (?133.4 ?g/day), green tea intake was not associated with breast cancer. Similarly, among women possessing the high-activity MTHFR/TYMS genotypes (0–1 variant allele), weekly/daily versus less frequent green tea intake was associated with lower breast cancer risk (OR?=?0.66, 95% CI?=?0.45–0.98), which was observed even more strongly among those who also had low folate intake (OR?=?0.44, 95% CI?=?0.22–0.89) than high folate intake (OR?=?0.92, 95% CI?=?0.55–1.54). This association was not observed among women possessing the low-activity genotypes (2–4 variant alleles). Our findings suggest that folate pathway inhibition may be one mechanism through which green tea protects against breast cancer in humans.
Inoue, Maki; Robien, Kim; Wang, Renwei; Van Den Berg, David J.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C.
Apoptosis, the programmed death of cells, plays a distinct role in the etiopathogenesis of Multiple sclerosis (MS), a common disease of the central nervous system with complex genetic background. Yet, it is not clear whether the impact of apoptosis is due to altered apoptotic behaviour caused by variations of apoptosis-related genes. Instead, apoptosis in MS may also represent a secondary
René Gödde; Stefanie Brune; Peter Jagiello; Eckhart Sindern; Michael Haupts; Sebastian Schimrigk; Norbert Müller; Jörg T Epplen
Ptprj is a ubiquitously expressed murine gene encoding a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, which has recently been proposed as a candidate gene on the locus Scc1 for colon cancer susceptibility. It has been demonstrated that PTPRJ, the human homologue of Ptprj, is involved in the control of cell growth and adhesion, being furthermore altered in several types of cancer including mammary, thyroid, lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. To investigate the biological functions of Ptprj, we have generated mice deficient in this receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase. Ptprj-deficient mice are viable, fertile, and show no gross anatomical alterations. Furthermore, neither changes in life span nor spontaneous tumor appearance were observed in Ptprj-null mice. Our results indicate that Ptprj is dispensable for normal growth and development in mice. PMID:16792508
Trapasso, Francesco; Drusco, Alessandra; Costinean, Stefan; Alder, Hansjuerg; Aqeilan, Rami I; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Raso, Cinzia; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M; Fusco, Alfredo
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a transmissible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of aggregates\\u000a of a cellular protein, PrP, in the brain. In both human and animals, genetic alterations to the gene encoding PrP (PRNP in human) modulate susceptiblity to CJD. The recent epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the UK has raised the\\u000a possibility of transmission from animal produce
Otto Windl; Maureen Dempster; J. Peter Estibeiro; Richard Lathe; Rajith de Silva; Thomas Esmonde; Robert Will; Anthea Springbett; Tracy A. Campbell; Katie C. L. Sidle; Mark S. Palmer; John Collinge
In individuals with the Marfan syndrome (MFS), mutations have been identified in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) at 15q21.1.\\u000a A proline-to-alanine change at position 1148 in exon 27 (Pro1148Ala) has been reported in probands with MFS, aortic aneurysm\\u000a or Marfanoid-craniosynostosis. It was suggested that this mutation could be a risk factor for aortic dilatation, since it\\u000a was rarely observed in control
Iris Schrijver; Wanguo Liu; Uta Francke
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods A case–control study was conducted among 98 children with ALL and 93 age- and sex- matched non-ALL controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) of MTHFR genotypes were used to assess the associations of these polymorphisms with childhood ALL susceptibility. Results No significant differences were observed for frequencies of the 677CC, 677CT and 677TT genotypes between patients and controls. Frequencies of the 1298AA, 1298 AC and 1298CC genotypes between the two groups were significantly different. The risk of ALL with the 1298C allele carriers (AC?+?CC) was elevated by 1.1 times compared with the AA genotype [OR?=?2.100; 95% CI (1.149; 3.837); P?=?0.015]. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to childhood ALL in the Chinese population.
Summary 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was diagnosed in a 1-month-old baby with signs of cerebral distress.\\u000a Under a classic treatment using methionine supplementation, methyl donor (betaine) folinic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, the neuromotor development was satisfactory. At 15 years of age, however, despite no clear modification of the biochemical\\u000a markers in body fluids, she developed a clinically overt peripheral axonal
A. Chaabene-Masmoudi; F. Mesrati; J. Zittoun; P. Landrieu
Although controversial, diminished activity of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a regulatory enzyme of homocysteine metabolism, may predispose to migraine in Turkish people. In a case-control study, we determined the prevalence of two common MTHFR polymorphisms,C677T and A1298C, in 102 migraine patients (23 migraine with aura, 70 migraine without aura and nine with tension-type headache) and compared it to that of
Ihsan Kara; Ali Sazci; Emel Ergul; Guner Kaya; Gamze Kilic
One of the etiologies of hyperhomocysteinemia is decreased vitamin B(12). Genetic variation in the transcobalamin II gene, the transporter of vitamin B(12) to the cells, may produce altered homocysteine levels. We determined transcobalamin II C776G polymorphism, homocysteine, folate and vitamin B(12) levels and analyzed the interactive effect with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C and methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphisms in 207 healthy Brazilian children. The prevalence of GG genotype of transcobalamin II C776G polymorphism in this Brazilian population, a highly miscigeneous population was 12.5% and the statistical analysis showed that this population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it could be considered representative of the general population. We observed a significant increase in homocysteine in the 776GG vs. 776CC genotype, corroborating the influence of age as a determinant of homocysteine in relation to this polymorphism. When we analyzed vitamin B(12) and its relationship with the C776G polymorphism, we found no significant differences. Only 776CG/66AA or 776GG/66AG genotypes presented a significant increase in homocysteine when compared with other groups. In the multivariate analysis, transcobalamin II C776G (CC/CG vs. GG), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (CC/CT vs. TT), folate, gender and age presented statistical significance in relation to the homocysteine. These can be considered independent risk factors for hyperhomocysteinemia in this children group. Our results, if confirmed in other populations, highlight the necessity for investigation of the transcobalamin II C776G polymorphism in the research for hyperhomocysteinemia risk factors. PMID:16820193
Aléssio, Ana C M; Höehr, Nelci F; Siqueira, Lúcia H; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M
The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide.
Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias
The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641
Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias
Worldwide, over 1 million cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) were reported in 2002, with a 50% mortality rate, making CRC the second most common cancer in adults. Certain racial/ethnic populations continue to experience a disproportionate burden of CRC. A common polymorphism in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been associated with a lower risk of CRC. The authors performed both a meta-analysis (29 studies; 11,936 cases, 18,714 controls) and a pooled analysis (14 studies; 5,068 cases, 7,876 controls) of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism and CRC, with stratification by racial/ethnic population and behavioral risk factors. There were few studies on different racial/ethnic populations. The overall meta-analysis odds ratio for CRC for persons with the TT genotype was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.90). An inverse association was observed in whites (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and Asians (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96) but not in Latinos or blacks. Similar results were observed for Asians, Latinos, and blacks in the pooled analysis. The inverse association between the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and CRC was not significantly modified by smoking status or body mass index; however, it was present in regular alcohol users only. The MTHFR 677TT polymorphism seems to be associated with a reduced risk of CRC, but this may not hold true for all populations.
Taioli, E.; Garza, M. A.; Ahn, Y. O.; Bishop, D. T.; Bost, J.; Budai, B.; Chen, K.; Gemignani, F.; Keku, T.; Lima, C. S. P.; Le Marchand, L.; Matsuo, K.; Moreno, V.; Plaschke, J.; Pufulete, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Toffoli, G.; Wolf, C. R.; Moore, C. G.; Little, J.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a complex disease with a genetic basis. The genetic association studies (GASs) that have investigated the association between adult CML and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms have produced contradictory and inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of the association of these polymorphisms with adult CML risk. A literature search for eligible GAS published before September 15, 2013 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the association under a fixed or random effect model according to heterogeneity test results. All analyses were performed using the Stata software, version 12.0. Twelve case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 932 CML patients and 3,465 healthy controls. For MTHFR C677T (dbSNP: rs1801133, C>T), though the pooled ORs were not significant in the overall population, all the ORs greater than 1 suggested an increased risk of CML for carriers of the risk allele. However, stratified analysis based on genotyping method revealed a significant association in the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) subgroup, possibly as a result of heterogeneity. For MTHFR A1298C (dbSNP: rs1801131, A>C), the combined results showed that carriers of the C allele may be associated with a decreased risk of adult CML. Stratified analysis showed that the magnitude of this effect was especially significant among Asians, indicating ethnicity differences in adult CML susceptibility. This meta-analysis shows that the C allele of MTHFR A1298C may be associated with a decreased risk in adult CML, especially among Asians, while MTHFR C677T may not be associated with adult CML risk. However, the development of adult CML may be the result of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, which should be considered in future individual GAS and subsequent meta-analyses. PMID:24379141
Li, Bin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Lei; Li, Yan; Jin, Juping; Ai, Limei; Li, Chong; Li, Zhe; Mao, Shudan
Genetic polymorphisms affecting methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity may influence hematological and neurological\\u000a dysfunction in cobalamin-deficient patients. We studied the prevalence of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms by analyzing genomic\\u000a DNA in 30 cobalamin-deficient patients. No significant difference was found in 677 and 1298 genotype distribution with respect\\u000a to hematological parameters, B12 and folate levels, and neurological symptoms. The two MTHFR polymorphisms
Mariangela Palladino; Patrizia Chiusolo; Giovanni Reddiconto; Sara Marietti; Daniela De Ritis; Giuseppe Leone; Simona Sica
Predisposing factors were sought in 118 patients who developed adverse drug reactions in hospital. Significantly more patients of 60 years and over, and more women than men, developed adverse drug reactions. Patients with reactions had more drugs before the development of the reaction than patients who did not develop reactions. A previous adverse drug reaction and a history of allergic
A variety of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease, but the results were inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to investigate the relationship between C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. Systematically searching for related studies from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CBMdisc and CNKI databases up to 20 September 2013 and manual searching of the reference lists of identified articles was performed. Information was extracted to calculate for the additive, dominant, and recessive models using the pooled odds ratios (ORs) along with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), using Review Manager 5.0, STATA 11.0 and SPSS 17. Logistic regression, fixed or random effects model, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted to improve the comprehensive analysis. A total of 68 case-control studies containing 7,990 cases and 6,941 controls were included in the final meta-analysis. Evidence of significant association between C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease was found in all three genetic models (additive model OR 1.472, 95 % CI 1.368-1.585, P L < 0.001 (CT vs. CC); OR 1.819, 95 % CI 1.666-1.985, P L < 0.001 (TT vs. CC); dominant model OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.57-1.98, p < 0.00001; and recessive model OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.39-1.71, p < 0.00001, respectively) based on the overall population. In addition, the results were verified by the subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. The present meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. TT genotype may act as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. PMID:24603976
Zhang, Ming-Jie; Li, Jing-Cheng; Yin, Yan-Wei; Li, Bing-Hu; Liu, Yun; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Gao, Chang-Yue; Zhang, Li-Li
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism by regulating the diversion of folate metabolites toward DNA methylation or toward DNA synthesis. Because aberrations in both of these pathways can be tumor promoting, the two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, 677 C?T and 1298 A?C, have been implicated as risk factors for several cancers. Homozygosity for the
Ping Yi; Igor P. Pogribny; S. Jill James
We analyzed the relationship of genetic variation within the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR 677 C?T) with clinical characteristics, outcome, and therapy-related toxicity in pediatric non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in our\\u000a multicenter trial NHL-BFM 95. In this trial, high-dose methotrexate (MTX) infusion regimens were randomized (4- vs 24-h infusion)\\u000a in patients with B-cell lymphoma; MTX was applied as 24-h infusion in all
Kathrin Seidemann; Martin Zimmermann; Ulrike Meyer; Karl Welte; Martin Stanulla; Alfred Reiter
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central enzyme involved in regulating the metabolic function of folate, which plays a pivotal role in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. The role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in oral cancer risk has been reported with conflicting evidence. We conducted this study to appropriately estimate the effect size. We searched eligible studies in medicine-specific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge) using (polymorphism) OR (polymorphisms) AND (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) OR (MTHFR) AND (oral cancer). A total of seven studies were summarized. This meta-analysis of the combined data showed a marginal association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with oral cancer risk [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.73-1.00 for CT vs. CC]. We also found decreased oral cancer risk in Asian population and hospital-based studies. Moreover, heavy drinkers were found to have a significantly higher risk of developing such cancer as compared to the non-heavy drinkers. These results suggest that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role in oral cancer carcinogenesis in Asian population and heavy drinkers. PMID:24488626
Jia, Juan; Ma, Zheng; Wu, Shuangjiang
The well-studied C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is a biologically plausible genetic risk factor for seizures or epilepsy. First, plasma/serum levels of homocysteine, a pro-convulsant, are moderately elevated in individuals with the homozygote TT genotype. Furthermore, the TT genotype has been previously linked with migraine with aura-a comorbid condition-and with alcohol withdrawal seizures. Finally, several small studies have suggested that the TT genotype may be overrepresented in epilepsy patients. In this study, we consider whether the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variants are associated with risk of epilepsy including post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in a representative military cohort. Study subjects were selected from the cohort of military personnel on active duty during the years 2003 through 2007 who had archived serum samples at the DoD Serum Repository, essentially all active duty personnel during this time frame. We randomly selected 800 epilepsy patients and 800 matched controls based on ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We were able to isolate sufficient genetic material from the archived sera to genotype approximately 85% of our study subjects. The odds of epilepsy were increased in subjects with the TT versus CC genotype (crude OR=1.52 [1.04-2.22], p=0.031; adjusted OR=1.57 [1.07-2.32], p=0.023). In our sensitivity analysis, risk was most evident for patients with repeated rather than single medical encounters for epilepsy (crude OR=1.85 [1.14-2.97], p=0.011, adjusted OR=1.95 [1.19-3.19], p=0.008), and particularly for PTE (crude OR=3.14 [1.41-6.99], p=0.005; adjusted OR=2.55 [1.12-5.80], p=0.026). Our early results suggest a role for the common MTHFR C677T variant as a predisposing factors for epilepsy including PTE. Further exploration of baseline homocysteine and folate levels as predictors of seizure risk following traumatic brain injury is warranted. PMID:21787169
Scher, Ann I; Wu, Holly; Tsao, Jack W; Blom, Henk J; Feit, Preethy; Nevin, Remington L; Schwab, Karen A
Background Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreciably increases homocysteine levels, so “Mendelian randomization” studies using this variant as an instrumental variable could help test causality. Methods and Findings Nineteen unpublished datasets were obtained (total 48,175 CHD cases and 67,961 controls) in which multiple genetic variants had been measured, including MTHFR C677T. These datasets did not include measurements of blood homocysteine, but homocysteine levels would be expected to be about 20% higher with TT than with CC genotype in the populations studied. In meta-analyses of these unpublished datasets, the case-control CHD odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI comparing TT versus CC homozygotes was 1.02 (0.98–1.07; p?=?0.28) overall, and 1.01 (0.95–1.07) in unsupplemented low-folate populations. By contrast, in a slightly updated meta-analysis of the 86 published studies (28,617 CHD cases and 41,857 controls), the OR was 1.15 (1.09–1.21), significantly discrepant (p?=?0.001) with the OR in the unpublished datasets. Within the meta-analysis of published studies, the OR was 1.12 (1.04–1.21) in the 14 larger studies (those with variance of log OR<0.05; total 13,119 cases) and 1.18 (1.09–1.28) in the 72 smaller ones (total 15,498 cases). Conclusions The CI for the overall result from large unpublished datasets shows lifelong moderate homocysteine elevation has little or no effect on CHD. The discrepant overall result from previously published studies reflects publication bias or methodological problems. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Verhoef, Petra; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; Lathrop, Mark; Xu, Peng; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Holm, Hilma; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Saleheen, Danish; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Anand, Sonia S.; Chambers, John C.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Yamada, Yoshiji; Elbers, Clara; Peters, Bas; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Reilly, Muredach M.; Thorand, Barbara; Yusuf, Salim; Engert, James C.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kooner, Jaspal; Danesh, John; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J.
Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme in folate metabolism. Change in MTHFR activity may influence both DNA methylation and synthesis, crucial steps in carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and OV infection with CCA risk in a high-incidence area of Thailand. A nested case-control study within cohort study was carried out: 219 subjects with primary CCA were matched with two non-cancer controls from the same cohort on sex, age at recruitment and presence/ absence of OV eggs in stool. At the time of recruitment information on consumption of foodstuffs potentially contaminated by OV was obtained by questionnaire. MTHFR polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR with high resolution melting analysis. Associations between variables and the risk of CCA were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Risk of CCA was related to consumption of a dish of raw freshwater fish (Koi- Pla) with clear dose-response effects, and there were joint effects on CCA risk between MTHFR polymorphisms and consumption of dishes containing raw- and/or semi-raw freshwater fish. This study provides evidence to support a relationship of increased susceptibility to CCA in individuals with MTHFR variants, especially for those individuals who have OV infection or consume semi-raw freshwater fish (acting either as a source of OV or of pre-formed nitrosamine). Folate may play an important role in OV-related cholangiocarcinogenesis by upsetting the balance between DNA methylation and synthesis in the folate pathway. PMID:21875294
Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Chopjitt, Peechanika; Parkin, Donald Maxwell
Metabolism of folate is essential for proper cellular function. Within the folate pathway, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) reduces 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a methyl donor for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, the precursor of S-adenosylmethionine. S-adenosylmethionine is the methyl donor for numerous cellular reactions. In adult male mice, MTHFR levels are highest in the testis; this finding, in conjunction with recent clinical evidence, suggest an important role for MTHFR in spermatogenesis. Indeed, we show here that severe MTHFR deficiency in male mice results in abnormal spermatogenesis and infertility. Maternal oral administration of betaine, an alternative methyl donor, throughout pregnancy and nursing, resulted in improved testicular histology in Mthfr-/- offspring at Postnatal Day 6, but not at 8 mo of age. However, when betaine supplementation was maintained postweaning, testicular histology improved, and sperm numbers and fertility increased significantly. We postulate that the adverse effects of MTHFR deficiency on spermatogenesis, may, in part, be mediated by alterations in the transmethylation pathway and suggest that betaine supplementation may provide a means to bypass MTHFR deficiency and its adverse effects on spermatogenesis by maintaining normal methylation levels within male germ cells. PMID:15548731
Kelly, Tamara L J; Neaga, Oana R; Schwahn, Bernd C; Rozen, Rima; Trasler, Jacquetta M
Objective This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations of a common polymorphism (677C>T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Method The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: Web of Science (1945?2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1966?2013), EMBASE (1980?2013), CINAHL (1982?2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?2013). Meta-analysis was performed using STATA statistical software. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results Eight cohort studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 2,292 ESRD patients with CVD were involved in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of CVD in ESRD patients (TT vs. CC: OR?=?2.75, 95%CI?=?1.35?5.59, P?=?0.005; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.39, 95%CI?=?1.09?1.78, P?=?0.008; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?2.52, 95%CI?=?1.25?5.09, P?=?0.010; respectively). Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients among Asians (TT vs. CC: OR?=?3.38, 95%CI?=?1.11?10.28, P?=?0.032; CT+TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.44, 95%CI?=?1.05?1.97, P?=?0.022; TT vs. CC+CT: OR?=?3.15, 95%CI?=?1.02?9.72, P?=?0.046; respectively), but not among Africans or Caucasians (all P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism may be associated with an elevated risk for CVD in ESRD patients, especially among Asians.
Gao, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Ying
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been demonstrated to be involved in carcinogenesis. Increasing individual studies have investigated the role of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in gastric cancer pathogenesis, but with inconsistent findings. The aim of this study was to clarify the potential association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with gastric cancer risk by pooling all available data from published case-control studies. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases for all relevant publications to date. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated. Stratified analysis and sensitivity analysis were also carried out to estimate the strength of this association. A total of 25 case-control studies with 6,572 cases and 9,584 controls were retrieved. Overall, the ORs under five contrast models indicated that the MTHFR C677T variant was positively associated with gastric cancer risk (ORT vs. C?=?1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34, P(OR)?0.001; OR(TT vs. CC)?=?1.47, 95% CI 1.22–1.76, P(OR)?0.001; OR(TC vs. CC)?=?1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.40, P(OR)?=?0.022; OR(TT?+?TC vs.?CC)?=?1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.47, P(OR)?=?0.001; OR(TT vs.?CC?+?TC)?=?1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.46, P(OR)?0.001). Stratified analyses according to ethnicity and source of controls further confirmed the significant correlations. The current meta-analysis provides strong evidence that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be a risk factor for gastric cancer among Asians and Caucasians. PMID:24122207
Yan, Shushan; Xu, Donghua; Wang, Pingping; Wang, Ping; Liu, Chengcheng; Hua, Changjiang; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zengcai; Lu, Lei; Liu, Xianzhong; Wang, Bingji; Zhang, Donghua; Zhang, Rongsheng; He, Shaoheng; Sun, Beicheng; Wang, Xuan
Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?2=30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer.
Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li
Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (?(2) =30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake?450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake?0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24639841
Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li
The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes synthesis of 5'-methylenehydrofolate, which is the methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. According to the numerous literature data, polymorphic variant of the MTHFR-encoding gene, C677T, is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, vascular pathologies, neural tube defects, dementia, perinatal mortality, mental disorders, long-term neurodegenerative disorders, lens displacement, arachnodactyly, and venous thromboses. The present study
M. G. Spiridonova; V. A. Stepanov; N. R. Maximova; V. P. Puzyrev
The enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in folate metabolism. The MTHFR gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), and two common alleles, the C677T (thermolabile) allele and the A1298C allele, have been described. The population frequency of C677T homozygosity ranges from 1% or less among Blacks from Africa and the United States to 20% or more among Italians and
Lorenzo D. Botto; Quanhe Yang
Is free will the rule in front of drugs, alcohol or gambling? Would interindividual genetic variations influence our behaviour to such a point that addiction susceptibility would be enhanced or decreased? Addiction predisposition is a complex trait, involving numerous predisposition genes and also environment. Heritability of this trait is 50%, meaning a similar contribution of genes and environment in the setting of this trait. Some genes of the dopaminergic system and some others specific for various drugs metabolism have been associated to addictions. The growth of those findings into promising pilot treatments seems a good future coming in. PMID:23888569
Castermans, E; Gaillez, S; Bours, V
Abnormal folate metabolism and common variants of folate-metabolizing enzymes have been described as possible risk factors for congenital heart disease (CHD). Two important folate-metabolizing enzymes involved in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway are 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1). MTHFR and MTHFD1 polymorphisms may be associated with CHD susceptibility. To evaluate the impact of MTHFR and MTHFD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on CHD susceptibility, we genotyped functional MTHFR SNPs rs1801133 C>T, rs1801131 A>C and rs2274976 G>A, and MTHFD SNPs rs2236225 C>T, rs1950902 G>A and rs1076991 A>G in a hospital-based case-control study of 173 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) cases and 207 non-CHD controls. When MTHFR rs1801133 CC homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the TT genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for TOF [TT vs. CC: odds ratio (OR)=1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–2.75; P=0.046]. In the recessive model, when MTHFR rs1801133 CC/CT genotype was used as the reference group, the TT homozygote genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for TOF (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.15–2.84; P=0.010). In conclusion, our findings suggest that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility for TOF. Large-scale studies with a more rigorous study design including diverse ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.
HUANG, JIANBING; MEI, JU; JIANG, LIANYONG; JIANG, ZHAOLEI; LIU, HAO; DING, FANGBAO
Background and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, this relation remains controversial. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and idiopathic ischemic stroke in the young Mexican-Mestizo population. Methods: One hundred seventy-eight
Irma Isordia-Salas; Fernando Barinagarrementería-Aldatz; Alfredo Leaños-Miranda; Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez; Jorge Vela-Ojeda; Jaime García-Chávez; Isabel Ibarra-González; Abraham Majluf-Cruz
AIM: To evaluate joint effects of Methylentetra- hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR ) C677T genotypes, and serum folate\\/vitamin B12 concentrations on promoter methylation of tumor-associated genes among Iranian colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: We examined the associations between MTHFR C677T genotype, and promoter methylation of P16 , hMLH1 , and hMSH2 tumor-related genes among 151 sporadic colorectal cancer patients. The promoter methylation of
Pooneh Mokarram; Fakhraddin Naghibalhossaini
The aim of the study was to observe the influence of carbamazepine and valproic acid on plasma total homocysteine and B-vitamin status and the gene–drug interaction with the 677C?T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations were determined in 136 epileptic children taking anti-epileptic drugs as monotherapy. Nutritional (folate, B12and B6vitamins) and genetic (MTHFR 677 C?T)
M Antònia Vilaseca; Eugènia Monrós; Rafael Artuch; Catrina Colomé; Carme Farré; Carme Valls; Esther Cardo; Mercè Pineda
Schizophrenia is characterized by heritable deficits in executive function. Two common, functional polymorphisms, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, have separately been associated with executive function performance in schizophrenia. Given the closely related biochemistry of MTHFR and COMT, it is plausible that the T and Val alleles act synergistically to impair executive function. This investigation of 185 outpatients with schizophrenia examined the interactive effects of these two polymorphisms on Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) performance. Two WCST measures consistently associated with schizophrenia, perseverative errors and inability to generate categories, were contrasted among compound COMT-MTHFR genotype groups. Individuals homozygous for the COMT Val allele who also carried at least one copy of the MTHFR T allele exhibited a significantly higher percentage of perseverative errors than patients in the other genotype groups. While the T allele also exerted a negative effect on category generation, COMT genotype did not contribute to category performance. It is plausible that cumulative effects of the MTHFR T and COMT Val alleles on intracellular methylation profiles and prefrontal dopamine transmission underlie their interactive effect on perseverative errors. PMID:18186041
Roffman, Joshua L; Weiss, Anthony P; Deckersbach, Thilo; Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C; Wong, Donna H; Halsted, Charles H; Goff, Donald C
The aim of the study was to analysed possible relationships between genotypes of the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, homocysteinemie (Hcy) and PRA searching for a marker of the conection PRA and cardiovascular risk.In a group of 30 (10 by each genoptype of MTHFR) healthy young people (mean age: 22.2 ± 1.46 years) with a mean BMI: 25.8 ±1.3
Armando Reyes-Engel; Miguel Morel; Francisco J. Aranda; Encarnación Muñoz-Moran; Pedro Aranda; M. Ruiz; P. Muñoz; Jose L. Dieguez; Nieves Fernandez-Arcas
Purpose Methionine synthase (MTR) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are the main regulatory enzymes for homocysteine metabolism. The present case-control study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the MTR 2756A > G or MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism and plasma homocysteine concentration in Korean subjects with ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods DNA samples of 237 patients who had an ischemic stroke and 223 age and sex-matched controls were studied. MTR 2756A > G and MTHFR 677C > T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Frequencies of mutant alleles for MTR and MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly different between the controls and cases. The patient group, however, had significantly higher homocysteine concentrations of the MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotypes than the control group (p = 0.04 for MTR, p = 0.01 for MTHFR). The combined MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.04) and the homocysteine concentrations of the patient group were also higher than those of the controls. In addition, the genotype distribution was significant in the MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.008) and combined MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.03), which divided the groups into the top 20% and bottom 20% based on their homocysteine levels. Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that the MTR 2756A > G and MTHFR 677C > T polymorphisms interact with elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, leading to an increased risk of ischemic stroke.
Kim, Ok Joon; Hong, Sun Pyo; Ahn, Jung Yong; Hong, Seung Ho; Hwang, Tae Sun; Kim, Soo Ok; Yoo, Wangdon; Oh, Doyeun
Objective Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and the MTHFR c.677C > T variant have been postulated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), although mechanisms and implications to pediatrics remain incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences of elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant in a pediatric population with VTE or arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), and to determine associations with thrombus outcomes. Study Design Subjects were enrolled in an institution-based prospective cohort of children with VTE or AIS. Inclusion criteria consisted of objectively confirmed thrombus, ?21 years at diagnosis, tHcy measured and MTHFR c.677C > T mutation analysis. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Frequencies for elevated tHcy and MTHFR variant were compared with NHANES values for healthy US children and also between study groups (VTE vs AIS, provoked vs idiopathic) and by age. Results The prevalences of hyperhomocysteinemia or MTHFR variant were not increased in comparison to NHANES. tHcy did not differ between those with wild-type MTHFR versus either c.677C > T heterozygotes or homozygotes. There was no association between tHcy or MTHFR variant and thrombus outcomes. Conclusion In this cohort of US children with VTE or AIS, neither the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia nor that of MTHFR variant was increased relative to reference values, and adverse thrombus outcomes were not definitively associated with either. While it is important to consider that milder forms of pyridoxine-responsive classical homocystinuria will be detected only by tHcy, we suggest that routine testing of MTHFR c.677C > T genotype as part of a thrombophilia evaluation in children with incident thromboembolismis not warranted until larger studies have been performed in order to establish or refute a link between MTHFR and adverse outcomes.
Joachim, Emily; Goldenberg, Neil A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Stabler, Sally; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.
Multiple polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been documented, and some are associated with decreased enzyme activity. One polymorphism, 677CT, is commonly tested in the context of thrombosis. Recently, consideration has also been extended to 1298AC, which is also associated with reduced catalytic activity. This report describes problems arising during the development of a PCR restriction enzyme assay for 1298AC. In the process of validating a PCR-MboII assay, it was realized that a nearby 1317TC polymorphism rendered a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern that was virtually indistinguishable from a 1298A allele. An alternate approach, involving primer mutagenesis and Fnu4HI digestion, resolved the problem. To validate the latter assay, samples were obtained from a CLIA-approved facility that had developed a multiplexed real-time PCR using TaqMan probes for simultaneous assessment of 677CT and 1298AC. Interlaboratory results concurred for 10 out of 11 samples; however, one sample was consistently heterozygous by PCR-Fnu4HI and homozygous 1298CC by real-time PCR. Bidirectional sequencing confirmed that the sample was a compound 1298AC/1317TC heterozygote. It is likely that the 1317C variant, residing with 1298A on one chromosome, disrupted primer annealing in the TaqMan assay, leading to preferential amplification of the 1298C/1317T chromosome and hence an aberrant homozygous 1298CC genotype. This validation exercise emphasizes the need for comprehensive appraisal and continual reassessment of the optimal performance of molecular diagnostic assays. It is hoped that laboratories offering MTHFR 1298AC testing are cognizant of some of the inherent problems in published methods. PMID:17627388
Allen, Richard A; Gatalica, Zoran; Knezetic, Joseph; Hatcher, Lori; Vogel, John S; Dunn, S Terence
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0 %, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend <0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95 % CI: 2.12-25.63, P < 0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r = -0.17, P < 0.0001), B2 (r = -0.14, P < 0.0001) and B6 (r = -0.07, P = 0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n = 35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370
Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central regulatory enzyme in the folate pathway. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been associated with reduced MTHFR enzyme activity. These polymorphisms, especially C677T, appear to be linked with methotrexate-related toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity; thus, pretreatment identification of individuals carrying these polymorphisms may be of clinical relevance. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of MTHFR polymorphic variants, known to functionally impair MTHFR activity, in the highly heterogeneous Israeli population. MTHFR genotyping was carried out in the representatives of three major demographic groups in Israel by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and high-resolution melting. The relative distribution of variant alleles 677T and 1298C was found to be similar in individuals of Jewish, Druze and Arab Moslem descent (p = 0.09). However, Ashkenazi Jews displayed a 1.9-fold higher frequency of variant 677T and a 1.8-fold lower frequency of variant 1298C compared to non-Ashkenazi Jews (p < 0.001). Distinct differences in the relative frequencies of both polymorphisms were also found between Ashkenazi Jews and Druze (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.01 for A1298C) or Ashkenazi Jews and Arab Moslem (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.05 for A1298C). These data underscore the importance of geographic genetic analysis for a better understanding of human pharmacotherapy and personalized medicine. PMID:22847291
Efrati, Edna; Elkin, Hela; Nahum, Sagi; Krivoy, Norberto
For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles-- and, in some cases, multiple loci--have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some--compared with none--of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1#52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1#57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class II DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis.
Valdes, A M; Thomson, G
The disorders of folate metabolism caused by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms may lead to several disease states including coronary heart disease, venous thrombosis, and several types of cancer. We have developed a real-time multiplex single-tube polymerase chain reaction procedure on the LightCycler for the detection of the two most commonly occurring variants, 677C>T and 1298A>C, in the MTHFR gene. An improved probe design, based on the nearest neighbor model for nucleic acid-probe duplex stability, resulted in a better separation (?Tm ? 10°C) of melting peaks of the wild-type and mutant alleles than that by the existing method (?Tm ? 3°C) for specimens heterozygous for the 1298A>C polymorphism. Of the 333 blood specimens analyzed by this procedure, we did not find any samples that gave ambiguous results. The specimens with homozygous mutation for one polymorphism were of the wild type for the other variant. The assay was validated by the comparison of the genotyping results of 50 blood specimens from the LightCycler polymerase chain reaction with the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism procedures. There was 100% concordance of the test results obtained by the two techniques. This assay is reliable, economical, and can be performed by less trained technologists compared with the procedure performed by the conventional restriction fragment length polymorphism technique.
