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Shorebirds migrate over long distances from breeding to wintering grounds, stopping at a few bays and estuaries to refuel. Most information on migration of shorebirds concentrates on population dynamics and foraging behavior on intertidal habitats. We studied the behavior of shorebirds on mudflats, beaches and marshes on Delaware Bay to understand how they use different habitats. Dense flocks of shorebirds
A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Bacteria with 16S rRNA sequences closely related (>99.7% identity) to Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri sequences dominated during the initial phase of oil degradation in the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Field data were compared to the results of previous laboratory microcosm experiments, which revealed significant differences.
Roling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.
Sediment physicochemical characteristics, benthic community structure, and toxicity were measured at reference and contaminated intertidal mudflats around the North Island of New Zealand. Chronic whole-sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine amphipod, Chaetocorophium lucasi and the marine bivalve, Macomona lilana, and pore-water toxicity tests were conducted with embryos of the echinoid, Fellaster zelandiae. Although concentrations of organic chemicals and heavy metals were up to several orders of magnitude higher at the sites considered to be contaminated, levels of contamination were relatively low compared to internationally based sediment quality guidelines. Although no pronounced difference was found in benthic community structure between reference and contaminated sites, multivariate analysis indicated that natural sediment characteristics and factors related to contamination may have been affecting community structure. Although benthic effects caused by present levels of contamination are not yet dramatic, subtle changes in community structure related to pollution may be occurring. The two whole-sediment and the pore-water toxicity tests presented different response patterns. Growth of C. lucasi and M. liliana was a less sensitive endpoint than survival. None of the three toxicity tests responded more strongly to the contaminated than to the reference sites, that is, neither natural-sediment and pore-water characteristics nor unmeasured contaminants affected the test organisms. It is possible that sediment collection and handling may have induced chemical changes, confounding interpretation of toxicity tests.
Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Williams, E.K.; Martin, M.L.; Van Dam, L.F.; Mills, G.N. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., Hamilton (New Zealand)
Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...
An Operations Planning Manual was prepared for use by Federal Water Pollution Control Administration personnel involved in oil-spill cleanup operations. The surface conditions and topography of a beachcontaminated with oil and the manner in which the oil...
Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifyi...
C. M. Kephart D. P. Finnegan D. S. Francy E. E. Bertke R. A. Sheets
We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition,\\u000a quantities and distribution of marine debris along ?150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia,\\u000a Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations\\u000a were observed. Plastics accounted for
Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul
We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899
Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção
Spherical particles composed of magnetite, typically 120 [mu]m to 2,450 [mu]m in diameter, are accumulating in the beach sands of New Jersey. Most magnetite spherule surfaces are highly polished but some are corroded or abraded. Their interiors are typically vesicular. Magnetite spherules from 213 New Jersey beach sand samples collected during May 1991 are chemically and morphologically the same as those filtered from industrial smokestacks and the air supplied of Newark, New Jersey and Philadelphia. The average concentration of spherules in New Jersey beach sand is 35 per kg throughout the northern 43 km of beach south of Newark (from Sandy Hook to Belmar Beach). They are rare to absent in the central 86 km stretch of beach but average 34 per kg of sand throughout the southern 91 km of beach east of Philadelphia (from Ventnor City to Villas Beach). The distribution of magnetite spherules in New Jersey beach sand is consistent with a transport pathway model that involves: (1) Prevailing wind dispersal from industrial sources, (2) erosion of spherules that have settled out of the air into the surface drainage system that flows toward the New Jersey coast and (3) longshore transport of spherule contaminated sand away from inlets identified as locations where most of the spherules enter the beach system. The spherules, therefore, are useful tracers indicating how industrial airborne fallout is transported to and along shorelines. The distribution pattern is consistent with generally northward longshore currents north of the Manasquan inlet and generally southward longshore currents south of the Abescon inlet.
Hassinan, W.T.; Puffer, J.H. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Geology Dept.)
The purpose of this investigation was to determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria contaminating the Metro Beach area of Lake St. Clair and the likelihood that water currents moved contaminated water from the Clinton River cutoff into the Metro Beach a...
Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity of PAH-biodegrading microorganisms. This study focused on addressing the limitation of nutrient availability for PAH biodegradation in oil-contaminatedbeach sediments. In our previous study, three nutrient sources including inorganic soluble nutrients, the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA), as well as their combinations, were applied to beach sediments contaminated with an Arabian light crude oil. Osmocote was the most effective nutrient source for aliphatic biodegradation. This study presents data on PAH biodegradation in the oil-spiked beach sediments amended with the three nutrients. Biodegradation of total target PAHs (two- to six-ring) in all treatments followed a first-order biodegradation model. The biodegradation rates of total target PAHs in the sediments treated with Os were significantly higher than those without. On Day 45, approximately 9.3% of total target PAHs remained in the sediments amended with Os alone, significantly lower than the 54.2 to 58.0% remaining in sediment treatments without Os. Amendment with Inipol or soluble nutrients alone, or in combination, did not stimulate biodegradation rates of PAHs with a ring number higher than 2. The slow-release fertilizer (Os) is therefore recommended as an effective nutrient amendment for intrinsic biodegradation of PAHs in oil-contaminatedbeach sediments. PMID:15224921
Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...
While contaminants are predicted to have measurable impacts on fish assemblages, studies have rarely assessed this potential in the context of natural variability in physico-chemical conditions within and between estuaries. We investigated links between the distribution of sediment contamination (metals and PAHs), physico-chemical variables (pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity) and beach fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Fish communities were sampled using
Andrew C. McKinley; Katherine A. Dafforn; Matthew D. Taylor; Emma L. Johnston
Three strategies of nutrient application are generally used for bioremediation purposes: Nutrient amendment to oil-contaminatedbeach sediments is a criti- cal factor for the enhancement of indigenous microbial activity andAddition of soluble mineral nutrients. Venosa et biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine al. (1996, 1997) showed that approximately 1.5 mg environment. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory
Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentrations. This model is frequently incorrect Recent studies have shown that statistical regression models based on least-squares fitting often are more accurate. To make such models more generally available, the Virtual Beach (VB) tool was developed. VB is public-domain software that prescribes site-specific predictive models. In this study we used VB as a tool to evaluate statistical modeling for predicting Escherichia coli (E. coli levels at Huntington Beach, on Lake Erie. The models were based on readily available weather and environmental data, plus U.S. Geological Service onsite data. Although models for Great Lakes beaches have frequently been fitted to multiyear data sets, this work demonstrates that useful statistical models can be based on limited data sets collected over much shorter time periods, leading to dynamic models that are periodically refitted as new data become available. Comparisons of the resulting nowcasts (predictions of current, but yet unknown, bacterial levels) with observations verified the effectiveness of VB and showed that dynamic models are about as accurate as long-term static models. Finally, fitting models to forecasted explanatory variables, bacteria forecasts were found to compare favorably to nowcasts, yielding adjusted coefficients of determination (adjusted R2) of about 0.40. PMID:18678011
Nutrient amendment to oil-contaminatedbeach sediments is a critical factor for the enhancement of indigenous microbial activity and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine environment. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of the slow-release fertilizers Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA) combined with inorganic nutrients on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments using an open irrigation system with artificial seawater over a 45-d period. Osmocote is comprised of a semipermeable membrane surrounding water-soluble inorganic N, P, and K. Inipol, which contains organic N and P, has been used for oil cleanup on beach substrate. Nutrient concentrations and microbial activity in sediments were monitored by analyzing sediment leachates and metabolic dehydrogenase activity of the microbial biomass, respectively. Loss of aliphatics (n-C12 to n-C33, pristane, and phytane) was significantly greater (total loss between 95 and 97%) in oil-spiked sediments treated with Os alone or in combination with other nutrient amendments, compared with an unamended oil-spiked control (26% loss) or sediments treated with the other nutrient amendments (28-65% loss). A combination of Os and soluble nutrients (SN) was favorable for the rapid metabolic stimulation of the indigenous microbial biomass, the sustained release of nutrients, and the enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in leached, oil-contaminated sediments. PMID:12931877
Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminatedbeach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high
Ran Xu; Li Ching Yong; Yong Giak Lim; Jeffrey Philip Obbard
While contaminants are predicted to have measurable impacts on fish assemblages, studies have rarely assessed this potential in the context of natural variability in physico-chemical conditions within and between estuaries. We investigated links between the distribution of sediment contamination (metals and PAHs), physico-chemical variables (pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity) and beach fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Fish communities were sampled using a beach seine within the inner and outer zones of six estuaries that were either heavily modified or relatively unmodified by urbanization and industrial activity. All sampling was replicated over two years with two periods sampled each year. Shannon diversity, biomass and abundance were all significantly higher in the inner zone of estuaries while fish were larger on average in the outer zone. Strong differences in community composition were also detected between the inner and outer zones. Few differences were detected between fish assemblages in heavily modified versus relatively unmodified estuaries despite high concentrations of sediment contaminants in the inner zones of modified estuaries that exceeded recognized sediment quality guidelines. Trends in species distributions, community composition, abundance, Shannon diversity, and average fish weight were strongly correlated to physico-chemical variables and showed a weaker relationship to sediment metal contamination. Sediment PAH concentrations were not significantly related to the fish assemblage. These findings suggest that variation in some physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH) or variables that co-vary with these factors (e.g., wave activity or grain size) have a much greater influence on this fish assemblage than anthropogenic stressors such as contamination.
McKinley, Andrew C.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.
Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and associated shallow ground water will be analyzed for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (including optical properties to characterize the composition of the organic carbon), fecal sterols, DNA (using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Poylmorphism), and phospholipid fatty acids.
Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.
The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that most of the identified Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches.
The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that most of the identified Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches. PMID:22660704
Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung
A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a
Wilfred F. M. Roling; Michael G. Milner; D. Martin Jones; Francesco Fratepietro; Richard P. J. Swannell; Fabien Daniel; Ian M. Head
In 2003, the US EPA Office of Research and Development conducted studies at two Great Lakes beaches to evaluate the association between novel, rapid methods of measuring fecal contamination and swimming associated health effects. These results were presented at the 2004 Science F...
OBJECTIVES—To gather enough data from a large scale investigation involving two health authorities, to assess the possible concentrations and routes of exposure and the consequent health implications.To use the data to decide whether a polluted beach should remain open to the public. In Spring 1997, a chemical incident came to light at a beach on the south coast of England when a local resident reported a sulphurous smell, visible signs of oil, and reduced numbers of fishing bait. The beach was situated adjacent to a former gasworks site and was accessible to the public. The incident was reported to the local authority and was initially investigated by the Environment Agency and the local authority. An Environment Agency report confirmed contamination of the beach with cyanide, ammonia, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with associated potential health risks. The incident was then referred to the local health authorities for investigation.?METHODS—The investigation was carried out in four stages: comprehensive sampling and analysis to identify the extent of contamination, followed by an assessment of risk to health; establishment of a long term monitoring programme to identify any changes in contaminant concentrations; investigation of the effects of the contamination on shellfish; and review of the routine monitoring data and current sampling strategy.?RESULTS—The initial investigation confirmed that the beach was contaminated, with the most likely source being the adjacent former gasworks site. The level of contamination was not found to be likely to pose a hazard to users of the beach. However, subsequent investigation of shellfish in the area led to warning signs being erected on the beach to prevent human consumption of mussels contaminated with PAHs.?CONCLUSIONS—Several lessons can be learnt from this investigation, which can be applied to incident management more generally: the importance of collaboration and coordination; the need for early involvement of the health authority; and the importance of carrying out appropriate sampling and analysis as soon as possible, to assess the risk to health and the environment.???Keywords: public health; water pollutants; chemical; hydrocarbons; cyanides
Beach ridges on the Lake Plain of Lake Erie in northeastern Ohio are belts of highly permeable deposits of coarse sand and gravel. They were deposited on top of glacio-lacustrine clays and tills at ancient shorelines of the regressing Lake Erie, as the terrain rebounded isostatic ally in the wake of the last episode of the Wisconsinan glaciation. The formation is highly heterogeneous and permeable, with hydraulic conductivity values ranging widely from 0.3 to almost 1.0 m/d. It serves as the source of ground water to a large number of domestic water wells. The aquifer is recharged by local precipitation, with the seasonal ground water elevations oscillating as much as 1.2 m. Aquifer contamination by oil brines was detected in five domestic water wells located at distances from 148 to 214 m from the point source of the contamination. Assuming instantaneous injection of the contaminants, the computed range for the longitudinal and transversal dispersion coefficients is 60--105 m and 5--17.5 m, respectively.
Gutowski, R.T.; Eckstein, Y. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)
During April 1996-May 2005, 2343 oiled seabird corpses were recorded in beach surveys conducted on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. One hundred eighty-three samples of oil were collected from the beaches and from the feathers of bird corpses. Gas chromatographic (GC/FID) analysis was used to identify generic oil type and likely marine source. During this period, at least 74 marine oil discharge events were probably responsible for beached pelagic tar and contamination of seabird corpses found on Sable Island, of which 77.0% were crude oils, 14.9% were fuel oils, and 8.1% were bilge oil mixtures. While fuel and bilge oils may be discharged by all vessel and platform types, crude oil discharges are associated with tanker operations. This study demonstrates that oiling of the sea from tankers remains a serious wildlife issue in the Northwest Atlantic. PMID:16403538
Plastic waste is of increasing concern in marine ecosystems [1-3]. Buoyant plastic particles accumulate in pelagic habitats whereas non-floating debris accumulates on the seafloor and in beach sediments, posing risk to the respective communities [1-4]. Microplastic particles (<5 mm) are either directly introduced via sewage discharge or formed by biofouling and mechanical abrasion, making them more prone to consumption by aquatic organisms [2,3]. As a consequence, they can accumulate in higher trophic levels [3-5]. A variety of harmful effects of plastic and associated chemicals has been shown [2-4]. Moreover, plastic debris can act as vector for alien species and diseases [2,6]. A large portion of the plastic waste is produced onshore and reaches the marine environment, which is considered the main sink of plastic debris. There is, however, a considerable lack of knowledge on the contamination of freshwater ecosystems with plastic debris. We here show that freshwater ecosystems also act, at least temporarily, as a sink for plastic particles. PMID:24112978
Imhof, Hannes K; Ivleva, Natalia P; Schmid, Johannes; Niessner, Reinhard; Laforsch, Christian
We present estimates of annual public health impacts, both illnesses and cost of illness,attributable to excess gastrointestinal illnesses caused by swimming in contaminated coastal waters at beaches in southern California, USA. Beach-specific enterococci densities are used as inputs to two epidemiological dose-response models to predict the risk of gastrointestinal illness at 28 beaches spanning 160 km of coastline in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. We use attendance data along with the health cost of gastrointestinal illness to estimate the number of illnesses among swimmers . We estimate that between 627,800 and 1,479,200 excess gastrointestinal illnesses occur at beaches in Los Angeles and Orange Counties each year. Using a conservative health cost of gastroenteritis, this corresponds to an annual economic loss of 21 or 51 million depending upon the underlying epidemiological model used (in year 2000 dollars). Results demonstrate that improving coastal water quality could result in a reduction of gastrointestinal illnesses locally and a concurrent savings in expenditures on related health care costs.
Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminatedbeach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high level of nutrients in leached sediments, as well as elevated levels of microbial activity and rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Chitin was more biodegradable than chitosan and gradually released nitrogen into the sediment. The addition of chitin or chitosan to the Osmocote amended sediments enhanced biodegradation rates of the alkanes relative to the presence of Osmocote alone, where chitosan was more effective than chitin due to its greater oil sorption capacity. Furthermore, chitosan significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:16291209
Xu, Ran; Yong, Li Ching; Lim, Yong Giak; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip
Spherical particles composed of magnetite, typically 120 [mu]m to 2,450 [mu]m in diameter, are accumulating in the beach sands of New Jersey. Most magnetite spherule surfaces are highly polished but some are corroded or abraded. Their interiors are typically vesicular. Magnetite spherules from 213 New Jersey beach sand samples collected during May 1991 are chemically and morphologically the same as
Groundwater highly contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) from a leaky storage tank was detected in Vero Beach, Florida in 1978. Aware of this problem, the local and state authorities gave permission to pump out the contaminated water as a means of reducing concentrations in the aquifer. The water was air sprayed to strip the organic compounds and subsequently discharged and mixed by means of a hydraulic pump in the drainage canal. The average discharge rate of contaminated water into the canal was approximately 0.2 million gallons per day. This project was initiated to determine the spatial distribution of pollutants in the canal and river as well as rainfall and canal flow rate effects on water, sediment, and biological organisms. Prior to flushing the well, a baseline survey of trichloroethylene and other related compounds in the canal and river was performed.
We report initial results to determine if select trace metals are effective indicators for the magnitude and spatial extent of Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil contamination in Gulf of Mexico marine sediments and beach sands. Since crude oil is known to have elevated concentrations of nickel and vanadium, contamination can be detected even after the degradation of oil by measuring enrichment of these metals within marine sediments and beach sands. A sample of crude oil from the Macondo Prospect, source of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, was fully digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. Results indicate the crude oil is enriched in nickel, vanadium, and cobalt, with concentrations of 0.86 ppm, 2.76 ppm, and 84 ppb, respectively. With this known trace metal enrichment in DWH oil, Gulf of Mexico marine sediments from 400 and 1100m water depth near DeSoto Canyon and beach sands from Pensacola, FL were examined for enrichment of V, Ni, and Co. Both marine sediment and beach sand samples were partially digested with HNO3 before analysis via ICP-MS. With marine sediments, the visually contaminated layer at or near the surface typically exhibited an enrichment in Ni, V, and Co compared to the pristine control sediments. Vanadium and nickel enrichment in marine sediments varied from 10 to 32% and 0 to 22%, respectively. Visible contamination in beach sands was found between 20-60cm beneath the surface and, likewise, showed Ni, V, and Co enrichment up to 33%, 45%, and 100%. This data shows that enrichment of V, Ni, and Co in marine sediments and beach sands may be an effective proxy for contamination even after the degradation of oil. Marine sediments and beach sands will continue to be monitored for trace metal enrichment in an effort to assess the continuing impacts of the DWH spill on the Gulf of Mexico.
Roeder, T. K.; Hastings, D. W.; Holzinger, C.; Playle, E.; Brooks, G.; Huettel, M. H.; Kostka, J. E.; Larson, R. A.; Flower, B. P.
BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...
Life in an estuarine environment is studied in this set of audio-visual materials prepared for grades 6-12. A 71-frame colored filmstrip, cassette tape narration, and teacher's guide focus upon Elkhorn Slough, a tidal mudflat in the Monterey Bay area, California. Topics examined range from river drainage and the effects of pollution on living…
Bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from contaminated soils from Times Beach, Missouri and Newark, New Jersey, was examined using liver concentrations and toxicity in guinea pigs observed up to 60 days following a single oral administration, and induction of cytochrome P-450 in rats sacrificed 24 hours after a single oral dose as endpoints. Both soils are contaminated with several chlorinated dioxins and numerous other compounds. Times Beach soil resulted in greater TCDD concentration in liver and TCDD was considerably more bioavailable from Times Beach soil than from Newark soil. However, both soils induced cytochrome P-450 activity to approximately the same extent. Moreover, similar banding patterns of microsomal proteins were seen on polyacrylamide electrophoretic gels. The many other compounds present in the soils, particularly in Newark, may account for the similar protein bands and levels of cytochrome P-450 observed.
Bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from contaminated soils from Times Beach, Missouri and Newark, New Jersey, was examined using liver concentrations and toxicity in guinea pigs observed up to 60 days following a single oral administration, and induction of cytochrome P-450 in rats sacrificed 24 hours after a single oral dose as endpoints. Both soils are contaminated with several chlorinated dioxins
Thomas H. Umbreit; Elizabeth J. Hesse; Michael A. Gallo
This radio broadcast explores the science, history and culture of the beach; the problems of beach erosion as a result of sea levels, storms and overdevelopment; and where the best beaches are and why they are the best. The show discusses the natural fluctuations of the amount of sand on beaches, how beaches rebuild themselves, efforts at beach replenishment, the formation of barrier islands, the value of dune grass, and what the sand is composed of at various beaches. The 1998 broadcast is 49 minutes in length.
Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...
The aim of this research was to investigate the importance of biological processes on the sediment characteristics and the morphology of a mudflat in the Westerschelde (The Netherlands). For this purpose, a transect in the Biezelingse Ham mudflat was sampled on a monthly basis. In spring, the muddy part of the mudflat was dominated by a biofilm of microphytobenthos that
J. F. C de Brouwer; S. Bjelic; E. M. G. T. De Deckere; L. J. Stal
The Environmental Protection Agency has released data from the third annual National Health Protection Survey of Beaches for the 1999 swimming season. Based on voluntarily returned surveys, the site offers information on water quality at 1,891 beaches in the US. Using an interactive map, users can find out if the water at a selected beach is being monitored, who is responsible for monitoring, and if any advisories or closures have been issued. Initial entries for each beach include basic monitoring information, contact information, and a map. Users can also read the submitted survey form in full. Additional resources at the BEACH Watch site include summary results from the survey, a fact sheet, technical reports and reference, brochures amd pamphlets, a FAQ, and related links.
Mudflat research is dispersed among several fields (ecology, sedimentology), each with its own focus and methodology. Consequently, although the volume of mudflat literature is considerable, our understanding of mudflat ecology remains fragmented. For example, little is known about the structure of microbial communities outside Western Europe. Here we present the first North American specific composition and densities of live mudflat
M. Trites; I. Kaczmarska; J. M. Ehrman; P. W. Hicklin; J. Ollerhead
Contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants is now widely recognized as a serious threat to the integrity of many municipal and rural water supplies (Burmaster 1982; Wilson and McNabb 1983; Hansen 1983). The source of this contamination includes various waste disposal activities (e.g. industrial impoundments, landfills, accidental spills, underground storage tank leaks, pesticides and fertilizer application). Groundwater highly contaminated with
Once common as a fishery resource, adult horseshoe crabs of two species occur in Hong Kong. A third, Tachypleus gigas, can no longer be found. Once common too were breeding and nursery beaches for horseshoe crabs in Hong Kong but overfishing of adults, pollution and coastal reclamation have reduced these to but three identified sandy mudflats and only one where
210Pb and 234Th activity profiles in sediment cores from underconsolidated mudflats 300 km downdrift of the Amazon river mouth record an ephemeral surface layer of fine-grained sediment up to 1.5 m thick. This layer contains about l.5 × 108 tons of Amazon sediment deposited rapidly (~1 cm\\/d) from a fluid-mud suspension (10–400 g\\/l) during the months between January and June.
The objectives of this work were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g., chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (<2 to 3320 CFU/100 mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r ? 0.36, p < 0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF) for environmental parameters. PMID:20925349
Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Gidley, Maribeth L; Plano, Lisa R W; Fleisher, Jay M; Wang, John D; Elmir, Samir M; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E
The objectives of this study were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g. chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (< 2 to 3,320 CFU/100mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r=0.58, p<0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r?0.36, p<0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to for environmental parameters to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF).
Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Wang, John D.; Elmir, Samir M.; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C.; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C.; Fleming, Lora E.
dition, PAHs are thermodynamically stable since they are derivatives of the benzene ring with large negative Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons resonance energies (Mueller et al., 1996). As a result, (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by PAHs are recalcitrant in the environment and are often lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity
The purpose of our study was to better understand seed germination ecology of the summer annual sedge Cyperus squarrosus, which grows in various habitats, including mudflats and shallow soil over limestone bedrock (rock outcrops), where timing of the period favorable for germination and completion of the life cycle is unpredictable. Over a 28.5-month period, temperature and light:dark requirements for germination were determined at monthly intervals for seeds collected from mudflats and buried under flooded and under nonflooded conditions at natural temperature regimes. Data on dormancy and germination were compared to those published for seeds collected from plants growing on rock outcrops. Under both flooded and nonflooded conditions, seeds from mudflats exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/nondormancy cycle, similar to those from rock outcrops buried under nonflooded conditions. Seeds from mudflats germinated to higher percentages at mid-summer temperatures (35/20 °C) in mid-summer than those from rock outcrops. On the other hand, seeds from rock outcrops germinated to higher percentages at March temperatures (15/6 °C) in March than those from mudflats. Thus, seeds could germinate on mudflats any time from April through September if dewatering occurred, and they could germinate on rock outcrops any time from March through June and in September if soil moisture was nonlimiting; in both habitats light would be required for germination. Since seeds on mudflats may be flooded for several consecutive years, mudflats are more unpredictable than rock outcrops. Ability of seeds from mudflats to germinate to high percentages in light at 35/20 °C throughout the summer and those from rock outcrops not to do so may be related to the greater unpredictability of the mudflat. Each year for 11 years, seeds germinated in mudflat soil samples kept in a nonheated greenhouse, reaching a total of 22526 ± 1401 (mean ± S.E.) seeds m -2; thus, the species has the potential to form a large long-lived persistent soil seed bank.
Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Chester, Edward W.
An assessment of community composition and the functional roles of the dominant species has been carried out in two intertidal areas of Malaysian mudflat dominated by natural populations of the arcid bivalve mollusc Anadara granosa. In addition to A. granosa, organisms of numerical importance are the venerid bivalve Pelecyora trigona, the neogastropod Plicarcularia leptospira, the mesogastropods Stenothyra glabrata and Cerithidea cingulata and the hermit crab Diogenes sp. The mesogastropod Natica maculosa and the neogastropod Thais carinifera may be of some importance to community organization but they are not numerically dominant. Annelids are conspicuous by their absence. The following trophic roles are ascribed to specific members of the community: A. granosa—facultative surface deposit feeder; P. trigona—suspension feeder; P. leptospira—scavenger; C. cingulata—deposit feeder/grazer; S. glabrata—deposit feeder/grazer; N. maculosa—predator; T. carinifera—predator; Diogenes sp.—scavenger/predator. S. glabrata is of particular interest because it appears to fill the niche occupied by mud snails of the genus Hydrobia in temperate mudflat systems. There is evidence of seasonality on the mudflats which points to a spawning of certain forms triggered by the major annual salinity depression at the time of the onset of the north-east monsoon in October/November. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a show no obvious signs of a seasonal fluctuation and the seasonality of the primary consumers is not thought to be related to food abundance. However there is some evidence of seasonality of reproduction in N. maculosa which preys on the seasonally reproducing bivalves.
The Washington State Department of Health (DOH) conducted this health consultation to evaluate whether contaminants found at Federal Way and Des Moines beach sediment sites pose a health hazard to people who use the beach for wading, swimming, picnicking,...
Mudflats are often dissected by nearly-parallel runnels separated by ridges. High resolution data of tidal velocity and sediment concentration measured in a mudflat runnel in Willapa Bay, Washington State, USA, indicate that very shallow flows draining the mudflat platform are concentrated in the runnels. These flows, with water depths of few tens of centimeters, are characterized by velocities close to the flood and ebb maxima associated to the regional flow when the mudflat is submerged. The corresponding shear stresses are higher than the critical stress for erosion, thus suggesting possible remobilization of surface sediments. Moreover, suspended sediment concentrations in the runnel are greater than those associated with the regional tidal flow, and comparable to concentrations during energetic wave conditions. All this evidence indicates that shallow flows in runnels are important morphodynamic agents producing noteworthy geomorphic work.
Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...
Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...
Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5?mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water.
Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda
At present, intertidal mudflats form only a minor part of the tidal area of the Wadden Sea. During the Holocene, however, the extent of intertidal mudflats was much larger, as is indicated by abundant mud layers in the coastal sequence of the northern Netherlands. In this paper, a new model for the long-term coastal evolution of the northern Netherlands is
Sometimes visiting a website makes you want to dash out, leave your computer behind, and get busy doing whatever the site's talking about. The World Beach Project is one of those sites. It's a gallery of art made by all kinds of people, using stones gathered on beaches all over the world. Visitors to this site can browse images of these creations, and read a little bit about how each work came about. For example, there are 64 projects in North America, and 232 in Europe and visitors can travel (via the artwork) from the beaches of England to Malaysia to Mexico in seconds. The World Beach Project was devised by artist-in-residence Sue Lawty in association with the Victoria & Albert Museum. Detailed instructions are provided so that anyone can participate in the World Beach Project, or, from the map, simply click the button labeled "I want to add my beach project to the map".
Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beachcontamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.
Biscayne Point in Miami Beach is a residential neighborhood made up of three man made islands in Biscayne Bay. The Biscayne Point islands are a part of the North Beach, which is the are north of 63rd Ave and Collins. This aerial photograph looks down the furthest extending island in Biscayne Point.
The flora, vegetation, and microenvironment of beach and dune are sufficiently different to warrant their separate treatment in this chapter. Beach is defined here as the expanse of sandy substrate between mean tide and the foredune or, in the absence of ...
This work assessed the suitability of hyperspectral data for estimating mudflat surface characteristics related to stability. Due to the inaccessibility of intertidal areas, precise ground-based measurements of mudflat stability are difficult to conduct. Remote sensing can provide full spatial coverage and non-intrusive measurement. As stability changes on mudflats are linked to subtle differences in mudflat surface characteristics, they can potentially be mapped by hyperspectral data. Hyperspectral images were collected along with near contemporary ground measurements. An unsupervised classification gave a map which confirmed that a channel bar was mainly sand whereas soft mud dominated an adjacent embayment. Multiple regression analysis was used to relate surface characteristics to hyperspectral data to construct regression equations. Erosion shear stress was estimated directly from the hyperspectral data and also by a relationship with the surface characteristics. The results of the thematic class map matched well with the known situation at the site during image acquisition. The maps of surface characteristics highlighted the additional information that can be extracted from hyperspectral data. Stability maps, based on the erosion shear stress, can be used as a basis for predicting the likely future behaviour in this dynamic environment and will be of use for coastal zone management.
The coastal zones of the Korean peninsula are well known for their large tide ranges and vast expanse of intertidal flats. In this paper, methods of extracting the roughness of the scattering surface of intertidal mudflats from polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data have been investigated. The L-band NASA\\/Jet Propulsion Laboratories airborne SAR data, which were acquired in the intertidal
Benthic fluxes of dissolved nitrogen, rates of denitrification, N2 fixation and NH4+ upward flux within the sediment (calculated from porewater profiles) were measured on the upper and lower mudflats at 2 study sites, 1 in the upper, river-dominated part of the estuary, and 1 in the lower, more marine part of the Huon Estuary, Tasmania, Australia. The calculated upward flux
Perran LM Cook; Andrew T Revill; Edward CV Butler; Bradley D Eyre
The impact of human exploitation on the community structure of intertidal mudflats was investigated in an exploited and unexploited control area at Inhaca Island, Mozambique. An increase in the species richness in the exploited area, as expected by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, was not confirmed. The log body weight-log abundance regression lines were not steeper nor lower, as would be
The attraction of wintering waterbirds to freshwater flowing over intertidal mudflats of estuaries was studied between 1996 and 1998. This was a response to the increasing levels of freshwater abstraction around internationally protected estuaries in the UK, as its relevance to waterbirds was largely undocumented. The numbers and densities of waterbirds in corridors around freshwater flows were consistently greater than
A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of
In order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the Bay in. March (early spring), May (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2009. A total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, Cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), followed by Gobiidae (8 species, 19.1%). According to the lifestyle of fish, these 41 species could be divided into five ecological types, i.e., freshwater type (21 species), brackish-water type (16 species), inshore type (2 species), anadromous type (Coilia ectenes), and catadromios type (Anguilla japonica). The fish abundance was the highest (54. 5 fish per net) in summer, followed by in spring and autumn, and the lowest (17.7 fish per net) in early spring. In the three habitats, mudflat area and inning area had the similar seasonal change of fish abundance, i.e., the lowest in early spring, the highest in summer, and then decreased in autumn. Only two or three species were the dominant species in different seasons. In mudflat area, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus and Liza carinatus; while in inning and aquaculture areas, the dominant species were Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Pseudorasbora parva. The values of Margalef's richness index (D), Pielou's evenness index (J), and Shannon index (H) were lower in March than in other months, but had no significant differences among May, July, and October (P > 0.05). The H value ranged in 0. 27-2. 13, being the lowest in March and higher in May and October (1.66 and 1.63, respectively). Overall, the fish abundance and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay had apparent seasonal changes. PMID:21443016
Jia, Xing-huan; Zhang, Heng; Jiang, Ke-yi; Wu, Ming
Continued nourishment is proposed of 3-1/3 miles of Virginia Beach shoreline by hydraulic dredge and truck haul. Environmental impacts include the removal of approximately 2 acres of marsh, turbidity increases during dredging, loss of benthic life in chan...
\\u000a This chapter summarizes the rationale for using microbial source tracking (MST) methods at beach sites and coastal water bodies\\u000a (Sect. 20.1), as MST methods are especially useful for evaluating waters impacted by nonpoint sources of pollution. This chapter\\u000a also describes the most common traditional and alternative MST markers used at beach sites (Sect. 20.2). Two case studies\\u000a are presented (Sect.
Helena M. Solo-Gabriele; Alexandria B. Boehm; Troy M. Scott; Christopher D. Sinigalliano
Results are presented from a study of the velocity, salinity, temperature and turbidity behaviour on intertidal mudflats bounding a 400 m wide cross-section in the central reaches of a small, macrotidal, ria estuary (the Tavy Estuary, Southwest England, UK). Measurements were made during low freshwater inflow, summer spring tides. The mudflats comprised a muddy mixture of predominantly silt and clay, with bulk densities typically in the range 1.2-1.4 g ml -1. Bed sediment in the main channel, and on the upper shores of both banks, comprised a mixture of predominantly coarse, non-cohesive sediment, with very small fractions of silt and clay. Two near-bed instrument packages were continuously deployed during the observational period, one on each of the intertidal mudflats located on opposite sides of the estuarine main channel. The instruments recorded water level, velocity, temperature, salinity and turbidity at 0.25 m above the bed. Tidal-cycle measurements of these variables were additionally made throughout the water column in the cross-section's main channel. Longitudinal and vertical surveys of temperature, salinity and turbidity were made throughout the estuary in order to aid interpretation. Maximum bed shear stresses were flood dominant in the main channel and strongly ebb dominant on the upper mudflats. Currents over the intertidal mudflats had much slower peak speeds than those in the main channel. The data presented here indicate that vertically mixed, relatively high-salinity, high-turbidity waters flooded onto the upper mudflats during spring tides, and that the suspended particulate matter largely settled to the bed there, both during the flood and over high-water slack. With one exception, there was little evidence of any subsequent strong sediment resuspension during the salinity-stratified ebb (at least when depths >0.25 m). These results are consistent with the long-term depositional environment associated with rapidly rising sea levels of the early Holocene, and with the present, relatively slower rate of sea-level rise.
Dr. Stephen Leatherman, professor and director of the Laboratory for Coastal Research at the University of Maryland, College Park, has released his annual list of America's best beaches. "Dr. Beach" considered fifty different factors, including current, wave size, smell, views and vistas, and intensity of beach use, to rate the twenty finest public beaches of 650 nation wide. This site features photos of the winners, a complete list of the Beach Rating Scale Criteria, and Dr. Leatherman's selections for the five best Walking, Wild, and Romantic Beaches.
Beaches are subject to solid waste contamination at the strandline. Litter depositional dynamics is influenced by specific beach morphology and sources of solid wastes. The amount of items on the strandline of Boa Viagem beach (Recife, Brazil) was evaluated during dry and rainy seasons of 2005 to characterize their sources and depositional patterns. The strandline was surveyed once a month to count and classify all visible solid waste items within a belt-transect. Plastics were used for detailed analysis of the wastes accumulated. There were quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in litter accumulation during the year and parts of the beach. The main source of debris was land-based. In general, the beach was low-polluted in the dry season and medium-polluted during the rainy season. The method is a low-cost and highly efficient characterization of solid wastes contamination of urban beaches. PMID:19220998
Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; de Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa; da Costa, Monica Ferreira
Diurnal changes in the biochemical properties and the benthic macrofaunal assemblage of sediments in urbanised mangrove forests\\u000a and their adjacent mudflats in Sydney Harbour were investigated. Behavioural and physiological changes in the microphytobenthos\\u000a between day and night were predicted to cause diurnal changes in the micro-scale depth distribution of chlorophylls a and b and colloidal carbohydrate. In addition, because macrofauna
Following heavy winter storms and sedimentation in 1993,Spartina foliosa (Pacific cordgrass) clones established on a 6.5-ha mudflat in Tijuana Estuary, with over 80 new clones counted by 1997. El\\u000a Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) storms in 1993 apparently facilitated the habitat conversion through river flooding, which\\u000a caused a temporary reduction in soil salinity and delivered large volumes of sediment. Extreme sedimentation
The food sources of benthic deposit feeders were investigated at three stations in an estuarine mudflat (Idoura Lagoon, Sendai\\u000a Bay, Japan) during July and August 2005, using ?13C and ?15N ratios. Sediment at the stations was characterized by low chlorophyll (chl) a content (0–1 cm depth, ?2) and the dominance of riverine–terrestrial materials (RTM) in the sediment organic matter (SOM) pool.
In this study, we examine the role that remotely forced ocean waves play in the hydrodynamics of an intertidal, estuarine mudflat. The observations indicate that long-period (10–20 s) ocean waves are a potentially important source of near-bed energy and shear stress in this environment. Over a two-week period in February 2001, we deployed an autonomous SonTek Hydra system on a
Gene-targeted FLX titanium pyrosequencing integrated with stable isotope probing (SIP) using [13C]biphenyl substrate revealed that tidal mudflat sediments harbor novel aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD). More than 80% of the detected ARHD genes comprise four clades (0.5 distance) with 49 to 70% amino acid identity to sequences in public databases. The 16S rRNA sequences enriched in the 13C fraction were from the Betaproteobacteria, bacilli (primarily Paenibacillus-like), and unclassified phyla.
Lee, Tae Kwon; Lee, Jaejin; Sul, Woo Jun; Iwai, Shoko; Chai, Benli; Tiedje, James M.; Park, Joonhong
The structure, distribution and seasonal changes of the benthic meiofauna in an organically polluted, tidal, brackish-water mudflat in the Ems-Dollart estuary were analysed. Towards the outfall of polluted fresh water, macrofauna disappeared, numbers of meiofauna increased but the diversity of the meiofauna decreased. In the area surrounding the outfall the numbers and biomass of nematodes and oligochaetes increased rapidly in spring and remained high until autumn ( c. 13 × 10 6 individuals m -2; c. 2gCm -2). The benthic fauna comprised small numbers of species, dominated by a few fast-growing diatom-feeding nematodes ( Eudiplogaster pararmatus and Dichromadora geophila) and oligochaetes ( Amphichaeta sannio and Paranais litoralis). Eudiplogaster pararmatus exhibits brood care and it tolerates low salinities. Dichromadora geophila which is oviparous, behaved similarly regarding tolerances, life cycle and feeding but this species was less successful than Eudiplogaster in colonizing the mudflats near the outfall. The success of the two naidid oligochaete species results from their method of reproduction by means of binary fission. Most organisms fed on benthic diatoms. In spite of intensive mineralization in the mudflat, only one bacteria-feeding organism was found in abundance (the nematode Leptolaimus papilliger). The absence of macrofaunal organisms, e.g. Nereis diversicolor, is probably also responsible for the development of high densities of meiofauna in the upper sediment layers of the mudflats in the vicinity of the outfall. The heavy load of organic waste entering the Dollart reduced the diversity within the benthic ecosystem, but nevertheless a simple system remained, based on the recurrent reoxidation of the sediment surface.
The purpose of this report is to synthesize information about the geomorphology and dynamics of Puget Sound's beaches. It summarizes important peer-reviewed literature relevant to these beach environments and assemblies background information that should ...
The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminatedmudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data, metal contents, and the (210)Pb dating technique. The 1.8 m vertical section at Airoli (Navi Mumbai) reveals an increase of magnetic susceptibility (?) from background values of (20-50) to (75-100) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] in the anthropogenically affected zone above ?93 cm. A sharp rise of ? from (75-100) to (130-215) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] subdivides the anthropogenically affected zone at a depth of ?63 cm. Characterization with rock magnetic parameters (SIRM, Soft IRM, and S-ratio) reveals a significant contribution of ferri(o)magnetic phases in the upper zone. Based on the magnetic classification sampling intervals for cost-intensive PAH and metal analyses were determined. Steadily increasing contents of PAH and metals of anthropogenic origin are observed above the boundary depth at ?93 cm. A sediment accumulation rate of 1.2 ± 0.3 cm/yr provided by (210)Pb dating dates the ?63 cm boundary to 1951. Increasing industrial activity, including the establishment of a coal-fired power plant in 1956, and refineries between 1955 and 1960, correlates well with the substantial increase of ?, PAH, and metal contents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation on magnetic extracts from the contaminated zone reveals the presence of magnetic spherules derived from industrial high-temperature processes. PMID:21138292
Blaha, U; Basavaiah, N; Deenadayalan, K; Borole, D V; Mohite, R D
Mudflat soil amendment by sewage sludge is a potential way to dispose of solid wastes and increase fertility of mudflat soils for crop growth. The present study aimed to assess the impact of sewage sludge amendment (SSA) on heavy metal accumulation and growth of ryegrass ( L.) in a seedling stage. We investigated the metal availability, plant uptake, and plant yield in response to SSA at rates of 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t ha. The SSA increased the metal availability in a mudflat soil and subsequently metal accumulation in ryegrass. The SSA increased the bioavailable fraction of the metals by 4550, 58.8, 898, 189, 35.8, and 84.8% for Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd, respectively, at an SSA rate of 300 t ha as compared to unamended soil. Consequently, the metal concentrations in ryegrass increased by 1130, 12.9, 355, 108, 2230, and 497% in roots and by 431, -4.3, 92.6, 58.3, 890, and 211% in aboveground parts, for Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Cd, respectively, at the 300 t ha rate as compared to unamended soil. The enhanced metal accumulation, however, did not induce growth inhibition of ryegrass. Fresh weight of aboveground parts and roots of ryegrass at 300 t ha SSA rate increased by 555 and 128%, respectively, as compared to those grown in unamended soil. The study suggests that SSA can promote yield of ryegrass seedlings grown in mudflat soils. None of metal concentrations at all SSA rates was above the Chinese permissible limits. Despite the data at only the seedling stage, our results indicate that SSA in mudflat soils might be a potential way for mudflat soil fertility improvement and sewage sludge disposal. Further study at plants' maturity stage is warranted to fully assess the suitability of sewage sludge amendment on mudflat soils. PMID:23673834
Vertical profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs have been collected at micro-, meso- and macrotidal mudflats in order to calculate present accumulation rates. Sediment cores were taken at the mudflat at Kongsmark in the microtidal Lister Dyb tidal area (Denmark), at the BOA bridge in the mesotidal Dollard estuary (Netherlands), and at the Skeffling mudflat in the macrotidal Humber estuary (UK). Except for the Kongsmark site and site A in the Humber estuary, no accurate calculation of accumulation rates was possible for the investigated sites. The accumulation rate obtained for the Kongsmark site is confirmed by other independent data and shows that the accumulation is not supply limited at this site at present. For site A in the Humber estuary a modified CIC method was applied to the 210Pb-profile and the result agrees with results from the nearby Welwick Marsh. The salt marsh at Skeffling is advancing out onto the fringing mudflat with accumulation at the innermost part of the mudflat but with erosion taking place further offshore. The reasons for the generally poor dating results seems to be either erosion (two Humber sites) or postdepositional reworking of the deposited material (bioturbation and continued resuspension) and the data set suggests that the mixing depth may increase with tidal range and thereby hydrodynamic forcing.
Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219
Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L
Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminatingbeaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068
Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological resolution and continuity inherent to beach ridge and beach deposits. The plan-view geomorphic expression of beach ridges typically consists of ridge sets with multi-decadal intervals, whereas their internal sedimentary structures define shorter time scales. Records of beach sedimentation and erosion are likely to be reworked by episodic high-magnitude beach retreat, and the resultant record of the net progradation is likely to be sporadic and discontinuous. The height of sandy beach ridges is often variable due to differing degrees of aeolian sand accumulation, and they are thus not used as sea-level indicators unless purely wave-built. Gravel ridge height is a relatively reliable indicator of sea level, but can vary in response to storminess fluctuations. Subsurface sediment facies boundaries are preferred as sea-level indicators, and those proposed include: boundaries of aeolian/beach, foreshore/shoreface, and upper/lower shorefaces. Catastrophic events are expressed in both erosional and depositional records. Erosion surfaces, or scarp imprints, revealed in a cross section of beach deposits, indicate storm or tsunami events. However, erosional events are likely to rework previous records of sedimentation and even other erosional events, and thus the apparent history decoded from the resultant deposits tends to be biased. Several attempts for estimating the frequency and intensity of prehistoric cyclones rely on assumed relationships between the level of coarse sand beach ridges and cyclone inundation. The formative process of coarse sand ridges remains uncertain and needs to be clarified, as it constitutes the fundamental basis of these attempts. The growth rates of beach-ridge systems are expected to reflect fluctuations in river sediment discharge to the coast and in aeolian sand flux due to onshore winds, both of which are affected by climate change. Assessment of the growth rate is potentially improved by ground-penetrating radar survey of subsurface structure and by detailed chronology. Orientation of beach ridges reflects long-term trends in wave dir
Interdisciplinary coastal education program from Surfrider Foundation incorporates science processes, oceanography, watershed ecology and environmental awareness in lessons for K-12 students and community groups. Include: teaching guides, classroom lectures, handouts, video, hands-on projects. Beachology, for grades K-6, studies sand processes, beach ecology, human impacts. Watershed Works, for grades 5-12, explains links between coast and watershed. The Snowrider Project educates alpine communities about hydrologic cycle. Available online as PDF documents.
Recent studies of beach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor high concentrations of fecal indicator organisms, as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact is not well understood. Beach visitors at 7 US beaches were enrolled in the National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water (NEEAR) Study during 2003-2005 and 2007 and asked about sand contact on the day of their visit to the beach (digging in the sand, body buried in the sand). Then, 10-12 days after their visit, participants were telephoned to answer questions about any health symptoms experienced since the visit. The authors completed 27,365 interviews. Digging in the sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal illness (adjusted incidence proportion ratio (aIPR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.25) and diarrhea (aIPR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36). The association was stronger between those buried in the sand and gastrointestinal illness (aIPR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) and diarrhea (aIPR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.52). Nonenteric illnesses did not show a consistent association with sand contact activities. Sand contact activities were associated with enteric illness at beach sites. Variation in beach-specific results suggests that site-specific factors may be important in the risk of illness following sand exposure. PMID:19541858
Heaney, Christopher D; Sams, Elizabeth; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Steve; Brenner, Kristen; Dufour, Alfred P; Wade, Timothy J
The project consists of the restoration and protection of approximately 1200 feet of public beach at Ocean Beach Park, Dukes County, Massachusetts. Beach raising, widening and groin construction will correct natural deterioration currently taking place. T...
Virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments are reported as ubiquitous beachcontaminants in the peer-reviewed literature.\\u000a A surface density of 0.3 virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments per square centimeter of the strandline area was registered\\u000a on an urban beach of the northeast of Brazil. This beach is presently not affected by petrochemical facilities or pellet processing\\u000a plants. The main
Monica F. Costa; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti; Maria Christina B. Araújo; Ângela Spengler; Paula S. Tourinho
We tested the importance of in situ microphytobenthos (MPB) and transported material (seagrass, seagrass epiphytic algae, mangroves, saltmarsh succulents and saltmarsh grass in adjacent habitats) as ultimate sources of carbon to fish caught over mudflats. We measured ?13C values of these 6 autotrophs and 22 fish species in the subtropical waters of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. All fish ?13C values
Intertidal mudflats are a dominant feature in many estuarine systems and may comprise a significant component of the feeding grounds available to fish. The Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858, is one of the most important flatfishes in the Tagus estuary (Portugal) and its juveniles feed in the large intertidal flats. Many aspects of the ecology and lifecycle of this
A storm on the coast of northern California 1-10 March 1977 removed a significant amount of beach sand that was covering and protecting two 21 Q cables at the U.S. Naval Facility, Centerville Beach. As a result it was discovered that several feet of split...
Mangroves function as important shelter and feeding habitats for marine fauna, but the degree to which mangrove-derived carbon contributes to local food webs has long been debated. In this study, stable isotope analysis was used as a technique to elucidate the role of mangrove carbon in the diets of the macroinvertebrate and fish fauna of an intertidal fringing mangrove forest and adjacent intertidal/subtidal mudflats in a macrotidal Tanzanian estuary. The expectation was that sessile species and those with low motility depend to a larger extent on local carbon sources than highly motile species. A clear distinction in ? 13C was present between primary producers from mangrove and mudflat habitats. Macroinvertebrates revealed a gradient in their ? 13C where Sesarma crabs were the only species that directly utilised mangrove carbon by feeding on mangrove leaves/detritus. Uca crabs and the gastropod Littoraria scabra showed a higher dependence on microphytobenthos from the mangrove substratum. Among the fish fauna, the amphibious mudskipper was the only species to which the mangroves were accessible during low tide. Consequently this was the only fish species for which it was clear that it fed in the mangrove habitat, most commonly on mangrove-associated Uca crabs. All other species of sessile as well as motile macroinvertebrates and fish from the mangrove and mudflat habitat showed a high degree of utilisation of mudflat carbon. Overall, mangrove carbon thus contributed little to the mangrove and mudflat food webs, despite the high tidal amplitude and the resulting potential for exchange of carbon and fauna in the estuary studied here. Utilisation of mangrove carbon appears to depend more on the ecology of the species in consideration (e.g., species-specific use of zones within the mangrove habitat) than on their potential motility or tolerance to exposure during low tide.
Kruitwagen, G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Lugendo, B. R.; Mgaya, Y. D.; Bonga, S. E. Wendelaar
The benthic fauna of two areas in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, Posthuiswad and Staart van Schieringhals, was described in 1930-1960 and again between 1996 and 2005. Here, we document the changes. Whereas both areas formerly had high densities of species that biogenically structured the intertidal mudflats such as mussels Mytilus edulis and cockles Cerastoderma edule, by 1996 they had shown a tenfold decrease in the densities of molluscs, with no recovery till 2005. Although the number of species of polychaetes and crustaceans may not have changed much, their relative abundance did. Nowadays, more polychaete species are common than before. We briefly discuss whether the changes in benthic community composition could be due to industrial fishery practices or eutrophication effects.
The dominant processes in gravel beach dynamics are reviewed, highlighting some common themes which unify the various components of the gravel beach system, the repercussions of which impart on how gravel beach dynamics might be understood conceptually. In particular, gravel beach dynamics are thought to be highly dependent on the temporal and spatial variation in grain size, and the continual adjustments made by an active beach step, both of which act not only as the expression of changing morphodynamic conditions, but also as a controlling influence. Morphodynamics, the notion that the exchanges on beaches between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological change takes the form of reciprocal relationships which are mediated through feedback mechanisms (in such a way that they cannot be thought of or studied independently) is not a new one. Yet it appears that for the gravel beach, morphodynamics must be re-defined to describe conditions where variations in sediment size are thought to deserve parity, rather than as merely a sequent entity or boundary condition. 'Morpho-sedimentary-dynamics' is a phrase coined to intuit such cause and effect, detailing the co-evolution of morphology, hydro-hydraulics and sediment properties whilst acknowledging causative pluralism, feedbacks and multiplier effects. This is the recommended conceptual framework within which to crystallise thought and organise further research for the gravel beach. Essentially, it increases the minimum number of parameters needed to describe the state of the gravel beach as a physical system. Therefore, it is advised that simplicity will be most expedient in our future modelling efforts, if complexity is to be adequately encapsulated.
...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated Area. The following...
Rhythmic patterns of topography may be apparent simultaneously in a longshore alternation of cuspate projections and arcuate embayments along the beach face, in a rhythmic longshore bar composed of an alternate series of arcs and cusps, and in longshore u...
|Times Beach, Missouri, a small town close to the Meramec River and about 25 miles from St. Louis, is now deserted due to contamination from dioxin, a contaminant generated during the production of some cleansers, herbicides, and pesticides. From November 30, 1982, until the end of January 1983, the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" ran 55 articles about…
The old field mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) is distributed throughout northeastern Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. Certain subspecies occur on beaches and dunes of the Atlantic coast of Florida and the Gulf Coast of Alabama and...
Self-organized spatial patterns have been proposed as possible indicators for regime shifts in ecosystems. Until now, this hypothesis has only been tested in drylands. Here, we focus on intertidal mudflats where regular spatial patterns develop in early spring from the interaction between diatom growth and sedimentation but disappear when benthic herbivore abundance increases in early summer, accompanied by a dramatic shift to a bare mudflat. We followed the patch-size distributions of diatom biofilms during this degradation process. As time progressed, we found a temporal change in the spatial configuration occurring simultaneously with the loss of the diatom-sediment feedback. This indicates a gradual failure in time of the self-organization process that underlies regular patterning in this ecosystem. The path to degradation co-occurred with the loss of the larger patches in the ecosystem, which resulted in a decrease of the truncation in the patch-size distribution. Hence, our study in mudflat ecosystems confirms the general hypothesis that spatial patterns can provide important clues about the level of degradation. Nevertheless, our study highlights the need for thorough study about the type of spatial patterns and the nature of the underlying feedbacks before a reliable assessment of ecosystem status can be made, as changes in patch-size distribution differed markedly with those observed in other ecosystems. PMID:22624215
Weerman, E J; Van Belzen, J; Rietkerk, M; Temmerman, S; Kéfi, S; Herman, P M J; Van de Koppel, J
Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.
A beach-profile transition model is derived from analysis of 291 semidiurnal beach profiles measured on the Outer Banks, North Carolina, which allows prediction of successive beach profiles in terms of beach width, sediment storage, and surface configurat...
The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.
For many years, the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland oil-producing fields have been interpreted as reef deposits. Petrologic evidence from cores from field and wildcat wells strongly indicates on the basis of faunal composition and character, that the fields are producing from moundlike shoals. These shoals are considered to have been deposited in a mudflat environment similar to that of present-day Florida Bay. This present-day Florida Bay analog is used to determine the various environmental subzones and controls on the deposition of the Sunniland Formation. This concept of using a model together with a modern analog can be a powerful tool in the exploration of stratigraphic traps. A petrologic and petrophysical study of the Sunniland Formation in the wells that have been drilled in the Florida Bay and Keys areas was made to extend the model and its application throughout the South Florida basin. The evaluation of these wells has produced new insights into the tectonics of this basin and its relationship to the Bahamas and Caribbean areas.
Wind waves were measured in the Willapa Bay mudflats, Washington State, USA, for two months. Wave height, period, and bed shear stresses were modulated by water depth (0-3.5m), wind speed (0-20m/s), and fetch (1-5km). Good agreement was found between the measured waves and predictions of the wave spectral model SWAN using either simplified 1D flat bottom or 2D geometries. The relationship between bed shear stress and water depth shows a dependence on fetch: the decay of bed shear stress with increasing water depth is gradual for long fetch and rapid for short fetch. This difference is explained by the coupled effects of water depth, wave height and wave period. Due to the fetch-dependent bed shear stress, different morphological consequences for tidal flats of different size are predicted. In small (˜2km) and sheltered tidal flats, waves cause the largest sediment resuspension when water levels are near mean sea level. In extensive tidal flats (˜20km) or in flats exposed to waves propagating from deep water, waves also are effective in causing substrate erosion during high tides or large storm surges.
Wind waves were measured in the Willapa Bay mudflats, Washington State, USA, for two months. Wave height, period, and bed shear stresses were modulated by water depth (0-3.5 m), wind speed (0-20 m/s), and fetch (1-5 km). Good agreement was found between the measured waves and predictions of the wave spectral model SWAN using either simplified 1D flat bottom or 2D geometries. The relationship between bed shear stress and water depth shows a dependence on fetch: the decay of bed shear stress with increasing water depth is gradual for long fetch and rapid for short fetch. This difference is explained by the coupled effects of water depth, wave height and wave period. Due to the fetch-dependent bed shear stress, different morphological consequences for tidal flats of different size are predicted. In small (˜2 km) and sheltered tidal flats, waves cause the largest sediment resuspension when water levels are near mean sea level. In extensive tidal flats (˜20 km) or in flats exposed to waves propagating from deep water, waves also are effective in causing substrate erosion during high tides or large storm surges.
Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminatedbeaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach material. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the washout rate for dissolved nutrients from the bioremediation zone at different stages during the lunar tidal cycle. When an aqueous solution of
Brian A. Wrenn; Makram T. Suidan; Kevin L. Strohmeier; B. Loye Eberhart; Gregory J. Wilson; Albert D. Venosa; John R. Haines; Edith Holder
...Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY...on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach...Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...
Cartoon drawing created by Meradel Gale who volunteered for Beaches Forever, Inc. during the 1968 petition campaign. This cartoon depicts two children carrying a beach ball who encounter a sign that reads \\
The development of a beach volleyball athlete is the result of highly planned training process, and should consider the specificity of this sport and the demands regarding body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the values and distribution of fat mass among Brazilian beach volleyball players. The sample consisted of 16 male beach volleyball players from the
A Medeiros; I Mesquita; J Oliveira; A C C Loureiro; J Afonso; L Z Monteiro; J M Castro
|In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…
Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.
The Duluth Boat Club (DBC) Beach, located in the Duluth-Superior harbor of Lake Superior, is frequently closed in summer due to high counts of Escherichia coli, an indicator of fecal contamination. However, the sources of bacteria contributing to beach closure are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential sources of E. coli contaminating the DBC beach by using modified rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting. Over 3600 E. coli strains were obtained from 55 lake water, 25 sediment, and 135 sand samples taken from five transects at the DBC beach at 11 different times during the summer through fall months of 2004 and 2005. Potential sources of E. coli at this beach were determined by using a known-source DNA fingerprint library containing unique E. coli isolates from wildlife, waterfowl, and treated wastewater obtained near Duluth, MN. Amounts E. coli in the samples were enumerated by membrane filtration counting, and the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli was determined by using multiplex PCR. E. coli counts in all samples increased during the summer and early fall (Julyto September). While E. coli in spring samples originated mainly from treated wastewater effluent, the percentage of E. coli from waterfowl increased from summer to fall. DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that some E. coli strains may be naturalized, and autochthonous members of the microbial community in the beach sand and sediments were examined. However, multiplex PCR results indicated that <1% of the E. coli strains at the DBC was potentially pathogenic. Our results also suggest that wave action may influence the early colonization and homogeneous distribution of E. coli in beach sand and the subsequent release of sand or sediment-borne E. coli into lake water. Taken together, these results indicate that sand and sediment serve as temporal sources and sinks of human and waterfowl-derived E. coli that contribute to beach closures. PMID:17438764
Ishii, Satoshi; Hansen, Dennis L; Hicks, Randall E; Sadowsky, Michael J
Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.
A burgeoning ring-billed gull population along Chicago's Lake Michigan beaches contributes to degraded water quality through fecal contamination. Egg oiling was conducted at Chicago's gull colonies to reduce production and the influx of hatch-year (HY) gulls using Chicago's beaches, with a second, long-term objective of eventually reducing adult gull numbers through attrition. We also investigated swim season water quality trends through the course of this work. From 2007 to 2009, 52, 80, and 81%, of nests at the two primary nest colonies had their eggs rendered inviable by corn oil application. Counts of HY and after hatch-year (AHY) gulls were analyzed during treatment years for 10 beaches. Water quality data were available from the Chicago Park District during our three treatment years and the prior year (baseline) for 19 beaches. HY counts declined at all 10 surveyed beaches from the initial year (52% nests with oiled eggs) to subsequent years with ~80% of nests oiled. Overall, HY gulls numbers on beaches decreased 86% from 2007 to 2009. Decreases in beach usage by AHY gulls were not detected. Compared to pretreatment, the number of beaches with improved water quality test rates increased each year through the course of the study. The frequency of water quality tests showing bacterial exceedances compared to 2006 declined at 18 of 19 beaches by 2009. Egg oiling resulted in fewer HY gulls using Chicago's beaches and was likely a beneficial factor for reduced frequencies of swim advisories and swim bans. PMID:22492207
Engeman, Richard M; Hartmann, John W; Beckerman, Scott F; Seamans, Thomas W; Abu-Absi, Sarah
The impact of river outfalls on beach water quality depends on numerous interacting factors. The delivery of contaminants by multiple creeks greatly complicates understanding of the source contributions, especially when pollution might originate up- or down-coast of beaches. We studied two beaches along Lake Michigan that are located between two creek outfalls to determine the hydrometeorologic factors influencing near-shore microbiologic water quality and the relative impact of the creeks. The creeks continuously delivered water with high concentrations of Escherichia coli to Lake Michigan, and the direction of transport of these bacteria was affected by current direction. Current direction reversals were associated with elevated E. coli concentrations at Central Avenue beach. Rainfall, barometric pressure, wave height, wave period, and creek specific conductance were significantly related to E. coli concentration at the beaches and were the parameters used in predictive models that best described E. coli variation at the two beaches. Multiple inputs to numerous beaches complicates the analysis and understanding of the relative relationship of sources but affords opportunities for showing how these complex creek inputs might interact to yield collective or individual effects on beach water quality. PMID:17636296
Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L; Frick, Walter E; Ge, Zhongfu
Polychaete worms are abundant in many mudflats but their importance to coastal food web Hg biomagnification is not known. We sampled sediments and polychaete worms from mudflats in the Bay of Fundy to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the coastal invertebrate food web. Hg concentrations in the sediments were low (<20 ?g kg(-1)). Labile Hg (methanol/KOH sediment extraction) in surface sediments (0-1 cm) was positively correlated with Hg bioaccumulation by surface sediment-ingesting polychaetes but, surprisingly, there was a negative correlation between ?(15)N (i.e. trophic level) and THg bioaccumulation factors in polychaete worms. Worms feeding on deeper sediments contained the greatest MeHg concentrations (69.6 ?g kg(-1)). Polychaetes are an important vector for Hg biomagnification to the coastal avian food web. This research demonstrates that feeding depth and method of feeding are more important than trophic position or sediment Hg concentrations for predicting Hg bioaccumulation. PMID:23395989
Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Gerwing, Travis G; Mallory, Mark L; O'Driscoll, Nelson J
Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing
The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and
S. L. Molloy; L. B. Liu; M. S. Phanikumar; T. M. Jenkins; M. V. Wong; J. B. Rose; R. L. Whitman; D. A. Shively; M. B. Nevers
Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.
...Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA...waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach,...
...Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat...Safety Zone; Patchogue Bay, Patchogue, NY, in the Federal Register (73 FR...
Beach sediment cementation (beachrock formation) is a sedimentary process that can transform significant sections of beaches into rock outcrops. This contribution reports the results of two questionnaire surveys (one focusing on foreign tourists and the other on local people) carried out in coastal resorts of the island of Lesbos (Greece), on the perceptions of beach users regarding the impacts of
Michalis I. Vousdoukas; Adonis F. Velegrakisa; Areti Kontogianni; Efstratia-Natalia Makrykosta
A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...
Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level
K. Grove; R. Labit; S. Lui; I. Rodriquez; C. Yi; M. Yu
Beach profile line data collected from 32 profile sites along Long Beach Island, New Jersey. A total of 2,158 profile line surveys were examined, using empirical eigenfunction analysis and other measures of beach variability. Most profile lines have shown...
The ecological quality status (EcoQ) of intertidal mudflats constrained by Pacific oyster farming was assessed by single (H’, AMBI, BENTIX and BOPA) and multimetric (M-AMBI and average score) index approaches in the Pertuis Charentais (SW France). Fifteen sampling stations were monitored seasonally for sedimentological features and macrozoobenthos in 2004. Sediments affected by oyster biodeposits showed organic matter enrichment, and sediments
110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI
125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
Daily microbiological water quality and precipitation data spanning 6 years were collected from monitoring stations at southern California beaches. Daily precipitation projected for the twenty-first century was derived from downscaled CNRM CM3 global climate model. A time series model of Enterococcus concentrations that was driven by precipitation, matched the general trend of empirical water quality data; there was a positive association between precipitation and microbiological water contamination (P < 0.001). Future projections of precipitation result in a decrease in predicted Enterococcus levels through the majority of the twenty-first century. Nevertheless, variability of storminess due to climate change calls for innovative adaptation and surveillance strategies. PMID:22805768
Semenza, Jan C; Caplan, Joshua S; Buescher, Guido; Das, Tapash; Brinks, Mitchell V; Gershunov, Alexander
The US has very long shorelines (95,471 miles) contributing remarkable yearly revenue to the country by providing numerous recreational beaches. The beaches of both inland lakes and marine regions must be closed when the level of waterborne pathogens indicated by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform (TC), fecal coli form (FC, or Escherichia coli, E. coli) and Enterococcus exceed microbial water quality standards. Beach closures are of mounting concern to beach managers and the public due to the increasing risk to human health from waterborne pathogens. Monitoring FIB with laboratory analysis usually takes at least 18 hours during which beach goers may have been unintentionally exposed to the contaminated water. Therefore a water quality model to quickly and precisely forecast FIB has been a very effective tool for beach management to help beach managers in making decisions if beaches are safe enough to open to the public. The fate and transport of pathogens in the surf-zone of a beach area is a complex process involving various factors of hydrodynamics, hydrology, chemistry, microbiology. These factors including dispersion coefficient, wind velocity, particle settling velocity, fraction of bacteria attached, solar insolation, discharges to the beach, geometry of the beach, etc, are the essential components for a mechanistic model to describe the inactivation of FIB. To better understand the importance of these factors and their roles in impacting inactivation, transport and removal of FIB is extremely important to enhance the effectiveness and preciseness of a predictive model. The aim of this paper is to report the sensitivity analysis results of these factors in the surf zone of a creational beach using a verified water quality model system. The relative importance of these parameters is being ranked. For instance, the current sensitivity analysis shows that sunlight insolation has greater impact on pathogen inactivation than water temperature and settling velocity (figure 1). The analysis results and conclusion may provide indication for general beach management and further inactivation investigation of pathogens. Figure 1: Relative contributions of settling and solar insolation to the overall inactivation of E. coli at the Mt. Baldy Beach (Liu et al. 2006)
Refraction of dispersive type waves on a beach is predicted adequately by use of Snell's Law. Amplitudes of the refracted waves on a beach are predicted adequately by a modified form of Green's Law when the amplitude at one point '7' e.g., the toe of the ...