Agarwal, Raghunath P.; Peters, Stephen M.; Shemirani, Manijeh; von Ahsen, Nicolas
There is evidence from both observational studies and clinical trials that calcium malnutrition and hypovitaminosis D are predisposing conditions for various common chronic diseases. In addition to skeletal disorders, calcium and vitamin D deficits increase the risk of malignancies, particularly of colon, breast and prostate gland, of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple
M. Peterlik; H. S. Cross
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in folic acid metabolism-related genes and idiopathic recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). A prospective case-control study was performed on a cohort of 82 REPL patients and 166 healthy controls. Genotyping of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C was assessed by applying polymerase chain reaction for amplification followed by DNA sequencing, for methionine synthase reductase A66G, solute carrier family 19, member 1 (SLC19A1) G80A and C696T, and genotyping was done by utilizing the Sequenom MassARRAY system. The results revealed a significant association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and idiopathic REPL. Haplotype analysis indicated that the MTHFR 677C-MTHFR 1298C allele combination was associated with REPL (P < 0.001). The MTHFR 677C-MTHFR 1298A and SLC19A1 80G-SLC19A1 696C allele combinations had lower frequencies in patients with REPL, but with P > 0.05 (P = 0.093 and P = 0.084, respectively). PMID:24728915
Cao, Yunlei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Zheng, Yanmin; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jian; Liang, Hong; Chen, Jianping; Du, Jing; Shen, Yueping
Background: A common missense variant of the CDKN2A gene (A148T) predisposes to malignant melanoma in Poland. An association between malignant melanoma and breast cancer has been reported in several families with CDKN2A mutations, Objective: To determine whether this variant also predisposes to breast cancer. Methods: Genotyping was undertaken in 4209 cases of breast cancer, unselected for family history, from 18 hospitals throughout Poland and in 3000 controls. Results: The odds ratio (OR) associated with the CDKN2A allele for women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 50 was 1.5 (p = 0.002) and after age 50 it was 1.3 (p = 0.2). The effect was particularly strong for patients diagnosed at or before the age of 30 (OR = 3.8; p = 0.0002). Conclusions: CDKN2A appears to be a low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene in Poland. The association should be confirmed in other populations.
Debniak, T; Gorski, B; Huzarski, T; Byrski, T; Cybulski, C; Mackiewicz, A; Gozdecka-Grodecka, S; Gronwald, J; Kowalska, E; Haus, O; Grzybowska, E; Stawicka, M; Swiec, M; Urbanski, K; Niepsuj, S; Wasko, B; Gozdz, S; Wandzel, P; Szczylik, C; Surdyka, D; Rozmiarek, A; Zambrano, O; Posmyk, M; Narod, S; Lubinski, J
Maternal impairments in folate metabolism and elevated homocysteinemia are known risk factors for having a child with Down syndrome (DS) at a young age. The 80G>A polymorphism of the reduced folate carrier gene (RFC-1) has been recently demonstrated to affect plasma folate and homocysteine levels, alone or in combination with the 677C>T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. We performed the present study on 80 Italian mothers of DS individuals, aged less than 35 at conception, and 111 Italian control mothers, to study the role of the RFC-1 80G>A, MTHFR 677C>T, and MTHFR 1298A>C genotypes to the risk of a DS offspring at a young maternal age. When polymorphisms were considered alone, both allele and genotype frequencies did not significantly differ between DS mothers and control mothers. However, the combined MTHFR677TT/RFC-1 80GG genotype was borderline associated with an increased risk (OR 6 (CI 95%: 1.0-35.9), P = 0.05), and to be MTHF1298AA/RFC-1 80(GA or AA) was inversely associated with the risk (OR 0.36 (CI 95%: 0.14-0.96), P = 0.04). Present results seem to indicate that none of the RFC-1 80G>A, MTHFR 677C>T, and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms is an independent risk factor for a DS offspring at a young maternal age; however, a role for the combined MTHFR/RFC-1 genotypes in the risk of DS pregnancies among young Italian women cannot be excluded. PMID:16596679
Coppedè, Fabio; Marini, Giulia; Bargagna, Stefania; Stuppia, Liborio; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Fontana, Ilaria; Colognato, Renato; Astrea, Guia; Palka, Giandomenico; Migliore, Lucia
Genotyping for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) has been recommended for part of the evaluation for underlying prothrombotic state in childhood stroke; however, studies are inconclusive regarding the role of this gene and also the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, which is the putative mechanism by which MTHFR polymorphism is related to stroke. The prevalence of MTHFR polymorphism in childhood arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis was compared with that of a reference population, and prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was reviewed. In arterial ischemic stroke, the prevalence of at-risk methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes was 27%, and in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis it was 13%; the population prevalence was 26%. The odds ratio for at-risk genotype in childhood arterial ischemic stroke was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.22-4.0); in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, it was 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-3.6). No tested cases had hyperhomocysteinemia. MTHFR polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia were not risk factors in childhood arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in the Intermountain West region. PMID:19748043
Morita, Denise C; Donaldson, Amy; Butterfield, Russell J; Benedict, Susan L; Bale, James F
Purpose Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic immunoinflammatory disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular, and central nervous system manifestations. The common methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T mutation is a known risk factor for thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the MTHFR gene C677 mutation in patients with BD and evaluate if there was an association with clinical features, especially thrombosis, in a relatively large cohort of patients with BD. Methods The study included 318 patients with BD and 207 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for the MTHFR gene C677T mutation. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T mutation showed a statistically significant difference between BD patients and controls (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). There was also a significant association between C677T alteration and response to colchicine in BD patients (p=0.046). Conclusions The results of this study showed that there was a high association between the MTHFR gene C677T mutation and BD. Stratification analysis according to clinical features for this disease did not reveal an association except response to colchicine that was shown to be influenced by the MTHFR C677T mutation.
Yigit, Serbulent; Kalkan, Goknur; Rustemoglu, Aydin; Inanir, Ahmet; Gul, Ulker; Pancar, Gunseli Sefika; Akkanet, Songul; Ates, Omer
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have recently been found to be associated with increased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein CIII (APOC3) in humans carrying single nucleotide polymorphisms within the insulin response element of the APOC3 gene. To examine whether increased expression of APOC3 would predispose mice to NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance, human APOC3 overexpressing (ApoC3Tg) mice were metabolically phenotyped following either a regular chow or high-fat diet (HFD). After HFD feeding, ApoC3Tg mice had increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, which was associated with cellular ballooning and inflammatory changes. ApoC3Tg mice also manifested severe hepatic insulin resistance assessed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, which could mostly be attributed to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content, protein kinase C-? activation, and decreased insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity. Increased hepatic triglyceride content in the HFD-fed ApoC3Tg mice could be attributed to a ?70% increase in hepatic triglyceride uptake and ?50% reduction hepatic triglyceride secretion. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that increase plasma APOC3 concentrations predispose mice to diet-induced NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance. (Hepatology 2011;54:1650-1660)
Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jornayvaz, Francois R; Jurczak, Michael J; Kanda, Shoichi; Popov, Violeta; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyan; Guigni, Blas; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G; Choi, Cheol Soo; Goldberg, Ira J; Park, Jae-Hak; Petersen, Kitt F; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I
Objective. Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients. Methods. Study included 233 RA patients treated with MTX for at least six months. MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C polymorphisms were genotyped and clinicopathological variables were collected. Statistical analyses were performed and binary logistic regression method adjusted to possible confounding variables. Results. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MTHFR 677TT (OR = 4.63; P = 0.013) and ATIC 675T carriers (OR = 5.16; P = 0.013) were associated with over 4-fold increased risk for nonresponse. For clinicopathological variables, noncurrent smokers (OR = 7.98; P = 0.001), patients positive to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (OR = 3.53; P = 0.004) and antinuclear antibodies (OR = 2.28; P = 0.045), with higher health assessment questionnaire score (OR = 2.42; P = 0.007), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (OR = 2.77; P = 0.018) were also associated with nonresponse. Contrarily, subcutaneous administration route (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001) was associated with response. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C genotyping combined with clinicopathological data may help to identify patients whom will not benefit from MTX treatment and, therefore, assist clinicians in personalizing RA treatment.
Lima, Aurea; Monteiro, Joaquim; Bernardes, Miguel; Sousa, Hugo; Azevedo, Rita; Seabra, Vitor; Medeiros, Rui
Hypomethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter in glioma cells has been associated with temozolomide resistance. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is produced during folate metabolism, is the main source of methyl groups during DNA methylation. As a key enzyme during folate metabolism, polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may regulate folate end-products. We investigated the effect of typical polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) on MGMT methylation based on different serum folate levels in patients with glioma from Northeast China. A total of 275 patients with glioma and 329 without malignant tumors were tested. Serum folate concentration was assayed by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. MTHFR polymorphisms were detected by Taqman-Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation-specific PCR was used to assess MGMT methylation. The constituent ratio of glioma patients below the serum folate biological reference value was significantly higher than that of the control population (P < 0.001). In patients with oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma, heterozygotes for the A1298C mutation were found in higher frequency than homozygotes or wild types (oligodendroglioma, P < 0.001; glioblastoma, P < 0.01). When grouped by the median or biological reference value of serum folate, only homozygotes for C677T with low levels of folate were significantly associated with decreased methylation of MGMT (median, P < 0.001; biological reference value, P = 0.036). These data suggest that, in combination with a negative folate balance in glioma patients, T/T genotypes in MTHFR C677T may be associated with MGMT demethylation. PMID:24301776
Liu, N; Jiang, J; Song, Y J; Zhao, S G; Tong, Z G; Song, H S; Wu, H; Zhu, J Y; Gu, Y H; Sun, Y; Hua, W; Qi, J P
The prevalence of the methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A?G polymorphism among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels is unknown. Therefore, 1,716 subjects, including 415 hemodialysis patients, 179 peritoneal dialysis patients, 733 kidney graft recipients, and 389 healthy subjects, were investigated. The distribution of MTR 2756A?G, as well as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T\\/1298A?C, genotypes among study participants with extremely
Alexandra Feix; Robert Fritsche-Polanz; Josef Kletzmayr; Andreas Vychytil; Walter H. Hörl; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Manuela Födinger
Background: Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a major risk factor for venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation and low plasma folate levels increase plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to investigate a possible association between hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and central retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Our study included 78 consecutive patients with central retinal
Martin Weger; Olaf Stanger; Hannes Deutschmann; Werner Temmel; Wilfried Renner; Otto Schmut; Jürgen Semmelrock; Anton Haas
Background. The objective was to determine whether relationships exist between the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and examine whether the risk is modified by level of folate intake. Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and SCOPUS were searched to May 2012 using the terms “folic acid,” “folate,” “colorectal cancer,” “methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” “MTHFR.” Observational studies were included which (1) assessed the risk of CRC for each polymorphism and/or (2) had defined levels of folate intake for each polymorphism and assessed the risk of CRC. Results. From 910 references, 67 studies met our criteria; hand searching yielded 10 studies. The summary risk estimate comparing the 677CT versus CC genotype was 1.02 (95% CI 0.95–1.10) and for 677TT versus CC was 0.88 (95% CI 0.80–0.96) both with heterogeneity. The summary risk estimates for A1298C polymorphisms suggested no reduced risk. The summary risk estimate for high versus low total folate for the 677CC genotype was 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89) and the 677TT genotype 0.63 (95% CI 0.41–0.97). Conclusion. These results suggest that the 677TT genotype is associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC, under conditions of high total folate intake, and this associated risk remains reduced for both MTHFR 677 CC and TT genotypes.
Kennedy, Deborah A.; Stern, Seth J.; Matok, Ilan; Moretti, Myla E.; Sarkar, Moumita; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Koren, Gideon
We have identified a number of patients with coronary artery disease, TIAs and/or strokes and idiopathic ischemic optic neuropathy who have a platelet population which is in vitro hyperaggregable with epinephrine and ADP and hyperresponsive to surface contact. These patients have no identifiable risk factors. Several families have been identified in which multiple members had these findings. Many, but not all have had clinical symptoms. An autosomal (dominant) pattern of heredity seems to evolve. We refer to this as "sticky platelet syndrome" and hypothesize that it may represent a congenital platelet abnormality which potentially predisposes to thromboembolisms. The precise nature of the defect is not known at this time. PMID:2465231
Mammen, E F; Barnhart, M I; Selik, N R; Gilroy, J; Klepach, G L
Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with neurological disorders, but very few reports concern the association with ischemic stroke. A 26-year-old woman affected by CD with secondary amenorrhea, carrier of a homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation with hyperhomocysteinemia, was affected by two occipital ischemic strokes within a period of 5 mo. At the time of the second stroke, while she was being treated with folic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and a gluten-free diet, she had left hemianopsia, left hemiparesthesias, and gait imbalance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a subacute right occipital ischemic lesion, which was extended to the dorsal region of the right thalamus and the ipsilateral thalamo-capsular junction. Antitransglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies were no longer present, while antinuclear antibodies, antineuronal antibodies and immune circulating complexes were only slightly elevated. Since the patient was taking folic acid, her homocysteine ??levels were almost normal and apparently not sufficient alone to explain the clinical event. A conventional cerebral angiography showed no signs of vasculitis. Finally, rare causes of occipital stroke in young patients, such as Fabry's disease and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, were also excluded by appropriate tests. Thus, the most probable cause for the recurrent strokes in this young woman remained CD, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The two main hypotheses concern malabsorption (with consequent deficiency of vitamins known to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects) and immune-mediated mechanisms. CD should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young patients. PMID:22807619
Fabbri, Elisa; Rustignoli, Lisa; Muscari, Antonio; Puddu, Giovanni M; Guarino, Maria; Rinaldi, Rita; Minguzzi, Elena; Caio, Giacomo; Zoli, Marco; Volta, Umberto
Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with neurological disorders, but very few reports concern the association with ischemic stroke. A 26-year-old woman affected by CD with secondary amenorrhea, carrier of a homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation with hyperhomocysteinemia, was affected by two occipital ischemic strokes within a period of 5 mo. At the time of the second stroke, while she was being treated with folic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and a gluten-free diet, she had left hemianopsia, left hemiparesthesias, and gait imbalance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a subacute right occipital ischemic lesion, which was extended to the dorsal region of the right thalamus and the ipsilateral thalamo-capsular junction. Antitransglutaminase and deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies were no longer present, while antinuclear antibodies, antineuronal antibodies and immune circulating complexes were only slightly elevated. Since the patient was taking folic acid, her homocysteine ??levels were almost normal and apparently not sufficient alone to explain the clinical event. A conventional cerebral angiography showed no signs of vasculitis. Finally, rare causes of occipital stroke in young patients, such as Fabry’s disease and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like symptoms, were also excluded by appropriate tests. Thus, the most probable cause for the recurrent strokes in this young woman remained CD, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The two main hypotheses concern malabsorption (with consequent deficiency of vitamins known to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects) and immune-mediated mechanisms. CD should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young patients.
Fabbri, Elisa; Rustignoli, Lisa; Muscari, Antonio; Puddu, Giovanni M; Guarino, Maria; Rinaldi, Rita; Minguzzi, Elena; Caio, Giacomo; Zoli, Marco; Volta, Umberto
Venous thrombosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignancies. We aimed to investigate the association between prothrombotic gene polymorphisms detected in lung cancer cases and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Totally 66 patients with an established diagnosis of lung cancer, of which 33 developed DVT, were enrolled. Multiplex PCR technique and reverse hybridization strip assay were performed on DNA extracted from peripheral blood, in order to analyze prothrombin G20210A, factor V G1691A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and glycoprotein IIIa (Gp IIIa) gene mutations. Among prothrombotic gene polymorphisms investigated in this study, the commonest ones were PAI-1 4G/5G (56% heterozygous, 39% homozygous) and ACE gene mutations (58% heterozygous, 17% homozygous). The presence of homozygous MTHFR A1298C mutation was significantly associated with DVT (P=0.020). Comparing the lung cancer patients with and without DVT, only MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism differed significantly (P=0.040). We determined a higher rate of prothrombotic gene mutations in lung cancer patients who developed DVT. However, statistical significance was achieved only for MTHFR A1298C gene mutation. Therefore, nongenetic factors for disturbance of hemostatic metabolism should also be considered in lung cancer patients. PMID:21080081
Arslan, Sulhattin; Manduz, Sinasi; Epöztürk, Kür?at; Karahan, O?uz; Akkurt, Ibrahim
Background Folate metabolism pathway genes have been examined for association with neural tube defects (NTDs) because folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of this debilitating birth defect. Most studies addressed these genes individually, often with different populations providing conflicting results. Objectives Our study evaluates several folate pathway genes for association with human NTDs, incorporating an environmental cofactor: maternal folate supplementation. Methods In 304 Caucasian American NTD families with myelomeningocele or anencephaly, we examined 28 polymorphisms in 11 genes: folate receptor 1, folate receptor 2, solute carrier family 19 member 1, transcobalamin II, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, serine hydroxymethyl-transferase 1, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homo-cysteine methyltransferase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and cystathionine-beta-synthase. Results Only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BHMT were significantly associated in the overall data set; this significance was strongest when mothers took folate-containing nutritional supplements before conception. The BHMT SNP rs3733890 was more significant when the data were stratified by preferential transmission of the MTHFR rs1801133 thermolabile T allele from parent to offspring. Other SNPs in folate pathway genes were marginally significant in some analyses when stratified by maternal supplementation, MTHFR, or BHMT allele transmission. Conclusions BHMT rs3733890 is significantly associated in our data set, whereas MTHFR rs1801133 is not a major risk factor. Further investigation of folate and methionine cycle genes will require extensive SNP genotyping and/or resequencing to identify novel variants, inclusion of environmental factors, and investigation of gene–gene interactions in large data sets.
Boyles, Abee L.; Billups, Ashley V.; Deak, Kristen L.; Siegel, Deborah G.; Mehltretter, Lorraine; Slifer, Susan H.; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.; Reed, Michael C.; Nijhout, H. Frederik; George, Timothy M.; Enterline, David S.; Gilbert, John R.; Speer, Marcy C.
Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex usually occurs in patients with chronic lung disease or deficient cellular immunity, and its prevalence is increasing. We describe 21 patients (mean age, 66 years) with such infection without the usual predisposing factors, representing 18 percent of the 119 patients surveyed. Seventeen women and 4 men were given a diagnosis of M. avium complex from 1978 to 1987, with a stable incidence over the decade, on the basis of pulmonary symptoms, abnormalities on chest films, positive cultures, and in 14, biopsy evidence of invasive disease. Most of the patients (86 percent) presented with persistent cough and purulent sputum, usually without fever or weight loss. The cough was present for a mean of 25 weeks before the correct diagnosis was made. Radiographic patterns of slowly progressive nodular opacities predominated (71 percent); only five patients had cavitary disease at presentation. All patients responded initially to antimycobacterial therapy, but eight eventually relapsed when it was stopped. Four patients died of progressive pulmonary infection caused by M. avium complex. The extent of the initial pulmonary involvement was greater in patients with progressive disease than in those whose condition improved. We conclude that pulmonary disease caused by the M. avium complex can affect persons without predisposing conditions, particularly elderly women, and that recognition of this disease is often delayed because of its indolent nature. PMID:2770822
Prince, D S; Peterson, D D; Steiner, R M; Gottlieb, J E; Scott, R; Israel, H L; Figueroa, W G; Fish, J E
The mutagenic effect of hepatitis B (HBV) integration in predisposing risk to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of HBV-positive HCC cell lines and showed transcription of viral-human gene fusions from the site of genome integrations. We discovered tumor-promoting properties of a chimeric HBx-LINE1 that, intriguingly, functions as a hybrid RNA. HBx-LINE1 can be detected in 23.3% of HBV-associated HCC tumors and correlates with poorer patient survival. HBx-LINE1 transgenic mice showed heightened susceptibility to diethylnitrosamine-induced tumor formation. We further show that HBx-LINE1 expression affects ?-catenin transactivity, which underlines a role in activating Wnt signaling. Thus, this study identifies a viral-human chimeric fusion transcript that functions like a long noncoding RNA to promote HCC. PMID:24582836
Lau, Chi-Chiu; Sun, Tingting; Ching, Arthur K K; He, Mian; Li, Jing-Woei; Wong, Alissa M; Co, Ngai Na; Chan, Anthony W H; Li, Pik-Shan; Lung, Raymond W M; Tong, Joanna H M; Lai, Paul B S; Chan, Henry L Y; To, Ka-Fai; Chan, Ting-Fung; Wong, Nathalie
Identification of the genes underlying complex phenotypes and the definition of the evolutionary forces that have shaped eukaryotic genomes are among the current challenges in molecular genetics. Variation in gene copy number is increasingly recognized as a source of inter-individual differences in genome sequence and has been proposed as a driving force for genome evolution and phenotypic variation. Here we show that copy number variation of the orthologous rat and human Fcgr3 genes is a determinant of susceptibility to immunologically mediated glomerulonephritis. Positional cloning identified loss of the newly described, rat-specific Fcgr3 paralogue, Fcgr3-related sequence (Fcgr3-rs), as a determinant of macrophage overactivity and glomerulonephritis in Wistar Kyoto rats. In humans, low copy number of FCGR3B, an orthologue of rat Fcgr3, was associated with glomerulonephritis in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus. The finding that gene copy number polymorphism predisposes to immunologically mediated renal disease in two mammalian species provides direct evidence for the importance of genome plasticity in the evolution of genetically complex phenotypes, including susceptibility to common human disease. PMID:16482158
Aitman, Timothy J; Dong, Rong; Vyse, Timothy J; Norsworthy, Penny J; Johnson, Michelle D; Smith, Jennifer; Mangion, Jonathan; Roberton-Lowe, Cheri; Marshall, Amy J; Petretto, Enrico; Hodges, Matthew D; Bhangal, Gurjeet; Patel, Sheetal G; Sheehan-Rooney, Kelly; Duda, Mark; Cook, Paul R; Evans, David J; Domin, Jan; Flint, Jonathan; Boyle, Joseph J; Pusey, Charles D; Cook, H Terence
Folate metabolism is essential for cellular functioning. Despite extensive research on the roles of folate-metabolism-related gene polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancers, and sudden sensorineural hearing loss, little is known about their association with Ménière's disease (MD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) on the risk of MD in a Japanese population. We examined the C677T and A1298C (rs1801133 and rs1801131) polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene and compared them between 1946 adults (986 men and 960 women) participating in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences Longitudinal Study of Aging and 86 cases of MD. A multiple logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of MD regarding the MTHFR polymorphisms before (model 1) and after (model 2) adjustment for age and sex factors. The OR of MTHFR C677T for the risk of MD was 0.669 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.479-0.934) in model 1 and 0.680 (95% CI, 0.484-0.954) in model 2. In contrast, the OR of MTHFR A1298C for the risk of MD was 1.503 (95% CI, 1.064-2.123) in model 1 and 1.505 (95% CI, 1.045-2.167) in model 2. Our results imply that the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with the risk of MD. PMID:23484733
Huang, Yang; Teranishi, Masaaki; Uchida, Yasue; Nishio, Naoki; Kato, Ken; Otake, Hironao; Yoshida, Tadao; Sone, Michihiko; Sugiura, Saiko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Tsutomu
An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL. PMID:24646728
Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer in humans. Predisposing factors reflect common genetic variations and environmental influences in most cases. However, an underlying Mendelian disorder should be suspected in a specific subset of patients, namely those with multiple, early onset lesions. Some specific conditions, including Gorlin, Bazex-Dupré-Christol and Rombo syndromes, and Xeroderma Pigmentosum, show BCC as a prominent feature. In addition, BCC may represent a relatively common, although less specific, finding in many other genodermatoses. These include disorders of DNA replication/repair functions (Bloom, Werner, Rothmund-Thomson and Muir-Torre syndromes), genodermatoses affecting the folliculo-sebaceus unit (Brooke-Spiegler, Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge and Cowden syndromes), immune response (cartilage-hair hypoplasia and epidermodysplasia verruciformis) and melanin biosynthesis (oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome), and some epidermal nevus syndromes. Further conditions occasionally associated with BCCs exist, but the significance of the association remains to be proven. PMID:22391625
Castori, Marco; Morrone, Aldo; Kanitakis, Jean; Grammatico, Paola
Because only a small fraction of asbestos-exposed individuals develop malignant mesothelioma1, and because mesothelioma clustering is observed in some families1, we searched for genetic predisposing factors. We discovered germline mutations in BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) in two families with a high incidence of mesothelioma. Somatic alterations affecting BAP1 were observed in familial mesotheliomas, indicating biallelic inactivation. Besides mesothelioma, some BAP1 mutation carriers developed uveal melanoma. Germline BAP1 mutations were also found in two of 26 sporadic mesotheliomas: both patients with mutant BAP1 were previously diagnosed with uveal melanoma. Truncating mutations and aberrant BAP1 expression were common in sporadic mesotheliomas without germline mutations. These results reveal a BAP1-related cancer syndrome characterized by mesothelioma and uveal melanoma. We hypothesize that other cancers may also be involved, and that mesothelioma predominates upon asbestos exposure. These findings will help identify individuals at high risk of mesothelioma who could be targeted for early intervention.
Testa, Joseph R.; Cheung, Mitchell; Pei, Jianming; Below, Jennifer E.; Tan, Yinfei; Sementino, Eleonora; Cox, Nancy J.; Dogan, A. Umran; Pass, Harvey I.; Trusa, Sandra; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Powers, Amy; Rivera, Zeyana; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Tanji, Mika; Gaudino, Giovanni; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele
Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of otomycosis, the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcomes. Methods: This observational study was conducted at ENT department of Combined Military Hospital Attock, from October, 2010 to September, 2012. Convenient sample comprising 180 patients of both sexes and all age groups were selected from ENT OPD. The frequency, predisposing factors and most common symptoms of otomycosis were recorded. The response to different antifungal agents was also observed. Results were recorded in percentages. Results: There were 180 patients with documented diagnosis of otomycosis. There were 107 (59%) males and 73 (41%) females. The age of patients ranged from 1½ years to 75 years with a mean age of 38.5 years. Mean follow up time was 2 years. Most common presenting symptom was hearing loss (77.7%) followed by pruritis (68.8%) and otalgia (40%). We prescribed 1% clotrimazole drops or lotion in 58% patients and 2% salicylic acid in 31% cases. Both of these agents are effective. Topical 1% clotrimazole drops yielded highest resolution rate with lowest recurrent rate. Overall 149 (83%) patients were improved with initial treatment and 31 (17%) did not respond to initial treatment. Eight (4.4%) patients had a history of otological procedures. Four (2.2%) patients had canal wall down procedures that resulted in mastoid cavity. To analyse the efficacy of 1% clotrimazole and 2% salicylic acid we applied Z-Test to calculate the difference between 2 proportions of patients before treatment with those patients who remained uncured after treatment. Conclusion: Otomycosisis commonly presented with decreased hearing, pruritis, otalgia & otorrhoea. It usually resolves with local toilet of ear and instillation of antifungal agents. Eradication of disease is difficult in presence of a mastoid cavity and metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus.
Anwar, Khurshid; Gohar, Muhammad Shahid
Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of otomycosis, the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcomes. Methods: This observational study was conducted at ENT department of Combined Military Hospital Attock, from October, 2010 to September, 2012. Convenient sample comprising 180 patients of both sexes and all age groups were selected from ENT OPD. The frequency, predisposing factors and most common symptoms of otomycosis were recorded. The response to different antifungal agents was also observed. Results were recorded in percentages. Results: There were 180 patients with documented diagnosis of otomycosis. There were 107 (59%) males and 73 (41%) females. The age of patients ranged from 1½ years to 75 years with a mean age of 38.5 years. Mean follow up time was 2 years. Most common presenting symptom was hearing loss (77.7%) followed by pruritis (68.8%) and otalgia (40%). We prescribed 1% clotrimazole drops or lotion in 58% patients and 2% salicylic acid in 31% cases. Both of these agents are effective. Topical 1% clotrimazole drops yielded highest resolution rate with lowest recurrent rate. Overall 149 (83%) patients were improved with initial treatment and 31 (17%) did not respond to initial treatment. Eight (4.4%) patients had a history of otological procedures. Four (2.2%) patients had canal wall down procedures that resulted in mastoid cavity. To analyse the efficacy of 1% clotrimazole and 2% salicylic acid we applied Z-Test to calculate the difference between 2 proportions of patients before treatment with those patients who remained uncured after treatment. Conclusion: Otomycosisis commonly presented with decreased hearing, pruritis, otalgia & otorrhoea. It usually resolves with local toilet of ear and instillation of antifungal agents. Eradication of disease is difficult in presence of a mastoid cavity and metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. PMID:24948980
Anwar, Khurshid; Gohar, Muhammad Shahid
AIM: To evaluate the predisposing factors for peritoneal perforation and intrabiliary rupture and the effects of these complications on surgical outcome in liver hydatid disease. METHODS: A total of 372 patients with liver hydatid cysts who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty eight patients with peritoneal perforation, 93 patients with spontaneous intrabiliary perforation, and 251 patients with noncomplicated hydatid cysts were treated in our clinics. RESULTS: When the predisposing factors for complications were evaluated, younger age, superficial position, and larger cyst dimensions (P < 0.05; range, 0.001-0.017) increased peritoneal perforation rates. It was shown that older age increased cyst dimensions, and presence of multiple and bilobar cysts increased intrabiliary rupture rates (P < 0.05; range, 0.001-0.028). Partial pericystectomy and drainage was the most frequent surgical procedure in all groups (71.6%). The incidence of post-operative complications in the peritoneal perforated group, in the intrabiliary ruptured group, and in the noncomplicated group was 25%, 16.1% and 5.5%, respectively. When compared, complication rates were significantly different (P = 0.002). When length of hospital stay was compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). The overall recurrence rate was 3.8% (14 patients), but there was not any statistical difference among the patient groups (P = 0.13). The early postoperative mortality rate was 1.1%. CONCLUSION: In peritoneally perforated and intrabiliary ruptured cases, the most important steps are irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and clearance of the cystic material from the biliary tree.