Plastic debris in Earth’s oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai’s beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics
Patricia L. Corcoran; Mark C. Biesinger; Meriem Grifi
A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...
In order to interpret field data in terms of edge wave modes, investigators usually assume that the beach profile is linear, allowing the use of simple analytical solutions for edge wave structure and wavelength. The validity of this assumption is checked by using a numerical model to find the edge wave modes on a typical concave beach. Results show that
Travel and tourism is the Nation's largest industry, employer, and foreign-revenue earner, and U.S. beaches are the leading tourist destination. Clearly, beach tourism plays a key role in the U.S. economy. Although domestic tourism is sometimes thought to...
A field study of a temperate mudflat in Willapa Bay, Washington was conducted to determine whether seasonal variation in physical forcings (e.g., temperature, rainfall, insolation) coupled with variation in key biological properties (e.g., seagrass and microphytobenthos abundance) would result in measurable changes in seabed porosity. On two mudflats and in a nearby secondary channel, replicate samples for surficial grain size, chlorophyll a content, and seagrass (Zostera japonica) shoot density were obtained at roughly 7–wk intervals for one year starting in November 2009. In addition, high-resolution profiles of porosity in the upper ˜9cm of the seabed were measured using an in situ resistivity profiler. Ancillary meteorological and river discharge data were obtained from nearby stations operated by Washington State University and the U. S. Geological Survey, respectively. Despite significant seasonal variation in seagrass abundance (0 to >3000 shoots m?2), a less dramatic, but still significant variation in chlorophyll a content, as well as seasonal changes in physical forcings, the near-surface porosity of the flats was a normally consolidated bed that remained steady throughout the year. In contrast, porosity of the channel often departed from a normally consolidated profile, with evidence for both erosion and deposition of several centimeters of sediment. These departures did not display a clear seasonal pattern (i.e., deposition in winter, erosion in summer), however, suggesting that the provision and removal of sediment to/from the channels was governed by processes (e.g., channel slumps, rainfall events) occurring on shorter time scales or that there was significant, unresolved small-scale variability.
Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Sanders, Rhea D.; Law, Brent A.
A field study of a temperate mudflat in Willapa Bay, Washington was conducted to determine whether seasonal variation in physical forcings (e.g., temperature, rainfall, insolation) coupled with variation in key biological properties (e.g., seagrass and microphytobenthos abundance) would result in measurable changes in seabed porosity. On two mudflats and in a nearby secondary channel, replicate samples for surficial grain size, chlorophyll a content, and seagrass (Zostera japonica) shoot density were obtained at roughly 7-wk intervals for one year starting in November 2009. In addition, high-resolution profiles of porosity in the upper ˜9 cm of the seabed were measured using an in situ resistivity profiler. Ancillary meteorological and river discharge data were obtained from nearby stations operated by Washington State University and the U. S. Geological Survey, respectively. Despite significant seasonal variation in seagrass abundance (0 to >3000 shoots m-2), a less dramatic, but still significant variation in chlorophyll a content, as well as seasonal changes in physical forcings, the near-surface porosity of the flats was a normally consolidated bed that remained steady throughout the year. In contrast, porosity of the channel often departed from a normally consolidated profile, with evidence for both erosion and deposition of several centimeters of sediment. These departures did not display a clear seasonal pattern (i.e., deposition in winter, erosion in summer), however, suggesting that the provision and removal of sediment to/from the channels was governed by processes (e.g., channel slumps, rainfall events) occurring on shorter time scales or that there was significant, unresolved small-scale variability.
Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Sanders, Rhea D.; Law, Brent A.
An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.
We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.
Smith, D. R.; Pooler, P. S.; Loveland, R. E.; Botton, M. L.; Michels, S. F.; Weber, R. G.; Carter, D. B.
Using beach visitation data collected via the administration of a questionnaire to 226 respondents, this paper estimates a random utility model of beach recreation. The relative value of selected attributes of beaches is estimated, and the recreational values of lost access to four Blue Flag beaches in the Nelson Mandela Bay area, namely Kings beach, Humewood beach, Hobie beach and
Mario Du Preez; Deborah Ellen Lee; Stephen Gerald Hosking
This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall. PMID:24050128
Relationships between surf-zone processes and subaerial beach changes are considered as they occur on Bodie Island, North Carolina. The processes include: wave height, wave period, wave direction, and still-water level. Measurements of beach change include: beach thickness, width, and slope, as well as the size and sorting of the beach-face sediment. Analysis reveals that changes in these beach characteristics are
Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter is commonly found along sandy shores in the Mediterranean region, forming structures called banquettes, which are often removed in order to allow the beach to be used for tourism. This paper evaluates the relationship between the morphology and composition of banquettes and beach exposure to dominant waves. A Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System was used to evaluate the variability of banquettes and beach morphology over a period of 1 year. Banquette samples, collected at two different levels of the beach profile (i.e. foreshore and backshore), were used to evaluate the contribution of leaves, rhizomes and sediments to the total weight. Banquettes showed a higher volume, thickness and cross-shore length on exposed beaches, whereas narrower litter deposits were found on the sheltered beach. On exposed beaches, banquettes were deposited in beach zones characterized by changes in elevation. These changes in elevation were mainly due to the deposition and erosion of sediments and secondly to the deposition and or erosion of leaf litter. On sheltered beaches, the variability in beach morphology was low and was restricted to areas where the banquettes were located. The leaf/sediment ratio changed along the cross-shore profile. On the backshore, banquettes were a mixture of sediments and leaves, whereas leaves were the main component on the foreshore, independently of the beach exposure. The processes which control the morphodynamics in the swash zone could explain the variability of banquette composition along the cross-shore profile. Finally, this study highlighted that Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter plays an important role in the geomorphology of the beachface and its removal can have a harmful impact on the beaches.
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noble, M. A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G. L.; Rosenfeld, L. K.
This article describes the relationship between 10 selected properties of the sediments (chlorophyll a and b, colloidal and total carbohydrate, water concentration, sediment type, organic matter, erosion threshold and erosion rate)\\u000a and meio- and macrofauna within and among three different habitats in an urbanized intertidal mudflat\\/mangrove forest in Tambourine\\u000a Bay, Sydney Harbour, Australia. Many of the biogeochemical variables were significantly
Understanding the dynamics of fine sediment transport across the upper intertidal zone is critical in managing the erosion\\u000a and accretion of intertidal areas, and in managed realignment\\/estuarine habitat recreation strategies. This paper examines\\u000a the transfer of sediments between salt marsh and mudflat environments in two contrasting macrotidal estuaries: the Seine (France)\\u000a and the Medway (UK), using data collected during two
A. B. Cundy; R. Lafite; J. A. Taylor; L. Hopkinson; J. Deloffre; R. Charman; M. Gilpin; K. L. Spencer; P. J. Carey; C. M. Heppell; B. Ouddane; S. De Wever; A. Tuckett
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this public health assessment (PHA) to evaluate potential past and current exposures to contaminants originating from Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach Detachment Concord (NWS SBD Concor...
Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)
|Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)|
The fate of the petroleum hydrocarbons from Chevron bunker fuel has been studied in natural beaches, sand-containing lysimeters, and laboratory experiments. The importance of various physical, chemical and biological processes for the dispersal and degrad...
Systematic measurement of barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, wave period, breaker height, angle of wave approach, and long-shore current velocity at Illinois Beach State Park in 1974 and Sheboygan, Wisconsin in summer 1972 shows the relation...
Abstract Using a numerical model, we show that the surf zone of embayed beaches systematically flushes out more floating material (simulated using passive tracers) than on open beaches, with most exits occurring through the headland rips. For obliquely incident waves, a headland rip acts as a persistent conduit for transporting floating material out of the surf zone and into the inner shelf region. Wave angle and embayment size determine which headland rip (upwave or downwave) flushes out more the surf zone material. For narrow embayed beaches, passive drifters exit the surf zone through the upwave headland rip. For wider embayed beaches, the longshore current has enough room to develop and is further deflected against the downwave headland where most drifters exit the surf zone. Our results indicate that wave-exposed rugged coasts strongly enhance exchange of floating matter (e.g., pollutants and nutrients) at the ocean/continent interface.
Bioturbation by benthic infauna has important implications for the fate of contaminants as well as for changes to the sediment\\u000a structure, chemistry and transport characteristics. There is an extensive literature dealing with the influence of sedimentary\\u000a variables on the structure and function of infaunal marine and estuarine organisms but less is known of the converse, the\\u000a influence of biota on
Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.
Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...
Waikiki Beach borders the eastern end of Mamala Bay on the south coast of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The plan of improvement consists of contruction of a rubblemound groin alongside the existing box culvert at the eastern end of Fort DeRussy Beach. This ...
Coastal and estuarine ecosystems are highly susceptible to crude oil pollution. Therefore, in order to examine the resilience of benthic phototrophs that are pivotal to coastal ecosystem functioning, we simulated an oil spill in tidal mesocosms consisting of intact sediment cores from a mudflat at the mouth of the Colne Estuary, UK. At day 21, fluorescence imaging revealed a bloom of cyanobacteria on the surface of oiled sediment cores, and the upper 1.5?cm thick sediment had 7.2 times more cyanobacterial and 1.7 times more diatom rRNA sequences when treated with oil. Photosystem II operating efficiency (Fq'/Fm') was significantly reduced in oiled sediments at day 7, implying that the initial diatom-dominated community was negatively affected by oil, but this was no longer apparent by day 21. Oil addition significantly reduced numbers of the key deposit feeders, and the decreased grazing pressure is likely to be a major factor in the increased abundance of both diatoms and cyanobacteria. By day 5 concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen were significantly lower in oiled mesocosms, likely resulting in the observed increase in nifH-containing, and therefore potentially dinitrogen-fixing, cyanobacteria. Thus, indirect effects of oil, rather than direct inhibition, are primarily responsible for altering the microphytobenthos. PMID:22978606
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) indicative of fecal contamination in urban streams and recreational ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California often exceed recreational water-quality standards. During low flow, FIB and human-specific Bacteroides concentrations in urban streams were associated with point discharges. FIB concentrations varied three-fold during diurnal sampling as a result of small variations in these discharges. During stormflow, FIB concentrations
John A. Izbicki; Peter W. Swarzenski; Christopher D. Reich; Carole Rollins; Patricia A. Holden
The significance of sediment delivered via storm-associated stream discharge in altering sediment characteristics, beach form, and volume is evaluated on pocket beaches with different basin characteristics and wave exposures. The focus is on changes on three beaches on Elba Island, Italy caused by a flood event in September 2002 that had an estimated recurrence interval of 200 years. Beach profiles and foreshore sediment samples were gathered in 1999 and 2000 to identify pre-storm characteristics, in September 2002 to reveal the immediate effects of the storm, and in 2003 and 2004 to reveal post-storm recovery. Foreshore sediments were finer and better sorted and contained no pebbles prior to the flood. Coarsening of the sand and granule fraction was evident after the flood, along with pebble accumulations, especially near major streams. Mean size, sorting values and percent pebbles one and two years after the flood were generally greater than pre-flood conditions but less than immediately after the flood. Beach profiles reveal conspicuous erosion immediately after the flood, when sediment delivered by streams is transported to subaqueous deltas. Thereafter, sediment moves onshore and alongshore to adjacent beaches to restore subaerial volumes. The location of streams within a compartment, relative to the location of capes and headlands, is important in determining the movement of sediment added to the beach by streams. The sites are all sheltered from the highest-energy waves from the west, facilitating longshore transport to the west. Where the largest stream is located at the east end of a compartment, sediment discharged from it is source material for the downdrift beaches to the west. Where the largest stream is at the west end of the compartment, the ability to supply sediment to the beaches to the east is restricted. Hence, broad-scale geologic controls (headlands and capes) enhance or diminish the ability of streams to influence beach change throughout the pocket. The inability of beaches on two of the sites to migrate landward, due to human development of uplands, will be an issue in the future. Lack of sediment to replenish beaches through erosion of the upland, places increased emphasis on the role of coastal streams in the beach sediment budget. Changing watershed attributes to allow more sediment discharge during high-energy, low-frequency events (e.g. devoting more land to agriculture) would be a way of helping to restore beach sediment.
Pranzini, Enzo; Rosas, Valentina; Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.
The spatial distribution of the mean cross-shore flow (undertow) over a barred beach is examined with field data obtained on three energetic wave days during the Duck94 experiment. The vertical structure of the undertow is modeled using a turbulent eddy viscosity closure and includes the important effects of wave breaking (described using the roller concept) and convective acceleration of the current. Other than a more realistic description of observed turbulence variations, a depth-dependent eddy viscosity (compared with a constant) does not improve the agreement between predicted and observed undertow profiles. The effect of using different boundary conditions is investigated by extending the formulations of Stive and Wind  and Svendsen et al.  to include random waves by ensemble averaging over the wave height distribution. The contribution of breaking wave rollers to the surface mass flux can be of the same order or greater than the contribution associated with the organized wave motion. The largest discrepancies between model predictions and observations occur over the sandbar, where the mass transport of the breaking waves appears to be underestimated.
Faria, A. F. Garcez; Thornton, E. B.; Lippmann, T. C.; Stanton, T. P.
The contamination of beach waters occurs from the discharge of storm water and sanitary sewer overflows containing faecal material. Additional faecal material derives from discharge of animals and waterfowl. In order to protect public from exposure to faecal-contaminated water, it is required to test enteric indicators in beach water. The problem is that the traditional culture-based methods cannot meet this goal because it takes too long (>24 h), so the results are not available until a day later. A rapid method for testing beach water for Escherichia coli within 1 h has been developed. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and ATP bioluminescence were used for selective capture and quantification, respectively. This rapid method was compared to the current method (m-TEC) using beach water samples. The beach samples were prefiltered with a 20 microm pore size filter in order to remove algae, plant debris and large particles. The results showed that the prefiltration step did not trap the bacteria which were present in the original water samples. The prefiltered water was then passed through a 0.45 microm pore size filter for concentration. The deposited bacteria were resuspended and then mixed with superparamagnetic polystyrene beads (diameter of 0.6 microm) that were coated with E. coli antibodies. After IMS, the quantification of the E. coli was done by ATP bioluminescence. The results obtained with IMS-ATP bioluminescence correlated well with the plate count method (Rsq = 0.93). The detection limit of the assay was about 20 CFU/100 mL, which is well below the US EPA limits for recreational water. The entire procedure can be completed in less than 1 hour. The necessary equipment is portable and was tested on-site. PMID:14981644
Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further highlights the need to include biological interactions, the degree of human disturbance and other variables such as environmental heterogeneity and the connectivity of the individual beaches when assessing inter-beach differences in macrofaunal assemblages.
Despite ongoing nourishment and groyne construction over 3 decades, the central section of Palm Beach is still very vulnerable to storm erosion. Palm Beach is in the central area of Gold Coast City and despite narrow beaches, these beaches and surf attract a large number of users and supports 3 surf clubs. The Palm BeachBeach Protection Strategy (PBBPS) has
R. Tomlinson; J. McGrath; L. A. Jackson; G. Stuart; A. Robertson; M. DaGata; B. Corbett
Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...
Selection of borrow material for use in beach restoration and periodic nourishment requires analysis of the textural differences between the potential borrow and native beach materials. Three quantitative techniques proposed for such analysis are reviewed...
Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.
Incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have risen worldwide prompting a need to better understand routes of human exposure and whether standard bacterial water quality monitoring practices adequately account for this potential threat. Beach water and sand samples were analyzed during summer months for S. aureus, enterococci, and MRSA at three southern California beaches (Avalon, Doheny, Malibu Surfrider). S. aureus frequently was detected in samples of seawater (59%, n = 328) and beach sand (53%, n = 358). MRSA sometimes was detected in seawater (1.6%, n = 366) and sand (2.7%, n = 366) at relatively low concentrations. Site specific differences were observed, with Avalon Beach presenting the highest concentrations of S. aureus and Malibu Surfrider the lowest in both seawater and sand. S. aureus concentrations in seawater and sand were correlated to each other and to a variety of other parameters. Multiple linear regression on the combined beach data indicated that significant explanatory variables for S. aureus in seawater were S. aureus in sand, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and the number of swimmers. In sand, S. aureus concentrations were related to S. aureus in seawater, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and inversely to surf height classification. Only the correlation to water temperature held for individually analyzed beaches and for S. aureus concentrations in both seawater and sand. To provide context for these results, the prevalence of S. aureus in sand was compared to published fomite studies, and results suggested that beach prevalence was similar to that in homes. PMID:22652414
Goodwin, Kelly D; McNay, Melody; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy; Madison, Melissa; Griffith, John F
The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change
Repetitive element anchored PCR was used to evaluate the genetic profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from surface water contaminated with urban stormwater, sanitary sewage, and gull feces to determine if strains found in environmental samples reflect the strain composition of E. coli obtained from host sources. Overall, there was less diversity in isolates collected from river and beach sites than with isolates obtained from human and nonhuman sources. Unique strain types comprised 28.8, 29.2, and 15.0% of the isolate data sets recovered from stormwater, river water, and beach water, respectively. In contrast, 50.4% of gull isolates and 41.2% of sewage isolates were unique strain types. River water, which is expected to contain E. coli strains from many diffuse sources of nonpoint source pollution, contained strains most closely associated with other river water isolates that were collected at different sites or on different days. However, river sites impacted by sewage discharge had approximately 20% more strains similar to sewage isolates than did sites impacted by stormwater alone. Beach sites with known gull fecal contamination contained E. coli most similar to other beach isolates rather than gull isolates collected at these same sites, indicating underrepresentation of possible gull strains. These results suggest large numbers of strains are needed to represent contributing host sources within a geographical location. Additionally, environmental survival may influence the composition of strains that can be recovered from contaminated waters. Understanding the ecology of indicator bacteria is important when interpreting fecal pollution assessments and developing source detection methodology.
Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month
Steven W. Carothers; Robert A. Johnson; Robert Dolan
In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...
This map represents the Health Status of beaches in the state of Washington. The interactive map allows users to click on counties, water bodies, and beaches to view seasons and limits. The page also includes links to text bulletins regarding beach closures, descriptions of marine biotoxins and associated health effects, and a factsheet of shellfish program publications.
Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are common groundwater contaminants that also impact tidal flats, especially near urban and industrial areas. However, very little is known about dechlorinating microbial communities in tidal flats. Titanium pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and dechlorinator-targeted quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) characterized reductive dechlorinating activities and populations in tidal flat sediments collected from South Korea's central west coast near Kangwha. In microcosms established with surface sediments, PCE dechlorination to TCE began within 10 days and 100% of the initial amount of PCE was converted to TCE after 37 days. cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) was observed as dechlorination end product in microcosms containing sediments collected from deeper zones (i.e., 35-40 cm below ground surface). Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR results revealed Desulfuromonas michiganensis-like populations predominanted in both TCE and cis-DCE producing microcosms. Other abundant groups included Desulfuromonas thiophila and Pelobacter acidigallici-like populations in the surface sediment microcosms, and Desulfovibrio dechloracetivorans and Fusibacter paucivorans-like populations in the deeper sediment microcosms. Dehalococcoides spp. populations were not detected in these sediments before and after incubation with PCE. The results suggest that tidal flats harbor novel, salt-tolerant dechlorinating populations and that titanium pyrosequencing provides more detailed insight into community structure dynamics of the dechlorinating microcosms than conventional 16S rRNA gene sequencing or fingerprinting methods. PMID:21053056
Lee, Jaejin; Lee, Tae Kwon; Löffler, Frank E; Park, Joonhong
On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.
Much of the suitable habitat for birds that nest on beaches in Florida is managed by municipal and county governments whose primary goal is human recreation. Birds attempting to nest on these beaches are exposed to higher levels of human disturbance and predation by human-associated species than birds on more natural, protected beaches. An education program about the birds was
...Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY...on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Daytona Beach, Florida...Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Daytona Beach,...
...State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh...maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of...specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...
Beach closings are a growing concern in coastal regions because of serious public health and economic ramifications. Two beach sites separated by 150 m of shoreline on Lake Michigan were monitored in the summer of 2003 and 2004 for E. coli densities to evaluate the potential outcome of relocating an existing beach to a site immediately to the south. Under
Caitlin O. Scopel; Josh Harris; Sandra L. McLellan
The Anastasia Island beach mouse is listed as an endangered species, and is restricted to Anastasia Island, St. Johns County, Florida and a recently introduced population at Guana River State Park, Flagler County. The only two healthy populations are conf...
Beach cusps are rhythmic shoreline features made up of series of horns and embayments. Their build-up occurs in specific conditions (steep beachface, low-energy wave conditions...). These features can notably be characterized by the cusp spacing ? and their prominence ? (difference in beachface gradient between embayment and horn). At present, two main theories confront to explain the formation of such features on natural beaches : standing edge waves (special class of waves propagating longshore) and self-organisation hypothesis. - Standing edge wave theory proposes that the superimposition of incident waves and standing edge waves generates longshore variations of swash height linked with the position of edge wave nodes and anti-nodes. These variations of swash height result in regular zones of erosion. Depending on the context, different types of edge-waves may occur. The predicted beach cusp spacing is : ? = (g T^2 tan?) / ? for a sub-harmonic edge wave model ? = (g T^2 tan?) / 2? for a synchronous edge wave model with : ? : beach cusp spacing (m) g : gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s) T : incident wave period (s) tan? : beach gradient - Self-organisation theory suggests that a combination of interactions and feedbacks between swash flow and beach topography leads to the growth of morphologic irregularities of a given wavelength (because of flow divergence or convergence), resulting in beach cusp formation and maintaining. The predicted beach cusp spacing is then : ? = f S with : ? : beach cusp spacing (m) S : horizontal extent of the swash flow (m) f : empirical constant (~1.5) Three multitemporal Terrestrial Laser Scan acquisitions have been carried out for three consecutive days on the sandy beach of Porsmilin (Brittany, France) with a spatial resolution varying from few centimetres to few metres. Moreover the hydrodynamic conditions have been obtained thanks to the Previmer project website (http://www.previmer.org/), notably based on WaveWatch3 and MARS-2D models. This study proposes to profit from the high resolution and accuracy of Terrestrial Laser data to measure the geometry and the spacing of beach cusps, to compare the measured parameters to the predicted ones (with both theories) and thus to attempt to identify the hydrodynamic process which sparks off their formation.
Chabrol, C.; Jaud, M.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.; Augereau, E.; Cuq, V.
Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads to erroneous decisions due to the great variability in bacterial concentrations. Beaches are closed when they could be open and vice versa, their true status unknown until the next day. Studies show that mathematical models based on multi-variable linear regression (MLR) principles can produce better estimates, or nowcasts, using real-time explanatory variables, such as turbidity, cloud cover, and rainfall. To make such models generally available, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a program called Virtual Beach (VB). VB is public-domain software for developing site-specific predictive models. It features capabilities that make it possible with reasonable effort to develop, and compare the performance of, static and dynamic MLR models. The results of tests on 2006 Huntington Beach, Lake Erie beach data are presented. In addition to nowcasting, the work begins to address the question, can weather and water forecasts be used to forecast beach conditions in advance? A preliminary affirmative answer is provided based on an analysis of the Huntington Beach data, with weather forecasts for nearby Cleveland-Hopkins international airport, and NOAA lake condition forecasts. We encourage those engaged in beach monitoring and management to request VB, applying the nowcast and forecast models developed with it to their locations of interest. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for presentation, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
sediment grain-size distributions were captured by variations in the overall rate constant (k) and inflection point (I) of the logistic equation fitted to the cumulative percentage grain-size distributions. Beach orientation explained 57% of the variation in egg concentration among beaches. Orientation and k explained 61% and additional exploratory models explained 80-86% of the variation. Our findings build upon previous reports
Daily and hourly variations in microbial indicators densities in the beach-waters of Hong Kong have been described. The levels of Escherichia coli at a number of beaches was observed to be influenced by tide, and for staphylococci, by bather numbers. The tidal influence was most obvious during spring tides; and for the effect of bathers, during neap tides. Both organisms are present in high densities in external sources of faecal pollution of bathing beaches, with the average staphylococci to E. coli ratios being 0.04-3. Staphylococci may serve as an indicator of bather density and the risk of cross-infection amongst bathers (rather than as another indicator of faecal contamination) when the average staphylococci to E. coli ratio for a bathing beach is considerably higher than 3. The variability of microbial indicator densities means the routine sampling of bathing beaches should be carried out on weekend days with maximum numbers of swimmers exposed to the water, and spread throughout the bathing season.
High-order Boussinesq-type equations for long periodic nonlinear waves climbing a sloping beach are derived and investigated in shallow water approximation. Potential and surface elevation for wave motion are expanded in Fourier series up to the third harmonic inclusively. Coefficients of these series are explicitly presented as polynomials of Bessel functions. One may speculate that the obtained expression are the first
The Eden Roc Renaissance Miami Beach was completed in 1956. Designed by architect Morris Lapidus after completing the Fontainebleu, the Eden Roc’s neighbor. Lapidus used curvy and innovative designs that were widely criticized at the time they were being built. At the time it was built, the Eden Roc was considered a vision of the Italian Renaissance. Today the style
The potential of chitosan (0.1% dry weight equivalent) as a bioremediation additive for removal of the recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in marine beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 63-day period. Osmocote, a slow release fertilizer, was used as the key nutrient supplement at a concentration of 1% in sediment (dry weight equivalent). Osmocote
Techniques for the removal of stranded water-in-oil emulsion were compared in a series of trials held on Pendine sands during the period 7-11 November 1983. The report describes various techniques for scraping the beach to transfer the oily waste into tre...
P. R. Morris B. W. J. Lynch J. F. Nightingale D. H. Thomas
In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR
Houra Rais; Arthur W. Mansfield; Barton D. Huxtable; Kancham Chotoo
The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…
Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
The Fossil Preserve built as part of the Cliffwood Beach Shore Protection project in the mid 1970's is important to scientists. The Township of Aberdeen now wants the Preserve filled to halt further cliff erosion and avoid safety problems. Before filling ...
THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).
The planned project will extend the existing navigation channel at Fort Myers Beach, Fort Myers, Lee County, Florida about 2,000 feet easterly. This extension will facilitate shrimp boat and barge traffic movement to and from terminal facilities located b...
Background. Excessive sun exposure during childhood has been associated with subsequent development of skin cancers. Children have been ad- vised to avoid sun exposure, use protective clothing, and apply sunscreen lotions, but how completely these rec- ommendations are followed has not been studied. Objective. To determine the extent of sun protection among children visiting lake beaches, the methods used, and
Ardis L. Olson; Allen J. Dietrich; Carol Hill Sox; Marguerite M. Stevens; Charlotte Woodruff Winchell; Tim A. Ahles
|This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her…
We construct a family of explicit rotational solutions to the nonlinear governing equations for water waves, describing edge waves propagating over a plane-sloping beach. A detailed analysis of the edge wave dynamics and of the run-up pattern is made possible by the use of the Lagrangian approach to the water motion.
In this paper, we present a technique suitable for measurement of intertidal bathymetry over a broad range of length scales (101 to 103 m) and time scales (days to decades). A series of time-averaged images of the swash zone are used to map contour lines of the beach surface. In each image, contours are identified using bands of maximum brightness
This report presents the parasitological, bacteriological, mycological and physicochemical data obtained from both surface water and beach sand of a lake used for water sports. These show that the lake is contaminated in both winter and spring by water which overflows from the River Maine, and is self-purified by a mechanism of 'lagunage'. In summer signs of pollution are at their lowest level although use of the complex is at its peak. Conversely, the amoebic flora, which is independent of the usual criteria of pollution, predominates in summer, and serves as a marker for the need for increased surveillance. The sand of the beaches does not appear to show any infectious hazard. Environmental pressure will doubtless change these data over a period of time, and it is planned to monitor this.
Chabasse, D.; Laine, P.; Simitzis-Le-Flohic, A. M.; Martineau, B.; el Hourch, M.; Becaud, J. P.
Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. PMID:23747562
An integrated study, combining biogeochemical, stable isotope, micro-sensor, sedimentological, phase-analytical, and molecular ecological methods, was carried out in April 1998 in a temperate intertidal mudflat (Site Dangast; German Wadden Sea of the southern North Sea). The biogeochemical zonation was investigated in relation to the vertical abundance of total and sulfate-reducing bacteria, crustaceans, nematodes, flagellates, and ciliates. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the sediments ranged between 1.0 and 3.3% dry weight and were related to the abundance of clay minerals, indicating sorption processes on mineral surfaces to control organic matter burial. The sediments above 9 cm below sea floor contained an excess of TOC compared to the relationship between TOC and pyrite sulfur proposed for normal marine sediments. The downcore variation of the carbon isotopic composition of organic matter reflected the preferential microbial degradation of labile (marine) organic matter relative to a more resistent (terrestrial) organic matter fraction. The oxygen penetration depth was 4.6 mm in the light and 1.2 mm in the dark, and coincided with the maximum abundance of ciliates, crustaceans and heterotrophic flagellates. Although sub-oxic conditions were indicated by the presence of dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) to about 15 cm depth, bacterial sulfate reduction rates between 14 and 225 nmol cm -3 d -1 were measured using radio-tracers with a first maximum at around 2 cm depth. Up to 80% of the total cells as detected by DAPI-staining hybridized with a rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for the domain bacteria (EUB338). Sulfate-reducing bacteria as detected by probe SRB385 showed high abundance (up to 7% of total cells) in the upper 5 cm of the sediment. Total and cell numbers of sulfate reducers were highest at about 2 cm and decreased with depth. Cellular sulfate reduction rates were estimated from the SRB counts by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the measured sulfate reduction rates and ranged between 0.06 and 0.55 fmol SO 42- cell -1 day -1 which is at the lower end determined for pure cultures. From a comparison of cellular SRR and stable sulfur isotope ( 34S/ 32S) fractionation between coexisting dissolved pore water sulfate and sedimentary reduced sulfur species with laboratory studies a significant contribution of bacterial disproportionation reactions within the oxidative part of the sedimentary sulfur cycle is indicated.
Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.
Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.
Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan
Sandy beach ridges occur in four main categories: (1) Swash-built, (2) Settling lag, (3) Eolian, (4) Storm surge. Ridges in the first two classes are geometrically regular, only a few tens of centimeters above adjacent swales, and commonly in ridge sets and systems (tens to hundreds of ridges each). Individual sets (of 5–25 ridges) tend to stand 0.5 m to
In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.
Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham
The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article addresses how beach closings are on the rise, but the public is not being given accurate information to help them get involved in solving the problem. The media, the publics primary information source, must provide information based on factual scientific evidence, not be swayed by economic and political factors, and work with scientists to obtain data and facts.
Erika Jensen and Sandra McLellan (Great Lakes WATER Institute;)
Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can
The Wide Beach Development site is a small lake-side community located in the Town of Brant, in southern Erie County, New York. Between 1968 and 1978 approximately 155 cubic meters of waste oil, some of which was contaminated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), was applied to the local roadways for dust control by the Wide Beach Homeowners Association. The source of the waste oil is being investigated, however, drums labeled as dielectric coolant were found onsite. In 1980, the installation of a sanitary sewer line in the development resulted in the excavation of highly contaminated soil from the roadways and their vicinity. Because it was not known at that time that a PCB problem existed, excavated soil was used as fill in several yards and in a community recreation area. Subsequent sampling revealed the presence of PCBs in the air, roadway dust, soil, vacuum cleaner dust, and water samples from private wells. The selected remedial action for this site is included.
The Piper Aircraft Corporation/Vero Beach Water and Sewer Department National Priorities List Site covers 8 acres in Vero Beach, Indiana River County, Florida. The facility began assembling and painting light aircraft in 1957. Chemicals utilized in these operations are stored on-site in underground storage tanks. In 1978, routine sampling and analysis of the city water supply revealed the presence of four volatile organic compounds: trichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene, cis/trans-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substance via contaminated groundwater, aerated groundwater that is being discharged to the surface water, and air contaminants released from the groundwater aeration process.
Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.
Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert
109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m3.m- 1. These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.
Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill’s origin. These sites were contaminated by “oil mousse”, which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999
This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.
...the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon will be transiting across the bridge...the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon. DATES: This deviation is effective...The Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon Committee on behalf of the North...
... false What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section...3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in...
... false What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section...3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in...
... false What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section...3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in...
...Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter...Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take...
Currently no U.S. federal guideline is available for assessing risk of illness from sand at recreational sites. The objectives of this study were to compute a reference level guideline for pathogens in beach sand and to compare these reference levels with measurements from a beach impacted by nonpoint sources of contamination. Reference levels were computed using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) coupled with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to reach an equivalent level of risk of illness as set by the U.S. EPA for marine water exposure (1.9 × 10(-2)), levels would need to be at least about 10 oocysts/g (about 1 oocyst/g for a pica child) for Cryptosporidium, about 5 MPN/g (about 1 MPN/g for pica) for enterovirus, and less than 10(6) CFU/g for S. aureus. Pathogen levels measured in sand at a nonpoint source recreational beach were lower than the reference levels. More research is needed in evaluating risk from yeast and helminth exposures as well as in identifying acceptable levels of risk for skin infections associated with sand exposures. PMID:22296573
A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.
Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus
A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C? to C??) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10? to 10.2 × 10? copies g?¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10? to 1.4 × 10? copies g?¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834
Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus
Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL) that incorporate wave setup and runup, may be particularly applicable to upper intertidal biota whose distributions closely followed the high tide strand line (HTS), a feature which tracks total water level (TWL). Developing a TWL approach may also provide new insights on habitat availability for beach nesting wildlife and coastal strand vegetation. Conservation of beach ecosystems could be enhanced by incorporating sufficient beach habitat to accommodate the dynamic ecological envelopes used by mobile intertidal invertebrates and wildlife.
Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.
Mudflats and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate mudflat. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity.
Coulon, Frederic; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Paisse, Sandrine; Goni-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuna Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Duran, Robert
Methanogen populations of an intertidal mudflat in the Yangtze River estuary of China were investigated based on the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Samples were collected at six depths from three locations. In the qPCR analyses, a mean depth-wise change of mcrA gene abundance was observed from (1.23 ± 0.13) × 10(7) to (1.16 ± 0.29) × 10(8) per g dried soil, which was inversely correlated with the depletion of sulfate (R(2) = 0.74; ? = 0.05) and salinity (R (2) = 0.66; ? = 0.05). The copy numbers of mcrA was at least 1 order of magnitude higher than dissimilatory sulfate reductase B (dsrB) genes, likely indicating the importance of methanogenesis at the mudflat. Sequences related to the orders Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales and the uncultured methanogens; Rice Cluster I (RC-I), Zoige cluster I (ZC-I) and anaerobic methane oxidizing archaeal lineage-1 (ANME-1) were detected. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales dominated the entire sediment layers, but detectable changes of proportions were observed with depth. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanomicrobiales slightly increased with depth while Methanosarcinales showed the reverse. Chao1 and ACE richness estimators revealed higher diversity of methanogens near the surface (0-10 cm) when compared with the bottom sediments. The near-surface sediments were mainly dominated by the family Methanosarcinaceae (45 %), which has members that can utilize substrates that cannot be used by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Overall, current data indicate that Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales are the most dominant methanogens within the entire depth profile down to 100 cm, with higher abundance and diversity of methanogens in the deeper and upper sediment layers, respectively. PMID:23306392
Extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) deployed on beaches in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, were used to evaluate if complex contaminant mixtures from different sources can be distinguished by the resulting cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity in exposed test animals. Deployment sites included canneries, salmon hatcheries, and beaches where lingering oil remains from discharges during the 1964 earthquake or
Kathrine R. Springman; Jeffrey W. Short; Mandy R. Lindeberg; Jacek M. Maselko; Colin Khan; Peter V. Hodson; Stanley D. Rice
The report is the final Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed sewerage project to serve the southern beach areas of Sussex County, Delaware. The plant is considered large enough to handle the project growth of the area. The only impact involves th...
Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...
Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...
...safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Virginia...traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the...Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New...Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA in...
We estimated the amount of oil remaining in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 12 yr after the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill to assess its importance as a long-term reservoir of toxic hydrocarbons. We found oil on 78 of 91 beaches randomly selected according to their oiling history. Surface oiling was recorded for randomly placed quadrats, which were then excavated and examined for subsurface oil. The cumulative area of beachcontaminated by surface or subsurface oil was estimated at 11.3 ha. Surface oil varied little with tide height, but subsurface oil was more prevalent at the middle tide heights. The mass of remaining subsurface oil is conservatively estimated at 55 600 kg. Analysis of terpanes indicated that over 90% of the surface oil and all of the subsurface oil was from the Exxon Valdez and that Monterey Formation oil deposited after the 1964 Alaska earthquake accounted for the remaining surface oil. These results indicate that oil from the Exxon Valdez remains by far the largest reservoir of biologically available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on beaches impacted by the spill and that biota dependent on these beaches risk continued exposure. PMID:14740712
Short, Jeffrey W; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Harris, Patricia M; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Rice, Stanley D
Seven parametric models for wave height transformation across the surf zone [e.g., Thornton and Guza, 1983] are tested with observations collected between the shoreline and about 5-m water depth during 2 experiments on a barred beach near Duck, NC, and between the shoreline and about 3.5-m water depth during 2 experiments on unbarred beaches near La Jolla, CA. Offshore wave heights ranged from about 0.1 to 3.0 m. Beach profiles were surveyed approximately every other day. The models predict the observations well. Root-mean-square errors between observed and simulated wave heights are small in water depths h > 2 m (average rms errors < 10%), and increase with decreasing depth for h < 2 m (average rms errors > 20%). The lowest rms errors (i.e., the most accurate predictions) are achieved by tuning a free parameter, ?, in each model. To tune the models accurately to the data considered here, observations are required at 3 to 5 locations, and must span the surf zone. No tuned or untuned model provides the best predictions for all data records in any one experiment. The best fit ?'s for each model-experiment pair are represented well with an empirical hyperbolic tangent curve based on the inverse Iribarren number. In 3 of the 4 data sets, estimating ? for each model using an average curve based on the predictions and observations from all 4 experiments typically improves model-data agreement relative to using a constant or previously determined empirical ?. The best fit ?'s at the 4th experiment (conducted off La Jolla, CA) are roughly 20% smaller than the ?'s for the other 3 experiments, and thus using the experiment-averaged curve increases prediction errors. Possible causes for the smaller ?'s at the 4th experiment will be discussed. Funded by ONR and NSF.
Apotsos, A. A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Guza, R. T.
Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.
Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.
Metabolic hotspots at land–water interfaces are important in supporting biogeochemical processes. Here we confirm the generality\\u000a of land–aquatic interfaces as biogeochemical hot spots by extending this concept to marine beach cast materials. In situ atmospheric\\u000a pCO2, from a respiration chamber (10 cm in diameter and 20 cm high) inserted into wrack deposits, was determined using a high-precision\\u000a (±1 ppm) non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer
Grey T. Coupland; Carlos M. Duarte; Diana I. Walker
A series of beach-process experiments was conducted on Bodie Island, North Carolina, during 1963-1964 by members of the Coastal Studies Institute staff. Included were essentially continuous and simultaneous measurements of subaerial-beach and inshore-bott...
The influence of biotic interactions in structuring macroinfaunal communities of exposed sandy beaches, an unstable habitat characterized by strong physical forces, is generally considered negligible. We investigated the hypothesis that competitive interactions during burrowing could potentially affect the intertidal distribution and abundance of macroinfaunal animals of sandy beaches using two species of invertebrates, a hippid crab, Emerita analoga, and a
Jenifer E. Dugan; Eduardo Jaramillo; David M. Hubbard; Heraldo Contreras; Cristian Duarte
The project involves new rock revetment and beach nourishment of about 10,000 feet of the seaward shore of Ediz Hook. Material for the revetment would come from existing quarries in the Puget Sound Area, and beach nourishment material would come from a so...
Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…
A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil
|Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…
Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110...Special Anchorage Areas Â§ 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately...northwesterly to latitude 27Â°46â²39.9â³ N., longitude...
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110...Special Anchorage Areas Â§ 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately...northwesterly to latitude 27Â°46â²39.9â³ N., longitude...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110...Special Anchorage Areas Â§ 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately...northwesterly to latitude 27Â°46â²39.9â³ N., longitude...
The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…
Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...
Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...
The Long Beach unit of California's Wilmington field presents some special challenges arising out of the characteristics, history, and operational constraints of the unit. A base map shows the areas in the Long Beach unit.The Wilmington field is a NW.-SE. trending anticline in the Los Angeles Basin and is about 10 miles long and 3 miles wide. It is broken
Upstream construction tailings dams in the oilsands mining industry rely on a compacted shell and beaches of non- liquefiable sand to contain the pond and internal loose beach deposits. Compaction energy to densify the sand in the shell is provided by dozers which densify the sand through the vibration of trafficking repeatedly across the sand surface, together with the downward
The applicability of recommendations of the Eurosion project to define a policy to manage coastal erosion has been tested at the “beach” scale in the Mediterranean coast. Thus, a favourable sediment status has been defined for these beaches taking into account their main functions: recreation and protection. Because they act at two different seasons, this status needs to be seasonally
José A. Jiménez; Vicenç Gracia; Herminia I. Valdemoro; E. Tonatiuh Mendoza; Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla
Travel and tourism is America's leading industry, employer, producer of new jobs, and earner of foreign exchange; and beaches are the leading factor in travel and tourism. Few in America realize that beaches are a key driver of America's economy and its c...
A numerical model is constructed here to perform simple analysis on beach response behind coastal kelp fields. The model is restricted to two-dimensional beach profile and is only applicable to short duration storm wave events. The model links two sub-mod...
Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall.
Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha
Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015
Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Reniers, A J H M; Wang, John D; Kiger, Russell T; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha
Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.
The environmental contamination by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such contamination in saline soils of coastal beaches. A study was performed on the beaches of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of contamination, and the correlation between contamination level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458) were contaminated, 32.3% (148) of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds). The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%), Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%), Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%), coccid oocysts (13.5%), Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%), Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%), Strongyloides sp. (4.8%), several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%). It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall. PMID:22012454
Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Floriano, Aline Petrollini; Teixeira, Lais Helena; Bassili, Bianca; Martinez, Araceles; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da; Caseiro, Marcos Montani
The VA Office of Inspector General (OIG) Office of Healthcare Inspections conducted a review in follow up of its March 2011 report on radiation therapy (RT) at the VA Long Beach Healthcare System (facility) in Long Beach, CA. OIG also assessed the validit...