Akcan, Alper; Sozuer, Erdogan; Akyildiz, Hizir; Ozturk, Ahmet; Atalay, Altay; Yilmaz, Zeki
Investigations into the association between diabetic nephropathy (DN) and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in several case–control\\u000a studies has yielded contradictory results. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, a meta-analysis of all available\\u000a studies relating the C677T polymorphism to the risk of developing DN was conducted. The PubMed database was searched, and\\u000a case–control studies investigating the association between MTHFR C677T
Elias Zintzaras; Katrin Uhlig; George N. Koukoulis; Afroditi A. Papathanasiou; Ioannis Stefanidis
Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659
Clifford, Andrew J; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M; Owens, Janel E; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F; Fadel, James G; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A
Deleterious germline variants in CDKN2A account for around 40% of familial melanoma cases, and rare variants in CDK4, BRCA2, BAP1 and the promoter of TERT have also been linked to the disease. Here we set out to identify new high-penetrance susceptibility genes by sequencing 184 melanoma cases from 105 pedigrees recruited in the UK, The Netherlands and Australia that were negative for variants in known predisposition genes. We identified families where melanoma cosegregates with loss-of-function variants in the protection of telomeres 1 gene (POT1), with a proportion of family members presenting with an early age of onset and multiple primary tumors. We show that these variants either affect POT1 mRNA splicing or alter key residues in the highly conserved oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) domains of POT1, disrupting protein-telomere binding and leading to increased telomere length. These findings suggest that POT1 variants predispose to melanoma formation via a direct effect on telomeres. PMID:24686849
Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Harland, Mark; Ramsay, Andrew J; Aoude, Lauren G; Quesada, Víctor; Ding, Zhihao; Pooley, Karen A; Pritchard, Antonia L; Tiffen, Jessamy C; Petljak, Mia; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Johansson, Peter; Stark, Mitchell S; Gartside, Michael G; Snowden, Helen; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Liu, Jimmy Z; Choi, Jiyeon; Makowski, Matthew; Brown, Kevin M; Dunning, Alison M; Keane, Thomas M; López-Otín, Carlos; Gruis, Nelleke A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Adams, David J
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-defined risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. A point mutation (677 C-T) of MTHFR gene results in a significant increase at plasma homocysteine levels. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of MTHFR gene mutation and consequent hyperhomocysteinemia on the development of diabetic microvascular complications in comparison with the other defined risk factors. Diabetic patients without a history of macrovascular complication or overt nephropathy enrolled into the study. The presence of MTHFR 677 C-T point mutation was evaluated by Real-Time PCR technique by using a LightCycler. MTHFR heterozygous mutation was present in 24 patients over 52. Patients with diabetes were divided into two groups according to the presence of MTHFR gene mutation. Both groups were well matched regarding age and diabetes duration. Metabolic parameters, plasma homocysteine, microalbuminuria, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels were also studied. Presence of neuropathy and retinopathy were evaluated by specific tests. Duration of diabetes, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma CRP, HbA1c, and lipid levels were not different between the two groups. Plasma homocysteine (12.89 +/- 1.74 and 8.98 +/- 1.91 micromol/l; P < 0.0001) and microalbuminuria levels (73.40 +/- 98.15 and 29.53 +/- 5.08 mg/day; P = 0.021) were significantly higher in the group with MTHFR gene mutation while creatinine clearance levels (101.1 +/- 42.6 and 136.21 +/- 51.50 ml/min; P = 0.008) were significantly lower. Sixteen over 22 (73%) of the patients with diabetic nephropathy had MTHFR gene mutation, while this was only 27% (8 over 30) in normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.017). There was a significant correlation of plasma homocysteine level with microalbuminuria (r = 0.54; P = 0.031) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy who had C677T polymorphism. We did not find any specific association of MTHFR gene mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia with retinopathy or neuropathy. PMID:19598005
Ukinc, Kubilay; Ersoz, Halil Onder; Karahan, Caner; Erem, Cihangir; Eminagaoglu, Selcuk; Hacihasanoglu, Arif Bayram; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kocak, Mustafa
The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C?T polymorphism may be associated with elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It was the study objective to evaluate in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation in carriers of the MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism and in non-carriers, in relation to tHcy and folate levels. A cross-sectional comparison of urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F(2?) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B(2) (markers of in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation, respectively) was performed in 100 carriers and 100 non-carriers of the polymorphism. A methionine-loading test and folic acid supplementation were performed to investigate the causal relationship of the observed associations. Urinary 8-iso-PGF(2?) and 11-dehydro-TXB(2) were higher in carriers with hyperhomocysteinaemia than in those without hyperhomocysteinaemia (p<0.0001). Hyperhomocysteinaemic carriers had lower folate levels (p=0.0006), higher urinary 8-iso-PGF(2?) (p<0.0001) and 11-dehydro-TXB(2) (p<0.0001) than hyperhomocysteinaemic non-carriers. On multiple regression analysis, high tHcy (p<0.0001), low folate (p<0.04) and MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism (p<0.001) independently predicted high rates of 8-iso-PGF(2?) excretion. Methionine loading increased plasma tHcy (p=0.002), and both urinary prostanoid metabolites (p=0.002). Folic acid supplementation was associated with decreased urinary 8-iso-PGF(2?) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion (p<0.0003) in the hyperhomocysteinaemic group, but not in the control group, with substantial inter-individual variability related to baseline tHcy level and the extent of its reduction. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinaemia due to the MTHFR 677 C?T polymorphism is associated with enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation that are reversible, at least in part, following folic acid supplementation. An integrated biomarker approach may help identifying appropriate candidates for effective folate supplementation. PMID:22782530
Dragani, Alfredo; Falco, Angela; Santilli, Francesca; Basili, Stefania; Rolandi, Giancarlo; Cerasa, Loredana; Lattanzio, Stefano; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Patrono, Carlo; Davì, Giovanni
Objective Methotrexate is an effective therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) but is also associated with toxicity. Pharmacogenetics is the systematic evaluation of the role of genetic differences in the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic interventions. Because the results of small pharmacogenetic studies are often misleading, we undertook a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the role of polymorphisms in the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate. Methods A search of PUBMED produced 55 publications which were then reviewed for relevance to methotrexate toxicity and efficacy in patients with RA. To ensure that no studies were missed, each polymorphism found was then entered as an independent search string and all results were again reviewed. Results Only 2 polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR, total: 8 studies) relevant to methotrexate metabolism and efficacy had sufficient data to perform a meta-analysis of their association with toxicity; there was no polymorphism with sufficient data to perform a meta-analysis of efficacy. In a fixed effects model, the C677T polymorphism was associated with increased toxicity (OR 1.71, CI 1.32 – 2.21, p<0.001). The A1298C polymorphism was not associated with increased toxicity (OR 1.12, CI 0.79 – 1.6, p=0.626). Conclusions As pharmacogenetics evolves, more data are needed to assess the role of various polymorphisms for drug efficacy and toxicity. These results illustrate the paucity of reliable pharmacogenetic data on a commonly used anti-rheumatic drug and the potential role of pharmacogenetics in tailoring drug therapy for an individual patient.
Fisher, Mark C.; Cronstein, Bruce N.
We compared a polygenic profile that combined 33 disease risk-related mutations and polymorphisms among nonathletic healthy control subjects and elite endurance athletes. The study sample comprised 100 healthy Spanish male nonathletic (sedentary) control subjects and 100 male elite endurance athletes. We analyzed 33 disease risk-related mutations and polymorphisms. We computed a health-related total genotype score (TGS, 0-100) from the accumulated combination of the 33 variants. We did not observe significant differences in genotype or allele distributions among groups, except for the rs4994 polymorphism (P < 0.001). The computed health-related TGS was similar among groups (23.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 24.2 +/- 0.8 in control subjects and athletes, respectively; P = 0.553). Similar results were obtained when computing specific TGSs for each main disease category (cardiovascular disease and cancer). We observed no evidence that male elite endurance athletes are genetically predisposed to have lower disease risk than matched nonathletic control subjects. PMID:20028936
Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Buxens, Amaya; Altmäe, Signe; Artieda, Marta; Santiago, Catalina; González-Freire, Marta; Verde, Zoraida; Arteta, David; Martínez, Antonio; Tejedor, Diego; Lao, José I; Arenas, Joaquin; Lucia, Alejandro
Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion: Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.
Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, SK
Malignant melanoma (MM) remains a pediatric rarity world-wide, but perhaps more so in black Africans. To the best of our knowledge, the current report of MM in a two-and-a-half-year-old Nigerian who had a pre-existing congenital giant hairy nevus is probably the first (in an accessible literature) in a black African child. Primary neoplastic transformation and metastatic spread were suggested by the appearance of multiple swellings over the "garment" precursor nevus at the posterior trunk, multiple ipsilateral axillary nodal enlargement, and fresh occipital swellings postadmission. Smaller-sized hyperpigmented lesions with irregular, nonlobulated, and frequently hairy surfaces were also discernible over the upper and lower extremities, but the face, anterior trunk, and mucosal surfaces were relatively spared. A diagnosis of MM was confirmed by the subsequent histopathologic findings from the fine-needle aspirate and biopsy specimens. Chemotherapy was initiated but was truncated shortly after by parent-pressured discharge. Despite the rarity of MM in a tropical African setting where management options are few, the current case underscores the need for a high clinical index of diagnostic suspicion, an early pursuit of investigative confirmation, and prophylactic excision in children with the predisposing skin lesions, like congenital giant hairy nevus. An expounded discourse of the possible precursors and management options of MM is provided. We emphasize the need for institutional cost subsidy for anticancer care in tropical children. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T.; Johnson, Abdul-Wahab B. R.; Ojuawo, Ayodele I.; Afolayan, Enoch A. O.; Adeniji, Kayode A.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by improper neural tube closure during the early stages of embryonic development. NTDs are hypothesized to have a complex genetic origin and numerous candidate genes have been proposed. The nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) G594T polymorphism has been implicated in risk for spina bifida, and interactions between that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism have also been observed. To evaluate other genetic variation in the NO pathway in the development of NTDs, we examined all three NOS genes: NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3. Using 3109 Caucasian samples in 745 families, we evaluated association in the overall dataset and within specific phenotypic subsets. Haplotype tagging SNPs in the NOS genes were tested for genetic association with NTD subtypes, both for main effects as well as for the presence of interactions with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. Nominal main effect associations were found with all subtypes, across all three NOS genes, and interactions were observed between SNPs in all three NOS genes and MTHFR C677T. Unlike the previous report, the most significant associations in our dataset were with cranial subtypes and the AG genotype of rs4795067 in NOS2 (p = 0.0014) and the interaction between the rs9658490 G allele in NOS1 and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.0014). Our data extend the previous findings by implicating a role for all three NOS genes, independently and through interactions with MTHFR, in risk not only for spina bifida, but all NTD subtypes. PMID:24323870
Soldano, Karen L; Garrett, Melanie E; Cope, Heidi L; Rusnak, J Michael; Ellis, Nathen J; Dunlap, Kaitlyn L; Speer, Marcy C; Gregory, Simon G; Ashley-Koch, Allison E
Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.
Aoude, Lauren G.; Wadt, Karin; Bojesen, Anders; Cruger, Dorthe; Borg, Ake; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Brown, Kevin M.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jonsson, Goran; Hayward, Nicholas K.
Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterised by dysregulation of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen?presenting cells. Signalling through Toll?like receptor 9 (TLR9), a mediator of innate immune responses, has a role in activation of dendritic cells and autoreactive B cells. Objective To investigate whether TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of SLE. Methods DNA samples were obtained from 220 Japanese patients with SLE (with >4 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE) and 203 controls. The genetic variations of TLR9 were detected by PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The promoter and enhancer activities of TLR9 were measured by luciferase reporter gene assay. The titres of anti?dsDNA antibodies in sera from control or TLR9?deficient mice were analysed by ELISA. Results The G allele at position +1174 (located in intron 1 of TLR9) is closely associated with an increased risk of SLE (p?=?0.029). Furthermore, patients with SLE tend to have C allele at position ?1486 (p?=?0.11). Both alleles down regulate TLR9 expression by reporter gene assay. TLR9?deficient mice under a C57BL/6 background possess higher titres of anti?dsDNA serum antibodies than control C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions These results indicate that the presence of the G allele at position +1174 of TLR9 predisposes humans to an increased risk of SLE. It is speculated that TLR9 normally prevents the development of human SLE.
Tao, Kayoko; Fujii, Mutsuko; Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Maekawa, Yoichi; Kishihara, Kenji; Kimoto, Yasutaka; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Hisaeda, Hajime; Akira, Shizuo; Kagami, Shoji; Yasutomo, Koji
Objective To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. Methods We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 ± 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD), and obtained 194 genetic samples. 49 subjects (49% female, mean age 36 ± 11 years) participated in a 12-week open clinical trial of fluoxetine 20–60 mg/day. Association between clinical response and C677T and A2756G polymorphisms, folate, B12, and homocysteine was examined. Results Prevalence of the C677T and A2756G polymorphisms was consistent with previous reports (C/C=41%, C/T=47%, T/T=11%, A/A=66%, A/G=29%, G/G=4%). In the fluoxetine-treated subsample (n=49), intent-to-treat (ITT) response rates were 47% for C/C subjects and 46% for pooled C/T and T/T subjects (nonsignificant). ITT response rates were 38% for A/A subjects and 60% for A/G subjects (nonsignificant), with no subjects exhibiting the G/G homozygote. Mean baseline plasma B12 was significantly lower in A/G subjects compared to A/A, but folate and homocysteine levels were not affected by genetic status. Plasma folate was negatively associated with treatment response. Conclusion The C677T and A2756G polymorphisms did not significantly affect antidepressant response. These preliminary findings require replication in larger samples.
Mischoulon, David; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Selhub, Jacob; Katz, Judith; Papakostas, George I.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Yeung, Albert S.; Dording, Christina M.; Farabaugh, Amy H.; Clain, Alisabet J.; Baer, Lee; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Fava, Maurizio
The objective of this study was to analyze the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases ( MTHFR s) C677T and A1298C genotype distributions in couples with unexplained fertility problems (UFP) and healthy controls, and to analyze the genotype and haplotype distribution in spontaneously aborted embryonic tissues (SAET) using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 200 probands with UFP, 353 samples of SAET and 222 healthy controls. The analysis revealed a significant overall representation of the 677T allele in male probands from couples with UFP ( p = 0.036). The combined genotype distribution for both MTHFR polymorphisms was also significantly altered (? (2) 21.73, p <0.001) although female probands made no contribution (? (2) 1.33, p = 0.72). The overall representation of the 677T allele was more pronounced in SAET (0.5 vs. 0.351 in controls, p <0.001) regardless of the karyotype status (aneuploidy vs. normal karyotype). In addition, the frequencies of the CA and CC haplotypes were significantly lower than in the control group ( p = 0.021 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas the frequency of the TC haplotype was significantly higher than in controls ( p <0.0001). The presented findings indicate that only male probands contribute to the association of MTHFR mutations with fertility problems in grown adults and demonstrate a high prevalence of mutated MTHFR genotypes in SAET. PMID:24265582
Stangler Herodež, S; Zagradišnik, B; Erjavec Škerget, A; Zagorac, A; Taka?, I; Vlaisavljevi?, V; Lokar, L; Kokalj Voka?, N
This study was designed to examine the effects of a pre-existing, clinically asymptomatic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection on a primary challenge with Toxoplasma gondii. Parenteral challenge of FIV-infected cats with tachyzoites of the ME49 strain of T. gondii caused a precipitous drop in all lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and B cells) and generalized severe toxoplasmosis. The predominant postmortem lesions included acute and often fatal interstitial pneumonia, dominated histologically by macrophages, and multifocal to coalescing hepatic necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed numerous T. gondii antigen and tachyzoites in macrophages and other cell types in the lung lesions. The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to specific (T. gondii antigen) and nonspecific (Concanavalin A) mitogens was defective in the dually infected cats, suggesting marked immunosuppression. In contrast to the dually infected cats, cats infected only with T. gondii developed a transient, mild clinical disease characterized by anorexia, lethargy, and multifocal chorioretinitis. Lymphocyte changes in T. gondii-infected cats included an early pan-lymphopenia followed by reestablishment of all lymphocyte subset profiles. These cats also showed a reduced proliferative response to Concanavalin A at 1 week after challenge, but a measurable in vivo response to T. gondii antigens, as evidenced by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in the absence of a mitogenic stimulus. These results show that infection of cats with FIV-NCSU, markedly enhances their susceptibility to a primary T. gondii infection and provides a model to study the mechanisms of the underlying immunological defect(s) occurring early after HIV infection that may predispose individuals to development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and associated diseases. Images Figure 4
Davidson, M. G.; Rottman, J. B.; English, R. V.; Lappin, M. R.; Tompkins, M. B.
Background Nocturnal reflux has been associated with severe complications of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and a poorer quality of life. Hiatal hernia predisposes to increased oesophageal acid exposure, but the effect on night reflux symptoms has never been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate if hiatal hernia is associated with more frequent and severe night reflux symptoms. Methods A total of 215 consecutive patients (110 male, mean age 52.6?±?14.7 years) answered a detailed questionnaire on frequency and severity of specific day and night reflux symptoms. Subsequently, all patients underwent upper endoscopy and were categorized in two groups based on the endoscopic presence of hiatal hernia. Results Patients with hiatal hernia were more likely to have nocturnal symptoms compared to those without hiatal hernia (78.6 vs. 51.8%, p?=?0.0001); 59.2% of patients with hiatal hernia reported heartburn and 60.2% regurgitation compared to 43.8 and 39.3% of those without hiatal hernia, respectively (p?=?0.033 and p?=?0.003). The proportions of patients with day heartburn or regurgitation were not significantly different between the two groups. Night heartburn and regurgitation were graded as significantly more severe by patients with hiatal hernia (4.9?±?4.2 vs. 3.2?±?3.7, p?=?0.002, and 3.8?±?4.2 vs. 2.2?±?3.5, p?=?0.001, respectively). Patients with hiatal hernia had more frequent weekly night heartburn and regurgitation compared to those without hiatal hernia (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.008, respectively). Conclusions More patients with hiatal hernia reported nocturnal reflux symptoms compared to those without hiatal hernia. Furthermore, nocturnal reflux symptoms were significantly more frequent and graded as significantly more severe in patients with presence of hiatal hernia rather than in those without hiatal hernia.
Karamanolis, Georgios; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Adamopoulos, Adam; Barbatzas, Charalampos; Vafiadis, Irini
Objective Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronic pulmonary disease, insufficient pancreatic and digestive function, and abnormal sweat concentration. There is controversy about predisposing factors of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the results of metabolic evaluation in patients with cystic fibrosis and its correlation with nephrocalcinosis. Methods Forty five CF patients, mean age 47.1 months, were enrolled in the study. No one had past history of nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. The records were reviewed for clinical characteristics and all patients underwent metabolic evaluation including serum electrolyte measurements and spot urine analysis. Ultrasonography was performed in all patients to detect nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis. Findings Nephrocalcinosis was found in 5 (11%) patients. No patient had clinical symptoms of nephrolithiasis and/or micro/macroscopic hematuria. Metabolic evaluation of the CF patients versus normal reference values showed decreased serum uric acid in 48.8%, elevated serum phosphate in 24.4%, and urine oxalate excretion in 51%. Metabolic evaluation of the nephrocalcinosis positive patients versus nephrocalcinosis negative group showed no statistical difference in serum electrolytes. The mean value of urine calcium excretion was lower in patients with nephrocalcinosis (P=0.001). Despite lack of any significant correlation, higher numerical hyperoxaluria was observed in patients with severe steatorrhea. There was no statistical correlation between steatorrhea and urine calcium as well as oxalate excretion. Conclusion Hypocalciuria in the nephrocalcinotic CF patients may be seen. It can be hypothesized that hypocalciuria may be due to a primary defect in renal calcium metabolism in CF patients.
Kianifar, Hamid-Reza; Talebi, Saeedeh; Khazaei, Mahmoodreza; Talebi, Saeed; Alamdaran, Ali; Hiradfar, Simin
Background Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype) suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition. Methods Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions. Results The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort) and EEG abnormalities (64.1%) confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly) was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature. Conclusions Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic “biomarker” of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized diagnostic work-up and therapeutic approaches.
Brachini, Francesca; Apicella, Fabio; Cosenza, Angela; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Guerrini, Renzo; Muratori, Filippo; Romano, Maria Francesca; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Tancredi, Raffaella; Sicca, Federico
Rationale: Time series studies have reported associations between ozone and daily deaths. Only one cohort study has reported the effect of long-term exposures on deaths, and little is known about effects of chronic ozone exposure on survival in susceptible populations. Objectives: We investigated whether ozone was associated with survival in four cohorts of persons with specific diseases in 105 United States cities, treating ozone as a time varying exposure. Methods: We used Medicare data (1985–2006), and constructed cohorts of persons hospitalized with chronic conditions that might predispose to ozone effects: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Yearly warm-season average ozone was merged to the individual follow-up in each city. We applied Cox proportional hazard model for each cohort within each city, adjusting for individual risk factors, temperature, and city-specific long-term trends. Measurements and Main Results: We found significant associations with a hazard ratio for mortality of 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.08) per 5-ppb increase in summer average ozone for persons with congestive heart failure; of 1.09 (95% CI, 1.06–1.12) with myocardial infarction; of 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04–1.09) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and of 1.07 (95% CI, 1.05–1.10) for diabetics. We also found that the effect varied by region, but that this was mostly explained by mean temperature, which is likely a surrogate of air conditioning use, and hence exposure. Conclusions: This is the first study that follows persons with specific chronic conditions, and shows that long-term ozone exposure is associated with increased risk of death in these groups.
Low folate intake in the presence of the functional MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) polymorphism is an important cause of elevated homocysteine levels previously implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and many other chronic diseases. In this study the clinical relevance and inter-relationship of these aspects were evaluated in 86 South African patients diagnosed with MDD and 97 population-matched controls participating in a chronic diseases screening program. A questionnaire-based clinical and nutrition assessment was performed, homocysteine levels determined, and all study participants genotyped for MTHFR 677 C > T (rs1801133) using allele-specific TaqMan technology. The folate score was found to be significantly lower in the patient group compared to controls (p?=?0.003) and correlated with increased body mass index (BMI), particularly in females with MDD (p?=?0.009). BMI was significantly higher in the MDD patients compared with controls after adjustment for age and sex (p?=?0.015), but this association was no longer significant after further adjustment for the level of folate intake in the diet. In MDD patients but not controls, the minor T-allele of MTHFR 677 C > T was associated with increased BMI (p?=?0.032), which in turn correlated significantly with increased homocysteine levels. The significant association between BMI and homocysteine levels was observed in both the MDD patient (p?=?0.049) and control (p?=?0.018) study groups. The significantly higher homocysteine levels observed in MDD patients compared to controls after adjustment for age and sex (p?=?0.030), therefore appears to be mediated by the effects of MTHFR 677 C > T and low folate intake on BMI. Detection of the low-penetrance MTHFR 677 C > T mutation reinforces the importance of folate intake above the recommended daily dose to prevent or restore dysfunction of the methylation pathway. PMID:24532086
Delport, Darnielle; Schoeman, Renata; van der Merwe, Nicole; van der Merwe, Lize; Fisher, Leslie R; Geiger, Dieter; Kotze, Maritha J
BACKGROUND/AIMS—Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia has been identified as a strong risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, and deep vein thrombosis. A point mutation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) has been associated with increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To investigate whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia and/or MTHFR C677T mutation are associated with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a case-control study including 59 consecutive patients with NAION and 59 controls matched for age and sex was performed.?METHODS—Fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, MTHFR C677T genotypes, and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B-12 were determined.?RESULTS—Mean plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (11.8 (SD 5.7) µmol/l v 9.8 (2.5) µmol/l, p = 0.02). The odds ratio for patients with homocyst(e)ine levels exceeding the 95th percentile of control homocyst(e)ine levels was 5.8 (95% CI 1.5-21.4). Mean plasma folate levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (4.3 (1.7) ng/ml v 5.5 (1.9) ng/ml, p = 0.001), whereas plasma vitamin B-12 levels did not differ significantly. Prevalence of the MTHFR C677T mutation was not significantly increased in patients with NAION compared with controls.?CONCLUSION—These results suggest that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, but not MTHFR C677T mutation is associated with NAION. Determination of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels might be of diagnostic value in patients with NAION.??
Weger, M.; Stanger, O.; Deutschmann, H.; Simon, M.; Renner, W.; Schmut, O.; Semmelrock, J.; Haas, A.
Blood pressure and hypertension have significant genetic underpinnings that may be age-dependent. The age-dependency, significant contributions from environmental factors such as diet and exercise, and inherent moment-to-moment variability complicate the identification of the genes contributing to the development of hypertension. While genetic abnormalities may have moderate effects, the physiological pathways involving these genes have redundant compensating mechanisms to bring the system back into equilibrium. This has the effect of reducing or completely masking the initial genetic defects, one of the hypothesized reasons for the small genetic effects found by the recent genome-wide association studies. This review article will discuss the concept of “initiators” versus “compensators” in the context of finding genes related to hypertension development. A brief review is provided of some key genes found to be associated with hypertension, including the genes identified from the nine genome-wide association studies published to date.
Hunt, Steven C.
So far, two familial melanoma genes have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases1, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds2. To identify other familial melanoma genes, here we conducted whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, identifying one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log odds ratio (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case–control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case–control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility.
Yokoyama, Satoru; Woods, Susan L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Aoude, Lauren G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Zismann, Victoria; Gartside, Michael; Cust, Anne E.; Haq, Rizwan; Harland, Mark; Taylor, John C.; Duffy, David L.; Holohan, Kelly; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Palmer, Jane M.; Bonazzi, Vanessa; Stark, Mitchell S.; Symmons, Judith; Law, Matthew H.; Schmidt, Christopher; Lanagan, Cathy; O'Connor, Linda; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L.; Whiteman, David C.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Newton-Bishop, Julia A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mann, Graham J.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Tsao, Hensin; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, David E.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Brown, Kevin M.
We examined whether polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and transcobalamin (TC) genes, which are involved in folate metabolism, affect maternal risk for Down syndrome. We investigated 76 Down syndrome mothers and 115 control mothers from Bengbu, China. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to examine the polymorphisms of MTHFD G1958A and TC C776G. The frequencies of the polymorphic alleles were 24.3 and 19.1% for MTHFD 1958A, 53.9 and 54.2% for TC 776G, in the case and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups in relation to either the allele or the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms. However, when gene-gene interactions between these two polymorphisms together with previous studied C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were analyzed, the combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MTHFD 1958AA/GA genotype was found to be significantly associated with the risk of having a Down syndrome child [odds ratio (OR) = 3.11; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.07-9.02]. In addition, the combined TC 776CG and MTHFR 677TT genotype increased the risk of having a child with Down syndrome 3.64-fold (OR = 3.64; 95%CI = 1.28-10.31). In conclusion, neither MTHFD G1958A nor TC C776G polymorphisms are an independent risk factor for Down syndrome. However, the combined MTHFD/MTHFR, TC/MTHFR genotypes play a role in the risk of bearing a Down syndrome child in the Chinese population. PMID:24668664
Liao, Y P; Zhang, D; Zhou, W; Meng, F M; Bao, M S; Xiang, P; Liu, C Q
We performed a multistage genome-wide association study of melanoma. In a discovery cohort of 1804 melanoma cases and 1026 controls, we identified loci at chromosomes 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2 region) and 16q24.3 (MC1R) regions that reached genome-wide significance within this study and also found strong evidence for genetic effects on susceptibility to melanoma from markers on chromosome 9p21.3 in the p16/ARF region and on chromosome 1q21.3 (ARNT/LASS2/ANXA9 region). The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q13.1 locus (rs1129038 and rs12913832) lie within a genomic region that has profound effects on eye and skin color; notably, 50% of variability in eye color is associated with variation in the SNP rs12913832. Because eye and skin colors vary across European populations, we further evaluated the associations of the significant SNPs after carefully adjusting for European substructure. We also evaluated the top 10 most significant SNPs by using data from three other genome-wide scans. Additional in silico data provided replication of the findings from the most significant region on chromosome 1q21.3 rs7412746 (P = 6 × 10?10). Together, these data identified several candidate genes for additional studies to identify causal variants predisposing to increased risk for developing melanoma.
Amos, Christopher I.; Wang, Li-E; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Chen, Wei V.; Fang, Shenying; Kosoy, Roman; Zhang, Mingfeng; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Vattathil, Selina; Schacherer, Christopher W.; Gardner, Julie M.; Wang, Yuling; Tim Bishop, D.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.; Mann, Graham J.; Cust, Anne; Hopper, John; Brown, Kevin M.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Xu, Yaji; Han, Younghun; Jing, Kaiyan; McHugh, Caitlin; Laurie, Cathy C.; Doheny, Kim F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Seldin, Michael F.; Han, Jiali; Wei, Qingyi
Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C) in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC). This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA) is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.
He, Huiling; Li, Wei; Wu, Dayong; Nagy, Rebecca; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Akagi, Keiko; Jendrzejewski, Jaroslaw; Jiao, Hong; Hoag, Kevin; Wen, Bernard; Srinivas, Mukund; Waidyaratne, Gavisha; Wang, Rui; Wojcicka, Anna; Lattimer, Ilene R.; Stachlewska, Elzbieta; Czetwertynska, Malgorzata; Dlugosinska, Joanna; Gierlikowski, Wojciech; Ploski, Rafal; Krawczyk, Marek; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Kere, Juha; Symer, David E.; Jin, Victor; Wang, Qianben; de la Chapelle, Albert
Genetic variations in the polymorphic tandem repeat sequence of the enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase promoter (TSER), as well as in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, influence methotrexate sensitivity. We studied these polymorphisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and in subjects without malignancy in Indonesia and Holland. The frequencies of TT and CT genotypes were two-fold higher in Dutch children. The TSER 3R/3R repeat was three-fold more frequent in the Indonesian children, while the 2R/2R repeat was only 1% compared to 21% in the Dutch children. No differences of these polymorphisms were found between ALL cells and normal blood cells, indicating an ethnic rather than leukemic origin. These results may have implications for treatment of Indonesian children with ALL. PMID:17395259
Giovannetti, Elisa; Ugrasena, Dewa G; Supriyadi, Eddy; Vroling, Laura; Azzarello, Antonino; de Lange, Desiree; Peters, Godefridus J; Veerman, Anjo J P; Cloos, Jacqueline
Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett's esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in the discovery stage and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication stage. Variants at two loci were associated with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (Pcombined=4.09×10(-9); odds ratio (OR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-1.28), within the major histocompatibility complex locus, and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (Pcombined=2.74×10(-10); OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.10-1.19), for which the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that many common variants of small effect contribute to genetic susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barrett's esophagus. PMID:22961001
Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Céline; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kuipers, Ernst J; Drenth, Joost P H; Peters, Wilbert H; Reynolds, John V; Kelleher, Dermot P; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D; van Baal, Jantine W P M; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H; Bird, Nigel C; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Murray, Liam J; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A; Reid, Brian J; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M; Gellatly, Nichola L; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C A; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A Z
Barrett’s Esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia. Barrett’s Esophagus strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumour with a very poor prognosis. We have undertaken the first genome-wide association study on Barrett’s Esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in discovery and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication. Two regions were associated with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (Pcombined=4.09×10?9, OR(95%CI) =1.21(1.13-1.28)) and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (Pcombined=2.74×10?10, OR(95%CI) =1.14(1.10-1.19)). The top SNP on chromosome 6p21 is within the major histocompatibility complex, and the closest protein-coding gene to rs9936833 on chromosome 16q24 is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that the genetic component of Barrett’s Esophagus is mediated by many common variants of small effect and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barrett’s Esophagus.
The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans. PMID:24439532
Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu
The aggressive clinical behavior of melanoma has led to the hypothesis that the developmental origins of melanocytes in the neural crest might be relevant for their metastatic propensity. We demonstrate that primary human melanocytes, transformed using a specific set of introduced genes, form melanomas that frequently metastasize to multiple secondary sites, while human fibroblasts and epithelial cells transformed using an identical set of genes generate primary tumors that rarely do so. Importantly, these melanomas exhibit a metastasis spectrum similar to that observed in human patients. These observations indicate that part of the metastatic proclivity of melanoma is attributable to lineage-specific factors expressed in melanocytes and not in other cell types analyzed. Analysis of microarray data from human nevi reveals that Slug, a master regulator of neural crest cell specification and migration, correlates in its expression pattern with other genes that are important for neural crest cell migrations during development. Moreover, Slug is required for the metastasis of the transformed melanoma cells. These findings indicate that melanocyte-specific factors present prior to neoplastic transformation can play a pivotal role in governing melanoma's progression.
Gupta, Piyush B.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Brunet, Jean-Philippe; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Naber, Stephen P.; Weinberg, Robert A.
Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disorder characterized by a massive influx of Th1 lymphocytes. Both naive and memory T cells express high levels of interleukin 7 receptor-alpha (IL7R alpha), encoded by the IL7R gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the IL7R gene region in susceptibility to sarcoidosis. Six common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning IL7R were genotyped and analyzed in 475 sarcoidosis patients and 465 healthy controls. Replication of one significant associated SNP was carried out in 206 independent sarcoidosis patients, 127 controls and 126 patients with Löfgren's disease. The rs10213865 SNP was associated with sarcoidosis (P=0.008), and in silico analysis showed a complete linkage (r(2)=1, D'=1) with a functional nonsynonymous coding SNP in exon 6 (rs6897932, T244I). Combined analysis of 663 individuals with sarcoidosis and 586 controls (homozygous carriers of risk allele, P=5 x 10(-4), odds ratio=1.49 (1.19-1.86)) provided strong statistical support for a genuine association of IL7R with the risk of sarcoidosis. In addition, we report the same trend between variation in the IL7R gene and patients with Löfgren's disease, suggesting that variation in IL7R may confer general risk for developing granulomatous lung disease. PMID:19626041
Heron, M; Grutters, J C; van Moorsel, C H M; Ruven, H J T; Huizinga, T W J; van der Helm-van Mil, A H M; Claessen, A M E; van den Bosch, J M M
Background Despite genetic polymorphism in response to platinum/5-Fu chemotherapy in gastric cancer (GC) has been studied, data reported so far are conflicting and critical consideration is needed before translation to the treatment of GC. Methods We performed a meta-analysis by using 20 eligible studies to examine polymorphisms of ERCC1, GSTs, TS and MTHFR in predicting clinical outcomes (response rate, overall survival and toxicity) of GC patients treated with platinum/5-Fu-based chemotherapy. The association was measured using random/fixed effect odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) combined with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to the studies’ heterogeneity. Statistical analysis was performed with the software STATA 9.0 package. Results No significant association was found between response rate and genetic polymorphism in TS, MTHFR, ERCC1, GSTM1 and GSTP1. However, response rate was higher in GSTT1 (+) genotype compared with GSTT1 (?) genotype (T-/T+: OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.47–0.97). With regard to long term outcomes, we could observe a significant longer overall survival in TS 3R/3R [(2R2R+2R3R)/3R3R: HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.02–1.64] and GSTP1 GG/GA [(GG+AG)/AA: HR=0.51, 95% CI: (0.39, 0.67)] genotypes. In addition, significant association was demonstrated between toxicity and genetic polymorphism in TS, MTHFR and GSTP1 in included studies. Conclusion Polymorphisms of ERCC1, GSTs, TS and MTHFR were closely associated with clinical outcomes of GC patients treated with platinum/5-Fu-based chemotherapy. Studies with large sample size using the method of multi-variant analyses may help us to give more persuasive data on the putative association in future.