We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy beaches were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both beaches were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between beaches, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both beaches were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between beaches, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered beaches was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy beaches. The density and structure of the nematode community at both beaches clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation. PMID:23460426
Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M
Along the 190 km of the Israeli Mediterranean coast, of which only about two-thirds is accessible to bathing activities, there are about 100 statutory surf bathing beaches guarded by professional sea lifeguards. The rest of the accessible Israeli Mediterranean coastline is divided into two additional legal categories, which are not guarded: (A) beaches where bathing is forbidden by governmental ordinance
Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...
Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...
The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.
Sallenger, Jr. , A. H.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.
Recent research has sought to determine the off- or onshore origin of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in order to improve local recreational water quality. In an effort to reduce offshore contamination, a filtering barrier (FB) was installed at Calumet Beach, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL. A horseshoe-shaped curtain (146 m long, 0.18 mm apparent opening size, 1.5-1.6 m deepest point) was designed to exclude FIB containing or promoting debris and thus reduce the number of swimming advisories during the examination period of July through September 2012. Mean water Escherichia coli concentrations were significantly lower at southern transects (S; outside FB) than at transects within the FB (WN) and at northern transects (N; outside FB) (1.45 log (MPN)/100 ml vs. 1.74 and 1.72, respectively, p < 0.05, n = 234). Turbidity was significantly higher at the WN transects (p < 0.001, n = 233), but it tended to increase throughout the sampling season within and outside the FB. E. coli in adjacent foreshore sand was significantly lower at the WN transects. A combination of factors might explain higher E. coli and turbidity within the FB including increased sediment resuspension, trapped algae, shallowing within the FB, and large lake hydrodynamic processes. This remediation approach may find better use in a different hydrodynamic setting, but the results of this experiment provide insight on sources of contamination and nearshore dynamics that may direct future beach management strategies. PMID:24041625
Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Nevers, Meredith B; Breitenbach, Cathy; Whitman, Richard L
Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. PMID:16524600
Submarine groundwater discharge has been shown to be an important source of nutrients, heavy metals, and organic compounds to the coastal ocean. Physical flow and mixing dynamics in the intertidal zone may influence these contaminant fluxes; however the mechanisms that contribute to mixing of saltwater and through-flowing freshwater are not well understood. A study of wave swash-induced infiltration at two sites on Cape Henlopen, Delaware, was performed to quantify effects of swash zone width and tidal elevation on the flux of seawater into the beach aquifer. Porewater salinity measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined intertidal freshwater-seawater mixing zone. High-frequency pressure and soil moisture measurements from shore-perpendicular arrays across the beachface were used to infer influx rates. Measurements were conducted at two sites, one with larger waves and a wide swash zone, and the other with smaller waves and a narrow swash zone. Infiltration occurred during the rising tide at the leading edge of the swash zone and increased in magnitude from low tide to high tide. Infiltration rates were on average 2.2 times greater near mean high water than near mean low water. Measurements revealed that swash zone width influences infiltration: influx rates associated with the beach with a wider swash zone were 2.7 times higher than those of a beach with a narrower swash zone. The field observations are roughly consistent with estimates from analytical models, which are highly sensitive to uncertain model parameters. Pressure measurements during rising tide also indicate changes in hydraulic gradients due to infiltrated seawater. Flow beneath the sensor array was initially seaward and as the swash zone tracked up the beachface, a groundwater mound formed that resulted in net landward flow in the vicinity of the sensor array. The results demonstrate the role of wave swash in driving beach seawater infiltration, indicate spatial trends in flux across the beachface, and suggest changes in groundwater flow direction resulting from tidal fluctuations. These insights into beach groundwater dynamics have implications for estimating fluid and chemical fluxes to coastal waters.
Despite posted warnings and educational campaigns warning about the health risks associated with storm water pollution, swimmers continue to swim in coastal areas polluted by storm water run-off. This study uses a simple spatial model of beach visitation to show how beach amenities and storm drains influence the way in which beach goers choose to locate themselves at beaches in
Ecolabels for beaches have been around since 1985 and have grown rapidly over the past decade. However, effects from ecolabels on beach ecology and local coastal cultures are unknown. This study reviews the literature on tourism ecolabels and environmental certification for beaches, analyzes the criteria of the most prominent beach ecolabel, and identifies considerations and proposes recommendations for local management
During their annual mid- to late-summer southward migration, Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) feed intensively on the amphipod Corophium volutator on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy. Corophium, in turn, feed on diatoms and bacteria. Using a series of bird exclosures and fertilizer addition, we examined top-down and\\u000a bottom-up effects, and investigated the presence of a trophic cascade in the
Diana J. Hamilton; Antony W. Diamond; Peter G. Wells
The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. PMID:10098779
Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J
This paper describes changes in sea level off the coast of China in history and at present. The evidence concerning low sea level during the last glacial phase, Holocene marine transgression which was discovered from sea bottom in East China Sea and China's bordering seas, and their adjacent coastal areas, where, by drilling, relic sediment, peat deposite, and mollusc shell fossils have been obtained, and their dates are deduced through measurement of radiocarbon (C14), identified that low sea level about 15000 years ago stood in the depth of 150 m below the present level in East China Sea, and that the subsequent transgression carried the sea up to the present sea level 6000 years ago, when the present China's coast and other continent's coasts were outlined. Due to a number of factors, the sea level oscillates seasonally in the border sea of China. Averagely speaking, the annual range of the seasonal changes in sea level is about 35 m off the south Zhejiang coast, where the highest value of 20 cm occurs in September, and the lowest of-15 cm occurs in March. The reason may be mainly due to the seasonal variations of climate and river run-off, as well as the Taiwan Warm Current. Similar seasonal oscillations in sea level also occur in Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and the South China Sea. The beach process of south Zhejiang is strongly affected by the seasonal oscillations in sea level. The width of beach is 4 to 6 km, the slope is approximately in 1 : 1000. If the sea level rises or falls 1 cm, the beach submergence or emergence is led to be about 10 m in width. As a result, the relative equilibrium of beach will be changed by the seasonal oscillations in sea level.
An application of the grain size trend analysis (GSTA) is used in an exploratory approach to characterize sediment transport on Camposoto beach (Cádiz, SW Spain). In May 2009 the mesotidal beach showed a well-developed swash bar on the upper foreshore, which was associated with fair-weather conditions prevailing just before and during the field survey. The results were tested by means of an autocorrelation statistical test (index I of Moran). Two sedimentological trends were recognized, i.e. development towards finer, better sorted and more negatively skewed sediment (FB-), and towards finer, better sorted and less negatively or more positively skewed sediment (FB+). Both vector fields were compared with results obtained from more classical approaches (sand tracers, microtopography and current measurements). This revealed that both trends can be considered as realistic, the FB+ trend being identified for the first time in a beach environment. The data demonstrate that, on the well-developed swash bar, sediment transported onshore becomes both finer and better sorted towards the coast. On the lower foreshore, which exhibits a steeper slope produced by breaking waves, the higher-energy processes winnow out finer particles and thereby produce negatively skewed grain-size distributions. The upper foreshore, which has a flatter and smoother slope, is controlled by lower-energy swash-backwash and overwash processes. As a result, the skewness of the grain-size distributions evolves towards less negative or more positive values. The skewness parameter appears to be distributed as a function of the beach slope and, thus, reflects variations in hydrodynamic energy. This has novel implications for coastal management.
Poizot, Emmanuel; Anfuso, Giorgio; Méar, Yann; Bellido, Carlos
Vibrio mimicus contamination of sand increased significantly during the arrival of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Ostional anidation beach, Costa Rica. Statistical analysis supports that eggs are contaminated with V. mimicus by contact with the sand nest. V. mimicus was isolated from eggs of all nests tested, and ctxA+ strains were found in 31% of the nests, all of which were near the estuary.
Acuna, Maria T.; Diaz, Gerardo; Bolanos, Hilda; Barquero, Candy; Sanchez, Olga; Sanchez, Luz M.; Mora, Grettel; Chaves, Anny; Campos, Elena
Vibrio mimicus contamination of sand increased significantly during the arrival of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Ostional anidation beach, Costa Rica. Statistical analysis supports that eggs are contaminated with V. mimicus by contact with the sand nest. V. mimicus was isolated from eggs of all nests tested, and ctxA+ strains were found in 31% of the nests, all of which were near the estuary. PMID:9872804
Acuña, M T; Díaz, G; Bolaños, H; Barquero, C; Sánchez, O; Sánchez, L M; Mora, G; Chaves, A; Campos, E
Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.
Wave setup and swash statistics were calculated from 154 runup time series measured on a moderately steep beach under incident waves varying from 0.4 to 4.0 m significant wave height. When scaled by the incident wave height, setup, swash height, and total runup (the sum of setup and half the swash height) were found to vary linearly with the surf zone similarity parameter ?0 = ?(H0/L0)-1/2. The foreshore slope appeared the appropriate value for the calculation of ?0, although the setup data showed some influence of an offshore bar at low tide. For low Irribaren numbers the swash height in the incident frequency band becomes saturated, while for high Irribaren numbers, no such signs of saturations were seen. Thus the infragravity band appears to become dominant in the swash below some value of ?0. For these data, that value is approximately 1.75, although there is considerable scatter associated with that estimate.
On July 22, 2004, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation (HHE) request from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at the Palm Beach International Airport in West Palm Beach, Florida...
I ABSTRACT The use of mathematical,modeling to predict the behavior of beaches does not work. Some of the major assumptions behind the models , by studying its past behavior. Keywords: Engineering and environmental geol-
11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD
18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD
This study reports on investigations of the material remains of three shipwreck scatters on beaches in Channel Island National Park. Documentation and analyses of these vessels, three Pacific Coast lumber schooners built by the Hall Brothers Shipyard of P...
This Environmental Assessment was part of Kaiser Engineers' study, Desalting Demonstration Plant Feasibility Study, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Product water from the proposed plant would provide availability of a greatly needed new domestic potable water s...
2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note concrete ring, metal rail and exposed rebar. Looking 320° NW. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
Please click here to download the map associated with this article.The North coast of Northern Ireland is exposed to high-energy swells and frequent storm events and therefore beach systems found along this coast tend largely to be dissipative in character. Bedrock-framed coastlines formed by basalt cliffs, shore platforms and smaller sandy embayments dominate this study area. West Strand beach at
This paper examines the degree of energy dissipation provided by a fringing coral reef, and its role on the morphodynamics of adjacent beaches in terms of volumetric sediment transport. Morphological data were collected from the microtidal Mexican Caribbean beaches of Puerto Morelos, fringed by a reef, and Cancun, without a reef, from September 2007 to May 2011. Being exposed to the same offshore wave conditions, the morphodynamics of the coral reef-fronted beach were compared with those of the adjacent beach without a coral reef. Spatio-temporal changes in beach morphology were determined applying empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) to the shorelines extracted from the topographic data, and it was concluded that Puerto Morelos was considerably less dynamic than Cancun. The longshore energy fluxes were larger in Cancun, and the subaerial morphological differences in both beaches and under the same offshore conditions demonstrated that Puerto Morelos was particularly stable under shore-normal easterly waves. A calibrated phase-averaged wave model was implemented to determine the amount of wave energy dissipation across the coral reef. For energetic shore-normal waves the model determined that the semi-emerged coral reef was capable of reducing up to 85% of the incident wave height. The reef-crest height controlled the amount of wave energy dissipation, and the distance between the reef-crest and the shore determined the vulnerability of the beach to morphological changes. Reef-crest degradation by 1 m resulted in a 10% increase in incoming wave energy, which resulted in 0.9 m3/h/m of sand being mobilised along the beaches closer to the reef.
Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in
The beach and nearshore profile changes in a placer mining beach of the Chavara, SW coast of India were monitored for a period of more than two years with the objective of studying the beach building processes in relation to the sediment fluxes in the area. This study was done concurrently with the studies on hydrodynamics, sedimentary dynamics and hydrodynamic modelling by Hameed et al. (2005), Prakash et al. (2005) and Black et al. (2005) under a major project on sediment budgeting for this coast. The beach- nearshore profiles (Fig. 1) have a distinct character with a very steep face at 1:30 above 5 m depth, and then a much lower-gradient profile at 1:500 out to 10 m depth. The gradient is actually much steeper than equivalent temperate beaches for similar grain sizes. The beach has maximum width during the fair weather months of November-February. The profiles reach the nadir during the southwest monsoon and the lowest width of the beach is observed in the months of May-June- July, when the wave intensity is at its maximum (Hameed et al., 2005). Cumulative volume change for the period June 1999 to September 2001 (Fig. 2) indicates a more or less steady condition on an annual basis with the quantum of annual change not exceeding 70 m3/m. This matches very well with the cross- shore sediment fluxes computed by Black et al. (2005) for this location. Considerable spatial variation is observed in the beach- nearshore profile changes. The stations of maximum volume changes lie on the northern part of the mining site. This is attributed to the intensive beach building processes that takes place in these stretches during fair weather periods under the influence of northerly longshore currents. At stations fronted by rock walls on either side of mining sites, the magnitude of the volume change is very nominal. The study amply demonstrates the unfavourable conditions for development of beach in rock wall fronted beaches.
Rajith, K.; Kurian, N.; Thomas, K.; Prakash, T.; Hameed, T.
A field experiment conducted on a sandy barred beach, situated on the southern part of the French Atlantic coastline, allowed us to investigate the impact of the intertidal bar on the wave-energy dissipation on the beach face in presence of a high-energy long-incoming swell (significant wave height of about 1.7 to 3.0 m in 56 m water depth and significant
A beach monitoring program was carried out in Cadiz Province (SW Spain), within the MICORE (FP7/2007-2013, grant n° 202798) and the RESISTE (CGL 2008-00458/BTE) projects. In detail, the present paper deals with morphological changes produced by a short-duration storm event and successive beach recovery in two different mesotidal, quartz-rich sandy beaches. By one hand, Cortadura beach, located in Cadiz town, is backed by a promenade and shows a smooth, dissipative beach profile composed by fine sands. On the other hand, Camposoto beach, located at Sancti Petri sandspit, is a natural beach backed by dune ridges and saltmarshes, and shows an intermediate-reflective beach profile composed by medium sands. Both beaches, which are about 5 km apart, are broadly exposed to the same offshore wave energy and have the same orientation. In order to obtain morphological and volumetric beach changes, topographic surveys were carried out by the means of a DGPS. Furthermore, morphodynamic numerical models have been used in order to estimate topographical changes. At the end of summer period (14th October 2008), beaches presented an accretionary state characterised by a small (at Cortadura) and a well developed (at Camposoto) berm. At the beginning of November, the investigated beaches recorded the impact of a short duration storm approaching from the SW, characterized by significant wave height values of about 2.5 m. Field surveys evidenced maximum topographical changes of about 0.50 and 1.0 m respectively at Cortadura and Camposoto beaches, berm erosion and accretion at low foreshore areas (i.e. beach pivoting) and beach flattening being the patterns observed at both beaches. Beach recovery took place in following days, the surveys carried out on 19th November 2008 revealing a faster and more comprehensive recovery of the natural area: a small, flat bar was observed on the low foreshore at Cortadura, and a well developed berm at Camposoto beach.
Plomaritis, T. A.; Anfuso, G.; Benavente, J.; Del Río, L.
The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén,  for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The barline extraction was accomplished through an automated alongshore tracking of the intensity maxima across each beach section (Van Enckevort and Ruessink, 2001). The mean Hs during the study period was 0.71 m and the averaged peak period was 5.7 s. The wave height time series shows a cyclic behaviour, with storm periods (October-April) separated by periods of low storm activity (May-October). The two most energetic periods affecting the beaches were from October 2001 to May 2002 and from October 2003 to April 2004 (wave data were obtained from a WANA node [virtual buoy] and direct measurements of the Barcelona-Coastal buoy). Approximately 25 storm events have been identified during the study period (following Ojeda and Guillén , significant storms were defined as those with Hs higher than 2.5 m during the peak of the storm and a minimum duration of 12 h with Hs greater than 1.5 m). The morphological responses of the beach to the storm action determine the morphodynamic state. These responses were grouped into five categories: shoreline advance or retreat, beach rotation, sandbar migration, formation of megacusps, and changes in the sandbar configuration (linear or crescentic shape). The intensity and frequency of these modifications were different in both beaches. Regarding the changes in the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the bar at Bogatell switched more frequently among the four intermediate morphodynamic states during the study period than the bar at La Barceloneta. The bar at La Barceloneta only underwent the complete "reset" of the nearshore morphology (i.e., abrupt change of the plan-view shape of the beach towards a Longshore Bar and Trough state) once, associated with the high-energy wave event occurring on November 2001. At this beach, the strongest storm events produced the offshore migration of the bar and a certain decrease in the bar sinuosity, but did not generate an alongshore parallel bar. Similar storms caused different effects on the two adjacent beaches and, furthermore, the effect of storms of similar characteristics at t
The oscillatory near-bed flow generated by surface gravity waves propagating over sandy mobile sediments leads to the formation of bedforms of varying geometry and roughness in continental shelf and nearshore environments. Acoustic imaging instruments have revealed the evolution of the bed during high-energy wave events through a sequence of different characteristic bedform patterns: the nearshore bedstate storm cycle. The evolution of the bed and the associated sediment transport are driven by the bottom stress. Critically, the thickness of the turbulent boundary layer under waves is only O(10 cm), and obtaining direct estimates of stress within this thin layer above mobile beds has represented a longstanding measurement hurdle in coastal and continental shelf oceanography and engineering. New high-resolution acoustic Doppler sensors are being developed to probe the turbulent wave bottom boundary layer as the bed evolves. The goal is to obtain redundant estimates of bottom stress from the vertical structure of the nearbed flow and turbulence throughout the bedstate cycle. Such knowledge will provide a much-needed basis for two-way coupled flow and sediment dynamics models of bedform development during storms, and ultimately for including the bedstate cycle in predictive models of beach evolution via the feedbacks between bed roughness and circulation. The presentation will summarize the key features of the bedstate storm cycle, and recent progress toward determining bottom stress above evolving beds using advanced acoustic Doppler sensors.
A former local source of PCBs has contaminated soil and the terrestrial food web at Saglek, Labrador. The relationship between PCB exposure and bone mineral density as an osteoporosis biomarker in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was investigated at two sites at Saglek: a contaminatedBeach and a reference area. Bone mineral density was measured on the femur of twenty-six deer
Kelly E. Johnson; Loren D. Knopper; David C. Schneider; Christopher A. Ollson; Ken J. Reimer
Beach profile surveys, gale climate and atmospheric variations were utilized to assess medium timescale morphological change at South Sands, Tenby, West Wales. Due to beach aspect in relation to offshore islands, gale wave height decreased as wave direction rotated eastwards (r = 0.83) and westwards (r = 0.88). Similarly, wave heights were in attuned to variations in positive (r = 0.68) and negative (r = - 0.72) NAO Index, showing a wave height reduction occurred during weakly negative/positive or transitory phases; morphological change was attuned to atmospheric variation at a 2-year timelag. Shelter from offshore islands is given to waves from the predominant southwesterly direction and was confirmed by negligible correlation with South Sands morphology. However, outside the shelter of these offshore islands, correlation was found between south-eastward rotating wave directions (135°-180°) and morphological change, which resulted in southern and central beach erosion and accretion to the north. With a southwesterly rotation (243°-256°) the opposite was true. Beach rotation expressed by volume change within the sub-aerial zone had a negative phased relationship between beach extremities (r = - 0.94) and a timelagged association within the intertidal zone (r = 0.55). Analyses resulted in the development of two medium timescale rotation models based on incident wave direction and climatic variability. Results have global implications for headland bays in the lee of offshore islands, as well as macro-tidal beach areas; and consequently similar models could inform local, regional and national beach management strategies
Thomas, T.; Phillips, M. R.; Williams, A. T.; Jenkins, R. E.
Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax.
The U.S. Army Engineer District, New York, is constructing Section I- Sea Bright to Ocean Township, New Jersey, of the Atlantic Coast of New Jersey - Sandy Hook to Barnegat Inlet Beach Erosion Control Project. Within the initial portion of this project, a...
Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative compared to the construction of hard structures to protect a sandy coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological and an engineering perspective. The rare studies conducted on the ecological impact of beach nourishment are short-term, post hoc monitoring investigations of the benthic macrofauna. Little is known of the biological processes during and after nourishment. To allow swift recolonization after nourishment, the characteristics of the nourished beach have to match the habitat demands of the benthic macrofauna. The sediment preference of the key intertidal species Scolelepis squamata, Eurydice pulchra, Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia sarsi, which dominate many West European sandy beaches, was investigated through laboratory experiments, both in single-species as well as combined-species treatments. While the former aimed at developing guidelines for impact mitigation of beach nourishment, the latter aimed at elucidating the role of biotic interactions in sediment preference. Results of the experiments indicated that B. pilosa and E. pulchra prefer the finest sediment, while B. sarsi had a broader preference and also occurred in medium-coarse sediments. However, the sediment preference of E. pulchra for fine sediments was not confirmed by other field and experimental studies. The polychaete S. squamata had the broadest preference and even showed a high occurrence in coarse sediments that are not naturally occurring on the sandy beaches where the animals were caught for this experiment. However, this polychaete is a cosmopolitan species, not only occurring on fine-grained beaches, but also on coarse-grained beaches worldwide. The preferences imply that beach nourishment with coarse sediment will have a major effect on B. pilosa while effects of coarse sediments on S. squamata will be minor. Finally, interspecific competition with the sympatrically occurring amphipod B. sarsi was found to change the sediment selection of the amphipod B. pilosa towards the coarser sediments where B. sarsi occurred in lower frequencies. PMID:23182894
Van Tomme, J; Vanden Eede, S; Speybroeck, J; Degraer, S; Vincx, M
The southern end of Laguna Madre (Texas) north of the Rio Grande mouth is marked by very shallow water, wide tidal flats, lunettes, islands made of beach ridges, and lesser features. The number and variety of islands in the lagoon is remarkable. The lunettes (clay dunes) are made primarily of quartz sand and coarse silt. They are common 5-10 m high, irregular in shape, and steep sided. They were deposited from wind transport and did not migrate. Those that are islands in the lagoon predate present position of sea level. Islands made of beach ridges were built from the lagoon side. Photoanalysis, field work, and granulometry all show that this sand was not moved into these ridges by Gulf of Mexico waves. Trenches in 12 beach ridges showed horizontal bedding but neither low-angle nor steep cross-bedding (quite unlike swash-built beach ridges). The ridges were built by wind-tide lag effects, not from the swash. Therefore, these beach ridges are a new type, in addition to swash-built, eolian, and storm-surge ridges. Growth of the ridges appears to be completed.
Coastal lagoon beaches are typically characterized by a seasonal berm that separates the lagoon mouth from the open ocean during summer months and is temporarily breached and eroded offshore as a result of higher wave energy during winter months. Seasonal morphodynamic changes on a coastal lagoon pocket beach in Santa Cruz, California were monitored from August 2010 to April 2011. Monthly total station GPS surveys were conducted on Younger Lagoon Reserve beach in conjunction with monthly grain size analyses. A time series comparison of beach profiles extracted from shore-normal transects reveals that the berm fronting the lagoon mouth did not erode with increasing wave energy during the winter months as expected, but either stayed fixed while the foreshore steepened or migrated horizontally across shore. Berm height is likely maintained by wave overtopping of the berm crest at the lagoon mouth during high tides or storm events. Foreshore steepening occurs in conjunction with an increase in coarse sediment fraction and is consistent with increasing wave energy and turbulent swash interaction. Cross-shore sediment transport in the foreshore fronting the lagoon mouth is likely enhanced by infiltration and exfiltration of water on the shoreface due to the position of the water table with respect to the maximum swash runup. Coastal lagoon beach berm behavior and the subsequent extent of lagoon-ocean mixing has important implications for coastal water quality and lagoon ecosystem dynamics.
These studies were undertaken to investigate relationships between surf-zone processes and the sedimentary and morphologic characteristics of a natural beach. Specifically, continuous measurements over a six-month period were made of beach sand levels, wa...
... false Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. 334.748 Section...334.748 Wynnhaven Beach, Fla., at Eglin AFB; restricted area. (a) The area...During times of high security threats against Eglin AFB, all entry, transit,...
Outer bars of inlets appear to contain large quantities of high quality material which can be used for beach nourishment purposes without significant adverse effects on adjacent beaches. Although the effective utilization of outer bar material will requir...
...OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is...Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011....
...Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach...security zone: all waters of the Pacific...the Port, Los Angeles-Long...
...Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach...security zone: all waters of the Pacific...the Port, Los Angeles-Long...
...Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach...security zone: all waters of the Pacific...the Port, Los Angeles-Long...
Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub, a vector of scrub typhus, had previously been found to occur in the coastal vegetation behind the edge of open sand along the beaches of Peninsular Malaysia. Surveys of the west coast beaches of Sabah and...
Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important\\u000a sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped\\u000a beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed\\u000a beaches, where cigarette butts,
Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul; Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Alexandre Matthiensen; Gilberto Fillmann
A beach monitoring program was carried out in Cadiz Province (SW Spain), within the MICORE (FP7\\/2007-2013, grant n° 202798) and the RESISTE (CGL 2008-00458\\/BTE) projects. In detail, the present paper deals with morphological changes produced by a short-duration storm event and successive beach recovery in two different mesotidal, quartz-rich sandy beaches. By one hand, Cortadura beach, located in Cadiz town,
T. A. Plomaritis; G. Anfuso; J. Benavente; L. Del Río
The goal of this study was to quantify the microbial load (enterococci) contributed by the different animals that frequent a beach site. The highest enterococci concentrations were observed in dog feces with average levels of 7.4 × 106 CFU/g; the next highest enterococci levels were observed in birds averaging 3.3 × 105 CFU/g. The lowest measured levels of enterococci were observed in material collected from shrimp fecal mounds (2.0 CFU/g). A comparison of the microbial loads showed that 1 dog fecal event was equivalent to 6,940 bird fecal events or 3.2 × 108 shrimp fecal mounds. Comparing animal contributions to previously published numbers for human bather shedding indicates that one adult human swimmer contributes approximately the same microbial load as one bird fecal event. Given the abundance of animals observed on the beach, this study suggests that dogs are the largest contributing animal source of enterococci to the beach site.
Wright, Mary E.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Elmir, Samir; Fleming, Lora E.
The occurrence of stranded plastic marine debris along the Portuguese coastline was investigated. Number of items m-2 and size range of resin pellets were recorded, corresponding to 53% of total marine debris collected items. In addition, concentrations of adsorbed persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTC) were determined, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Matosinhos (Mt) and Vieira de Leiria (VL) presented the highest number of items m-2 (362 and 332, respectively). Resin pellets with 4 mm diameter were the most abundant (50%). Contaminants concentration was variable. PAH concentrations recorded values between 53 and 44800 ng g-1, PCB ranged from 2 to 223 ng g-1 and DDT between 0.42 and 41 ng g-1. In general, aged and black pellets recorded higher concentrations for all contaminants. Matosinhos (Mt), Vieira de Leiria (VL) and Sines (Si), near industrial areas and port facilities, were the most contaminatedbeaches. Research efforts are needed to assess the points of entry of industrial plastic pellets in order to take action and minimize impacts on the ecosystems, in particular, points of transfer during transportation from plastic manufacturers to plastic converters should be identified and controlled so that virgin pellets are contained and will not enter rivers and be carried to the oceans where they can remain for a long time and travel great distances.
Antunes, J. C.; Frias, J. G. L.; Micaelo, A. C.; Sobral, P.
Beach waste and litter composition and evolution on popular urban (located in the main nucleus of the municipality) and urbanized (located in residential areas outside the main nucleus) beaches of the Costa Brava (Catalan coast) were assessed during the bathing season. Waste and litter production (amount and composition) were affected by urbanization and varied during the summer. Urban beaches had
Both natural and anthropic causes are very important to beach erosion. Beach erosion rate is highly variable in time and space. Hurricanes may give and immediate response to Beach erosion, while the polar ice melting and terrain subsidence due to tectonic causes may take longer time for wide reduction of littoral fringes. Industrial development activities may generate consequences highly vulnerable
In this paper Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is used as the basis for predicting beach profile changes over a timescale of years. In particular, datasets of wave measurements and beach profiles at two locations with different sediment types and wave exposure are used. The study sites are located in Christchurch Bay (South Coast of England) in which the beaches are
The food web structure of two sandy beach ecosystems with contrasting morphodynamics (dissipative vs. reflective) was examined using stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotope analysis. Organic matter sources (POM: particulate organic matter; SOM: sediment organic matter) and consumers (zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fishes) were sampled seasonally in both sandy beaches. Food webs significantly differed between beaches: even though both
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California... Anchorage Grounds Â§ 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California...directed by the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations...
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California... Anchorage Grounds Â§ 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California...directed by the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations...
...12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic...descriptor of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic...
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are nearly ubiquitous in California (CA) beach sands. Sands were collected from 55 beaches along the CA coast. Ninety-one percent of the beaches had detectable enterococci (ENT) while 62% had detectable E. coli (EC) in their sands. The presence of a putative bacterial source (such as a river), the degree of wave shelter, and surrounding land
...Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to...Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon committee on behalf of the North Carolina...Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon scheduled for Sunday, March 18,...
...Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to...Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon committee on behalf of the North Carolina...Quintiles Wrightsville Beach Full and Half Marathon scheduled for Sunday, March 17,...
The Easington Raised Beach, in Shippersea Bay, County Durham, is the most northerly known interglacial beach deposit in England. It lies directly on Magnesian Limestone bedrock at 33m O.D. and is covered by glacial sediments attributed to the Devensian. Detailed sedimentological analysis suggests that it is an interglacial beach, which is supported by the presence of pebbles bored by marine
Bethan J. Davies; David R. Bridgland; David H. Roberts; Colm Ó. Cofaigh; Stephen M. Pawley; Ian Candy; Beatrice Demarchi; Kirsty E. H. Penkman; William E. N. Austin
MAKOWSKI, C. and RUSENKO, K., 2007. Recycled glass cullet as an alternative beach fill material: results of biological and chemical analyses. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(3), 545-552. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749- 0208. Florida's critically eroded beaches pose a myriad of social and environmental concerns, prompting an effort to explore alternatives to more traditional sand sources. One alternative involves
Long Key, on the central western coast of Florida, has been nourished repeatedly since 1975. Following nourishment, the beach has rapidly eroded. This study documents rates, processes, and mechanisms for the rapid erosion. To better understand the beach performance, it is crucial to quantify the background erosion rate when artificial beach fill is at its minimum. This year long study
...Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY...navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA. This...Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA....
We develop estimates of the economic effects of climate change-induced sea level rise on recreation at seventeen southern North Carolina beaches. We estimate the relationship between recreation behavior and beach width and simulate the effects of sea level rise on recreation site choice and trip frequency. We find that reductions in beach width due to increased erosion from sea-level rise
John C. Whitehead; Ben Poulter; Christopher F. Dumas; Okmyung Bin
Small-plastic beach debris from nine coastal locations throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago was analyzed. At each beach, replicate 20 l samples of sediment were collected, sieved for debris between 1 and 15 mm in size, sorted by type, counted and weighed. Small-plastic debris occurred on all of the beaches, but the greatest quantity was found at three of the most remote
Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new
On Feb. 9, 1965, the City of Long Beach opened bids for the right to participate in the development of approximately 86% of the nation's largest undeveloped oil reserve. On April 1, 1965, the Long Beach Unit became effective. Interested parties include the City of Long Beach, the State of California, 15 oil operators, and over 10,000 townlot owners. Two
Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...
Estimates of vehicle mobility or trafficability over beaches are useful for the planning of amphibious operations. If the bearing capacity of a beach is too small, then beach matting, which is heavy and bulky, needs to be transported. If the bearing capacity is large enough then the matting can be left behind, saving space and time. Bearing capacity also effects
This virtual field trip takes you to Edisto Beach, a beautiful sand beach about 30 miles south of Charleston, South Carolina. This particular beach is a well known site for Pleistocene fossils. The field trip presnts information on beachcombing and demonstrates screening for fossils and shells through a series of pages that delve into the origin of the items found there.
Regional sand resource investigations along the west coast of Florida (from Pinellas County to Collier County) identify types of primary depositional settings that are commonly explored for beach nourishment projects and indicate future availability of sand for beach restoration. Because the nature of sedimentary deposits determines sand quality and its potential use for beach nourishment, it is necessary to understand
Charles W. Finkl; Jeffrey L. Andrews; Lindino Benedet
The potential capability to decompose macromolecular compounds was confirmed in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from two sandy beaches located on the southern Baltic coast. Proteolytic bacteria were the most numerous group, whereas lipolytic organisms were rare among bacteria inhabiting the studied beaches. All studied physiological groups of bacteria were considerably more numerous in the sand of the beach subject to stronger
Zbigniew Mudryk; Piotr Skórczewski; Piotr Perli?ski; Milena Wielgat
A field study was carried out along the Golfe du Lion, that focussed on the beaches of the Camargue, to locate the main areas where enriched U and Th are found, and to better understand the processes that concentrate radioactivity on beaches. Indeed enriched areas are observed on some Camargue beaches, where high-dose rates are recorded due to excess U
C. Vassas; L. Pourcelot; C. Vella; J. Carpéna; J.-P. Pupin; P. Bouisset; L. Guillot
The reliable assessment of hazards or risks arising from groundwater contamination problems and the design of efficient and effective techniques to mitigate them require the ability to predict the behavior of contaminants in flowing groundwater. Increased...
We investigated the role of sandy beaches in nearshore nutrient cycling by quantifying macrophyte wrack inputs and examining\\u000a relationships between wrack accumulation and pore water nutrients during the summer dry season. Macrophyte inputs, primarily\\u000a giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, exceeded 2.3 kg m?1 day?1. Mean wrack biomass varied 100-fold among beaches (range?=?0.41 to 46.43 kg m?1). Mean concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily NOx?-N, and
Jenifer E. Dugan; David M. Hubbard; Henry M. Page; Joshua P. Schimel
This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.
The present study is devoted to discrepancies between experimental and theoretical runup heights on an inclined plane, which have occasionally been reported in the literature. In a new study on solitary wave-runup on moderately steep slopes, in a wave tank with 20 cm water depth, detailed observations are made for the shoreline motion and velocity profiles during runup. The waves are not breaking during runup, but they do break during the subsequent draw-down. Both capillary effects and viscous boundary layers are detected. In the investigated cases the onshore flow is close to the transitional regime between laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The flow behaviour depends on the amplitude of the incident wave and the location on the beach. Stable laminar flow, fluctuations (Tollmien-Schlichting waves), and formation of vortices are all observed. Comparison with numerical simulations showed that the experimental runup heights were markedly smaller than predictions from inviscid theory. The observed and computed runup heights are discussed in the context of preexisting theory and experiments. Similar deviations are apparent there, but have often been overlooked or given improper physical explanations. Guided by the absence of turbulence and irregular flow features in parts of the experiments we apply laminar boundary layer theory to the inundation flow. Outer flows from potential flow models are inserted in a nonlinear, numerical boundary layer model. Even though the boundary layer model is invalid near the moving the shoreline, the computed velocity profiles are found to compare well with experiments elsewhere, until instabilities are observed in the measurements. Analytical, linear boundary layer solutions are also derived both for an idealized swash zone motion and a polynomial representation of the time dependence of the outer flow. Due to lacking experimental or theoretical descriptions of the contact point dynamics no two-way coupling of the boundary layer model and the inviscid runup models is attempted. Instead, the effect of the boundary layer on the maximum runup is estimated through integrated losses of onshore volume transport and found to be consistent with the differences between inviscid theory and experiments.
Pedersen, G. K.; Lindstrøm, E.; Bertelsen, A. F.; Jensen, A.; Laskovski, D.; Sælevik, G.
To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2=0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. PMID:19875791
Nevers, Meredith B; Shively, Dawn A; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; McDermott, Colleen M; Schuster, William; Chomeau, Vinni; Whitman, Richard L
Beachrock has only rarely been observed previously along high latitude coasts. On several beaches on North Uist, NW Scotland at over 57°N there is evidence of small-scale beach cementation. An area of beach cement at the back of Traigh Ear, as well as unconsolidated sands from the beach and the adjacent Traigh Hornais, have been studied using SEM, XRD and
The Seal Cove Strand of the San Gregorio Fault at Moss Beach, Ca. is an active, large-offset, dominantly strike-slip fault which is exceptionally well exposed. It cuts the Miocene Purisima Formation at the surface, juxtaposing moderately lithified sandstone and conglomerate interbeds in the hanging wall with mudstones in the footwall. Previous and ongoing work shows that styles of deformation and
This study documents two different modes of berm development: (1) vertical growth at spring tides or following significant beach cut due to substantial swash overtopping, and (2) horizontal progradation at neap tides through the formation of a proto-berm located lower and further seaward of the principal berm. Concurrent high-frequency measurements of bed elevation and the associated wave runup distribution reveal
Felicia M. Weir; Michael G. Hughes; Tom E. Baldock
A short history of some of the monitored beach fills along the southeast Atlantic and Gulf Coasts is given and some of the methods which have been used in nourishment projects are discussed in an effort to help resolve this often unanswered question -- wi...
The mean cross-shore flow (undertow) over a barred beach is examined by calibrating an existing wave and circulation model which will provide predictions that will be compared to in-situ measurements. The wave model applied to the experiment is a linear shoaling model with wave breaking dissipation according to Dally, Dean, and Dalrymple (2002); following the calibration of the wave model
Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic
Francisco R. Barboza; Julio Gómez; Diego Lercari; Omar Defeo
Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved
Small water storage dams are nowadays regarded as the ideal solution for the water-thirsty islands of the Greek Archipelago. Several of these dams have been already constructed and more are planned for the near future. However, dams can also create problems to coastal areas, particularly to the beaches found at the lower reaches of the dammed rivers. The present contribution
A. F. Velegrakis; M. I. Vousdoukas; O. Andreadis; G. Adamakis; E. Pasakalidou; R. Meligonitis; G. Kokolatos
Public concerns about water quality at beaches have prompted the development of multiple linear regression and other models that can be used to "nowcast" levels of bacterial indicators. Hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from summer, 2009 were used to develop empirical m...
The Center for International Education was designed to stimulate, plan, organize, develop, and administer a series of programs and services to deepen the international dimensions of the instructional, research, and public service functions of the California State University at Long Beach. It works with varied university constituencies, the…
In South Carolina, the beaches can be a natural laboratory for scientific inquiry. By middle school most students have visited one of the state's beaches through field trips or family vacations. These fun experiences can be a platform for scientific inquiry and investigation. Many students can describe a beach where the sand was perfect for building sand castles, too sharp to walk on, or just right on a hot summer day. With a dissecting microscope and some weak acid, these observations can be turned into an engaging activity for students to explore the chemical and/or mineralogical make-up of the sand. This presentation will describe an experiment where students use a microscope to draw sand samples and identify some common grains. The students form hypotheses about the amount of carbonate in the samples and test these hypotheses using the weak acid. By the end of the lab students should be able to identify several indications that a chemical reaction has occurred and be able to form and test a hypothesis. They should also understand that sand from different beaches may have different mineralogical compositions. This activity incorporates the following National Science Content Standards: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry; properties and changes of properties in matter; chemical reactions; and populations, resources, and environments. The activity was developed with the support of the National Science Foundation's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education Program, Award # 0440568.
The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.
For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all).
Magnetic spherules have been discovered in the natural concentrates of ilmenite and other heavy minerals that occur in beach sands of both Pleistocene and recent age. The spherules range in size from 80 to 650 . Those in any given deposit match the grain size of the matrix sand. The spherules consist mainly of magnetite (FeFe 2 O 4 ),
The determination of the risk from flooding that shorefront communities face is an important component of coastal management that has not been resolved successfully. Wave runup offers one way of quantifying the risk of coastal flooding that results from overtopping by storm waves. The calculation of runup probabilities uses wave frequency analysis and an average beach\\/dune profile for a given
|Describes California State University Long Beach's implementation of new maintenance management software, which integrated maintenance, inventory control, and key control and allows technicians to enter and receive information through handheld wireless devices for more accurate time accounting. The school estimates a 10 percent increase in…
Regressive beach ridge plains, such as Cheniere Caminada, Cheniere Caillou, and Cheniere Ronquille, are common depositional features within the Mississippi River delta plain in southeastern Louisiana. Vibracored sequences indicate beach ridge formation is a 3 stage process: Stage 1: Distributary Progradation, followed by Stage 2: Longshore Transport Interception, and completed by Stage 3: Beach Ridge Progradation. Cheniere Caminada is the largest beach ridge plain and is associated with the Late Lafourche delta. Radiocarbon dates indicate beach ridge building began approximately 720 years BP, when the Bayou Lafourche distributaries built seaward of the older, retreating Bayou Blue shoreline and intercepted westward longshore sediment transport, resulting in the progradation of Cheniere Caminada. Near the fan apex, beach ridges are 7-8 m thick and thin westward 2-3 m thick against the levees of Bayou Moreau. A typical beach ridge vertical sequence coarsens upward, with shoreface silty sands overlain by a thin cap of beach, washover, and aeolian sands. Beach ridge progradation in this area ceased approximately 300 years BP with the abandonment of Bayou Lafourche. The documentation of multiple regressive beach ridge plains suggest these deposits are stratigraphically more significant in the Mississippi River delta plain than recognized previously. The regressive beach ridge sequence documented in this study both stratigraphically and genetically contrasts with the classic transgressive chenier ridges of southwestern Louisiana.
Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of beaches. Although recent work shows that beach sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is not known how deep within beach sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 1 m depth were collected at three sites across the beach face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina before, during and after large waves from an offshore hurricane. The presence of DNA from the fecal indicator bacterium Enterococci was detected in subsamples at different depths within the cores by PCR amplification. Erosion and accretion of beach sand at the three sites also was determined for each sampling day. The results indicate that ocean beach sands with persisting enterococci signals could be exposed and redistributed when wind, waves, and currents cause beach erosion or accretion.
Gast, Rebecca J.; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve
Most bacterial source tracking (BST) methods are too expensive for most communities to afford. We developed targeted sampling as a prelude to BST to reduce these costs. We combined targeted sampling with three inexpensive BST methods, Enterococcus speciation, de- tection of the esp gene, and fluorometry, to confirm the sources of fecal contamination to beaches on Georgia's Jekyll and Sea
Jennifer L. McDonald; Peter G. Hartel; Lisa C. Gentit; Carolyn N. Belcher; Keith W. Gates; Karen Rodgers; Jared A. Fisher; Katy A. Smith; Karen A. Payne
Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (? ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of ? . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.
For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore volumetric changes within the domain are significantly larger than the alongshore losses. As a consequence of the adaptation process the high waterline has retreated approximately 50 m over the last 2 years. The observed changes are correlated with nearby wave data to investigate the impact of storm events. It is observed that in autumn when wave forcing is strong, the profile adaptation is accelerated. The impact of storm events is visible most clearly in the active marine zone (+1 to -4m). Higher up the profile the volume changes are much more gradual. The findings of this study show the impact of the cross shore location of a nourishment in the profile. If the man-made profile consists of steep unnatural slopes in the active marine zone, a fast cross shore adaptation can be expected.
de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.