Plasma hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is considered a risk factor for chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD), the main cause of functional loss in transplant recipients. Genetic polymorphisms that alter enzymes involved in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and vitamin deficiency can result in HHcy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between HHcy and CAD development, and to evaluate the effect of intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 as well as MTHFR C677T polymorphism on Hcy concentrations. Ninety-eight renal transplant recipients including 48 showing CAD and 50 with normal renal function (NRF), were included in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood samples were collected for plasma Hcy quantification by liquid chromatography/sequential mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and for MTHFR polymorphism analysis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dietary intake was evaluated using a nutritional questionnaire. HHcy (P=.002) and higher mean concentrations of Hcy (P=.029) were associated with CAD. An association was observed between HHcy and 677T variant allele in the CAD group (P=.0005). There was no correlation between Hcy concentration and folate, vitamin B6 or vitamin B12 intake in the CAD group. However, a negative correlation was observed between Hcy concentration and folate intake (P=.043), and also between Hcy concentration and vitamin B6 intake (P=.030) in the NRF group. According to our study, HHcy is associated with CAD development. In patients with CAD, MTHFR polymorphism seems to have a greater effect on the Hcy concentration than the vitamin intake. Increased folate and vitamin B6 intakes seem to reduce Hcy concentrations among transplant recipients with NRF, and could contribute to reducing the risk of CAD development. PMID:18089344
Biselli, P M; Sanches de Alvarenga, M P; Abbud-Filho, M; Ferreira-Baptista, M A S; Galbiatti, A L S; Goto, M T Y; Cardoso, M A; Eberlin, M N; Haddad, R; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C
Dysregulation of the one-carbon metabolic pathway, which controls nucleotide synthesis and DNA methylation, may promote lymphomagenesis.\\u000a We evaluated the association between polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in\\u000a a population-based case-control study in Australia. Cases (n = 561) and controls (n = 506) were genotyped for 14 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes (CBS, FPGS, FTHFD, MTHFR, MTHFS, MTR,
Kyoung-Mu Lee; Qing Lan; Anne Kricker; Mark P. Purdue; Andrew E. Grulich; Claire M. Vajdic; Jennifer Turner; Denise Whitby; Daehee Kang; Stephen Chanock; Nathaniel Rothman; Bruce K. Armstrong
Background & Aims NHE3 is a target of inhibition by proinflammatory cytokines and pathogenic bacteria, an event contributing to diarrhea in infectious and idiopathic colitis. In mice, NHE3 deficiency leads to mild diarrhea, increased intestinal expression of IFN-?, and distal colitis, suggesting its role in epithelial barrier homeostasis. Aim To investigate the role of NHE3 in maintaining mucosal integrity. Methods Control or DSS-treated, 6–8 wk wild-type (WT) and NHE3?/? mice were used for the experiments. Small intestines were dissected for further analysis. Results NHE3?/? mice have elevated numbers of CD8?+ T and NK cells in the IEL and LPL compartments, representing the source of IFN-?. NHE3?/? mice display alterations in epithelial gene and protein expression patterns which predispose them to a high susceptibility to DSS, with accelerated mortality resulting from intestinal bleeding, hypovolemic shock, and sepsis, even at a very low DSS concentration. Microarray analysis and intestinal hemorrhage indicate that NHE3 deficiency predisposes mice to DSS-induced small intestinal injury, a segment never reported as affected by DSS, and demonstrate major differences in the colonic response to DSS challenge in WT and NHE3?/? mice. In NHE3?/? mice, broad spectrum oral antibiotics or anti-asialo GM1 antibodies reduce the expression of IFN-? and iNOS to basal levels and delay, but do not prevent, severe mortality in response to DSS treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that NHE3 participates in mucosal responses to epithelial damage acting as a modifier gene determining the extent of the gut inflammatory responses in the face of intestinal injury.
Kiela, Pawel R.; Laubitz, Daniel; Larmonier, Claire B.; Midura-Kiela, Monica T.; Lipko, Maciej A.; Janikashvili, Nona; Bai, Aiping; Thurston, Robert; Ghishan, Fayez K.
Background Pregnancy in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL Ab)—autoimmune conditions characterized by complement-mediated injury—is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia and miscarriage. Our previous studies in mice indicate that complement activation targeted to the placenta drives angiogenic imbalance and placental insufficiency. Methods and Findings We use PROMISSE, a prospective study of 250 pregnant patients with SLE and/or APL Ab, to test the hypothesis in humans that impaired capacity to limit complement activation predisposes to preeclampsia. We sequenced genes encoding three complement regulatory proteins—membrane cofactor protein (MCP), complement factor I (CFI), and complement factor H (CFH)—in 40 patients who had preeclampsia and found heterozygous mutations in seven (18%). Five of these patients had risk variants in MCP or CFI that were previously identified in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, a disease characterized by endothelial damage. One had a novel mutation in MCP that impairs regulation of C4b. These findings constitute, to our knowledge, the first genetic defects associated with preeclampsia in SLE and/or APL Ab. We confirmed the association of hypomorphic variants of MCP and CFI in a cohort of non-autoimmune preeclampsia patients in which five of 59 were heterozygous for mutations. Conclusion The presence of risk variants in complement regulatory proteins in patients with SLE and/or APL Ab who develop preeclampsia, as well as in preeclampsia patients lacking autoimmune disease, links complement activation to disease pathogenesis and suggests new targets for treatment of this important public health problem. Study Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198068 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Salmon, Jane E.; Heuser, Cara; Triebwasser, Michael; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Kavanagh, David; Roumenina, Lubka; Branch, D. Ware; Goodship, Tim; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Atkinson, John P.
Cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD) is a rapidly progressive biliary fibrosis, resembling primary sclerosing cholangitis that develops in 5–10% of patients with cystic fibrosis. Further research and evaluation of therapies are hampered by the lack of a mouse model for CFLD. Although primary sclerosing cholangitis is linked to both ulcerative colitis and loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel function, induction of colitis with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in cftr?/? mice causes bile duct injury but no fibrosis. Since profibrogenic modifier genes are linked to CFLD, we examined whether subthreshhold doses of the profibrogenic xenobiotic 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC), along with DSS-induced colitis, lead to bile duct injury and liver fibrosis in mice that harbor loss of CFTR function. Exon 10 heterozygous (cftr+/?) and homozygous (cftr?/?) mice treated with DDC demonstrated extensive mononuclear cell inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and periductular fibrosis. In contrast, wild-type (cftr+/+) littermates did not develop bile duct injury or fibrosis. Histological changes corresponded to increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, hydroxyproline, and expression of profibrogenic transcripts for transforming growth factor-?1, transforming growth factor-?2, procollagen ?1(I), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metaloproteinase-1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated fibrosis and activation of periductal fibrogenic cells based on positive staining for lysyl oxidase-like-2, ?-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. These data demonstrate that subthreshold doses of DDC, in conjunction with DSS-induced colitis, results in bile duct injury and periductal fibrosis in mice with partial or complete loss of CFTR function and may represent a useful model to study the pathogenic mechanisms by which CFTR dysfunction predisposes to fibrotic liver disease and potential therapies.
Zaman, Munir M.; Ketwaroo, Gyanprakash A.; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Coronel, Emmanuel; Popov, Yury; Schuppan, Detlef; Freedman, Steven D.
The C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism in PTPN22, which is the gene encoding lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), confers increased risk for various autoimmune disorders in Caucasians. Although the disease-associated LYP allele (LYP*W620) is a gain-of-function variant that has higher catalytic activity than the major allele (LYP*R620), it is still unclear how LYP*W620 predisposes for autoimmunity. Here, we compared both T cell signaling and T cell function in healthy human donors homozygous for either LYP*R620 or LYP*W620. Generally, the presence of LYP*W620 caused reduced proximal T cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling (e.g. ? chain phosphorylation) but augmented CD28-associated signaling (e.g. AKT activation). Altered ligand binding properties of the two LYP variants could explain these findings since LYP*R620 interacted more strongly with the p85 subunit of PI3K. Variation in signaling between cells expressing either LYP*R620 or LYP*W620 also affected the differentiation of conventional CD4+ T cells. For example, LYP*W620 homozygous donors displayed exaggerated Th1 responses (e.g. IFN? production) and reduced Th17 responses (e.g. IL-17 production). Importantly, while regulatory T cells normally suppressed Th1-mediated IFN? production in LYP*R620 homozygous individuals, such suppression was lost in LYP*W620 homozygous individuals. Altogether, these findings provide a molecular and cellular explanation for the autoimmune phenotype associated with LYP*W620.
Vang, Torkel; Landskron, Johannes; Viken, Marte K.; Oberprieler, Nikolaus; Torgersen, Knut M.; Mustelin, Tomas; Tasken, Kjetil; Tautz, Lutz; Rickert, Robert C.; Lie, Benedicte A.
Background/Objectives. Pancreatitis remains the most common complication of ERCP. History of post-ERCP pancreatitis is an independent risk factor for a new episode, suggesting a genetic background. The N34S mutation in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK 1) gene may downregulate the threshold for the development of pancreatitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the presence of this mutation among patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis. Methods. During a period of four years, thirty patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis entered the study. Patients and procedural data were collected, focusing on risk factors for pancreatitis. Blood samples were taken for genetic testing for the presence of N34S mutation in SPINK 1 gene. After DNA extraction, we used an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction as an initial screening method for the N34S mutation, and in order to confirm the results and to determine the hetero- and homozygosity genotype status, we used a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Results. None of the thirty patients was found to carry the N34S mutation, with both of the applied methods. Patients had an average of two of the known risk factors. Conclusion. SPINK1 N34S mutation does not seem to play a role in post-ERCP pancreatitis, but larger studies needed to confirm our results. PMID:22934106
Mystakidis, Konstantinos; Kouklakis, George; Papoutsi, Androniki; Souftas, Vasilios D; Efremidou, Eleni; Kapetanos, Dimitrios; Pitiakoudis, Michail; Lyratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Karagiannakis, Anastasios; Pantelios, Alexandros
Background/Objectives. Pancreatitis remains the most common complication of ERCP. History of post-ERCP pancreatitis is an independent risk factor for a new episode, suggesting a genetic background. The N34S mutation in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK 1) gene may downregulate the threshold for the development of pancreatitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the presence of this mutation among patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis. Methods. During a period of four years, thirty patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis entered the study. Patients and procedural data were collected, focusing on risk factors for pancreatitis. Blood samples were taken for genetic testing for the presence of N34S mutation in SPINK 1 gene. After DNA extraction, we used an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction as an initial screening method for the N34S mutation, and in order to confirm the results and to determine the hetero- and homozygosity genotype status, we used a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Results. None of the thirty patients was found to carry the N34S mutation, with both of the applied methods. Patients had an average of two of the known risk factors. Conclusion. SPINK1 N34S mutation does not seem to play a role in post-ERCP pancreatitis, but larger studies needed to confirm our results.
Mystakidis, Konstantinos; Kouklakis, George; Papoutsi, Androniki; Souftas, Vasilios D.; Efremidou, Eleni; Kapetanos, Dimitrios; Pitiakoudis, Michail; Lyratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Karagiannakis, Anastasios; Pantelios, Alexandros
Common acquired melanocytic nevi are benign neoplasms that are composed of small uniform melanocytes and typically present as flat or slightly elevated, pigmented lesions on the skin. We describe two families with a new autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple skin-colored, elevated melanocytic tumors. In contrast to common acquired nevi, the melanocytic neoplasms in affected family members ranged histopathologically from epithelioid nevi to atypical melanocytic proliferations that showed overlapping features with melanoma. Some affected patients developed uveal or cutaneous melanomas. Segregating with this phenotype, we found inactivating germline mutations of the BAP1 gene. The majority of melanocytic neoplasms lost the remaining wild-type allele of BAP1 by various somatic alterations. In addition, we found BAP1 mutations in a subset of sporadic melanocytic neoplasms showing histologic similarities to the familial tumors. These findings suggest that loss of BAP1 is associated with a clinically and morphologically distinct type of melanocytic neoplasm.
Wiesner, Thomas; Obenauf, Anna C.; Murali, Rajmohan; Fried, Isabella; Griewank, Klaus G.; Ulz, Peter; Windpassinger, Christian; Wackernagel, Werner; Loy, Shea; Wolf, Ingrid; Viale, Agnes; Lash, Alex E.; Pirun, Mono; Socci, Nicholas D.; Rutten, Arno; Palmedo, Gabriele; Abramson, David; Offit, Kenneth; Ott, Arthur; Becker, Jurgen C.; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Bastian, Boris C.; Speicher, Michael R.
Epigenetic alterations, particularly in DNA methylation, are ubiquitous in cancer, yet the molecular origins and the consequences of these alterations are poorly understood. CTCF, a DNA-binding protein that regulates higher-order chromatin organization, is frequently altered by hemizygous deletion or mutation in human cancer. To date, a causal role for CTCF in cancer has not been established. Here, we show that Ctcf hemizygous knockout mice are markedly susceptible to spontaneous, radiation-, and chemically induced cancer in a broad range of tissues. Ctcf(+/-) tumors are characterized by increased aggressiveness, including invasion, metastatic dissemination, and mixed epithelial/mesenchymal differentiation. Molecular analysis of Ctcf(+/-) tumors indicates that Ctcf is haploinsufficient for tumor suppression. Tissues with hemizygous loss of CTCF exhibit increased variability in CpG methylation genome wide. These findings establish CTCF as a prominent tumor-suppressor gene and point to CTCF-mediated epigenetic stability as a major barrier to neoplastic progression. PMID:24794443
Kemp, Christopher J; Moore, James M; Moser, Russell; Bernard, Brady; Teater, Matt; Smith, Leslie E; Rabaia, Natalia A; Gurley, Kay E; Guinney, Justin; Busch, Stephanie E; Shaknovich, Rita; Lobanenkov, Victor V; Liggitt, Denny; Shmulevich, Ilya; Melnick, Ari; Filippova, Galina N
Objective C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) events in non-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) populations. We investigated potential associations of MTHFR polymorphisms and use of methotrexate (MTX) with time-to-CV event in data from the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry. Methods VARA participants were genotyped for MTHFR polymorphisms. Variables included demographic information, baseline comorbidities, RA duration, autoantibody status, and disease activity. Patients’ comorbidities and outcome variables were defined using International Classification of Diseases-9 and Current Procedural Terminology codes. The combined CV event outcome included myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and stroke. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the time-to-CV event. Results Data were available for 1047 subjects. Post-enrollment CV events occurred in 97 patients (9.26%). Although there was a trend toward reduced risk of CV events, MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly associated with time-to-CV event. Time-to-CV event was associated with prior stroke (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.03–3.90), prior MI (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06–2.71), hyperlipidemia (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.01–2.43), and increased modified Charlson-Deyo index (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13–1.34). MTX use (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44–0.99) and increasing education (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80–0.95) were associated with a lower risk for CV events. Conclusion Although MTHFR polymorphisms were previously associated with CV events in non-RA populations, we found only a trend toward decreased association with CV events in RA. Traditional risk factors conferred substantial CV risk, while MTX use and increasing years of education were protective. (First Release April 1 2013; J Rheumatol 2013;40:809–17; doi:10.3899/ jrheum.121012)
Davis, Lisa A.; Cannon, Grant W.; Pointer, Lauren F.; Haverhals, Leah M.; Wolff, Roger K.; Mikuls, Ted R.; Reimold, Andreas M.; Kerr, Gail S.; Richards, J. Steuart; Johnson, Dannette S.; Valuck, Robert; Prochazka, Allan; Caplan, Liron
Prostate morphogenesis occurs in utero in humans and during the perinatal period in rodents. While largely driven by androgens, there is compelling evidence for a permanent influence of estrogens on prostatic development. If estrogenic exposures are abnormally high during the critical developmental period, permanent alterations in prostate morphology and function are observed, a process referred to as developmental estrogenization. Using the neonatal rodent as an animal model, it has been shown that early exposure to high doses of estradiol results in an increased incidence of prostatic lesions with aging which include hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or PIN, believed to be the precursor lesion for prostatic adenocarcinoma. The present review summarizes research performed in our laboratory to characterize developmental estrogenization and identify the molecular pathways involved in mediating this response. Furthermore, recent studies performed with low-dose estradiol exposures during development as well as exposures to environmentally relevant doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A show increased susceptibility to PIN lesions with aging following additional adult exposure to estradiol. Gene methylation analysis revealed a potential epigenetic basis for the estrogen imprinting of the prostate gland. Taken together, our results suggest that a full range of estrogenic exposures during the postnatal critical period – from environmentally relevant bisphenol A exposure to low-dose and pharmacologic estradiol exposures – results in an increased incidence and susceptibility to neoplastic transformation of the prostate gland in the aging male which may provide a fetal basis for this adult disease.
Prins, Gail S.; Birch, Lynn; Tang, Wan-Yee; Ho, Shuk-Mei
The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene.
Popova, Tatiana; Hebert, Lucie; Jacquemin, Virginie; Gad, Sophie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Dubois-d'Enghien, Catherine; Richaudeau, Benedicte; Renaudin, Xavier; Sellers, Jason; Nicolas, Andre; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Desjardins, Laurence; Gyapay, Gabor; Raynal, Virginie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Andrieu, Nadine; Manie, Elodie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gesta, Paul; Bonadona, Valerie; Maugard, Christine M.; Penet, Clotilde; Avril, Marie-Francoise; Barillot, Emmanuel; Cabaret, Odile; Delattre, Olivier; Richard, Stephane; Caron, Olivier; Benfodda, Meriem; Hu, Hui-Han; Soufir, Nadem; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Stern, Marc-Henri
Disruption of cellular processes affected by multiple genes and accumulation of numerous insults throughout life dictate the progression of age-related disorders, but their complex etiology is poorly understood. Postmitotic neurons, such as photoreceptor cells in the retina and epithelial cells in the adjacent retinal pigmented epithelium, are especially susceptible to cellular senescence, which contributes to age-related retinal degeneration (ARD). The multigenic and complex etiology of ARD in humans is reflected by the relative paucity of effective compounds for its early prevention and treatment. To understand the genetic differences that drive ARD pathogenesis, we studied A/J mice, which develop ARD more pronounced than that in other inbred mouse models. Although our investigation of consomic strains failed to identify a chromosome associated with the observed retinal deterioration, pathway analysis of RNA-Seq data from young mice prior to retinal pathological changes revealed that increased vulnerability to ARD in A/J mice was due to initially high levels of inflammatory factors and low levels of homeostatic neuroprotective factors. The genetic signatures of an uncompensated preinflammatory state and ARD progression identified here aid in understanding the susceptible genetic loci that underlie pathogenic mechanisms of age-associated disorders, including several human blinding diseases.
Mustafi, Debarshi; Maeda, Tadao; Kohno, Hideo; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Palczewski, Krzysztof
The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors combination, using a bivariate statistical model that best predict landslide susceptibility. The best predictive model should have a good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power, and should be based on landslide predisposing factors that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2) located in the Northern Portugal. Several destructive landslides occurred in this area in the last decades promoting landscape degradation and other negative human and economic impacts. A landslide inventory was built in 2005-2009 using aerial photo-interpretation (1/5.000 scale) and field work validation. This inventory contains 767 shallow translational slides. The landslide density is 11 events/square kilometre, and each landslide has, on average, 136 m2 and the depth of the slip surface typically ranges from 1 to 1.5 m. The landslide layer was crossed individually with seven landslide predisposing factors (Aspect; Curvature; Slope Angle; Geomorphological Units; Land Use; Inverse Wetness Index; Lithology) and each class within each predisposing theme was weighted using the Information Value Method. In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations were tested which resulted in 120 predictive models. The goodness of fit of each landslide susceptibility model was evaluated by constructing the Success Rate Curves and by computing the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. Two tests were performed to the entire dataset to assess conditional independence: the Overall Conditional Independence (OCI) and the Agterberg & Cheng Conditional Independence Test (ACCIT) (Agterberg and Cheng, 2002). The best landslide susceptibility model was constructed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index and land use) and was compared with a model developed using the total set of landslide predisposing factors. Finally, the predictive capacity of the selected landslide susceptibility model was evaluated by computing Prediction Rate Curves based on the partitioning of landslide inventory using temporal, spatial and random criteria. The same procedure was applied to the seven-factors model for comparison purposes. Results showed that the model of spatial distribution of landslide susceptibility built with three factors is not significantly different from the one produced with the total set of factors. Therefore, it is shown that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using only a few landslides predisposing factors and fulfilling the conditional independence hypothesis.
Pereira, S.; Zêzere, J. L.; Bateira, C.
Blood samples are extensively used for the molecular diagnosis of many hematological diseases. The daily practice in a clinical laboratory of molecular diagnosis in hematology involves using a variety of techniques, based on the amplification of nucleic acids. Current methods for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) use purified genomic DNA, mostly isolated from total peripheral blood cells or white blood cells (WBC). In this paper we describe a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method for genotyping directly from blood cells. Our strategy is based on an initial isolation of the WBCs, allowing the removal of PCR inhibitors, such as the heme group, present in the erythrocytes. Once the erythrocytes have been lysed, in the LightCycler® 2.0 Instrument, we perform a real-time PCR followed by a melting curve analysis for different genes (Factors 2, 5, 12, MTHFR, and HFE). After testing 34 samples comparing the real-time crossing point (CP) values between WBC (5×106 WBC/mL) and purified DNA (20 ng/?L), the results for F5 Leiden were as follows: CP mean value for WBC was 29.26±0.566 versus purified DNA 24.79±0.56. Thus, when PCR was performed from WBC (5×106 WBC/mL) instead of DNA (20 ng/?L), we observed a delay of about 4 cycles. These small differences in CP values were similar for all genes tested and did not significantly affect the subsequent analysis by melting curves. In both cases the fluorescence values were high enough, allowing a robust genotyping of all these genes without a previous DNA purification/extraction.
Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Robles, Juan; Nicolas, Antoni; Gutierrez, Antonio; Ros, Teresa; Amat, Juan Carlos; Alemany, Regina; Vogler, Oliver; Abello, Aina; Noguera, Aina; Besalduch, Joan
We analyzed the role of six common polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes as possible risk factors for having a child with Down syndrome (DS) in 94 Italian mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 113 matched control mothers, both aged less than 35 years at conception. Investigated polymorphisms include methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A>G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A>G, and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 28bp repeat and 1494del6. We also measured the amount of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 42 MDS and 41 matched controls, by means of the micronucleus assay, and searched for association between this cytogenetic endpoint and any of the studied polymorphisms. Micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been analyzed several years after conception: the mean age at sampling was 45.6+/-11.4 years for MDS and 47.95+/-6.9 years for controls. The combined MTHFR 677TT/MTR 2756AA genotype was associated with increased DS risk (P=0.034), and the combined MTHFR 1298AC/TYMS 2R/2R genotype with reduced risk (P=0.003). Moreover, we observed a significant increased frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes in MDS as compared to controls (P<0.0001) and, in the total population, a significant correlation between micronucleated cells and both MTHFR 677C>T (P=0.031) and 1298A>C (P=0.047) polymorphisms. PMID:18983896
Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Bargagna, Stefania; Siciliano, Gabriele; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Palka, Giandomenico; Migliore, Lucia
Recently, we showed that homozygosity for the common 677(C-->T) mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, causing thermolability of the enzyme, is a risk factor for neural-tube defects (NTDs). We now report on another mutation in the same gene, the 1298(A-->C) mutation, which changes a glutamate into an alanine residue. This mutation destroys an MboII recognition site and has an allele frequency of .33. This 1298(A-->C) mutation results in decreased MTHFR activity (one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] P < .0001), which is more pronounced in the homozygous than heterozygous state. Neither the homozygous nor the heterozygous state is associated with higher plasma homocysteine (Hcy) or a lower plasma folate concentration-phenomena that are evident with homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation. However, there appears to be an interaction between these two common mutations. When compared with heterozygosity for either the 677(C-->T) or 1298(A-->C) mutations, the combined heterozygosity for the 1298(A-->C) and 677(C-->T) mutations was associated with reduced MTHFR specific activity (ANOVA P < .0001), higher Hcy, and decreased plasma folate levels (ANOVA P <.03). Thus, combined heterozygosity for both MTHFR mutations results in similar features as observed in homozygotes for the 677(C-->T) mutation. This combined heterozygosity was observed in 28% (n =86) of the NTD patients compared with 20% (n =403) among controls, resulting in an odds ratio of 2.04 (95% confidence interval: .9-4.7). These data suggest that the combined heterozygosity for the two MTHFR common mutations accounts for a proportion of folate-related NTDs, which is not explained by homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation, and can be an additional genetic risk factor for NTDs.
van der Put, N M; Gabreels, F; Stevens, E M; Smeitink, J A; Trijbels, F J; Eskes, T K; van den Heuvel, L P; Blom, H J
Summary Recently, we showed that homozygosity for the common 677(CrT) mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, causing thermolability of the enzyme, is a risk factor for neural-tube defects (NTDs). We now report on another mutation in the same gene, the 1298(ArC) mutation, which changes a glutamate into an alanine residue. This mutation destroys anMboII recognition site and has an
Fons Gabreëls; Erik M. B. Stevens; Jan A. M. Smeitink; Frans J. M. Trijbels; Tom K. A. B. Eskes; Lambert P. van den Heuvel; Henk J. Blom
Background: Estrogen increases serum triglyceride (TG) levels and induces hypertriglyceridemia in susceptible women. The effect of raloxifene (RLX), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, on serum TG has not been studied in detail.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of RLX on serum TG levels in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, including those with predisposing factors for
Lori Mosca; Kristine Harper; Somnath Sarkar; John O'Gorman; Pamela W. Anderson; David A. Cox; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor
Cognitive-behavioral therapy can help many depressed clients learn more effective ways of coping with problems in their lives. However, for many clients with chronic or recurrent depression, it can be helpful to examine the biological, psychological, and social\\/cultural factors that may predispose a person toward depressive episodes. In order to address possible biological predispositions, it is important to assess for
James C. Overholser
Reciprocal translocations produce imbalances by three types of disjunction which are, in decreasing frequency, adjacent 1, 3:1, and adjacent 2. Adjacent 1 disjunction produces duplication deficiencies of inverse topography to those of adjacent 2. The imbalanced chromosome segments in one of these types are balanced in the other. The disjunction 3:1 produces pure trisomies and monosomies. The following situations predispose
P Jalbert; B Sele
Weathering of rock masses often assumes importance as a predisposing factor to slope instability and it is possible to map it at various scales depending on the different purposes. The effects of weathering processes are particularly intense on crystalline rocks (plutonic and metamorphic). These rocks are present in large areas of the globe and widespread in Calabria. The relationships between
L. Borrelli; R. Greco; G. Gullà
Tendon rupture is typically associated with predisposing features including renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, and connective tissue elastosis. We present a case in which none of these risk factors is present and in a completely healthy patient. To our knowledge, this has never been reported in the literature.
Desai, Bobby; Slish, John; Allen, Brandon
The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…
Ngamini Ngui, Andre
Folate, a vitamin of the B group involved in one-carbon group metabolism, plays an important role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Several polymorphisms in the genes involved in folate uptake and biotransformations have been shown to be associated to the risk of cancer and to anticancer drug response. We studied common polymorphisms in MTHFR (N5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase), MTHFD1 (N5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase), MTR
Virginie Charasson; Dominique Hillaire-Buys; Isabelle Solassol; Armelle Laurand-Quancard; Frédéric Pinguet; Valérie Le Morvan; Jacques Robert
We report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation in a 20-year-old male patient with hypopituitarism. Treatment with three consecutive injections of intravitreal ranibizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) resulted in significant improvement of the patient's vision and the appearance of the macula. A search of the literature produced no previously reported case of MTHFR gene mutation associated both CNV and possibly hypopituitarism. With hormone replacement therapy of hypopituitarism, acetyl salicylic acid 100 mg/day also was started. The patient was clinically stable both for CNV and other thromboembolic disorders over a 6-month follow-up and also 1-year follow-up period. PMID:24672570
Aydogdu, Aydogan; Haymana, Cem; Baskoy, Kamil; Durukan, Ali H; Ozgur, Gokhan; Azal, Omer
Six kindreds containing multiple cases of manic-depressive illness (MDI) were genotyped with seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci used in the construction of an index map for chromosome 21. The kindreds were also genotyped with a microsatellite polymorphism for PFKL, a chromosome 21 locus that has shown suggestive linkage to MDI in one pedigree. Evidence of linkage was not found assuming either autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. The nonparametric affected sib pair test did not yield significant evidence of linkage. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Byerley, W.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.; Coon, H. [Univ. of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
RAD51C plays a key role in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair and maintenance of genomic stability. Biallelic RAD51C mutations cause Fanconi anemia, and monoallelic mutations predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer. Genetic variability of RAD51C and its impact in Asian populations have been poorly studied. Here, we report the results of comprehensive mutational screening of the RAD51C gene in 348 BRCA1/2-negative breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Pakistan. Mutation analysis of the complete RAD51C-coding region was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by DNA sequencing of variant fragments. Three novel protein-truncating mutations, c.204T>A, c.225T>G, and c.701C>G, were identified. c.204T>A was found in one out of 22 (4.5 %) early-onset (?45 years of age) ovarian cancer patients and c.225T>G in one out of 119 (0.8 %) patients from breast cancer only families. c.701C>G was found in a 60-year-old control with no family history of breast/ovarian cancer. Furthermore, three novel in silico-predicted potentially functional mutations, a missense mutation, c.873T>G, a variant in 5'UTR, c.1-34T>G, and a recurrent intronic variant, c.965+21A>G, were identified. The missense mutation was observed in a patient with bilateral breast cancer from a breast and ovarian cancer family (HBOC), the 5'UTR variant was noted in an early-onset breast cancer patient, and the intronic variant in one early-onset breast cancer patient and one ovarian cancer patient from a HBOC family. Five of the six mutations described were not detected in 400 healthy controls. These findings suggest that RAD51C plays a marginal role in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition in Pakistan. Reliable estimation of the clinical implications of carrying a deleterious RAD51C mutation will require identification of additional mutation-positive patients/families. PMID:24800917
Rashid, Muhammad U; Muhammad, Noor; Faisal, Saima; Amin, Asim; Hamann, Ute
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of multi-genotype polymorphisms with the stepwise progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and the possibility of predicting those at higher risk. Methods A total of 1,004 subjects were recruited from Feicheng County, China, between Jan. 2004 and Dec. 2007 and examined by endoscopy for esophageal lesions. These subjects included 270 patients with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 262 patients with esophageal squamous cell dysplasia (ESCD), 226 patients with ESCC, and 246 controls with Lugol-voiding area but diagnosed as having normal esophageal squamous epithelial cells by histopathology. The genotypes for CYP2E1 G1259C, hOGG1 C326G, MTHFR C677T, MPO G463A, and ALDH2 allele genes were identified in blood samples collected from all participants. Results The alleles ALDH2 and MTHFR C677T were critical for determining individual susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Compared to the ALDH 1*1 genotype, the ALDH 2*2 genotype was significantly associated with increased risks of BCH, ESCD, and ESCC. However, the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T only increased the risk of ESCC. Further analysis revealed that the combination of the high-risk genotypes 2*2/1*2 of ALDH 2 and TT/TC of MTHFR C677T increased the risk of BCH by 4.0 fold, of ESCD by 3.7 fold, and ESSC by 8.72 fold. The generalized odds ratio (ORG) of the two combined genotypes was 1.83 (95%CI: 1.55-2.16), indicating a strong genetic association with the risk of carcinogenic progression in the esophagus. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the genotypes ALDH2*2 and MTHFR 677TT conferred elevated risk for developing esophageal carcinoma and that the two susceptibility genotypes combined to synergistically increase the risk.
Several independent studies have reported the role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism in strokes, but the results are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed in the present study. In this meta-analysis, a total of 13 studies, including 1974 cases and 2660 controls, were selected to evaluate the possible association. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association in additive, dominant, and recessive models. The overall analysis showed that MTHFR A1298C was associated with a significant increase in the risk of stroke in the heterozygote comparison (AC vs AA: OR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.03-1.34) and in the dominant model (AC/CC vs AA: OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.01-1.49). Stratified analysis showed a significantly strong association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and stroke risk in Asian populations (OR = 1.32 for AC vs AA; OR = 1.94 for CC vs AA; OR = 1.37 for AC/CC vs AA; OR = 1.33 for C vs A allele), but not in Caucasian populations. Additionally, the MTHFR 1298C allele was found to be a risk factor for developing ischemic strokes. However, no statistically significant increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke was found in any of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism could be capable of increasing stroke susceptibility in Asian, but not in Caucasian, populations. PMID:24391036
Lv, Q; Lu, J; Wu, W; Sun, H; Zhang, J
Environmental and genetic factors are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)/spontaneous abortions (SA), which include endocrine, anatomical abnormalities within the genital organs, autoimmune diseases and some gene variants. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the folate/methionine metabolic pathway and it is well established fact that folate deficiency causes pregnancy complications like recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclempsia and birth defects affected pregnancies. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism reduces the enzymatic activity and mimics as folate deficiency. To date, many studies have investigated the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and RPL risk; however, the result is still controversial and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to address the association of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with RPL risk by meta—analysis. By searching electronic databases, total seventeen studies were identified for present meta—analysis. Crude odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the strength of association between A1298C polymorphism and RPL. The results indicate that the A1298C polymorphism is not associated with RPL (ORCvs A = 1.13 ,95 % CI= 0.87—1.46, P = 0.36 ; ORACvs AA = 1.22 ,95 % CI= 0.94— 1.6, P = 0.13; ORCCvsAA =1.35, 95 % CI= 76—2.36, P = 0.30; ORCC+AC vs AA = 1.15, 95 % CI= 88 —1.49, P = 0.29; ORCCvs AC+AA = 1.29, 95 % CI= 76 —2.12, P = 0.34). Further prospective studies were needed to confirm the precise relationship between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and RPL. PMID:24970119
Delirium is a common problem with a reported incidence of 13%-61% in orthopaedic patients. The mortality rate for patients who develop delirium can be as high as 37%. Recent research indicates that delirium may not be completely reversible in all patients. The normal physiological changes of aging predispose elders to the development of delirium. Inadequate pain management and polypharmacy are major precipitating factors for the disorder. New models of delirium pathophysiology are focused on the effects of both direct brain insults and aberrant stress responses. This article will provide a brief overview of the clinical problem of delirium with a focus on the current research evidence regarding predisposing, precipitating, and organic factors that lead to delirium in elderly orthopaedic patients. PMID:21799377
. We tried to characterize the clinical features and findings on chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients\\u000a with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) pulmonary infection without known predisposing lung disease and with no immunodeficiency. We also aimed to clarify\\u000a the small airway and alveolar inflammation using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the affected regions. MAI infection was\\u000a diagnosed in 53 patients
K. Kubo; Y. Yamazaki; T. Hachiya; M. Hayasaka; T. Honda; M. Hasegawa; S. Sone
This naturalistic study describes potential etiological factors in outpatients with functional neuro- logical symptoms recorded during a screening interview with a single psychotherapist in 59 con- secutive patients. The most commonly identified predisposing\\/precipitating factors were trauma (78.0%), family dysfunction (62.7%), and bereavement (62.7%). Family dysfunction (54.2%) and affective disorder (42%) were the commonest perpetuating factors. Trauma was more common in
MARKUS REUBER; STEPHANIE HOWLETT; AJJAZ KHAN; RICHARD A. GRUNEWALD
A retrospective study was performed to determine the predisposing factors associated with the complications of ingested gastrointestinal\\u000a (GI) tract foreign bodies (FBs) in children who had surgical or endoscopic removal. The study was performed in 161 children\\u000a who had endoscopic or surgical removal. The clinical data were evaluated in two groups. In groups I and II, respectively,\\u000a 135 patients with
Baran Tokar; Alper A. Cevik; Huseyin Ilhan
Renal failure predisposes patients to adverse outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery.BackgroundMore than 600,000 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures are done annually in the United States. Some data indicate that 10 to 20% of patients who are undergoing a CABG procedure have a serum creatinine of more than 1.5 mg\\/dl. There are few data on the impact of a
ROBERT J. ANDERSON; MAUREEN O'BRIEN; SAMANTHA MAWHINNEY; CATHERINE B. VILLANUEVA; THOMAS E. MORITZ; GULSHAN K. SETHI; WILLIAM G. HENDERSON; KARL E. HAMMERMEISTER; FREDERICK L. GROVER; A. LAURIE SHROYER
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent for adult T-cell leukemia. The geographic distribution\\u000a of HTLV-1 carriers is quite uneven in Japan and the greatest prevalence is in southwestern Japan. Because many people move\\u000a from endemic areas to the greater Tokyo area, the geographic distribution might have changed. Therefore, we investigated the\\u000a factors predisposing to HTLV-1
Kaoru Uchimaru; Yukari Nakamura; Arinobu Tojo; Toshiki Watanabe; Kazunari Yamaguchi
Prenatal care is important for the health and wellbeing of women and their babies. There is international consensus that prenatal\\u000a care should begin in the first trimester. This study aims to analyze the effects of predisposing, enabling and pregnancy-related\\u000a determinants of late prenatal care initiation. In this prospective observational study, 333 women were recruited consecutively\\u000a at the beginning of their
Katrien Beeckman; Fred Louckx; Koen Putman
Weight gain and metabolic disturbances represent serious side-effects in antipsychotic (AP) treatment, particularly with clozapine and olanzapine. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a key determinant in the folate metabolism and previous studies reported a significant effect on AP-induced weight gain and related metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we investigated MTHFR gene variants and changes in several important metabolic parameters in AP-treated patients. In this study, two functional MTHFR polymorphisms, rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C), were investigated for changes in weight and metabolic parameters. Genotypic associations were evaluated in a large population (n = 347 including 66 first episode psychosis, FEP patients) treated mostly with clozapine and olanzapine. We did not detect any genotypic association with weight changes (p > 0.05) in our total sample and in the sample refined for ancestry and medication. In our allelic analyses, we observed a trend for the 677-C allele to be associated with weight gain in the total sample (p = 0.03). This effect appeared to be driven by the FEP patients where those carrying the C-allele gained, on average, twice as much weight. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphism with HDL cholesterol serum levels in patients (p = 0.031). Overall we did not detect a major effect of two functional MTHFR gene variants and AP-induced weight gain. However, our findings suggest an effect of the C677T polymorphism in FEP patients and changes in weight and cholesterol levels. Further investigations in a larger sample are required. PMID:24725652
Kao, A C C; Rojnic Kuzman, M; Tiwari, A K; Zivkovic, M V; Chowdhury, N I; Medved, V; Kekin, I; Zai, C C; Lieberman, J A; Meltzer, H Y; Bozina, T; Bozina, N; Kennedy, J L; Sertic, J; Müller, D J
Background We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring. Methods We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks’ gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression. Results MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose–response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend < 0.01). Birth weight decreased from 120 to 130 grams as maternal homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06). Conclusions Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes.
Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Hwayoung; Gwak, Hye Sun; Kim, Ki Nam; Chang, Namsoo; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook
OBJECTIVE We tested putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes which regulate the folate/homocysteine metabolism pathway for their contribution to spina bifida (SB) susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN The study consisted of 610 unrelated simplex SB patient families. Genotypes of 46 SNPs located in the coding sequence or promoter region of 11 genes were investigated. Associations between transmission of alleles and SB in the offspring were examined using the reconstruction-combined transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS Significant association of SNP rs5742905 in cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), rs1643649 in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), rs2853533 in thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), and rs3737965 in methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) was found (p= 0.015, 0.041, 0.021, and 0.007 respectively). CONCLUSION Transmission disequilibrium of SNP alleles in CBS, DHFR, MTHFR and TYMS confers an increased susceptibility to SB.
Martinez, Carla A.; Northrup, Hope; Lin, Jone-Ing; Morrison, Alanna C.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Tyerman, Gayle H.; Au, Kit Sing
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful for nominating candidate genes, but typically are unable to establish disease causality or differentiate between the effects of variants in linkage disequilibrium (LD). Additionally, some GWAS loci might contain multiple causative variants or genes that contribute to the overall disease susceptibility at a single locus. However, the majority of current GWAS lack the statistical power to test whether multiple causative genes underlie the same locus, prompting us to adopt an alternative approach to testing multiple GWAS genes empirically. We used gene targeting in a disease-susceptible rat model of genetic hypertension to test all six genes at the Agtrap-Plod1 locus (Agtrap, Mthfr, Clcn6, Nppa, Nppb, and Plod1) for blood pressure (BP) and renal phenotypes. This revealed that the majority of genes at this locus (five out of six) can impact hypertension by modifying BP and renal phenotypes. Mutations of Nppa, Plod1, and Mthfr increased disease susceptibility, whereas Agtrap and Clcn6 mutations decreased hypertension risk. Reanalysis of the human AGTRAP-PLOD1 locus also implied that disease-associated haplotype blocks with polygenic effects were not only possible, but rather were highly plausible. Combined, these data demonstrate for the first time that multiple modifiers of hypertension can cosegregate at a single GWAS locus.
Flister, Michael J.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; O'Meara, Caitlin C.; Endres, Bradley; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Geurts, Aron M.; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard J.; Moreno, Carol
Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.
Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S.; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurelie; Meyers, Matthew S.; Karsenty, Gerard; Burcelin, Remy
Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension. PMID:23612996
Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes bronchiolitis in infants with seasonal frequency, for which vitamin D deficiency and a well-described polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI are important risk factors. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D regulates immune pathways in airway epithelial cells during RSV infection. It is not understood why the VDR FokI polymorphism predisposes to severe RSV bronchiolitis. We investigated how the VDR FokI polymorphism regulates the epithelial response to RSV infection. To this end, we over-expressed the normal and FokI VDR variants in A549 airway epithelial cells. Vitamin D restrained the expression of both NF?B- and STAT1-induced antiviral genes. However, while NF?B control by vitamin D remained intact, both RSV-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and expression of its downstream targets, IRF1 and IRF7, escaped vitamin D control in FokI epithelial cells. The poor capacity of vitamin D to regulate IRF1 in FokI VDR-expressing cells was recapitulated using blood samples from normal and FokI VDR-genotyped healthy donors. Hence, we provide mechanistic insight that the FokI VDR polymorphism renders STAT1-mediated antiviral immune reactions to RSV infection non-responsive to vitamin D control, resulting in enhanced immunopathology and exacerbated RSV bronchiolitis. PMID:24105653
Stoppelenburg, Arie Jan; von Hegedus, Johannes Hendrick; Huis in't Veld, Ron; Bont, Louis; Boes, Marianne
We previously identified a novel genomic instability phenotype of multiple reciprocal chromosomal translocations in a MLH1-defective, microsatellite unstable (MSI) colon cancer cell line (HCA7) and, further, showed that it was unlikely to be directly caused by the mismatch repair (MMR) defect in this cell line. To gain insight into the molecular basis to this novel translocation phenotype, we examined coding and splice-site nucleotide repeat tracts in DNA repair genes for mutations by direct sequencing together with RT-PCR expression analysis of the associated transcript. The material was a selected panel of 8 MSI cell lines including HCA7. A strong candidate identified through this approach was MBD4 as it showed a homozygous truncating mutation associated with substantial loss of the transcript in HCA7 not seen in the other lines. In previous published studies, heterozygous MBD4 mutations were observed in up to 89% of sporadic MSI microdissected colon tumor foci. Using MFISH, we show that over-expression of the truncated MBD4 (+MBD4(tru)) in DLD1, a MSH6 defective, MSI human colon carcinoma cell line predisposed these cells to acquire structural chromosomal rearrangements including multiple reciprocal translocations after irradiation, reminiscent of those seen in HCA7. We also show that over-expression of MBD4(tru) in DLD1 alters the colony survival after exposure to cisplatin or etoposide. These data suggest a wide role for MBD4 in DNA damage response and maintaining chromosomal stability. PMID:18162445
Abdel-Rahman, Wael M; Knuutila, Sakari; Peltomäki, Päivi; Harrison, David J; Bader, Scott A
Folate metabolism deficiency has been related to increased occurrence of maternal non-disjunction resulting in trisomy 21.\\u000a Several polymorphisms in genes coding for folate metabolism enzymes have been investigated for association with the maternal\\u000a risk of Down syndrome (DS) yielding variable results. We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies obtained through\\u000a the PubMed database. The studies on polymorphisms in the MTHFR,
Igor Medica; Ales Maver; Goncalo Figueiredo Augusto; Borut Peterlin
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism. Two polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, were described leading to reduced enzyme activity. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolate agent of consolidation and maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Despite its clinical success, MTX can be associated with serious toxicities resulting in treatment interruption or discontinuation, impacting disease outcome. There is evidence that MTX toxicity can be affected by polymorphisms in genes encoding for drug-metabolizing enzymes such as MTHFR. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms on the frequency of MTX-related toxicity, disease outcome and patients' survival. MTHFR polymorphisms were assessed in 50 adult patients with de novo ALL using real-time PCR. Patients were followed-up for the development of haematologic and/or nonhaematologic toxicity and assessment of clinical outcome. Frequency of C677T polymorphisms was 42% for TT, 24% for CT and 34% for CC; A1298C polymorphisms were 28, 6 and 66% for CC, AC and AA, respectively. MTX therapy was significantly associated with neutropaenia, hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities, unfavourable response at day 14 of induction therapy, increased relapse and mortality rates and shorter survival in patients with 677 TT genotype than in those with CC and CT, whereas 1298 CC genotype patients had lower frequency of neutropaenia, hepatic toxicity and relapse than in those with AA and AC. Our study suggests MTHFR polymorphism as an attractive predictor of MTX-related toxicity in adult ALL, considering it a potential prognostic factor influencing disease outcome. PMID:23183238
Eissa, Deena Samir; Ahmed, Tamer Mohamed
OBJECTIVES—Previous reports have shown raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine in older persons with cognitive impairment. This may be caused by environmental and genetic factors. The relation between cognitive function and a common ala/val mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was studied in those over 85. Homozygous carriers of this mutation are characterised by a lifelong exposure to moderately raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine.?METHODS—In the Leiden 85-plus Study, a population based study of persons aged 85 years and over, the score on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the presence of dementia dependent on the MTHFR genotypes were compared in 641 participants (456 women, 185 men) at baseline. In addition, the association between the MTHFR genotype and cognitive decline was studied by re-examining cognitive function of 172 participants without dementia at baseline after a median follow up of 4.0years.?RESULTS—At baseline, carriers of the ala/ala genotype had a median MMSE score of 27 points (interquartile range (IQR) 21.5-29), for the ala/val genotype it was 26 points (IQR 20-29), and for the val/val genotype it was 27 points (IQR 20-28.3) (p=0.3). The prevalence of dementia was also not significantly different for the various genotypes (ala/ala 22%, ala/val 28%, val/val 27%; p=0.4). None of the carriers of the val/val genotype without cognitive impairment at baseline developed dementia during the follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—Although previous studies have shown that older persons with cognitive impairment have raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine, homozygosity for the ala to val mutation in the MTHFR gene is not a genetic risk factor for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and over.??
Gussekloo, J; Heijmans, B; Slagboom, P; Lagaay, A; Knook, D; Westendorp, R
It has been previously shown that the spermatogenesis associated retrogene, UTP14c, is expressed in over 50% of normal human ovaries and 80% of ovarian cancers. UTP14c is located on chromosome 13 as an intronless copy of the X-linked housekeeping gene, UTP14a. Like all spermatogenesis associated retrogenes, UTP14c is expressed in the testis and is essential for sperm production. It has no known role in the female and is not normally expressed in any cells or organs outside of the gonads. By comparison the protein encoded by UTP14a is found in all cell types and has a dual function. It is primarily involved in the biosynthesis of 18S ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus where it is a component of the U3 small nucleolar RNA associated protein complex. In addition, it down regulates TP53 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm by targeting it for proteolytic degradation. By analogy, we propose that the UTP14c peptide also targets TP53 for degradation. This in turn may prevent cells expressing UTP14c from entering apoptosis. The loss of TP53 in ovarian cells can also result in the down regulation of microRNA-145 (miR-145) expression. The loss of miR-145 can result in the activation of factors that promote oncogenesis and cellular pluripotency which in turn could lead to the development of ovarian cancer. We hypothesize that women, whose ovaries express UTP14c, are predisposed to ovarian cancer due to the disruption of protective signals that normally trigger TP53-mediated apoptosis and the dysregulation of genes that promote oncogenesis, such as c-Myc, that occurs when miR-145 synthesis is disrupted. PMID:22285623
Rohozinski, Jan; Edwards, Creighton L; Anderson, Matthew L
Our objective was to review current literature pertaining to antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage. To this goal we selected all manuscripts published in the English language regarding this topic obtained from a MEDLINE search for 1966 through January 1998. Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. Antenatal fetal intracranial hemorrhage may occur spontaneously, or occur in association with various maternal or fetal conditions. Predisposing maternal conditions at risk for this occurrence include alloimmune and idiopathic thrombocytopenia, von Willebrand's disease, specific medications (warfarin) or illicit drug (cocaine) abuse, seizures, severe abdominal trauma inflicting subsequent fetal injury, amniocentesis, cholestasis of pregnancy and febrile disease. Predisposing fetal conditions include congenital factor-X and factor-V deficiencies, hemorrhage into various congenital tumors, twin-twin transfusion, demise of a co-twin, or fetomaternal hemorrhage. Currently, antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage may be diagnosed by imaging techniques including ultrasonography and less frequently, magnetic resonance imaging. Early real-time sonographic signs of intracranial hemorrhage consist of irregular echogenic patterns representing the associated hematoma that may clearly distort normal intracranial structures. Recent reports have suggested Doppler flow velocimetry and color Doppler imaging as additional tools in detecting fetal intracranial hemorrhage. Various types of antenatal fetal intracranial hemorrhages that have been visualized sonographically include intraventricular, periventricular, subependymal, parenchymal, subdural, and intracerebellar events. Active hemorrhages may be associated with fetal distress manifested by fetal heart rate changes. Infrequently, antenatal ultrasonographic depiction of intracranial hemorrhage may precede devastating sequelae such as hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, porencephaly, or microcephaly. Due to the significant associated neonatal neurological impairment and potential medicolegal implications of antepartum fetal intracranial hemorrhage, it follows that obstetricians and sonographers should be familiar with predisposing factors and typical diagnostic imaging findings of these events. PMID:9759911
Sherer, D M; Anyaegbunam, A; Onyeije, C
OBJECTIVE: We examined how predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors influence mammography referrals by primary care physicians (PCPs). METHODS: Using the 2001-2003 National Ambulatory Medical Care and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, we identified visits to office (n=8,756) and outpatient (n=17,067) PCPs by women?40 without breast symptoms or breast cancer. We examined mammography referrals by predisposing (age, race, ethnicity, education, chronic problem), enabling (income, payer, visits within 12 months, time with physician), and reinforcing factors (physician age, gender, specialty/clinic, PCP status, region, MSA, solo/group practice). Gender, specialty, physician age, time with physician and solo/group were only in NAMCS. Clinic type was only in NHAMCS. We fitted logistic regression models adjusted for all factors and year. RESULTS: Office-based referrals were more likely during visits: for preventive or chronic care; with private payer vs self/uninsured; by women with no visit within 12 months vs?3; lasting?15 minutes; to female PCPs; to PCPs aged ?45; to gynecologists. Outpatient referrals were more likely during visits: by Hispanics; for preventive or chronic care; by women with no visit within 12 months; to one's own PCP; to gynecologic clinics; in the Northeast or Midwest. CONCLUSIONS: Reinforcing factors, in addition to predisposing and enabling factors, are associated with mammography referral. Interventions to increase referrals should consider provider factors and aspects of the healthcare environment, and recognize differences between settings. Efforts to facilitate referrals during chronic care visits or outpatient visits to non-PCP providers may provide opportunities to increase screening. Efforts are needed to ensure that uninsured women are receiving appropriate referrals. PMID:20369031
Sabatino, Susan A; Thompson, Trevor; Coughlin, Steven S; Schappert, Susan M
Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%), use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%), and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32%) appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80%) followed by Penicillium (8%), Candida albicans (4%), Rhizopus (1%), and Chrysosporium (1%), the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38%) was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27%) and A. flavus complex (15%). Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms "primary" and "secondary" otomycosis is important to standardize reporting. PMID:24949016
Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Kotigadde, Subbannayya; Shekhar, Manisha; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Prabhu, Prashanth; D' Souza, Tina; Prasad, Kishore Chandra
OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A patient information sheet, completed while taking a medical history, recorded the presence or absence of four possible predisposing factors. Two infant variables were also noted on physical examination. Patients were diagnosed as having or not having nipple candidiasis on the basis of specific clinical criteria, and statistics on other variables were compared for those with positive and with negative diagnoses. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between nipple candidiasis and three factors: vaginal candidiasis (P = 0.001), previous antibiotic use (P = 0.036), and nipple trauma (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to establish clear causality. However, we recommend that physicians be suspicious of nipple candidiasis; avoid antibiotics or use the shortest effective course; treat yeast vaginitis during the third trimester and after delivery aggressively; and treat mothers for nipple yeast if babies have oral or diaper candidiasis. Breastfeeding mothers can also be counseled in preventive measures.
Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.
Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%), use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%), and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32%) appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80%) followed by Penicillium (8%), Candida albicans (4%), Rhizopus (1%), and Chrysosporium (1%), the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38%) was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27%) and A. flavus complex (15%). Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.
Kotigadde, Subbannayya; Shekhar, Manisha; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Prabhu, Prashanth; D' Souza, Tina; Prasad, Kishore Chandra
Reciprocal translocations produce imbalances by three types of disjunction which are, in decreasing frequency, adjacent 1, 3:1, and adjacent 2. Adjacent 1 disjunction produces duplication deficiencies of inverse topography to those of adjacent 2. The imbalanced chromosome segments in one of these types are balanced in the other. The disjunction 3:1 produces pure trisomies and monosomies. The following situations predispose to adjacent 2 disjunction: translocations between the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes or between one of these and that of a No 9 chromosome; centric segments, either short or carrying a heterochromatic zone (9qh); a balanced translocation in the mother. The factors predisposing to the disjunction adjacent 2 operate by selection, or directly on the meiotic configuration. Some of them (shortness of the interstitial segment, shortness of the short arms of translocation chromosomes) act in both these ways. Their influence is probably responsible for the repetitive and exclusive character of this disjunction. The conditions for the occurrence of the 3:1 disjunctions seem less strict than those for adjacent 2, although they should be of the same nature (involvement of acrocentrics or a chromosome 9 in the translocation, maternal origin). Images
Jalbert, P; Sele, B
Purpose To investigate the underlying genetic variation between candidate genes and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in both Nepalese and Australian populations. Methods A total of 213 patients with PACG (106 Nepalese and 107 Australian) and 492 age and sex matched controls (204 Nepalese and 288 Australian) were included in the current study. Three candidate genes were selected; methyl-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), calcitonin receptor-like receptor gene (CALCRL), and membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP). Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped to capture the majority of common variation across each locus. Allele and haplotype analyses were conducted using PLINK. Results SNPs in the nanophthalmos gene MFRP were found to be nominally associated with PACG under the allelic model. Two SNPs were associated in the Australian cohort (rs948414; p=0.02 and rs36015759; p=0.02), and a single SNP in the Nepalese cohort (rs10790289; p=0.03), however these SNPs failed to remain significant after adjustment for sex and age. A haplotype at the CALCRL gene (AATACAGAT) was associated in the Australian cohort (corrected p-value=0.024). No association was observed in either cohort for MTHFR. Conclusions This study implicates genetic variation at the CALCRL gene in the pathogenesis of PACG in an Australian Caucasian cohort. Additionally, the MFRP gene shows tendency to be associated with PACG in both the Australian and Nepalese cohorts. Further investigation in a larger cohort is warranted to confirm these findings. No statistically significant associations were identified between MTHFR and PACG in either population.
Burdon, Kathryn P.; Thapa, Suman S.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Craig, Jamie E.
Studies have revealed that elevated homocysteine levels can cause damage to motor neurons through multiple neurotoxic mechanisms, thus leading to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One way by which homocysteine levels are increased in the body is the consequence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms. Therefore, to address this question, we studied the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in 437 sporadic ALS (SALS) and 439 healthy controls to learn whether they were associated with SALS. The overall SALS were not associated with MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (?(2)=1.378; p=0.502; ?(2)=1.304; p=0.521, respectively). However, when we stratified results in terms of gender, we found that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism (?(2)=6.376; p=0.041), T677T genotype (?(2)=5.508; p=0.019; odds ratio [OR]=2.561; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.142-5.744), C677C/A1298A (?(2)=5.216; p=0.022; OR=0.424, 95% CI=0.199-0.900), and T677T/A1298A (?(2)=6.639; p=0.010; OR=2.900; 95% CI=1.252-6.717) compound genotypes were associated with SALS in female patients only. Moreover, stratification of SALS according to the onset of disease indicated that there was no association between MTHFR C677T (?(2)=1.565; p=0.457; A1298C ?(2)=3.461; p=0.177) polymorphisms and overall spinal onset SALS. Further stratification analysis according to gender revealed that there was a remarkable association between MTHFR C677T (?(2)=9.728, p=0.008), T677T genotype (?(2)=7.820; p=0.005; OR=3.126; 95% CI=1.361-7.178) and T allele (?(2)=5.000; p=0.025; OR=1.711; 95% CI=1.067-2.745), and T677T/A1298A compound genotype (?(2)=9.108; p=0.003; OR=3.540; 95% CI=1.494-8.387) and spinal onset female SALS only. Likewise, there was also association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (?(2)=5.946; p=0.051) and the C1298C genotype (?(2)=5.282; p=0.022; OR=2.524; 95% CI=1.125-5.658), and the C677T/C1298C compound genotype (?(2)=7.155; p=0.007; OR=1.045; 95% CI=0.983-1.112) and bulbar onset SALS only in women. In conclusion, the evidence we provide here clearly shows that MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are genetic risk factors for SALS in women in a gender-specific manner whether they are of spinal or bulbar onset. PMID:22385294
Sazci, Ali; Ozel, Mavi Deniz; Emel, Ergul; Idrisoglu, Halil Atilla
A critical link between hemostatic factors and atherosclerosis has been inferred from a variety of indirect observations, including the expression of procoagulant and fibrinolytic factors within atherosclerotic vessels, the presence of fibrin in intimal lesions, and the cellular infiltration of mural thrombi leading to their incorporation into developing plaques. To directly examine the role of the key fibrinolytic factor, plasminogen, in atherogenesis, plasminogen-deficient mice were crossed to hypercholesterolemic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice predisposed to atherosclerosis. We report that the loss of plasminogen greatly accelerates the formation of intimal lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient animals, whereas plasminogen deficiency alone does not cause appreciable atherosclerosis. These studies provide direct evidence that circulating hemostatic factors strongly influence vessel wall disease in the context of a disorder in lipid metabolism.
Xiao, Qing; Danton, Mary Jo S.; Witte, David P.; Kowala, Mark C.; Valentine, Maria T.; Bugge, Thomas H.; Degen, Jay L.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in North America. It is multi-factorial, with a variety of physical and physiological stressors combining to predispose cattle to pneumonia. However, efforts to discern which factors are most important have frequently failed to establish definitive answers. Calves are at highest risk shortly after transport. Risk factors include purchasing from sale barns and commingling. It is unclear whether or not these practices increase susceptibility, increase exposure, or are proxies for poor management. Lighter-weight calves appear to be at greater risk, although this has not been consistent. Persistent infection (PI) with bovine virus diarrhea virus increases BRD occurrence, but it is unclear if PI calves affect other cattle in the feedlot. The complexity of BRD has made it difficult to define involvement of individual factors. Stressors may play a role as “necessary but not sufficient” components, requiring additive effects to cause disease.
Taylor, Jared D.; Fulton, Robert W.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Step, Douglas L.; Confer, Anthony W.
This study used national administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to examine predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to multiple levels of psychotherapy utilization in a sample of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or anxiety. The database was queried for all veterans who were newly diagnosed with PTSD, depression, or anxiety during the 2010 fiscal year and received at least 1 outpatient psychotherapy session in the year following diagnosis (N = 130,331). Veterans were classified as low (51.0%; 1-3 sessions), moderate (38.3%; 4-18 sessions), high (8.7%; 19-51 sessions), or very high (1.9%; 52 or more sessions) psychotherapy users based on the total number of psychotherapy visits during the 1-year follow-up period. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine predictors of utilization level. Predisposing factors of gender and marital status were modestly associated with utilization. Several need factors were strongly associated with utilization; very high users had higher rates of PTSD and substance use disorders, more comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and more inpatient psychiatric visits. Very high users were also more likely to demonstrate enabling factors, including living closer to a VHA facility and seeking care at more complex facilities. Overall, need factors appeared to be most strongly linked to psychotherapy utilization. These results suggest many patients may not receive a clinically optimal dose of psychotherapy, highlighting the need to enhance retention in therapy for low utilizers and examine whether very high utilizers are benefitting from extensive courses of treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24841513
Hundt, Natalie E; Barrera, Terri L; Mott, Juliette M; Mignogna, Joseph; Yu, Hong-Jen; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Stanley, Melinda A; Cully, Jeffrey A
Weathering of rock masses often assumes importance as a predisposing factor to slope instability and it is possible to map it at various scales depending on the different purposes. The effects of weathering processes are particularly intense on crystalline rocks (plutonic and metamorphic). These rocks are present in large areas of the globe and widespread in Calabria. The relationships between rock mass weathering grades and slope instabilities are analysed, with reference to sectors (1:50,000 scale) and areas (1:10,000 scale) where crystalline rocks are strongly affected by weathering. To this aim a reconnaissance procedure has been proposed to delimitate the zones with different weathering condition, three macro-classes at average scale (1:50,000) and six classes at detail scale (1:10,000). In this procedure first analysis of aerial photos and then field observations of representative situations have been used. The reconnaissance procedure has been verified in a selected study area (Acri), whose geological features are provided, by the comparison with weathering maps obtained by means of a control procedure. This last procedure consists of observations and index tests carried out in check points located in representative check sites (discolouration, sound when struck by geological hammer, effect of the point of geological pick, breaking with the hands, rebound of Schmidt Hammer, grain-size analysis). The results obtained confirm through quantitative data that the weathering of a rock mass can be assumed as a predisposing factor to slope instability. At average scale (1:50,000) the reconnaissance procedure is able to give weathering maps representative for this type of evaluation (the ratio between the landslides area in each weathering macro-class and the whole landslide area goes from 67% to 14% for the macro-class A and from 24% to 9% for the macro-class B); at detail scale (1:10,000) it is necessary to use a control procedure to obtain weathering maps indicative of predisposition to slope instabilities.
Borrelli, L.; Greco, R.; Gullà, G.
Introduction Folate and one-carbon metabolism are linked to cancer risk through their integral role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, particularly MTHFR, has been associated with risk of a number of cancers in epidemiologic studies, but little is known regarding renal cancer. Methods Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to produce high genomic coverage of 13 gene regions of one-carbon metabolism (ALDH1L1, BHMT, CBS, FOLR1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TYMS) and the closely associated glutathione synthesis pathway (CTH, GGH, GSS) were genotyped for 777 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases and 1,035 controls in the Central and Eastern European Renal Cancer case-control study. Associations of individual SNPs (n?=?163) with RCC risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and study center. Minimum p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify gene regions associated with risk, and haplotypes were evaluated within these genes. Results The strongest associations with RCC risk were observed for SLC19A1 (Pmin-P?=?0.03) and MTHFR (Pmin-P?=?0.13). A haplotype consisting of four SNPs in SLC19A1 (rs12483553, rs2838950, rs2838951, and rs17004785) was associated with a 37% increased risk (p?=?0.02), and exploratory stratified analysis suggested the association was only significant among those in the lowest tertile of vegetable intake. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine variation in one-carbon metabolism genes in relation to RCC risk. We identified a novel association with SLC19A1, which is important for transport of folate into cells. Replication in other populations is required to confirm these findings.
Gibson, Todd M.; Brennan, Paul; Han, Summer; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helen; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Slamova, Alena; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Mayne, Susan T.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nat; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Boffetta, Paolo; Moore, Lee E.
Viridans streptococci (VS) are an increasing cause of bacteraemia in neutropenic patients with cancer. Case–control studies of predisposing factors for acquisition of this infection in children are not published. Between January 1989 and December 1999, 168 episodes of bacteraemia in 161 children with fever and neutropenia of haemato-oncology origin were analysed. 15 cases (9%) in 15 patients were caused by
H. Paganini; V Staffolani; P. Zubizarreta; L. Casimir; H. Lopardo; V. Luppino
Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient–physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based
Clara Manfredi; Karen Kaiser; Alicia K. Matthews; Timothy P. Johnson
The breast cancer susceptibility gene Brca2 is known to be responsible for a substantial portion of inherited breast cancer. An appropriate animal model is necessary to determine how specific defects in Brca2 strongly predispose to breast tumorigenesis. W...
K. McAllister R. Wiseman
Positional asphyxia refers to a situation where there is compromise of respiration because of splinting of the chest and/or diaphragm preventing normal respiratory excursion, or occlusion of the upper airway due to abnormal positioning of the body. Examination of autopsy files at Forensic Science SA revealed instances where positional asphyxia resulted from inadvertent positioning that compromised respiration due to intoxication, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Parkinson disease, Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, Lafora disease and quadriplegia. While the manner of death was accidental in most cases, in one instance suicide could not be ruled out. We would not exclude the possibility of individuals with significant cardiac disease succumbing to positional asphyxia, as cardiac disease may be either unrelated to the terminal episode or, alternatively, may result in collapse predisposing to positional asphyxia. Victims of positional asphyxia do not extricate themselves from dangerous situations due to impairment of cognitive responses and coordination resulting from intoxication, sedation, neurological diseases, loss of consciousness, physical impairment or physical restraints. PMID:18761306
Byard, Roger W; Wick, Regula; Gilbert, John D
The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1 is up-regulated in many human tumors in which nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is implicated and contributes significantly to tumor cell survival and chemoresistance. We previously found that NF-?B induces transcription of bfl-1 and that the Bfl-1 protein is also regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. However, the role that dysregulation of Bfl-1 turnover plays in cancer is not known. Here we show that ubiquitination-resistant mutants of Bfl-1 display increased stability and greatly accelerated tumor formation in a mouse model of leukemia/lymphoma. We also show that tyrosine kinase Lck is up-regulated and activated in these tumors and leads to activation of the IkappaB kinase, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling pathways, which are key mediators in cancer. Coexpression of Bfl-1 and constitutively active Lck promoted tumor formation, whereas Lck knockdown in tumor-derived cells suppressed leukemia/lymphomagenesis. These data demonstrate that ubiquitination is a critical tumor suppression mechanism regulating Bfl-1 function and suggest that mutations in bfl-1 or in the signaling pathways that control its ubiquitination may predispose one to cancer. Furthermore, because bfl-1 is up-regulated in many human hematopoietic tumors, this finding suggests that strategies to promote Bfl-1 ubiquitination may improve therapy.
Fan, Gaofeng; Simmons, Matthew J.; Ge, Sheng; Dutta-Simmons, Jui; Kucharczak, Jerome; Ron, Yacov; Weissmann, David; Chen, Chiann-Chyi; Mukherjee, Chandreyee; White, Eileen
A connection between pain and depression has long been recognized in the clinical setting; however, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we showed that mechanical hyperalgesia induced by unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation was exacerbated in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with genetically predisposed depressive behavior. Reciprocally, TMJ inflammation enhanced depressive behavior such that a lower nociceptive threshold correlated with a higher score of depressive behavior in the same WKY rats. As compared with Wistar rats, WKY rats exhibited a lower plasma melatonin level, downregulation of the melatonin MT1 receptor, but upregulation of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Intracisternal administration of 6-chloromelatonin (250?g, twice daily × 7 days) concurrently attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia and depressive behavior in WKY rats as well as downregulated the NR1 expression in the ipsilateral Sp5C. In patch-clamp recordings, melatonin dose-dependently decreased NMDA-induced currents in spinal cord dorsal horn substantia gelatinosa neurons. These results demonstrate a reciprocal relationship between TMJ inflammation-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and depressive behavior and suggest that the central melatoninergic system, through modulation of the NMDA receptor expression and activity, may play a role in the mechanisms of the comorbidity between pain and depression.
Wang, Shuxing; Tian, Yinghong; Song, Li; Lim, Grewo; Tan, Yonghui; You, Zerong; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren
This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age. PMID:23222092
Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T
Purpose. To determine the mechanisms predisposing penile fracture as well as the rate of long-term penile deformity and erectile and voiding functions. Methods. All fractures were repaired on an emergency basis via subcoronal incision and absorbable suture with simultaneous repair of eventual urethral lesion. Patients' status before fracture and voiding and erectile functions at long term were assessed by periodic follow-up and phone call. Detailed history included cause, symptoms, and single-question self-report of erectile and voiding functions. Results. Among the 44 suspicious cases, 42 (95.4%) were confirmed, mean age was 34.5 years (range: 18–60), mean follow-up 59.3 months (range 9–155). Half presented the classical triad of audible crack, detumescence, and pain. Heterosexual intercourse was the most common cause (28 patients, 66.7%), followed by penile manipulation (6 patients, 14.3%), and homosexual intercourse (4 patients, 9.5%). “Woman on top” was the most common heterosexual position (n = 14, 50%), followed by “doggy style” (n = 8, 28.6%). Four patients (9.5%) maintained the cause unclear. Six (14.3%) patients had urethral injury and two (4.8%) had erectile dysfunction, treated by penile prosthesis and PDE-5i. No patient showed urethral fistula, voiding deterioration, penile nodule/curve or pain. Conclusions. “Woman on top” was the potentially riskiest sexual position (50%). Immediate surgical treatment warrants long-term very low morbidity.
Reis, Leonardo O.; Cartapatti, Marcelo; Marmiroli, Rafael; de Oliveira Junior, Eduardo Jeronimo; Saade, Ricardo Destro; Fregonesi, Adriano
Pneumocystis jirovecii (former carinii) pneumonia, is a life-threatening opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the predisposing factors, clinical features and outcome of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-negative patients. The medical records of 62 adult patients with PCP, hospitalized at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece during a 10-year period (2004-2013) were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were immunosuppressed prior to the development of PCP. Thirty one patients (50%) suffered malignant hematological disease, 16 (26%) solid tumor and 15 (24%) had chronic inflammatory disease. Only 17 (27%) had received long-term systemic corticosteroids. All had symptoms of pneumonia upon admission, while 12 (19%) were suffering respiratory failure. Twenty one (34%) had received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis before the PCP onset. Eight patients (13%) were admitted to the ICU. Mortality attributable to PCP reached 29%. Mortality attributable to PCP was higher in patients with solid tumors. TMP-SMX prophylaxis failed in a significant portion of the present cohort. Hence, PCP should be included in the differential diagnosis in immunocompromised patients with symptoms from the respiratory tract even if TMP-SMX has been given as prophylaxis. PMID:24767467
Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Valachis, Antonis; Velegraki, Maria; Antoniou, Maria; Christofaki, Maria; Vrentzos, George E; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Samonis, George
Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-S-methyl-ester, BTH) and Tiadinil [N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL]. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in wild-type and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by Phytophthora capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.
Pye, Matthew F.; Hakuno, Fumiaki; MacDonald, James D.; Bostock, Richard M.
6,584 population over 40 years old in Canton universities and factories were screened for the predisposing eyes of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). In the screening, three methods for the measurement of anterior chamber depth were used and compared and the critical limits of two simple ones of them [peripheral anterior chamber depth (PACD) and oblique illumination test with a flashlight] were evaluated. It was found that the incidence of PACG is as high as 10.0% in eyes with axial anterior chamber depth (AACD) < or = 2.0 mm, it is 6.7% in eyes with peripheral anterior chamber depth (PACD) < or = 1/4 corneal thickness (CT) and is 6.9% in eyes with iris light band ratio (ILBR) < or = 1/4. Also, we found that the incidence of PACG is as high as 77.8% in eyes with AACD < or = 1.6 mm and 100.0% in, AACD < or = 1.4 mm. The authors propose that PACD < or = 1/4 CT and ILBR < or = 1/4 can be the critical values of the two methods for the primary step of PACG screening. PMID:8706580
Ye, T; Mao, W; Lu, D
Background High demands imposed to the shoulder during tennis activity can decrease the efficiency of static and dynamic constraints. Subtle or frank instability of the glenohumeral joint may occur, and long term degenerative changes may be expected. Objective To determine and compare the prevalence of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in senior tennis players and matched controls. Study design Cross sectional controlled study. Methods 18 asymptomatic senior tennis players were studied (17 male; mean (SD) age, 57.2 (8.8) years) with no history of shoulder surgery or major trauma. There were 18 matched controls. Radiographs were used to determine glenohumeral osteoarthritic changes: joint space narrowing, humeral and glenoid subchondral sclerosis, humeral and glenoid juxta?articular cysts, osteophytes, humeral and glenoid flattening, humeral posterior displacement and glenoid posterior erosion. Findings were classified as normal, minimal, moderate, or severe changes. Results 33% of the players (95% confidence interval (CI), 13% to 59%) had osteoarthritic changes in their dominant shoulder (n?=?6; five with minimal changes, one with moderate changes), and 11% of the controls (95% CI, 1% to 34%) had articular degeneration on their dominant side (n?=?2; both minimal changes) (p?=?0.04, Wilcoxon test). The osteoarthritic group was significantly older than the players without degenerative changes (p?=?0.008). Conclusions The prevalence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the dominant shoulder was greater in former elite tennis players than in sedentary controls. Prolonged intensive tennis practice may be a predisposing factor for the development of mild degenerative articular changes in the dominant shoulder.
Maquirriain, J; Ghisi, J P; Amato, S
Cancer-associated thrombosis often lacks a clear etiology. However, it is linked to a poor prognosis and represents the second-leading cause of death in cancer patients. Recent studies have shown that chromatin released into blood, through the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), is procoagulant and prothrombotic. Using a murine model of chronic myelogenous leukemia, we show that malignant and nonmalignant neutrophils are more prone to NET formation. This increased sensitivity toward NET generation is also observed in mammary and lung carcinoma models, suggesting that cancers, through a systemic effect on the host, can induce an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils, which are predisposed to NET formation. In addition, in the late stages of the breast carcinoma model, NETosis occurs concomitant with the appearance of venous thrombi in the lung. Moreover, simulation of a minor systemic infection in tumor-bearing, but not control, mice results in the release of large quantities of chromatin and a prothrombotic state. The increase in neutrophil count and their priming is mediated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which accumulates in the blood of tumor-bearing mice. The prothrombotic state in cancer can be reproduced by treating mice with G-CSF combined with low-dose LPS and leads to thrombocytopenia and microthrombosis. Taken together, our results identify extracellular chromatin released through NET formation as a cause for cancer-associated thrombosis and unveil a target in the effort to decrease the incidence of thrombosis in cancer patients.
Demers, Melanie; Krause, Daniela S.; Schatzberg, Daphne; Martinod, Kimberly; Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Scadden, David T.; Wagner, Denisa D.
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic, widespread skin condition, which is considered a multifactorial disease influenced, in part, by Malassezia spp. opportunistic activities, as well as various endogenous and exogenous factors. Malassezia species are lipophilic, lipid-dependent yeasts that are members of the normal mycobiota of the human skin. Their isolation from SD lesions varies around the world and the study of the relationship among factors such as gender, age, immunosuppressive condition of the patient and SD development, can lead to a better understanding of this disease. To elucidate the association of age and gender with the development of SD and to precisely determine the Malassezia species involved in the disease, samples were obtained from 134 individuals, including individuals without lesions, human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, individuals with seborrheic dermatitis, and HIV patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Malassezia spp. were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bayesian inference. This study revealed that age and gender are not predisposing factors for SD development, and that the most frequent species of Malassezia related to SD development among the Colombian population is M. restricta. We also report the isolation of M. yamatoensis for the first time in Colombia, and propose an ITS2 secondary structure from Malassezia taxa that can be used for precise identification and to establish more robust phylogenetic relationships. PMID:23947747
Amado, Yulien; Patiño-Uzcátegui, Anelvi; Cepero de García, Maria C; Tabima, Javier; Motta, Adriana; Cárdenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana
\\u000a Mutagenesis is a change or alteration in the DNA sequences of a gene. Mutagenic events may occur spontaneously within the\\u000a genome of an organism and many times do not lead to functional consequences or an altered phenotype. However, at times a change\\u000a in the coding sequence of a gene manifests itself as a dysfunctional phenotypic trait or predisposes an individual
Ellen C. Breen; Jason X.-J. Yuan
The incidence of cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS is significant. Predisposing factors, laboratory findings and outcome were assessed in 60 patients with cryptococcal infections of the central nervous system over a 17.5-year period (Jan. 1978-June 1995). Predisposing factors for cryptococcal infection were identified in 36 patients, with HIV infection being the commonest (18). Cryptococcal cultures were positive in all patients.
NEELAM KHANNA; A. CHANDRAMUKI; ANITA DESAI; V. RAVI
KEY WORDS: Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD); Risk; Hazard; Susceptibility; Piemonte; Italy Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) and "sackung" deformations are complex processes of gravitational movement that involve large volumes of rock, often several tens of meters thick and several kilometers long. The development and characteristics of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) have not yet been fully explained. If unrecognized, these deformations can cause serious damage to rigid infrastructures such as dams, tunnels, and water conduits. Early identification of these phenomena and their predisposing factors through detailed geological and geomorphological surveys is therefore necessary for the correct location, construction, and expansion of fixed infrastructures. The hazard evaluation component of landslide risk assessment combines measures of susceptibility and triggering variables. This approach may not be applicable to DSGSDs, given the difficulty of quantifying the probability of occurrence within a specified period of time without well-defined DSGSD triggering factors. Evaluation of DSGSDs should thus be restricted to the assessment of susceptibility. Zones of DSGSD susceptibility can be identified through geological and geomorphological analysis, by overlapping maps of the four main predisposing factors (lithology, neotectonic activity, relief energy, morphological deglaciation evidence). The attribution of a susceptibility level to a certain zone cannot replace a hazard evaluation, but it can be a good index of the potential presence of a DSGSD. A DSGSD is most likely in a territory characterized by the worst combination of predisposing factors (high susceptibility): poor rock mechanics, intense neotectonic activity (high seismicity, active faults), high energy relief, and evidence of past glacialism. The probability of a DSGSD correspondingly decreases if one or more of the predisposing factors are absent (low susceptibility). A case study of two DSGSDs located in the Rodoretto Valley (northwestern Alps, Italy) has been examined. After detailed field survey provided morphological identification of these features, the authors conducted a back-analysis to assess the susceptibility of the entire valley. Each main predisposing factor has been independently mapped, and the level of susceptibility to DSGSD has been identified through geographic information system (GIS) overlapping of the four maps. The results confirm the combined presence of four main predisposing factors for the examined DGSDs, indicating high susceptibility.
Lo Russo, S.; Forno, M. G.; Taddia, G.; Gnavi, L.
The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019
Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M
Our objective was to investigate the distributions of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) MS4A2 E237G, MS4A2 C-109T, ADRB2 R16G, IL4RA I75V, IL4 C-590T, and IL13 C1923T in Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han children with asthma. This case-control association study enrolled 382 unrelated Mauritian Indian children, 193 with asthma and 189 healthy controls, and 384 unrelated Chinese Han children, 192 with asthma and 192 healthy controls. The SNP loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the Chinese Han samples and TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR for the Mauritian Indian samples. In the Mauritian Indian children, there was a significant difference in the distribution of IL13 C1923T between the asthma and control groups (P=0.033). The frequency of IL13 C1923T T/T in the Mauritian Indian asthma group was significantly higher than in the control group [odds ratio (OR)=2.119, 95% confidence interval=1.048-4.285]. The Chinese Han children with asthma had significantly higher frequencies of MS4A2 C-109T T/T (OR=1.961, P=0.001) and ADRB2 R16G A/A (OR=2.575, P=0.000) than the control group. The IL13 C1923T locus predisposed to asthma in Mauritian Indian children, which represents an ethnic difference from the Chinese Han population. The MS4A2 C-109T T/T and ADRB2 R16G A/A genotypes were associated with asthma in the Chinese Han children.
Ramphul, K.; Lv, J.; Hua, L.; Liu, Q.H.; Fang, D.Z.; Ji, R.X.; Bao, Y.X.
Objective: Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is a childhood encephalopathy following severe febrile seizures, leaving neurologic sequelae in many patients. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we clarified that genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor (ADORA2A), whose activation is involved in excitotoxicity, may be a predisposing factor of AESD. Methods: We analyzed 4 ADORA2A single nucleotide polymorphisms in 85 patients with AESD. The mRNA expression in brain samples, mRNA and protein expression in lymphoblasts, as well as the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by lymphoblasts in response to adenosine were compared among ADORA2A diplotypes. Results: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were completely linked, which resulted in 2 haplotypes, A and B. Haplotype A (C at rs2298383, T at rs5751876, deletion at rs35320474, and C at rs4822492) frequency in patients was significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.005). Homozygous haplotype A (AA diplotype) had a higher risk of developing AESD (odds ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.32–4.08; p = 0.003) via a recessive model. mRNA expression was significantly higher in AA than AB and BB diplotypes, both in the brain (p = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and lymphoblasts (p = 0.035 and 0.003, respectively). In lymphoblasts, ADORA2A protein expression (p = 0.024), as well as cellular cAMP production (p = 0.0006), was significantly higher in AA than BB diplotype. Conclusions: AA diplotype of ADORA2A is associated with AESD and may alter the intracellular adenosine/cAMP cascade, thereby promoting seizures and excitotoxic brain damage in patients.
Shinohara, Mayu; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Hirose, Shinichi; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Takita, Junko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Kubota, Masaya; Yamanaka, Gaku; Shiihara, Takashi; Kumakura, Akira; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomohide; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Mizuguchi, Masashi
One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) and turkey oak (Q. cerris) seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day(-1), for 30 days) and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves. PMID:17450300
Paoletti, Elena; Anselmi, Naldo; Franceschini, Antonio
A retrospective study was performed to determine the predisposing factors associated with the complications of ingested gastrointestinal (GI) tract foreign bodies (FBs) in children who had surgical or endoscopic removal. The study was performed in 161 children who had endoscopic or surgical removal. The clinical data were evaluated in two groups. In groups I and II, respectively, 135 patients with no complications and 26 patients with complications were analyzed. The relative risk analysis was performed for the risk factors. The number of the patients with an accurate history and the radiopaque FBs was significantly higher in group I. Metal, especially sharp objects, and food plugs obstructing a diseased esophagus were the most common FBs found in group II. The majority of the FBs of both groups were entrapped in esophagus, the number of the FBs distal to esophagus was significantly higher and duration of lodgment was significantly longer in group II. Esophageal abrasion, laceration and bleeding, complete esophageal obstruction, caustic injury, severe esophageal stricture, laryngeal edema, recurrent aspiration pneumonia, loss of weight, intestinal perforation, constipation and intestinal obstruction were determined as complications. The relative risk was >1 for duration of lodgment more than 24 h, for sharp or pointed objects, button batteries, nonopaque objects, diseased esophagus and for the objects located below the upper third of esophagus. Type, radiopacity, location and duration of the ingested GI tract FB determine the outcome. A delayed diagnosis is the most significant factor increasing the risk of complications. Physician must maintain a high index of suspicion and a more extensive history; physical examination and radiodiagnostic investigation should be obtained in suspected cases. PMID:17043873
Tokar, Baran; Cevik, Alper A; Ilhan, Huseyin
Mitochondria–derived oxygen free radical(s) are important mediators of oxidative cellular injury. It is widely hypothesized that excess NO enhances O2•? generated by mitochondria under certain pathological conditions. In the mitochondrial electron transport chain, succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) catalyzes the electron transfer reaction from succinate to cytochrome c. To gain the insights into the molecular mechanism of how NO overproduction may mediate the oxygen free radical generation by SCR, we employed isolated SCR, cardiac myoblast H9c2, and endothelial cells to study the interaction of NO with SCR in vitro and ex vivo. Under the conditions of enzyme turnover in the presence of NO donor (DEANO), SCR gained pro-oxidant function for generating hydroxyl radical as detected by EPR spin trapping using DEPMPO. The EPR signal associated with DEPMPO/•OH adduct was nearly completely abolished in the presence of catalase or an iron chelator and partially inhibited by SOD, suggesting the involvement of the iron-H2O2 dependent Fenton reaction or O2•?–dependent Haber-Weiss mechanism. Direct EPR measurement of SCR at 77 °K indicated the formation of a nonheme iron-NO complex, implying that electron leakage to molecular oxygen was enhanced at the FAD cofactor, and that excess NO predisposed SCR to produce •OH. In H9c2 cells, SCR dependent oxygen free radical generation was stimulated by NO released from DEANO or produced by the cells following exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation. With shear exposure that led to overproduction of NO by the endothelium, SCR mediated oxygen free radical production was also detected in cultured vascular endothelial cells.
Chen, Jingfeng; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Alevriadou, B. Rita; Zweier, Jay L.; Chen, Yeong-Renn
Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) 3 (Rnd3), a member of the small Rho GTPase family, has been suggested to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration, and apoptosis through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling pathway. The biological function of Rnd3 in the heart is unknown. The downregulation of small GTPase Rnd3 transcripts was found in patients with end-stage heart failure. The pathological significance of Rnd3 loss in the transition to heart failure remains unexplored. To investigate the functional consequence of Rnd3 downregulation and the associated molecular mechanism, we generated Rnd3(+/-) haploinsufficient mice to mimic the downregulation of Rnd3 observed in the failing human heart. Rnd3(+/-) mice were viable; however, the mice developed heart failure after pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Remarkable apoptosis, increased caspase-3 activity, and elevated Rho kinase activity were detected in the Rnd3(+/-) haploinsufficient animal hearts. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase by fasudil treatment partially improved Rnd3(+/-) mouse cardiac functions and attenuated myocardial apoptosis. To determine if Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1) was responsible for Rnd3 deficiency-mediated apoptotic cardiomyopathy, we established a double-knockout mouse line, the Rnd3 haploinsufficient mice with ROCK1-null background (Rnd3(+/-/ROCK1-/-)). Again, genetic deletion of ROCK1 partially but not completely rescued Rnd3 deficiency-mediated heart failure phenotype. These data suggest that downregulation of Rnd3 correlates with cardiac loss of function as in heart failure patients. Animals with Rnd3 haploinsufficiency are predisposed to hemodynamic stress. Hyperactivation of Rho kinase activity is responsible in part for the apoptotic cardiomyopathy development. Further investigation of ROCK1-independent mechanisms in Rnd3-mediated cardiac remodeling should be the focus for future study. PMID:24901055
Yue, X; Yang, X; Lin, X; Yang, T; Yi, X; Dai, Y; Guo, J; Li, T; Shi, J; Wei, L; Fan, G-C; Chen, C; Chang, J
Background The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. Methods We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined by blood glucose levels. Education, income and paternal occupation were assessed as indicators of socioeconomic status. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of socioeconomic status and diabetes by estimating sex-specific and age-adjusted prevalence ratios and their corresponding 95%-confidence intervals. To explore the relationship between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms and socioeconomic status sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios were computed. We adjusted the alpha-level for multiple testing of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms using Bonferroni’s method ( ? BF?~?0.005). In addition, we explored the association of a genetic risk score with socioeconomic status. Results Social inequalities in diabetes were observed for all indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there were no significant associations between individual diabetes-related risk alleles and socioeconomic status with odds ratios ranging from 0.87 to 1.23. Similarly, the genetic risk score analysis revealed no evidence for an association. Conclusions Our data provide no evidence for an association between 11 diabetes-related risk alleles and different indicators of socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort, suggesting that the explored genetic variants do not contribute to health inequalities in diabetes.
The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for diabetic long-term complications has not been sufficiently evaluated in prospective studies, considering specific correlates of homocysteine (tHcy) concentration and traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Fasting tHcy, vitamin B12 and folate plasma levels, the common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism, as well as clinical and lifestyle information were assessed in 216 type 2 diabetic patients attending two outpatient clinics, who had a follow-up evaluation at 65 ± 9 months for the incidence of macroangiopathy. At basal evaluation, mild hyperhomocysteinemia (tHcy ? 15 ?mol/l) was diagnosed in 21.3% of participants. At follow-up, hyperhomocysteinemia and the distribution of MTHFR C677T genotype did not significantly differ according to the incidence of macroangiopathy. Multiple variables adjusted ORs (95% CI) for CVD associated with mild hyperhomocysteinemia were 1.01 (0.37-2.82); P > 0.05; those associated with MTHFR TT genotype were 0.46 (0.15-1.38); P > 0.05. Although the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was higher in diabetic men (26.9%) than in women (16.1%; P > 0.05), similar results were also observed in a separate sex-analysis. At the multivariate analysis, including in the model other potential CVD risk factors, only creatinine clearance was a significant risk factor for the development of macroangiopathy. In this cohort of diabetic subjects, mild hyperhomocysteinemia and the MTHFR TT genotype are not significant risk factors for the development of macroangiopathy; impaired renal function was confirmed as a significant predictor of this complication. PMID:19937354
Russo, Giuseppina Tiziana; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Magazzù, Domenico; Giandalia, Annalisa; Giorda, Carlo Bruno; Ientile, Riccardo; Previti, Marcello; Di Cesare, Enrico; Cucinotta, Domenico
Understanding how risk genes cumulatively impair brain function in schizophrenia could provide critical insights into its pathophysiology. Working memory impairment in schizophrenia has been associated with abnormal dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex, which is likely under complex genetic control. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) 158Val --> Met polymorphism (rs4680), which affects the availability of prefrontal dopamine signaling, consistently stratifies prefrontal activation
Joshua L. Roffman; Randy L. Gollub; Vince D. Calhoun; Thomas H. Wassink; Anthony P. Weiss; Beng C. Ho; Tonya White; Vincent P. Clark; Jill Fries; Nancy C. Andreasen; Donald C. Goff; Dara S. Manoach
Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett's esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in the discovery stage and 5,986
Z Su; LJ Gay; A Strange; C Palles; G Band; DC Whiteman; F Lescai; C Langford; M Nanji; S Edkins; A van der Winkel; D Levine; P Sasieni; C Bellenguez; K Howarth; C Freeman; N Trudgill; M Pirinen; MP Peppelenbosch; LJ van der Laan; EJ Kuipers; JP Drenth; WH Peters; JV Reynolds; DP Kelleher; R McManus; H Grabsch; H Prenen; R Bisschops; K Krishnadath; PD Siersema; JW van Baal; M Middleton; R Petty; R Gillies; N Burch; P Bhandari; S Paterson; C Edwards; I Penman; K Vaidya; Y Ang; I Murray; P Patel; W Ye; P Mullins; AH Wu; NC Bird; H Dallal; NJ Shaheen; LJ Murray; K Koss; L Bernstein; Y Romero; LJ Hardie; R Zhang; H Winter; DA Corley; S Panter; HA Risch; BJ Reid; I Sargeant; H Smart; A Dhar; H McMurtry; H Ali; G Liu; AG Casson; WH Chow; M Rutter; A Tawil; D Morris; C Nwokolo; P Isaacs; C Rodgers; K Ragunath; C MacDonald; C Haigh; D Monk; G Davies; S Wajed; D Johnston; M Gibbons; S Cullen; N Church; R Langley; M Griffin; D Alderson; P Deloukas; SE Hunt; E Gray; S Dronov; SC Potter; A Tashakkori-Ghanbaria; M Anderson; C Brooks; JM Blackwell; E Bramon; MA Brown; JP Casas; A Corvin; A Duncanson; HS Markus; CG Mathew; CN Palmer; R Plomin; A Rautanen; SJ Sawcer; RC Trembath; AC Viswanathan; N Wood; G Trynka; C Wijmenga; JB Cazier; P Atherfold; AM Nicholson; NL Gellatly; D Glancy; SC Cooper; D Cunningham; T Lind; J Hapeshi; D Ferry; B Rathbone; J Brown; S Love; S Attwood; S MacGregor; P Watson; S Sanders; W Ek; RF Harrison; P Moayyedi; J de Caestecker; H Barr; E Stupka; TL Vaughan; L Peltonen; CC Spencer; I Tomlinson; P Donnelly; JA Jankowski
Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is a widely expressed transmembrane complement regulator. Like factor H it inhibits complement activation by regulating C3b deposition on targets. Factor H mutations occur in 10-20% of patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). We hypothesized that MCP mutations could predispose to HUS, and we sequenced MCP coding exons in affected individuals from 30 families. MCP
Anna Richards; Elizabeth J. Kemp; M. Kathryn Liszewski; Judith A. Goodship; Anne K. Lampe; Ronny Decorte; M. Hamza Müslümanogglu; Salih Kavukcu; Guido Filler; Yves Pirson; Leana S. Wen; John P. Atkinson; Timothy H. J. Goodship
Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes has been recently proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. However, the amplitude of the changes in DNA methylation associated with normal aging and the impacts of environmental changes on this variation are still unclear. In this context, we evaluated the association of global DNA methylation with nutritional habits, tobacco smoking, body mass index (BMI), clinical laboratory parameters, polymorphism C677T MTHFR, functional cognition and the daily practice of physical activity in a cancer-free older population. Leukocyte global DNA methylation from 126 older individuals was quantified using a high-throughput ELISA-based method. Global DNA hypomethylation was observed in older individuals when compared to a younger population (p?=?0.0469), confirming changes in DNA methylation in the aging process. Furthermore, the methylation profile of elders was correlated with the daily ingestion of carbohydrates (p?=?0.0494), lipids (p?=?0.0494), vitamin B6 (p?=?0.0421), magnesium (p?=?0.0302), and also to the serum levels of total protein (p?=?0.0004), alpha 2 globulin (p?=?0.0013) and albumin (p?=?0.0015). No statistically significant difference was observed when global DNA methylation were stratified according to C677T MTHFR genotypes (p?=?0.7200), BMI (p?=?0.1170), smoking habit (p?=?0.4382), physical activity in daily life (p?=?0.8492), scored cognitive function (p?=?0.7229) or depression state (p?=?0.8301). Our data indicate that age-related variations in the global DNA methylation profile of leukocytes might be modulated by the daily intake of carbohydrates, lipids, vitamin B6, and magnesium and be associated with serum protein levels, however it is independent of C677T MTHFR genotype and not correlated with BMI, smoking habit, cognitive function or the routine physical activities.
Gomes, Marcus V. M.; Toffoli, Leandro V.; Arruda, Douglas W.; Soldera, Larissa M.; Pelosi, Gislaine G.; Neves-Souza, Rejane D.; Freitas, Eliane R.; Castro, Denilson T.; Marquez, Audrey S.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (MTHFR C677T) is an established determinant of homocysteine plasma level (t-Hcys) while its association with coronary artery disease (CAD) seems to be more limited. In contrast, the association of the substitutions A2756G of methionine synthase (MTR), A66G of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and C776G of transcobalamin (TCN) to both t-Hcys and CAD needs to be evaluated further. The objective was to evaluate the association of these polymorphisms with t-Hcys and CAD in a French population. We investigated the individual and combined effects of these polymorphisms and of vitamin B12 and folates with t-Hcys in 530 CAD patients and 248 matched healthy controls. t-Hcys was higher in the CAD group than in controls (11.8 vs 10.4 microM, P < 0.0001) and in carriers of MTRRAA and MTHFR 677TT than in those carrying the most frequent allele of both polymorphisms (13.8 vs 11.4 microM, P = 0.0102 and 12.5 vs 11.0 mM, P = 0.0065 respectively). The frequency of MTRR A allele was higher in CAD patients than in controls (0.48 [95% CI: 0.44-0.52] vs 0.38 [95% CI: 0.32-0.44], P = 0.0081) while no difference was observed for MTHFR 677T frequency. In multivariate analysis, t-Hcys > median and MTRRAA genotype were two significant independent predictors of CAD with respective odds ratios of 3.1 (95 % CI: 1.8-5.1, P < 0.0001) and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.5-13.1, P = 0.0051). In conclusion, in contrast to North Europe studies, MTRRAA genotype is a genetic determinant of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia associated with CAD in a French population without vitamin fortification. PMID:16268464
Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Juilliére, Yves; Candito, Mirande; Adjalla, Charles E; Gibelin, Pierre; Herbeth, Bernard; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Gueánt, Jean-Louis
Background & Aims Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) underlies 5%–11% of cases of chronic pancreatitis. An association between AIP and the HLA-DRB1* 0405/DQB1*0401 haplotype has been reported, but linkage disequilibrium has precluded the identification of predisposing HLA gene(s). We studied the role of single HLA genes in the development of AIP in transgenic mice. Methods CD4+ T cell-negative I-A? chain?/? (Ab0) mice develop AIP spontaneously, likely due to dysregulation of CD8+ T cell responses. We generated Ab0 NOD mice transgenic for HLA-DR*0405, leading to rescue of CD4+ T cells; we compared their susceptibility to AIP with HLA-DQ8 or HLA-DR* 0401 (single) transgenic, or HLA-DR*0405/DQ8 (double) transgenic mice. Results CD4+ T cell-competent HLA-DR*0405 transgenic Ab0 NOD mice develop AIP with high prevalence after sublethal irradiation and adoptive transfer of CD90+ T cells, leading to complete pancreatic atrophy. HLA-DR* 0405 transgenic mice can also develop unprovoked AIP, whereas HLA-DR* 0401, HLA-DQ8 and HLA-DR*0405/DQ8 transgenic Ab0 NOD controls all remained normal, even after irradiation and adoptive transfer of CD90+ T cells. Pancreas histology in HLA-DR*0405 transgenic mice was characterized by destructive infiltration of the exocrine tissue with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and macrophages. Mice with complete pancreatic atrophy lost weight, developed fat stools, and had reduced levels of serum lipase activity. Conclusions Since HLA-DR*0405 expression fails to protect mice from AIP, the HLA-DRB1*0405 allele appears to be an important risk factor for AIP on the HLA-DRB1*0405/DQB1*0401 haplotype. This humanized mouse model should be useful for studying immunopathogenesis, diagnostic markers, and therapy of human AIP.
Freitag, Tobias L.; Cham, Candace; Sung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Beilhack, Georg F.; Durinovic-Bello, Ivana; Patel, Salil D.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Schuppan, Detlef; S?nderstrup, Grete
Elevated psychological distress has been observed among people at increased risk for familial cancer. Researchers consider religiosity and spirituality (RS) to be positive coping mechanisms associated with reduced psychological distress. Relatively little is known about the impact of RS on genomic health issues. The objectives of our study were: (1) describe the prevalence of RS and depressive symptoms and (2) explore how RS relates to psychological distress in a cohort of individuals with a ?25% prior probability of a genetic predisposition to cancer. Participants (n = 99) were drawn from an African-American, Louisiana-based kindred with a mutation at the BRCA1 locus. This analysis reports findings from a survey assessing RS and the use of three types of religious coping styles: collaborative, self-directing, and deferring. Clinically significant depressive symptoms were relatively high (27%); with females (33%) more likely than males (17%) to report symptoms (P < 0.01). The majority of participants reported being highly religious. The most commonly employed religious problem solving style used by participants was collaborative (X? = 22.9; SD = 5.8) versus self-directing (X? = 12.8; SD = 5.1) and deferring (X? = 19.9; SD = 6.3). We did not observe significant associations between RS indicators and psychological distress, nor did we observe appreciable differences related to gender or risk perception. Although RS beliefs and practices are important for many African-Americans, we did not find evidence that indicators of self-reported RS are associated with psychological distress prior to genetic counseling and testing.
KINNEY, ANITA Y.; COXWORTH, JAMES E.; SIMONSON, SARA E.; FANNING, JOSEPH B.
Genome-wide linkage and association studies have uncovered variants associated with sarcoidosis, a multi-organ granulomatous inflammatory disease. African ancestry may influence disease pathogenesis since African Americans are more commonly affected by sarcoidosis. Therefore, we conducted the first sarcoidosis genome-wide ancestry scan using a map of 1,384 highly ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on 1,357 sarcoidosis cases and 703 unaffected controls
Benjamin A. Rybicki; Albert M. Levin; Paul McKeigue; Indrani Datta; Marco Colombo; David Reich; Robert R. Burke; Michael C. Iannuzzi
Genome-wide linkage and association studies have uncovered variants associated with sarcoidosis, a multi-organ granulomatous inflammatory disease. African ancestry may influence disease pathogenesis since African Americans are more commonly affected by sarcoidosis. Therefore, we conducted the first sarcoidosis genome-wide ancestry scan using a map of 1,384 highly ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on 1,357 sarcoidosis cases and 703 unaffected controls self-identified as African American. The most significant ancestry association was at marker rs11966463 on chromosome 6p22.3 (ancestry association risk ratio (aRR)= 1.90; p=0.0002). When we restricted the analysis to biopsy-confirmed cases, the aRR for this marker increased to 2.01; p=0.00007. Among the eight other markers that demonstrated suggestive ancestry associations with sarcoidosis were rs1462906 on chromosome 8p12 which had the most significant association with European ancestry (aRR=0.65; p=0.002), and markers on chromosomes 5p13 (aRR=1.46; p=0.005) and 5q31 (aRR=0.67; p=0.005), which correspond to regions we previously identified through sib pair linkage analyses. Overall, the most significant ancestry association for Scadding stage IV cases was to marker rs7919137 on chromosome 10p11.22 (aRR=0.27; p=2×10?5), a region not associated with disease susceptibility. In summary, through admixture mapping of sarcoidosis we have confirmed previous genetic linkages and identified several novel putative candidate loci for sarcoidosis.
Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Levin, Albert M.; McKeigue, Paul; Datta, Indrani; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Colombo, Marco; Reich, David; Burke, Robert R.; Iannuzzi, Michael C.
BACKGROUND—Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), which may be sporadic or familial, occurs in 1:5000 live births and presents with functional intestinal obstruction secondary to aganglionosis of the hindgut. Germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are believed to account for up to 50% of familial cases and up to 30% of isolated cases in most series. However, these series are highly selected for the most obvious and severe cases and large familial aggregations. Population based studies indicate that germline RET mutations account for no more than 3% of isolated HSCR cases. Recently, we and others have noted that specific polymorphic sequence variants, notably A45A (exon 2), are over-represented in isolated HSCR.?PURPOSE—In order to determine if it is the variant per se, a combination thereof, or another locus in linkage disequilibrium which predisposes to HSCR, we looked for association of RET haplotype(s) and disease in HSCR cases compared to region matched controls.?METHODS—Seven loci across RET were typed and haplotypes formed for HSCR cases, their unaffected parents, and region matched controls. Haplotype and genotype frequencies and distributions were compared among these groups using the transmission disequilibrium test and standard case-control statistic.?RESULTS—Twelve unique haplotypes, labelled A-L, were obtained. The distributions of haplotypes between cases and controls (?112 =81.4, p<<0.0001) and between cases and non-transmitted parental haplotypes were significantly different (?211=53.1, p<0.0001). Genotypes comprising pairs of haplotypes were formed for cases and controls. There were 38 different genotypes among cases and controls combined. Inspection of the genotypes in these two groups showed that the genotype distribution between cases and controls was distinct (?372=93.8, p<<0.0001). For example, BB, BC, BD, and CD, all of which contain at least one allele with the polymorphic A45A, are prominently represented among HSCR cases, together accounting for >35% of the case genotypes, yet these four genotypes were not represented among the population matched normal controls. Conversely, AA, AG, DD, GG, and GJ, none of which contains A45A, are commonly represented in the controls, together accounting for 43% of the control genotypes, and yet they are never seen among the HSCR cases.?CONCLUSIONS—Our data suggest that genotypes comprising specific pairs of RET haplotypes are associated with predisposition to HSCR either in a simple autosomal recessive manner or in an additive, dose dependent fashion.???Keywords: transmission disequilibrium test; chromosome 10; polymorphisms
Borrego, S.; Ruiz, A.; Saez, M. E.; Gimm, O.; Gao, X.; Lopez-Alonso, M.; Hernandez, A.; Wright, F.; Antinolo, G.; Eng, C.
Recurrent alterations in promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and LINE1 (L1RE1) repeat elements were previously reported in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. This study was undertaken to explore CpG methylation abnormalities in an extended tumor panel and assess possible relationships between metastatic disease and mutation status. CpG methylation was quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing for selected TSG promoters and LINE1 repeats. Methylation indices above normal reference were observed for DCR2 (TNFRSF10D), CDH1, P16 (CDKN2A), RARB, and RASSF1A. Z-scores for overall TSG, and individual TSG methylation levels, but not LINE1, were significantly correlated with metastatic disease, paraganglioma, disease predisposition, or outcome. Most strikingly, P16 hypermethylation was strongly associated with SDHB mutation as opposed to RET/MEN2, VHL/VHL, or NF1-related disease. Parallel analyses of constitutional, tumor, and metastasis DNA implicate an order of events where constitutional SDHB mutations are followed by TSG hypermethylation and 1p loss in primary tumors, later transferred to metastatic tissue. In the combined material, P16 hypermethylation was prevalent in SDHB-mutated samples and was associated with short disease-related survival. The findings verify the previously reported importance of P16 and other TSG hypermethylation in an independent tumor series. Furthermore, a constitutional SDHB mutation is proposed to predispose for an epigenetic tumor phenotype occurring before the emanation of clinically recognized malignancy.
Kiss, Nimrod B; Muth, Andreas; Andreasson, Adam; Juhlin, C Christofer; Geli, Janos; Backdahl, Martin; Hoog, Anders; Wangberg, Bo; Nilsson, Ola; Ahlman, Hakan; Larsson, Catharina
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood-onset behavioral disorder with a definite genetic component. The search for genes predisposing to ADHD has focused on genes involved in the regulation of monoamine systems. In this study, we emphasized genes that underlie various aspects of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmissions and performed a comprehensive association analysis by screening with 245
L Guan; B Wang; Y Chen; L Yang; J Li; Q Qian; Z Wang; S V Faraone; Y Wang
Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene have been suggested to predispose to male breast cancer (MBC). Studies on MBC patients have not been based on the mutation screening of the entire coding region of the AR and the number of subjects has been small. Therefore, some AR gene alterations may have remained undetected. In the present study, we have
Kirsi Syrjäkoski; Eija-R. Hyytinen; Tuula Kuukasjärvi; Anssi Auvinen; Olli-P. Kallioniemi; Tommi Kainu; Pasi A. Koivisto
The genes that predispose to breast cancer development in most women with a family history of breast cancer have yet to be identified. We propose a means to identify genes that play a role in cancer development or progression. A mutant allele of the Apc g...
A. R. Moser
A comprehensive and systematic assessment of the current status of candidate-gene association studies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was conducted. Data from 989 candidate-gene association studies (1992-2009) involving 905 distinct genetic variants were analyzed and cataloged in CUMAGAS-CLL, a Web-based information system which allows the retrieval and synthesis of data from candidate-gene association studies on CLL (http://biomath.med.uth.gr). Nine genetic variants (BAX (rs4645878), GSTM1 (null/present), GSTT1 (null/present), IL10 (rs1800896), LTA (rs909253), MTHFR (rs1801131), MTHFR (rs1801133), P2RX7 (rs3751143), and TNF (rs1800629)) were investigated in 4 or more studies, and their results were meta-analyzed. In individual studies, 147 variants showed a significant association with CLL risk under any genetic model. For 53 variants, the association was significant at P < 0.01 with an increased risk greater than 40%. Only 0.3% of studies had statistical power greater than 80%. In meta-analyses, none of the variants showed significant results, and heterogeneity ranged from none to high. Large and rigorous genetic studies (candidate-gene association studies and genome-wide association studies) designed to investigate epistatic and gene-environment interactions may produce more conclusive evidence about the genetic etiology of CLL. CUMAGAS-CLL would be a useful tool for current genomic epidemiology research in the field of CLL. PMID:19700502
Zintzaras, Elias; Kitsios, George D
The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH), however, results remain inconclusive. To investigate this association, the present meta-analysis of 27 studies including 5,418 cases and 4,997 controls was performed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random-effects model. A significant association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH was found under the allelic (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000), dominant (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25–1.55; P=0.000), recessive (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.62; P=0.000), homozygote (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32–1.92; P=0.000), and heterozygote (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.45; P=0.000) genetic models. A strong association was also revealed in subgroups, including Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The Japanese subgroup did not show any significant association under all models. Meta-regression analyses suggested that the study design was a potential source of heterogeneity, whereas the subgroup analysis additionally indicated that the population origin may also be an explanation. Another subgroup analysis revealed that hospital-based studies have a stronger association than population-based studies, however, the former suffered a greater heterogeneity. Funnel plot and Egger’s test manifested no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, the present study supports the evidence for the association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and EH in the whole population, as well as in subgroups, such as Asian, Caucasian and Chinese. The carriers of the 677T allele are susceptible to EH.
YANG, KE-MING; JIA, JIAN; MAO, LI-NA; MEN, CHEN; TANG, KANG-TING; LI, YAN-YAN; DING, HAI-XIA; ZHAN, YI-YANG
Background Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene. The vast majority of APC mutations are point mutations or small insertions / deletions which lead to truncated protein products. Splicing mutations or gross genomic rearrangements are less common inactivating events of the APC gene. Methods In the current study genomic DNA or RNA from ten unrelated FAP suspected patients was examined for germline mutations in the APC gene. Family history and phenotype were used in order to select the patients. Methods used for testing were dHPLC (denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography), sequencing, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation – dependent Probe Amplification), Karyotyping, FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription – Polymerase Chain Reaction). Results A 250 Kbp deletion in the APC gene starting from intron 5 and extending beyond exon 15 was identified in one patient. A substitution of the +5 conserved nucleotide at the splice donor site of intron 9 in the APC gene was shown to produce frameshift and inefficient exon skipping in a second patient. Four frameshift mutations (1577insT, 1973delAG, 3180delAAAA, 3212delA) and a nonsense mutation (C1690T) were identified in the rest of the patients. Conclusion Screening for APC mutations in FAP patients should include testing for splicing defects and gross genomic alterations.
Mihalatos, Markos; Apessos, Angela; Dauwerse, Hans; Velissariou, Voula; Psychias, Aristidis; Koliopanos, Alexander; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Triantafillidis, John K; Danielidis, Ioannis; Fountzilas, George; Agnantis, Niki J; Nasioulas, Georgios
Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (praw?=?2.3×10?6, pgenome?=?0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p<0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.
Olsson, Mia; Mauceli, Evan; Quilez, Javier; Tonomura, Noriko; Zanna, Giordana; Docampo, Maria Jose; Bassols, Anna; Avery, Anne C.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Thomas, Anne; Kastner, Daniel L.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Webster, Matthew T.; Sanchez, Armand; Hedhammar, Ake; Remmers, Elaine F.; Andersson, Leif; Ferrer, Lluis; Tintle, Linda; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is associated with HLA, but the associated allele is still controversial. We hypothesized that specific HLA-DR pocket-sequence variants are associated with HT and that similar variants in the murine I-E locus (homologous to HLA-DR) predispose to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), a classical mouse model of HT. Therefore, we sequenced the polymorphic exon 2 of the HLA-DR gene in 94 HT patients and 149 controls. In addition, we sequenced exon 2 of the I-E gene in 22 strains of mice, 12 susceptible to EAT and 10 resistant. Using logistic regression analysis, we identified a pocket amino acid signature, Tyr-26, Tyr-30, Gln-70, Lys-71, strongly associated with HT (P = 6.18 × 10?5, OR = 3.73). Lys-71 showed the strongest association (P = 1.7 × 10?8, OR = 2.98). This association was seen across HLA-DR types. The 5-aa haplotype Tyr-26, Tyr-30, Gln-70, Lys-71, Arg-74 also was associated with HT (P = 3.66 × 10?4). In mice, the I-E pocket amino acids Val-28, Phe-86, and Asn-88 were strongly associated with EAT. Structural modeling studies demonstrated that pocket P4 was critical for the development of HT, and pockets P1 and P4 influenced susceptibility to EAT. Surprisingly, the structures of the HT- and EAT-susceptible pockets were different. We conclude that specific MHC II pocket amino acid signatures determine susceptibility to HT and EAT by causing structural changes in peptide-binding pockets that may influence peptide binding, selectivity, and presentation. Because the HT- and EAT-associated pockets are structurally different, it is likely that distinct antigenic peptides are associated with HT and EAT.
Menconi, Francesca; Monti, Maria C.; Greenberg, David A.; Oashi, Taiji; Osman, Roman; Davies, Terry F.; Ban, Yoshiyuki; Jacobson, Eric M.; Concepcion, Erlinda S.; Li, Cheuk Wun; Tomer, Yaron
Recent human and animal studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the impact of environment on development of mental disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in epigenetic-regulatory genes impact stress-induced emotional changes. A multi-step, multi-sample gene-environment interaction analysis was conducted to test whether 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in epigenetic-regulatory genes, i.e. three DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), moderate emotional responses to stressful and pleasant stimuli in daily life as measured by Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). In the first step, main and interactive effects were tested in a sample of 112 healthy individuals. Significant associations in this discovery sample were then investigated in a population-based sample of 434 individuals for replication. SNPs showing significant effects in both the discovery and replication samples were subsequently tested in three other samples of: (i) 85 unaffected siblings of patients with psychosis, (ii) 110 patients with psychotic disorders, and iii) 126 patients with a history of major depressive disorder. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed no significant association between SNPs and negative affect or positive affect. No SNPs moderated the effect of pleasant stimuli on positive affect. Three SNPs of DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and 1 SNP of MTHFR (rs1801131) moderated the effect of stressful events on negative affect. Only rs11683424 of DNMT3A showed consistent directions of effect in the majority of the 5 samples. These data provide the first evidence that emotional responses to daily life stressors may be moderated by genetic variation in the genes involved in the epigenetic machinery.
Pishva, Ehsan; Drukker, Marjan; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Decoster, Jeroen; Collip, Dina; van Winkel, Ruud; Wichers, Marieke; Jacobs, Nele; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Geschwind, Nicole; van den Hove, Daniel; Lataster, Tineke; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim
Hypertension affects approximately 1 billion people worldwide. Owing to population aging, hypertension-related cardiovascular burden is expected to rise in the near future. In addition to genetic variants influencing the blood pressure response to antihypertensive drugs, several genes encoding for drug-metabolizing or -transporting enzymes have been associated with blood pressure and/or hypertension in humans (e.g., ACE, CYP1A2, CYP3A5, ABCB1 and MTHFR) regardless of drug treatment. These genes are also involved in the metabolism and transport of endogenous substances and their effects may be modified by selected environmental factors, such as diet or lifestyle. However, little is currently known on the complex interplay between environmental factors, endogenous factors, genetic variants and drugs on blood pressure control. This review will discuss the respective role of population-based primary prevention and personalized medicine for arterial hypertension, taking a pharmacogenomics' perspective focusing on selected pharmacogenes. PMID:23234325
Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris
Introduction Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Material and methods Expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9 genes was assessed in 60 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and 79 controls by SYBR Green 1 based real time PCR assay. Results Expression of the TLR-2 gene was found to be significantly elevated in cases (1.295 ±0.09) compared to the controls (1.033 ±0.08) (p = 0.015) whereas expression of the TLR-9 gene was significantly lower in cases (1.522 ±0.18) than in the controls (2.165 ±0.16) (p = 0.032). There was no difference in TLR-4 expression levels (p = 0.174). A significant correlation of TLR-2 was observed with TLR-4 (r = 0.803, p<0.0001) and TLR-9 (r = 0.264, p = 0.003) as well as between TLR-4 and TLR-9 (r = 0.303, p = 0.001). A significant association was seen between TLR 2 (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.73-8.99, p = 0.001) and TLR-9 (OR 0.297, 95% CI 0.131-0.672, p = 0.004) with CAD after adjustment for age and gender. Statins did not affect TLR gene expression. Conclusions The TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9 genes exhibit a differential pattern of expression between CAD patients and controls in this Asian Indian cohort. This observation warrants further investigation, keeping in mind the infectious and inflammatory elements in perspective, in order to understand the true implications of TLR in the aetiopathology of CAD and consequent therapeutic implications.
Maitra, Arindam; Shanker, Jayashree; Dash, Debabrata; Arvind, Prathima; Kakkar, Vijay V.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency was identified in two out of four children born from nonconsanguineous parents. One of the affected children exhibited some clinical findings suggesting cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency; MTHFR activity was extremely reduced. In addition, hyperhomocysteinaemia, hypomethioninaemia, low total folate, especially methylfolate in red blood cells, and a reduced methylfolate/total folate ratio were found. Two mutations not yet reported, one on exon 1 of the gene changing an arginine to stop codon and one other on exon 9 changing an arginine to tryptophan were identified in both children in the compound heterozygous state associated with a common polymorphism, 1298A>C, also in the heterozygous state. The mother, homozygous for the mutation on exon 9 and for the polymorphism 1298A>C on exon 7, was clinically and biochemically normal, with normal folate status, mainly methylfolate levels in red blood cells, although MTHFR activity was moderately decreased. The father, heterozygous for the transition arginine to stop codon and for the common polymorphism 677C>T on exon 4, exhibited major biochemical abnormalities, hyperhomocysteinaemia and low methylfolate levels in red blood cells, but was clinically normal. The unaffected children had a biochemical pattern close to that of their mother and were heterozygous for the mutation on exon 9 and also for the two common polymorphisms, 677C>T and 1298A>C. In the affected children, some biochemical abnormalities, including folate status, especially methylfolate levels, were improved with treatment combining methyltetrahydrofolic acid, hydroxocobalamin, pyridoxine and betaine; however, homocysteine concentrations remained high and methionine concentrations were lowered. The father was treated with folic acid, which partially improved biochemical abnormalities. The impact of these mutations is discussed. PMID:11916316
Tonetti, C; Amiel, J; Munnich, A; Zittoun, J
Little is known about the genes and proteins involved in the process of human memory. To identify genetic factors related to human episodic memory performance, we conducted an ultra-high-density genome-wide screen at >500 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of normal young adults stratified for performance on an episodic recall memory test. Analysis of this data identified SNPs
Matthew J. Huentelman; Andreas Papassotiropoulos; David W. Craig; Frederic J. Hoerndli; John V. Pearson; Kim-Dung Huynh; Jason Corneveaux; Jurgen Hanggi; Christian R. A. Mondadori; Andreas Buchmann; Eric M. Reiman; Katharina Henke; Dominique J.-F. de Quervain; Dietrich A. Stephan
The environmental obesogen hypothesis proposes that pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Tributyltin (TBT) is an agonist of both retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Activation of these receptors can elevate adipose mass in adult mice exposed to the chemical in utero. Here we show that TBT sensitizes human and mouse multipotent stromal stem cells derived from white adipose tissue [adipose-derived stromal stem cells (ADSCs)] to undergo adipogenesis. In vitro exposure to TBT, or the PPAR? activator rosiglitazone increases adipogenesis, cellular lipid content, and expression of adipogenic genes. The adipogenic effects of TBT and rosiglitazone were blocked by the addition of PPAR? antagonists, suggesting that activation of PPAR? mediates the effect of both compounds on adipogenesis. ADSCs from mice exposed to TBT in utero showed increased adipogenic capacity and reduced osteogenic capacity with enhanced lipid accumulation in response to adipogenic induction. ADSCs retrieved from animals exposed to TBT in utero showed increased expression of PPAR? target genes such as the early adipogenic differentiation gene marker fatty acid-binding protein 4 and hypomethylation of the promoter/enhancer region of the fatty acid-binding protein 4 locus. Hence, TBT alters the stem cell compartment by sensitizing multipotent stromal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes, an effect that could likely increase adipose mass over time.
Kirchner, Severine; Kieu, Tiffany; Chow, Connie; Casey, Stephanie; Blumberg, Bruce
Although CDKN2A is the most frequent high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene, the underlying genetic factors for most melanoma-prone families remain unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a rare variant that arose as a founder mutation in the telomere shelterin gene POT1 (chromosome 7, g.124493086C>T; p.Ser270Asn) in five unrelated melanoma-prone families from Romagna, Italy. Carriers of this variant had increased telomere lengths and numbers of fragile telomeres, suggesting that this variant perturbs telomere maintenance. Two additional rare POT1 variants were identified in all cases sequenced in two separate Italian families, one variant per family, yielding a frequency for POT1 variants comparable to that for CDKN2A mutations in this population. These variants were not found in public databases or in 2,038 genotyped Italian controls. We also identified two rare recurrent POT1 variants in US and French familial melanoma cases. Our findings suggest that POT1 is a major susceptibility gene for familial melanoma in several populations. PMID:24686846
Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Xiaohong R; Ballew, Bari; Rotunno, Melissa; Calista, Donato; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Ghiorzo, Paola; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Nagore, Eduardo; Avril, Marie Francoise; Caporaso, Neil E; McMaster, Mary L; Cullen, Michael; Wang, Zhaoming; Zhang, Xijun; Bruno, William; Pastorino, Lorenza; Queirolo, Paola; Banuls-Roca, Jose; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Vaysse, Amaury; Mohamdi, Hamida; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Foglio, Mario; Jouenne, Fanélie; Hua, Xing; Hyland, Paula L; Yin, Jinhu; Vallabhaneni, Haritha; Chai, Weihang; Minghetti, Paola; Pellegrini, Cristina; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Eggermont, Alexander; Lathrop, Mark; Peris, Ketty; Scarra, Giovanna Bianchi; Landi, Giorgio; Savage, Sharon A; Sampson, Joshua N; He, Ji; Yeager, Meredith; Goldin, Lynn R; Demenais, Florence; Chanock, Stephen J; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Liu, Yie; Landi, Maria Teresa
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the preterm neonate is a complex developmental disorder, with contributions from both the environment and the genome. IVH, or hemorrhage into the germinal matrix of the developing brain with secondary periventricular infarction, occurs in that critical period of time before the 32nd – 33rd week post-conception and has been attributed to changes in cerebral blood flow to the immature germinal matrix microvasculature. Emerging data suggest that genes subserving coagulation, inflammatory and vascular pathways, and their interactions with environmental triggers may influence both the incidence and severity of cerebral injury and are the subject of this review. Polymorphisms in the Factor V Leiden gene are associated with the atypical timing of IVH suggesting an as yet unknown environmental trigger. The methylenetetra-hydrofolate reeducates (MTHFR) variants render neonates more vulnerable to cerebral injury in the presence of perinatal hypoxia. The present study demonstrates that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and low 5 minute Apgar score additively increase the risk of IVH. Finally, review of published preclinical data suggests the stressors of delivery result in hemorrhage in the presence of mutations in collagen 4A1 (COL4A1), a major structural protein of the developing cerebral vasculature. Maternal genetics and fetal environment may also play a role.
Ment, Laura R.; Aden, Ulrika; Lin, Aiping; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Choi, Murim; Hallman, Mikko; Lifton, Richard P.; Zhang, Heping; Bauer, Charles R.
Correlative data suggest that thyroid hormone receptor-? (TR?) mutations could increase the risk of mammary tumor development, but unequivocal evidence is still lacking. To explore the role of TR? mutants in vivo in breast tumor development and progression, we took advantage of a knock-in mouse model harboring a mutation in the Thrb gene encoding TR? (Thrb(PV) mouse). Although in adult nulliparous females, a single ThrbPV allele did not contribute to mammary gland abnormalities, the presence of two ThrbPV alleles led to mammary hyperplasia in ?36% Thrb(PV/PV) mice. The ThrbPV mutation further markedly augmented the risk of mammary hyperplasia in a mouse model with high susceptibility to mammary tumors (Pten(+/-) mouse), as demonstrated by the occurrence of mammary hyperplasia in ?60% of Thrb(PV/+)Pten(+/-) and ?77% of Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice versus ?33% of Thrb(+/+)Pten(+/-) mice. The Thrb(PV) mutation increased the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) to increase cell proliferation and the expression of the STAT5 target gene encoding ?-casein in the mammary gland. We next sought to understand the molecular mechanism underlying STAT5 overactivation by TR?PV. Cell-based studies with a breast cancer cell line (T47D cells) showed that thyroid hormone (T3) repressed STAT5 signaling in TR?-expressing cells through decreasing STAT5-mediated transcription activity and target gene expression, whereas sustained STAT5 signaling was observed in TR?PV-expressing cells. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that a TR? mutation promotes the development of mammary hyperplasia via aberrant activation of STAT5, thereby conferring a fertile genetic ground for tumorigenesis. PMID:21399657
Guigon, C J; Kim, D W; Willingham, M C; Cheng, S-Y
Correlative data suggest that thyroid hormone receptor-? (TR?) mutations could increase the risk of mammary tumor development, but unequivocal evidence is still lacking. To explore the role of TR? mutants in vivo in breast tumor development and progression, we took advantage of a knock-in mouse model harboring a mutation in the Thrb gene encoding TR? (ThrbPV mouse). Although in adult nulliparous females, a single ThrbPV allele did not contribute to mammary gland abnormalities, the presence of two ThrbPV alleles led to mammary hyperplasia in ~36% ThrbPV/PV mice. The ThrbPV mutation further markedly augmented the risk of mammary hyperplasia in a mouse model with high susceptibility to mammary tumors (Pten+/? mouse), as demonstrated by the occurrence of mammary hyperplasia in ~60% of Thrbpv/+Pten+/? and ~77% of ThrbPV/PV Pten+/? mice versus ~33% of Thrb+/+Pten+/? mice. The ThrbPV mutation increased the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) to increase cell proliferation and the expression of the STAT5 target gene encoding ?-casein in the mammary gland. We next sought to understand the molecular mechanism underlying STAT5 overactivation by TR?PV. Cell-based studies with a breast cancer cell line (T47D cells) showed that thyroid hormone (T3) repressed STAT5 signaling in TR?-expressing cells through decreasing STAT5-mediated transcription activity and target gene expression, whereas sustained STAT5 signaling was observed in TR?PV-expressing cells. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that a TR? mutation promotes the development of mammary hyperplasia via aberrant activation of STAT5, thereby conferring a fertile genetic ground for tumorigenesis.
Guigon, CJ; Kim, DW; Willingham, MC; Cheng, S-y
The breast cancer susceptibility gene BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain protein, MIM# 601593) acts with BRCA1 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and also in apoptosis\\u000a initiation. We screened 109 BRCA1\\/2 negative high-risk breast and\\/or ovarian cancer patients from North-Eastern Poland for BARD1 germline mutations using a combination of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. We identified\\u000a 16 different BARD1
Magdalena Ratajska; Ewelina Antoszewska; Anna Piskorz; Izabela Brozek; Åke Borg; Hanna Kusmierek; Wojciech Biernat; Janusz Limon
Defined as clinically unexplained hypertrophy of the left ventricle, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is traditionally understood as a disease of the cardiac sarcomere. Mutations in TNNC1-encoded cardiac troponin C (cTnC) are a relatively rare cause of HCM. Here, we report clinical and functional characterization of a novel TNNC1 mutation, A31S, identified in a pediatric HCM proband with multiple episodes of ventricular fibrillation and aborted sudden cardiac death. Diagnosed at age 5, the proband is family history-negative for HCM or sudden cardiac death, suggesting a de novo mutation. TnC-extracted cardiac skinned fibers were reconstituted with the cTnC-A31S mutant, which increased Ca(2+) sensitivity with no effect on the maximal contractile force generation. Reconstituted actomyosin ATPase assays with 50% cTnC-A31S:50% cTnC-WT demonstrated Ca(2+) sensitivity that was intermediate between 100% cTnC-A31S and 100% cTnC-WT, whereas the mutant increased the activation of the actomyosin ATPase without affecting the inhibitory qualities of the ATPase. The secondary structure of the cTnC mutant was evaluated by circular dichroism, which did not indicate global changes in structure. Fluorescence studies demonstrated increased Ca(2+) affinity in isolated cTnC, the troponin complex, thin filament, and to a lesser degree, thin filament with myosin subfragment 1. These results suggest that this mutation has a direct effect on the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilament, which may alter Ca(2+) handling and contribute to the arrhythmogenesis observed in the proband. In summary, we report a novel mutation in the TNNC1 gene that is associated with HCM pathogenesis and may predispose to the pathogenesis of a fatal arrhythmogenic subtype of HCM. PMID:22815480
Parvatiyar, Michelle S; Landstrom, Andrew P; Figueiredo-Freitas, Cicero; Potter, James D; Ackerman, Michael J; Pinto, Jose Renato
The demonstration in humans and mice that nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and type I interferons (IFNs) are essential disease mediators is a milestone in delineating the mechanisms of lupus pathogenesis. Here, we show that Ifnb gene deletion does not modify disease progression in NZB mice, thereby strongly implicating IFN-? subtypes as the principal pathogenic effectors. We further document that long-term treatment of male BXSB mice with an anti-IFNAR antibody of mouse origin reduced serologic, cellular and histologic disease manifestations and extended survival, suggesting that disease acceleration by the Tlr7 gene duplication in this model is mediated by type I IFN signaling. The efficacy of this treatment in BXSB mice was clearly evident when applied early in the disease process, but only partial reductions in some disease characteristics were observed when treatment was initiated at later stages. A transient therapeutic effect was also noted in the MRL-Faslpr model, although overall mortality was unaffected. The combined findings suggest that IFNAR blockade, particularly when started at early disease stages, may be a useful treatment approach for human SLE and other autoimmune syndromes.
Baccala, Roberto; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Schreiber, Robert D.; Lawson, Brian R.; Kono, Dwight H.; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.
Background Insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia are common in severe sepsis. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays a role in insulin release and sensitivity. Objectives To determine if a common, functional polymorphism in the UCP2 gene promoter region (the ?866 G/A polymorphism) contributes to the risk of hyperglycaemia in severe sepsis. Results In the prospective group 120 non-diabetic patients who were carriers of the G allele had significantly higher maximum blood glucose recordings than non-carriers (mean (SD) AA 8.5 (2.2) mmol/l; GA 8.5 (2.4) mmol/l; GG 10.1 (3.1) mmol/l; p = 0.0042) and required significantly more insulin to maintain target blood glucose (p = 0.0007). In the retrospective study 103 non-diabetic patients showed a similar relationship between maximum glucose and UCP genotype (AA 6.8 (2.3) mmol/l; GA 7.8 (2.2) mmol/l; GG 9.2 (2.9) mmol/l; p = 0.0078). Conclusions A common, functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the UCP2 gene is associated with hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in severe sepsis. This has implications for our understanding of the genetic pathophysiology of sepsis and is of use in the stratification of patients for more intensive management.
Pyle, A; Ibbett, I M; Gordon, C; Keers, S M; Walker, M; Chinnery, P F; Baudouin, S V
The demonstration in humans and mice that nucleic acid-sensing TLRs and type I IFNs are essential disease mediators is a milestone in delineating the mechanisms of lupus pathogenesis. In this study, we show that Ifnb gene deletion does not modify disease progression in NZB mice, thereby strongly implicating IFN-? subtypes as the principal pathogenic effectors. We further document that long-term treatment of male BXSB mice with an anti-IFN-?/? receptor Ab of mouse origin reduced serologic, cellular, and histologic disease manifestations and extended survival, suggesting that disease acceleration by the Tlr7 gene duplication in this model is mediated by type I IFN signaling. The efficacy of this treatment in BXSB mice was clearly evident when applied early in the disease process, but only partial reductions in some disease characteristics were observed when treatment was initiated at later stages. A transient therapeutic effect was also noted in the MRL-Fas(lpr) model, although overall mortality was unaffected. The combined findings suggest that IFN-?/? receptor blockade, particularly when started at early disease stages, may be a useful treatment approach for human systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune syndromes. PMID:23175700
Baccala, Roberto; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Schreiber, Robert D; Lawson, Brian R; Kono, Dwight H; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in elevated homocysteine levels in plasma and urine. MTHFR catalyses the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate to methyltetrahydrofolate, a cofactor for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. MTHFR deficiency may be diagnosed from infancy to adulthood with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms. A molecular analysis of the MTHFR gene combined with an assessment
Carole Tonetti; Jean-Marie Saudubray; Bernard Echenne; Pierre Landrieu; Stéphane Giraudier; Jacqueline Zittoun
Evaluation of Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype frequencies of patients subjected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) panel in south-east region of Turkey.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus, as well as CVDs, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease or stroke, are the most prevalent diseases and account for the major causes of death worldwide. In the present study, 4,709 unrelated patients subjected to CVD panel in south-east part of Turkey between the years 2010 and 2013 were enrolled and DNA was isolated from the blood samples of these patients. Mutation analyses were conducted using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method to screen six common mutations (Factor V G1691A, PT G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C and C677T and PAI-1 -675 4G/5G) found in CVD panel. The prevalence of these mutations were 0.57, 0.25, 2.61, 13.78, 9.34 and 24.27 % in homozygous form, respectively. Similarly, the mutation percent of them in heterozygous form were 7.43, 3.44, 24.91, 44.94, 41.09 and 45.66%, respectively. No mutation was detected in 92 (1.95%) patients in total. Because of the fact that this is the first study to screen six common mutations in CVD panel in south-east region of Turkey, it has a considerable value on the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Upon the results of the present and previous studied a careful examination for these genetic variants should be carried out in thrombophilia screening programs, particularly in Turkish population. PMID:24532105
Oztuzcu, Serdar; Ergun, Sercan; Ula?l?, Mustafa; Nacarkahya, Gülper; I?ci, Yusuf Ziya; I?ci, Mehri; Bayraktar, Recep; Tamer, Ali; Çakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet
Insomnia is a common health complaint world-wide. Insomnia is a risk factor in the development of other psychological and physiological disorders. Therefore understanding the mechanisms which predispose an individual to developing insomnia has great transdiagnostic value. However, whilst it is largely accepted that a vulnerable phenotype exists there is a lack of research which aims to systematically assess the make-up of this phenotype. This review outlines the research to-date, considering familial aggregation and the genetics and psychology of stress-reactivity. A model will be presented in which negative affect (neuroticism) and genetics (5HTTLPR) are argued to lead to disrupted sleep via an increase in stress-reactivity, and further that the interaction of these variables leads to an increase in learned negative associations, which further increase the likelihood of poor sleep and the development of insomnia. PMID:24480386
Harvey, Christopher-James; Gehrman, Phil; Espie, Colin A
Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, the genes encoding the proteins polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although the leading cause of mortality in ADPKD is cardiovascular disease, the relationship between these conditions remains poorly understood. PC2 is an intracellular calcium channel expressed in renal epithelial cells and in cardiomyocytes, and is thus hypothesized to modulate intracellular calcium signaling and affect cardiac function. Our first aim was to study cardiac function in a zebrafish model lacking PC2 (pkd2 mutants). Next, we aimed to explore the relevance of this zebrafish model to human ADPKD by examining the Mayo Clinic’s ADPKD database for an association between ADPKD and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Pkd2 mutant zebrafish showed low cardiac output and atrioventricular block. Isolated pkd2 mutant hearts displayed impaired intracellular calcium cycling and calcium alternans. These results indicate heart failure in the pkd2 mutants. In human ADPKD patients, we found IDCM to coexist frequently with ADPKD. This association was strongest in patients with PKD2 mutations. Our results demonstrate that PC2 modulates intracellular calcium cycling, contributing to the development of heart failure. In human subjects we found an association between ADPKD and IDCM and suggest that PKD mutations contribute to the development of heart failure.
Paavola, Jere; Schliffke, Simon; Rossetti, Sandro; Kuo, Ivana Y.-T.; Yuan, Shiaulou; Sun, Zhaoxia; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.
Background We have explored the role that inhibitory heterotrimeric G-proteins have in ventricular arrhythmia. Methods and Results We studied mice with global genetic deletion of G?i2 (G?i2 (?/?)) and find that they have a prolonged QT interval on the surface ECG when awake and studied with telemetry. We used in-vivo electrophysiology studies and found that the G?i2 (?/?) mice have a reduced ventricular effective refractory period and a predisposition to ventricular tachycardia when challenged with programmed electrical stimulation. Neither control nor mice with combined global deletion of G?i1 and G?i3 showed these abnormalities. There was no evidence for structural heart disease at this time point in the G?i2 (?/?) mice as assessed by cardiac histology and echocardiography. The absence of G?i2 thus leads to a primary electrical abnormality and we explored the basis for this. Single isolated ventricular cells studied using patch clamping showed that G?i2 (?/?) mice had a prolonged ventricular action potential duration but steeper action potential shortening as the diastolic interval was reduced in restitution studies. Gene expression studies showed increased expression of L-type Ca2+ channel subunits and patch clamping revealed an increase in these currents in G?i2 (?/?) mice. There were no changes in K+ currents. Conclusion Thus the absence of inhibitory G-protein signaling in particular that mediated via G?i2 is a substrate for ventricular arrhythmias.
Zuberi, Zia; Nobles, Muriel; Sebastian, Sonia; Dyson, Alex; Lim, Shiang Y; Breckenridge, Ross; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Tinker, Andrew
Somatic mutations in the POLE gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ? have been found in sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) and are most likely of importance in tumour development and/or progression. Recently, families with dominantly inherited colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer were shown to have a causative heterozygous germline mutation in the proofreading exonuclease domain of POLE. The highly penetrant mutation was associated with predisposition to CRC only and no extra?colonic tumours were observed. We have identified a mutation in a large family in which the carriers not only developed CRC, they also demonstrate a highly penetrant predisposition to extra-intestinal tumours such as ovarian, endometrial and brain tumours. The mutation, NM_006231.2:c.1089C>A, p.Asn363Lys, also located in the proofreading exonuclease domain is directly involved in DNA binding. Theoretical prediction of the amino acid substitution suggests a profound effect of the substrate binding capability and a more severe impairment of the catalytic activity compared to the previously reported germline mutation. A possible genotype to phenotype correlation for deleterious mutations in POLE might exist that needs to be considered in the follow-up of mutation carriers. PMID:24788313
Rohlin, Anna; Zagoras, Theofanis; Nilsson, Staffan; Lundstam, Ulf; Wahlström, Jan; Hultén, Leif; Martinsson, Tommy; Karlsson, Göran B; Nordling, Margareta
Somatic mutations in the POLE gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ? have been found in sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) and are most likely of importance in tumour development and/or progression. Recently, families with dominantly inherited colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer were shown to have a causative heterozygous germline mutation in the proofreading exonuclease domain of POLE. The highly penetrant mutation was associated with predisposition to CRC only and no extra-colonic tumours were observed. We have identified a mutation in a large family in which the carriers not only developed CRC, they also demonstrate a highly penetrant predisposition to extra-intestinal tumours such as ovarian, endometrial and brain tumours. The mutation, NM_006231.2:c.1089C>A, p.Asn363Lys, also located in the proofreading exonuclease domain is directly involved in DNA binding. Theoretical prediction of the amino acid substitution suggests a profound effect of the substrate binding capability and a more severe impairment of the catalytic activity compared to the previously reported germline mutation. A possible genotype to phenotype correlation for deleterious mutations in POLE might exist that needs to be considered in the follow-up of mutation carriers.
ROHLIN, ANNA; ZAGORAS, THEOFANIS; NILSSON, STAFFAN; LUNDSTAM, ULF; WAHLSTROM, JAN; HULTEN, LEIF; MARTINSSON, TOMMY; KARLSSON, GORAN B.; NORDLING, MARGARETA
Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, the genes encoding the proteins polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although the leading cause of mortality in ADPKD is cardiovascular disease, the relationship between these conditions remains poorly understood. PC2 is an intracellular calcium channel expressed in renal epithelial cells and in cardiomyocytes, and is thus hypothesized to modulate intracellular calcium signaling and affect cardiac function. Our first aim was to study cardiac function in a zebrafish model lacking PC2 (pkd2 mutants). Next, we aimed to explore the relevance of this zebrafish model to human ADPKD by examining the Mayo Clinic's ADPKD database for an association between ADPKD and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Pkd2 mutant zebrafish showed low cardiac output and atrioventricular block. Isolated pkd2 mutant hearts displayed impaired intracellular calcium cycling and calcium alternans. These results indicate heart failure in the pkd2 mutants. In human ADPKD patients, we found IDCM to coexist frequently with ADPKD. This association was strongest in patients with PKD2 mutations. Our results demonstrate that PC2 modulates intracellular calcium cycling, contributing to the development of heart failure. In human subjects we found an association between ADPKD and IDCM and suggest that PKD mutations contribute to the development of heart failure. PMID:23376035
Paavola, Jere; Schliffke, Simon; Rossetti, Sandro; Kuo, Ivana Y-T; Yuan, Shiaulou; Sun, Zhaoxia; Harris, Peter C; Torres, Vicente E; Ehrlich, Barbara E
Background The antifolate agent methotrexate is an important component of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although methotrexate-related toxicity is often a reason for interruption of chemotherapy. Prediction of toxicity is difficult because of inter-individual variability susceptibility to antileukemic agents. Methotrexate interferes with folate metabolism leading to depletion of reduced folates. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms for folate metabolizing enzymes with respect to toxicity and survival in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. To this purpose, we evaluated possible associations between genotype and hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity and effects on survival at 2 years of follow-up in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results Polymorphisms in the genes encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19 bp deletion) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity in single (odds ratio 5.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13–21.95 and odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–20.77, respectively) and in combined analysis (odds ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.38–33.59). MTHFR 677C>T also increased the risk of leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, whilst thymidylate synthase 28 bp repeat polymorphism increased the risk of anemia (odds ratio 8.48, 95% confidence interval 2.00–36.09). Finally, patients with MTHFR 677TT had a decreased overall survival rate (hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.46–8.45). Conclusions Genotyping of folate polymorphisms might be useful in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy, reducing the associated toxicity with possible effects on survival.
Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Rigolin, GianMatteo; Ambrosio, Cristina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Pellati, Agnese; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Caruso, Angelo; Catozzi, Linda; Gemmati, Donato
Multiple substance dependence (MSD) trait comorbidity is common, and MSD patients are often severely affected clinically. While shared genetic risks have been documented, so far there has been no published report using the linkage scan approach to survey risk loci for MSD as a phenotype. A total of 1,758 individuals in 739 families [384 African American (AA) and 355 European American (EA) families] ascertained via affected sib-pairs with cocaine or opioid or alcohol dependence were genotyped using an array-based linkage panel of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Fuzzy clustering analysis was conducted on individuals with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, opioid, and nicotine dependence for AAs and EAs separately, and linkage scans were conducted for the output membership coefficients using Merlin-regression. In EAs, we observed an autosome-wide significant linkage signal on chromosome 4 (peak lod = 3.31 at 68.3 cM; empirical autosome-wide P = 0.038), and a suggestive linkage signal on chromosome 21 (peak lod = 2.37 at 19.4 cM). In AAs, four suggestive linkage peaks were observed: two peaks on chromosome 10 (lod = 2.66 at 96.7 cM and lod = 3.02 at 147.6 cM] and the other two on chromosomes 3 (lod = 2.81 at 145.5 cM) and 9 (lod = 1.93 at 146.8 cM). Three particularly promising candidate genes, GABRA4, GABRB1, and CLOCK, are located within or very close to the autosome-wide significant linkage region for EAs on chromosome 4. This is the first linkage evidence supporting existence of genetic loci influencing risk for several comorbid disorders simultaneously in two major US populations. PMID:22354695
Yang, Bao-Zhu; Han, Shizhong; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Elston, Robert C; Gelernter, Joel
Purpose Filaggrin (FLG) is a key protein that facilitates the terminal differentiation of the epidermis and the formation of the skin barrier. Recent studies showed that atopic dermatitis (AD) associates closely with loss-of-function mutations in the FLG gene. Asian and European populations differ in the frequencies of FLG mutations. Several FLG mutations, including 3321delA, E2422X, K4671X, S2554X, and R501X, occur frequently in Chinese and Japanese populations. The association between three FLG null mutations and AD in Korean children was investigated. Methods The FLG mutations in 1,430 children (aged 0-18 years) with AD and 862 control subjects were genotyped by using the TaqMan assay. Results The FLG null mutation E2422X was not detected in any patients with AD or control subjects. The R501X null mutation was detected in only one child with AD (0.1%). Children with AD had the 3321delA deletion significantly more frequently (2.4%) than the control subjects (0.0%, P<0.001). Children with AD also had a significantly higher combined allele frequency of the three FLG null mutations (2.6%) than the controls (0.0%, P<0.001). The 3321delA null mutation did not associate significantly with AD severity (P=0.842). When the patients with AD were divided into allergic AD and non-allergic AD patient groups, these two groups did not differ in terms of the frequency of 3321delA. Conclusions The Korean children had a lower frequency of FLG mutations than European populations. FLG null mutations may be associated with the development of AD in Korean children.
Yu, Ho-Sung; Kang, Mi-Jin; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Yu, Jinho
The genes encoding prokineticin 2 polypeptide (Prok2) and its cognate receptor (Prokr2/Gpcr73l1) are widely expressed in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and its hypothalamic targets, and this signaling pathway has been implicated in the circadian regulation of behavior and physiology. We have previously observed that the targeted null mutation of Prokr2 disrupts circadian co-ordination of cycles of locomotor activity and thermoregulation. We have now observed spontaneous but sporadic bouts of torpor in the majority of these transgenic mice lacking Prokr2 signaling. During these torpor bouts, which lasted for up to 8h, body temperature and locomotor activity decreased markedly. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production also decreased, and there was a decrease in RQ. These spontaneous torpor bouts generally began towards the end of the dark phase or in the early light phase when the mice were maintained on a 12:12 light-dark cycle, and persisted when mice were exposed to continuous darkness. Periods of food deprivation (16-24h) induced a substantial decrease in body temperature in all mice, but the duration and depth of hypothermia was significantly greater in mice lacking Prokr2 signaling compared to heterozygous and wild-type litter mates. Likewise, when tested in metabolic cages, food deprivation produced greater decreases in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in the transgenic mice than the controls. We conclude that Prokr2 signaling plays a role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy balance, and loss of this pathway results in physiological and behavioral responses normally only detected when mice are in negative energy balance.
PH, Jethwa; H, I'Anson; A, Warner; HM, Prosser; MH, Hastings; ES, Maywood; FJP, Ebling
Background: Dysfunction of serotoninergic transmission could predispose to excessive alcohol consumption and dependence. The functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with different disorders, including alcoholism. Considering the likelihood of heterogeneity in the “alcohol dependence” phenotype, 5-HTTLPR may be more specifically implicated in subsamples of patients or in related traits of alcoholism, such as impulsivity.Methods: We
Philip Gorwood; Philippe Batel; Jean Adès; Michel Hamon; Claudette Boni
Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) represents a frequently encountered otological disease of unknown etiology. In recent years, several inherited risk factors have been found in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In the present study, we determined whether specific polymorphism or the combination of polymorphisms in folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism genes can act as predisposing inherited vascular risk factors in the
Menachem Gross; Gideon Friedman; Ron Eliashar; Nira Koren-Morag; Neta Goldschmidt; Iman Abou Atta; Arie Ben-Yehuda
Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10?7 study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r2 = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10?7 at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies.
Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Howard, Philip J.; Mein, Charles A.; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tobin, Martin D.; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sober, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Hastie, Claire E.; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K.; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Bjorn; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F.R.; Wells, George A.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G.M.; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V.; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Maris; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.
Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies. PMID:22100073
Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R; Newhouse, Stephen J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G; Whincup, Peter H; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Dobson, Richard J; Howard, Philip J; Mein, Charles A; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Davey Smith, George; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Goodall, Alison H; Fowkes, F Gerald; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S; Burton, Paul R; Nelson, Christopher P; Tobin, Martin D; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sõber, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Hastie, Claire E; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Björn; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Wells, George A; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G M; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Maris; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D; Samani, Nilesh J; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B
A new gene has been discovered, by genetic linkage studies, that predisposes to colon cancer. The gene was discovered by linkage to a microsatellite marker on human chromosome 2. The microsatellite DNA shows a high degree of variation in colon cancers, varying in length from tumor to tumor. The gene may act by destabilizing the genome. Different groups looking at different satellite markers saw thousands of microsatellite instabilities throughout the genome, raising the possibility that the DNA as a whole is not being copied correctly, apparently due to a gene mutation that causes wholesale errors during DNA replication. Researchers hope to use the gene as a screening tool for screening individuals susceptible to colon cancer.
Objective: To examine socio-environmental, behavioral, and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling (PRE) factors contributing to post-migration dietary behavior change among a sample of traditional Hispanic males. Design: In this descriptive study, semistructured interviews, a group interview, and photovoice, followed by group interviews, were…
Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Downey, Laura; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Yadrick, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol L.
BACKGROUND: Preventive care in the United States has been a priority, especially for children under 18 years of age. The objective of this analysis was to determine which predisposing, enabling, and need factors affect access to preventive health care for children. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a cross-sectional study of children in the
Ka-Ming Lo; Kimberly G Fulda
Background: Recently researchers have suggested that non-medical information may impact the decision to continue or terminate a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. This study is an investigation of what type of information prospective parents need for this decision-making in the case of a condition predisposing to intellectual disability.…
Folate metabolism plays a critical role in embryonic development. Prenatal folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and probably oral facial clefts. Previous studies of related metabolic genes have associated polymorphisms in cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with cleft risk. We explored associations between genes related to one-carbon metabolism and clefts in a Norwegian population-based study that included 362 families with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and 191 families with cleft palate only (CPO). We previously showed a 39% reduction in risk of CL/P with folic acid supplementation in this population. In the present study we genotyped 12 polymorphisms in nine genes related to one-carbon metabolism and looked for associations of clefting risk with fetal polymorphisms, maternal polymorphisms, as well as parent-of-origin effects, using combined likelihood-ratio tests (LRT). We also stratified by maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid (>400 ?g) to explore gene-exposure interactions. We found a reduced risk of CL/P with mothers who carried the CBS C699T variant (rs234706); relative risk was 0.94 with one copy of the T allele (95% CI 0.63-1.4) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.96) with two copies (P = 0.008). We found no evidence of interaction of this variant with folate status. We saw no evidence of risk from the MTHFR C677T variant (rs1801133) either overall or after stratifying by maternal folate intake. No associations were found between any of the polymorphisms and CPO. Genetic variations in the nine metabolic genes examined here do not confer a substantial degree of risk for clefts. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.†
Boyles, Abee L.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Taylor, Jack A.; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Drevon, Christian A.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Lie, Rolv Terje
Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by a young population. Due to biological, psychological, sociocultural and economic factors, young people, particularly those aged 15-24 years, are generally at a high risk of HIV/AIDS and other reproductive health problems. This paper presents results of a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia, to assess factors that predispose out-of-school youths to HIV/AIDS-related risk behaviours. Both quantitative and qualitative data-collection methods were employed to conduct the study. For quantitative data collection, a household interview survey was conducted among 628 out-of-school youths, aged 15-24 years, within the 17 kebeles (villages) of the town. The number of respondents in each kebele was assigned proportional to the size of kebele, and the required numbers of respondents within each kebele were selected through a systematic random-sampling technique. Qualitative data were collected by conducting five focus-group discussions with 46 participants and in-depth interviews with 10 participants. Institutional ethical clearance and informed verbal consent from the study participants were obtained before undertaking the study. Of the 628 study subjects, 64.8% had experienced sexual intercourse at the time of the survey. The mean age at first sexual commencement was 17.7 (+2) years. Of those sexually active, 33% had sexual intercourse with non-regular partners (the proportions were 40.6% among males and 24.7% among females, suggesting that males tended to be about two times more likely to have sex with non-regular sexual partners than females (odds ratio = 1.78, with 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.73). Furthermore, consistent condom-use among those who had sex in exchange for money was low (36%). Alcohol intake, chewing of khat (a green leaf), low educational background, and being male were significantly associated with having sex with either a commercial or a non-regular sexual partner. In view of the magnitude of high-risk sexual behaviours among out-of-school youths that may expose them to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, efforts need to be exerted to deal with the identified predisposing factors and to address the problems of idleness, lack of jobs, and hopelessness. PMID:18330068
Alemu, Hibret; Mariam, Damen Haile; Belay, Kassahun Abate; Davey, Gail
Serotoninergic system is one of the major brain neurotransmitter systems that is involved in the development of depressive\\u000a spectrum disorders. Regulatory genes of this system are the principle candidate genes predisposing to unipolar depression.\\u000a Using PCR-RFLP analysis, we have conducted a study of polymorphic loci of several genes of this system: C1019G of serotonin receptor 1A gene, (HTR1A); A-1438G of
T. G. Noskova; A. V. Kazantseva; A. E. Gareeva; D. A. Gaisyna; S. U. Tuktarova; E. K. Khusnutdinova
Objective: Human adiposity is highly heritable, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity in most humans are known. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with measures of adiposity. Methods: We studied 355 genetic variants in 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in two groups of
Wendy K. Chung; Amit Patki; Naoki Matsuoka; Bert B. Boyer; Nianjun Liu; Solomon K. Musani; Anna V. Goropashnaya; Perciliz L. Tan; Nicholas Katsanis; Stephen B. Johnson; Peter K. Gregersen; David B. Allison; Rudolph L. Leibel; Hemant K. Tiwari
Purpose To assess in a cohort of Caucasian patients exposed to stavudine (d4T) the association of polymorphisms in pyrimidine pathway enzymes and HLA-B*40?01 carriage with HIV/Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS). Methods Three-hundred and thirty-six patients, 187 with HALS and 149 without HALS, and 72 uninfected subjects were recruited. The diagnosis of HALS was performed following the criteria of the Lipodystrophy Severity Grading Scale. Polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase (TS) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes were determined by direct sequencing, HLA-B genotyping by PCR-SSOr Luminex Technology, and intracellular levels of stavudine triphosphate (d4T-TP) by a LC-MS/MS assay method. Results HALS was associated with the presence of a low expression TS genotype polymorphism (64.7% vs. 42.9%, OR?=?2.43; 95%CI: 1.53–3.88, P<0.0001). MTHFR gene polymorphisms and HLA-B*40?01 carriage were not associated with HALS or d4T-TP intracellular levels. Low and high expression TS polymorphisms had different d4T-TP intracellular levels (25.60 vs. 13.60 fmol/106 cells, P<0.0001). Independent factors associated with HALS were(OR [95%CI]: (a) Combined TS and MTHFR genotypes (p?=?0.006, reference category (ref.): ‘A+A’; OR for ‘A+B’ vs. ref.: 1.39 [0.69–2.80]; OR for ‘B+A’ vs. ref.: 2.16 [1.22–3.83]; OR for ‘B+B’ vs. ref.: 3.13, 95%CI: 1.54–6.35), (b) maximum viral load ?5 log10 (OR: 2.55, 95%CI: 1.56–4.14, P?=?0.001), (c) use of EFV (1.10 [1.00–1.21], P?=?0.008, per year of use). Conclusion HALS is associated with combined low-expression TS and MTHFR associated with high activity polymorphisms but not with HLA-B*40?01 carriage in Caucasian patients with long-term exposure to stavudine.
Pruvost, Alain; Torres, Ferran; Salazar, Juliana; Gutierrez, Maria del Mar; Domingo, Joan Carles; Fernandez, Irene; Villarroya, Francesc; Vidal, Francesc; Baiget, Montserrat; de la Calle-Martin, Oscar
Despite intense interest and considerable effort via high-throughput screening, there are few examples of small molecules that directly inhibit protein-protein interactions. This suggests that many protein interaction surfaces may not be intrinsically “druggable” by small molecules, and elevates in importance the few successful examples as model systems for improving our fundamental understanding of druggability. Here we describe an approach for exploring protein fluctuations enriched in conformations containing surface pockets suitable for small molecule binding. Starting from a set of seven unbound protein structures, we find that the presence of low-energy pocket-containing conformations is indeed a signature of druggable protein interaction sites and that analogous surface pockets are not formed elsewhere on the protein. We further find that ensembles of conformations generated with this biased approach structurally resemble known inhibitor-bound structures more closely than equivalent ensembles of unbiased conformations. Collectively these results suggest that “druggability” is a property encoded on a protein surface through its propensity to form pockets, and inspire a model in which the crude features of the predisposed pocket(s) restrict the range of complementary ligands; additional smaller conformational changes then respond to details of a particular ligand. We anticipate that the insights described here will prove useful in selecting protein targets for therapeutic intervention.
Johnson, David K.; Karanicolas, John
Objective: To determine the predisposing factors, modes of clinical presentation, management modalities and fetomaternal outcomes of uterine rupture cases at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Methodology: A 14-year retrospective analysis of 61 gravid (>20 weeks of gestation) uterine rupture cases between January 1998 to March 2012 was carried out. Results: The incidence of ruptured uteri was calculated to be 0.116%. Persistence for vaginal delivery after cesarean was the most common cause of uterine rupture (31.1%). Ablatio placenta was the most common co-existent obstetric pathology (4.9%). Bleeding was the main symptom at presentation (44.3%) and complete type of uterine rupture (93.4%) was more likely to occur. Isthmus was the most vulnerable part of uterus (39.3%) for rupture. The longer the interval between rupture and surgical intervention, the longer the duration of hospitalization was. Older patients with increased number of previous pregnancies were likely to have longer hospitalization periods. Conclusion: Rupture of gravid uterus brings about potentially hazardous risks. Regular antenatal care, hospital deliveries and vigilance during labor with quick referral to a well-equipped center may reduce the incidence of this condition.
Turgut, Abdulkadir; Ozler, Ali; Siddik Evsen, Mehmet; Ender Soydinc, Hatice; Yaman Goruk, Neval; Karacor, Talip; Gul, Talip
The purposes of this retrospective study were to review cases of colonic torsion/volvulus between July 1992 and August 2010 and to determine if any predisposing factors exist for the development of this condition. Six dogs were diagnosed with colonic torsion/volvulus during the study period. Four dogs had a history of previous gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) with prophylactic gastropexy. Three of six dogs diagnosed with colonic torsion/volvulus had large intestinal entrapment and strangulation around the gastropexy site at the time of surgery. The history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiologic findings were not specific for colonic torsion/volvulus in any dog. Early exploratory laparotomy was indicated to confirm the diagnosis and perform surgical correction of the affected bowel segments. Three of five dogs that underwent surgery had a left abdominal wall colopexy performed. All five dogs that underwent surgery in this study survived postoperatively. One patient was euthanized without surgical intervention. Results suggest that colonic torsion/volvulus should be considered in any large-breed dog with nonspecific gastrointestinal clinical signs and a history of previous gastropexy. Early recognition and prompt treatment of this condition may result in a good outcome. PMID:23535755
Gagnon, Dominique; Brisson, Brigitte
IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced locoregional multiple nodular panniculitis without septicemia is an underreported condition, with only 3 cases reported to date. We report 3 new cases of P aeruginosa-induced multiple nodular panniculitis without septicemia and describe common features among all 6 cases, thus providing the first description, to our knowledge, of the natural history and potential predisposing factors for this entity. OBSERVATIONS Median age of the 6 patients was 74 years (range, 54-84 years). Patients had inflammatory nodules on a lower limb (n?=?6) that were unilateral (n?=?6) and had no fever (n?=?5). Blood cultures were negative (n?=?5). Skin biopsy specimens revealed panniculitis (n?=?5), with skin cultures positive for P aeruginosa (n?=?6). Skin nodules resolved with systemic antibiotics (n?=?5). The comorbidities recorded were type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (n?=?5), overweight (n?=?3), and combined locoregional anatomical changes in the lower limbs (n?=?5). Local skin injury, which constituted the portal entry, was present in all cases, especially leg ulcers (n?=?3). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We describe P aeruginosa-induced locoregional nodular panniculitis as a distinct entity. This should be investigated in elderly, diabetic, overweight patients with inflammatory nodules on a lower limb associated with locoregional anatomical changes and skin injury, with the optimal antibiotic regimen introduced as rapidly as possible. PMID:24671612
Roriz, Mélanie; Maruani, Annabel; Le Bidre, Emmanuelle; Machet, Marie-Christine; Machet, Laurent; Samimi, Mahtab
This study was conducted to establish the possible contribution of functional gene polymorphisms in detoxification/oxidative stress and vascular remodeling pathways to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) susceptibility in the case-control study (350 CAP patients, 432 control subjects) and to predisposition to the development of CAP complications in the prospective study. All subjects were genotyped for 16 polymorphic variants in the 14 genes of xenobiotics detoxification CYP1A1, AhR, GSTM1, GSTT1, ABCB1, redox-status SOD2, CAT, GCLC, and vascular homeostasis ACE, AGT, AGTR1, NOS3, MTHFR, VEGF?. Risk of pulmonary complications (PC) in the single locus analysis was associated with CYP1A1, GCLC and AGTR1 genes. Extra PC (toxic shock syndrome and myocarditis) were not associated with these genes. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using multi-factor dimensionality reduction, and cumulative gene risk score approaches. The final model which included >5 risk alleles in the CYP1A1 (rs2606345, rs4646903, rs1048943), GCLC, AGT, and AGTR1 genes was associated with pleuritis, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, all PC and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We considered CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene set using Set Distiller mode implemented in GeneDecks for discovering gene-set relations via the degree of sharing descriptors within a given gene set. N-acetylcysteine and oxygen were defined by Set Distiller as the best descriptors for the gene set associated in the present study with PC and ARF. Results of the study are in line with literature data and suggest that genetically determined oxidative stress exacerbation may contribute to the progression of lung inflammation. PMID:24068433
Salnikova, Lyubov E; Smelaya, Tamara V; Golubev, Arkadiy M; Rubanovich, Alexander V; Moroz, Viktor V
Mutations in the gene encoding smooth muscle cell alpha actin (ACTA2) have recently been shown to cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to type A dissections (TAAD) and predispose to premature stroke and coronary artery disease. In order to further explore the role of ACTA2 variations in the pathogenesis of TAAD, we sequenced the coding regions of this gene in
Sabine Hoffjan; Stephan Waldmüller; Wulf Blankenfeldt; Judith Kötting; Petra Gehle; Priska Binner; Joerg T Epplen; Thomas Scheffold