Plastic pellets have the ability to adsorb organic pollutants such as PAHs. This study analyzed the variability in the concentration and composition of PAHs on plastic pellets sampled up to 1m deep in the sediment of a sandy beach. The toxic potential of PAHs was analyzed, and the possible sources of contamination are discussed. The total PAHs varied, with the highest concentrations in the surface layer; the priority PAHs showed a different pattern. PAHs at greater depths did not reach toxicity levels above the PEL. The composition of PAHs differed between pellets from the shallower and from deeper sediment layers, and was suggested a mixture of sources. These results provided the first information on the depth distribution of PAHs in sandy beaches, associated with plastic pellets; and evidenced the potential environmental risk. Similarly to the abundance of pellets, the toxic potential is underestimated in surface samples. PMID:23582976
Southern California is an increasingly urbanized hotspot for surfing, thus it is of great interest to assess the human illness risks associated with this popular ocean recreational water sport from exposure to fecal bacteria contaminated coastal waters. Quantitative microbial risk assessments were applied to eight popular Southern California beaches using readily available enterococcus and fecal coliform data and dose-response models to compare health risks associated with surfing during dry weather and storm conditions. The results showed that the level of gastrointestinal illness risks from surfing post-storm events was elevated, with the probability of exceeding the US EPA health risk guideline up to 28% of the time. The surfing risk was also elevated in comparison with swimming at the same beach due to ingestion of greater volume of water. The study suggests that refinement of dose-response model, improving monitoring practice and better surfer behavior surveillance will improve the risk estimation. PMID:22472787
Beach safety is determined largely by the choices people make about where they will swim: it is safest to swim in areas that are patrolled by lifeguards or lifesavers, and swimming outside these areas is risky. Our previous research demonstrated that while most NSW beachgoers are aware of this, a significant proportion report swimming outside patrolled areas. This study examined
A Williamson; J Hatfield; S Sherker; R Brander; A Hayen
While the contribution of Bacteria to bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines is well established, the response of Archaea to spilled oil and bioremediation treatments is unknown. The relationship between archaeal community structure and oil spill bioremediation was examined in laboratory microcosms and in a bioremediation field trial. 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and denaturing gradient gel analysis revealed that the archaeal community in oil-free laboratory microcosms was stable for 26 days. In contrast, in oil-polluted microcosms a dramatic decrease in the ability to detect Archaea was observed, and it was not possible to amplify fragments of archaeal 16S rRNA genes from samples taken from microcosms treated with oil. This was the case irrespective of whether a bioremediation treatment (addition of inorganic nutrients) was applied. Since rapid oil biodegradation occurred in nutrient-treated microcosms, we concluded that Archaea are unlikely to play a role in oil degradation in beach ecosystems. A clear-cut relationship between the presence of oil and the absence of Archaea was not apparent in the field experiment. This may have been related to continuous inoculation of beach sediments in the field with Archaea from seawater or invertebrates and shows that the reestablishment of Archaea following bioremediation cannot be used as a determinant of ecosystem recovery following bioremediation. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the majority of the Archaea detected (94%) belonged to a novel, distinct cluster of group II uncultured Euryarchaeota, which exhibited less than 87% identity to previously described sequences. A minor contribution of group I uncultured Crenarchaeota was observed. PMID:15128510
Röling, Wilfred F M; de Brito Couto, Ivana R; Swannell, Richard P J; Head, Ian M
While the contribution of Bacteria to bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines is well established, the response of Archaea to spilled oil and bioremediation treatments is unknown. The relationship between archaeal community structure and oil spill bioremediation was examined in laboratory microcosms and in a bioremediation field trial. 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and denaturing gradient gel analysis revealed that the archaeal community in oil-free laboratory microcosms was stable for 26 days. In contrast, in oil-polluted microcosms a dramatic decrease in the ability to detect Archaea was observed, and it was not possible to amplify fragments of archaeal 16S rRNA genes from samples taken from microcosms treated with oil. This was the case irrespective of whether a bioremediation treatment (addition of inorganic nutrients) was applied. Since rapid oil biodegradation occurred in nutrient-treated microcosms, we concluded that Archaea are unlikely to play a role in oil degradation in beach ecosystems. A clear-cut relationship between the presence of oil and the absence of Archaea was not apparent in the field experiment. This may have been related to continuous inoculation of beach sediments in the field with Archaea from seawater or invertebrates and shows that the reestablishment of Archaea following bioremediation cannot be used as a determinant of ecosystem recovery following bioremediation. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the majority of the Archaea detected (94%) belonged to a novel, distinct cluster of group II uncultured Euryarchaeota, which exhibited less than 87% identity to previously described sequences. A minor contribution of group I uncultured Crenarchaeota was observed.
Roling, Wilfred F. M.; Couto de Brito, Ivana R.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Head, Ian M.
Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.
In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal.
|This publication is designed for use as part of a curriculum series developed by the Regional Marine Science Project. It serves as a second grade supplementary reading text about the marine environment. Reading material characterizes the ocean, fresh water and salt water, and the seashore. An ecological approach to nature is emphasized, by…
This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of contamination, the concentration and dispersion of contaminants, plumes and remediation.
Babcock, Matthew; Mayer, Alex; Curriculum, Michigan E.
This investigation consists of two parts, in which students first model the effects of groundwater contamination and then track the flow of the contamination. However, Part I does not have to be done in order to do Part II. This Teacher Information sectio
Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William
With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed
Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary production, in deciphering latitudinal trends.
The natural erosion of sandy beaches is a world wide problem that is often exacerbated by the structural controls that are designed to mitigate shoreline recession. As seen elsewhere, the deployment of groins and other erosion-control structures has met meager success along the Atlantic coast of south Florida. Artificial renourishment, placement of sand on the beach from land or offshore
The coast of California is comprised of both sandy shorelines and cliffed coastline, and in many areas these features spatially coincide. In order to better understand the regional trends of change along the California coast, the U.S. Geological Survey is quantifying both sandy shoreline change and coastal cliff retreat for the state. The resulting database was used to examine the dynamics of the beach/cliff system. We found inconsistent evidence of a relationship between rates of cliff retreat and shoreline change on the spatial scale of 100-km cells. However, when the data are correlated within individual regions, a strong relationship exists between the geomorphology of the coast and the behavior of the beach/cliff system. Areas of high-relief coast show negative correlations, indicating that higher rates of cliff retreat correlate with lower rates of shoreline erosion. In contrast, low- to moderate-relief coasts show strong positive correlations.
Introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitat represents a rapidly expanding form of human encroachment, particularly in coastal systems. Light pollution alters the behavior of sea turtles during nesting; therefore, long-wavelength lights—low-pressure sodium vapor and bug lights—that minimize impacts on turtles are required for beach lighting in Florida (U.S.A.). We investigated the effects of these two kinds of lights on
BRITTANY L. BIRD; LYN C. BRANCH; DEBORAH L. MILLER
The wave-induced velocity field in the nearshore is composed of contributions for incident wind waves (f>0.05 Hz), surface infragravity waves (f<0.05 Hz, ||kappa||<(sigma2\\/gbeta) and shear waves (fsigma2\\/gbeta), where f is the frequency, sigma=2pif, kappa is the radial alongshore wavenumber (2pi\\/L, L being the alongshore wavelengths), beta is the beach slope, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Using an
City beaches are produced by spreading sand, deckchairs and umbrellas onto industrial brownfields, parking lots, rights-of-way or other under-utilized open spaces. Where major reinvestment projects are lacking, these informal developments offer great amenity. This approach to placemaking is post-Fordist. It is highly flexible, even mobile. It involves complex, temporary networks of people and resources. It focuses on ‘soft’ content—services, programmes,
A new type of permeable groin (called System of Groins Maltec-Savard - SGMS) has been installed at three eroded sites located in the coastal area on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. In this area, the narrow sandy beaches with sandy or sand-silty cliff of variable height (10-15~m) are exposed to obliquely incident waves arriving from both
The determination of the risk from flooding that shorefront communities face is an important component of coastal management\\u000a that has not been resolved successfully. Wave runup offers one way of quantifying the risk of coastal flooding that results\\u000a from overtopping by storm waves. The calculation of runup probabilities uses wave frequency analysis and an average beach\\/dune\\u000a profile for a given
The recent incidents of floating debris, garbage, wood, and medical waste on our nation's beaches have focused public attention on waste management problems. The handling and disposal of solid waste remains a major unresolved national dilemma. Increased use of disposables by all consumers, including the medical profession, and the increasing costs of solid waste disposal options have aggravated the solid waste situation. Medical waste found on beaches in the summer of 1988 could have been generated by a number of sources, including illegal dumping; sewer overflow; storm water runoff; illegal drug users; and inadequate handling of solid waste at landfills and coastal transfer facilities, which receive waste from doctors' offices, laboratories, and even legitimate home users of syringes. As officials from New Jersey have determined, the beach garbage is no mystery. It's coming from you and me. In response to the perceived medical waste disposal problem, various state and federal agencies have adopted rules to regulate and control the disposal of medical waste. This article outlines the more significant rules that apply to medical waste. PMID:2756492
Many of the world’s coastlines are comprised of sand-sized sediments and undergo large temporal variation (erosion and accretion) due to changes in wave forcing and varying water levels. In May 2009, an East Coast Low off the coast of Southeast Queensland/Northern New South Wales, Australia brought large waves (5 m +) and high water levels to the coast over a 1-week period. The storm caused severe erosion along Gold Coast beaches. Primary dunes were eroded back to the boulder wall in some areas and an offshore storm bar was formed at roughly 5 m depth. Pre- and post-storm surveys are used to assess storm response along the 35-km stretch of coastline and compared against modeling results using XBeach, a state of the art eXtreme Beach dune erosion model. Preliminary results indicate that after model calibration, XBeach is capable of modeling the erosion of the upper beach (dunes) within an acceptable level of precision; however, storm bar response is not well modeled.
In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. The highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates))
Diatoms and silicoflagellates recovered from Monterey Formation outcrops along Naples Beach, California, provide detailed biostratigraphy in the middle Miocene to upper Pliocene strata. Thirty-eight diatom and six silicoflagellate index species are identified among the 178 selected taxa documented in this section. Seven diatom zones and subzones of J. Barron's northeastern Pacific diatom zonation are recognized in this section. These zones range from the Denticulopsis lauta subzone a (+15.0 m.y.) to the base of the Thalasiosira oestrupii zone (approx. 5.0 m.y.). In addition, several diatom occurrences provide direction correlation between the Naples Beach section and DSDP Sites 173 and 469 off the northern and southern California coasts, respectively. A new silicoflagellate zonation is proposed for the Naples Beach section of the Monterey Formation, which consists of two range zones, the Corbisema triacantha and the Distephanus speculum minutus, and four subzones. These four subzones are characterized by Distephanus crux parvus, Mesocena diodon, Distephanus pseudofibula, and Distephanus frugalis, respectively. This zonation provides greater precision than previous biostratigraphic divisions of the DSDP sites. A new silicoflagellate species of the genus Dictyocha Ehrenberg is also described.
This study attempts to establish a system for hindcasting/forecasting the quantity of litter reaching a beach using an ocean circulation model, a two-way particle tracking model (PTM) to find litter sources, and an inverse method to compute litter outflows at each source. Twelve actual beach survey results, and satellite and forecasted wind data were also used. The quantity of beach litter was hindcasted/forecasted using a forward in-time PTM with the surface currents computed in the ocean circulation model driven by satellite-derived/forecasted wind data. Outflows obtained using the inverse method was given for each source in the model. The time series of the hindcasted/forecasted quantity of beach litter were found consistent with the quantity of beach litter determined from sequential webcam images of the actual beach. The accuracy of the model, however, is reduced drastically by intense winds such as typhoons which disturb drifting litter motion. PMID:21093000
Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239
The hydrogeologic framework of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia Beach was revised to provide a better understanding of the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential use, and its susceptibility to contamination. The revised conceptual framework is based primarily on analyses of continuous cores and downhole geophysical logs collected at 7 sites to depths of approximately 200 ft.The shallow aquifer system at Virginia Beach is composed of the Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown-East-over aquifer. The shallow aquifer system is separated from deeper units by the continuous St. Marys confining unit.The Columbia aquifer is defined as the predominantly sandy surficial deposits above the Yorktown confining unit. The Yorktown confining unit is composed of a series of very fine sandy to silty clay units of various colors at or near the top of the Yorktown Formation. The Yorktown confining unit varies in thickness and in composition, but on a regional scale is a leaky confining unit. The Yorktown-Eastover aquifer is defined as the predominantly sandy deposits of the Yorktown Formation and the upper part of the Eastover Formation above the confining clays of the St. Marys Formation. The limited areal extent of highly permeable deposits containing freshwater in the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer precludes the installation of highly productive freshwater wells over most of the city. Some deposits of biofragmental sand or shell hashes in the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer can support high-capacity wells.A water sample was collected from each of 10 wells installed at 5 of the 7 core sites to determine the basic chemistry of the aquifer system. One shallow well and one deep well was installed at each site. Concentrations of chloride were higher in the water from the deeper well at each site. Concentrations of dissolved iron in all of the water samples were higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Concentrations of manganese and chloride were higher than the Secondary Drinking Water Regulations in samples from some wells.In the humid climate of Virginia Beach, the periodic recharge of freshwater through the sand units of the shallow aquifer system occurs often enough to create a dynamic equilibrium whereby freshwater flows continually down and away from the center of the ridges to mix with and sweep brackish water and saltwater back toward the tidal rivers, bays, salt marshes, and the Atlantic Ocean.The aquifers and confining units of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia Beach are heterogeneous, discontinuous, and without exact marker beds, which makes correlations in the study area difficult. Investigations using well cuttings, spot cores, or split-spoon samples with geophysical logs are not as definitive as continuous cores for determining or correlating hydrogeologic units. Future investigations of the shallow aquifer system would benefit by collecting continuous cores.
The Florida coastline from Melbourne Beach to Wabasso Beach is one the most important nesting areas for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Western Hemisphere and for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the United States. In this study, we quantified the spatial patterns of numerous loggerhead (N?400,000) and green turtle (N?14,000) and less numerous (N?100) leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) beach ascents
John F. Weishampel; Dean A. Bagley; Llewellyn M. Ehrhart; Brian L. Rodenbeck
Petroleum residues (pelagic tar) have been reported from beaches all over the world since the 1960s, and have been quantitatively measured at a few locations. At the south-facing open ocean beaches of Bermuda, rapid exchange of tar with the sea makes it possible to use the quantity of beach tar as a measure of open-ocean petroleum pollution. Brief surveys conducted
James N Butler; Peter G Wells; Sharon Johnson; John J Manock
The present contribution considers the dynamics of beaches occupied by outcropping\\/buried beachrocks, i.e. hard coastal formations consisting of beach material lithified by in situ precipitated carbonate cements. The dynamics of a Greek microtidal beach with beachrocks (Vatera, Lesbos) are examined through the collection and analysis of morphological and sedimentary field data, a 2-D nearshore hydrodynamic model and a specially constructed
M. I. Vousdoukas; A. F. Velegrakis; T. V. Karambas
The wave-induced velocity field in the nearshore is composed of contributions from incident wind waves (ƒ > 0.05 Hz), surface infragravity waves (ƒ < 0.05 Hz, |?| < (?2/g?) and shear waves (ƒ < 0.05 Hz, |?| > ?2/g?), where ƒ is the frequency, ? = 2?ƒ, ? is the radial alongshore wavenumber (2?/L, L being the alongshore wavelength), ? is the beach slope, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Using an alongshore array of current meters located in the trough of a nearshore bar (mean depth ? 1.5 m), we investigate the bulk statistical behaviors of these wave bands over a wide range of incident wave conditions. The behavior of each contributing wave type is parameterized in terms of commonly measured or easily predicted variables describing the beach profile, wind waves, and current field. Over the 10-day period, the mean contributions (to the total variance) of the incident, infragravity, and shear wave bands were 71.5%, 14.3% and 13.6% for the alongshore component of flow (mean rms oscillations of 44, 20, and 19 cm s-1, respectively), and 81.9%, 10.9%, and 6.6% for the cross-shore component (mean rms oscillations of 92, 32, and 25 cm s-1, respectively). However, the values varied considerably. The contribution to the alongshore (cross-shore) component of flow ranged from 44.8-88.4% (58.5-95.8%) for the incident band, to 6.2-26.6% (2.5-32.4%) for the infragravity band, and 3.4-33.1% (0.6-14.3%) for the shear wave band. Incident wave oscillations were limited by depth-dependent saturation over the adjacent bar crest and varied only with the tide. The infragravity wave rms oscillations on this barred beach are best parameterized by the offshore wave height, consistent with previous studies on planar beaches. Comparison with data from four other beaches of widely differing geometries shows the shoreline infragravity amplitude to be a near-constant ratio of the offshore wave height. The magnitude of the ratio is found to be dependent on the Iribarren number, ?0 = ?(H/L0)-½. Shear waves are, as previous observation and theory suggest (Oltman-Shay et al., 1989; Bowen and Holman, 1989), significantly correlated with a prediction of the seaward facing shear of the longshore current.
Howd, Peter A.; Oltman-Shay, Joan; Holman, Robert A.
We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Eleanor Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains trace amounts of oil such that they don’t affect beach hydraulics. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-2 m/s, and a lower layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-5 m/s. The presence of the layer of low hydraulic conductivity constrained the fall of the water table resulting in a water table fluctuation that is almost independent of distance from the shoreline. This is unlike previous studies, which occurred in sandy beaches, and where the fluctuation decreased going landward. The water table remained above the layers’ interface, which suggests that the oil did not penetrate the lower layer. This could explain the presence of only tracer amount of oil in the beach. A sudden seaward increase of the slope of the two layers’ interface resulted in water leaving the lower layer near the mid-intertidal zone, and draining to the sea through the upper layer. This created the effect of a hydraulic rupture separating the hydraulics in the seaward portion of the beach from the rest of beach, especially at low tide.
Surveys of the oiled sandy beaches along the northern Atlantic coast of Spain, 2-5 years after the Prestige oil spill of November 2002, have provided new evidence regarding buried fuel and its behavior. The persistence and depth of burial of oil, and the capacity of the beach for natural regeneration, depend on beach morphodynamics, which drive a sequence of physicochemical processes that reduce subsurface tar balls to highly divided oil forms while also allowing appreciable weathering despite burial. These findings prompted reassessment of current spill evaluation strategies. A protocol is proposed that combines the modeling of beach morphodynamics, an environmentally friendly coring survey, and well-calibrated hydrocarbon analysis. PMID:19452903
Bernabeu, Ana M; Rey, Daniel; Rubio, Belén; Vilas, Federico; Domínguez, Carmen; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan
Giao Thuy and Hai Hau coasts are located in Nam Dinh province, Vietnam, with a total coastline of 54.42 km in length. The sea-dike system has been seriously damaged and there have been many dike breaches which caused floods and losses. This situation is considered of a general representative for coastal area in the northern part of Vietnam. A variety of studies have shown that the gradient in the longshore sediment transport rate and the offshore fine sediment lost are the main mechanisms causing the beach erosion. This study presents a field investigation of the beach profiles at Giao Thuy and Hai Hau beaches. Three types of empirical functions for the equilibrium beach profile are applied and compared with the observations. Results show that all observed beach profiles can be described by a single function. However, one specific equilibrium profile equation is not sufficient to assess all beach profiles. In Section 1 of Giao Thuy and Section 3 of Hai Thinh beaches, beach profiles are consistent with the logarithmic function, while the exponential function fits well in Section 2. This difference is explained with respect to coastal morphology, sediment characteristics and hydrodynamic conditions which vary in site. An analysis of the validity of the beach profile functions is recommended for the numerical modeling and engineering designs in this area.
BEACH (named after ‘Beige and Chediak-Higashi’) is a conserved ~280 residue domain, present in nine human BEACH domain containing proteins (BDCPs). Most BDCPs are large, containing a PH-like domain for membrane association preceding their BEACH domain, and containing WD40 and other domains for ligand binding. Recent studies found that mutations in individual BDCPs cause several human diseases. BDCP alterations affect lysosome size (LYST and NSMAF), apoptosis (NSMAF), autophagy (LYST, WDFY3, LRBA), granule size (LYST, NBEAL2, NBEA), or synapse formation (NBEA). However, the roles of each BDCP in these membrane events remain controversial. After reviewing studies on individual BDCPs, we propose a unifying hypothesis that BDCPs act as scaffolding proteins that facilitate membrane events, including both fission and fusion, determined by their binding partners. BDCPs may also bind each other, enabling fusion or fission of vesicles that are not necessarily of the same type. Such mechanisms explain why different BDCPs may have roles in autophagy; each BDCP is specific for the cell type or the cargo, but not necessarily specific for attaching to the autophagosome. Further elucidation of these mechanisms, preferably carrying out the same experiment on multiple BDCPs, and possibly using patients’ cells, may identify potential targets for therapy.
Cullinane, Andrew R.; Schaffer, Alejandro A.; Huizing, Marjan
There are two sources of contamination in solder alloys. The first source is trace elements from the primary metals used in the as-manufactured product, be that product in ingot, wire, or powder form. Their levels in the primary metal are determined by the refining process. While some of these trace elements are naturally occurring materials, additional contamination can result from the refining and/or forming processes. Sources include: furnace pot liners, debris on the cutting edges of shears, rolling mill rollers, etc. The types and levels of contaminants per solder alloy are set by recognized industrial, federal, military, and international specifications. For example, the 63Sn-37Pb solder purchased to the ASTM B 32 standard can have maximum levels of contamination for the following metals: 0.08(wt.)%Cu, 0.001 %Cd, 0.005%Al, 0.25%Bi, 0.03%As, 0.02%Fe, and 0.005 %Zn. A second cause of contamination in solders, and solder baths in particular, is their actual use in soldering operations. Each time a workpiece is introduced into the bath, some dissolution of the joint base metal(s), protective or solderable coatings, and fixture metal takes place which adds to contamination levels in the solder. The potential impurities include Cu; Ni; Au or other noble metals used as protective finishes and Al; Fe; and Zn to name a few. Even dissolution of the pot wall or liner is a source of impurities, typically Fe.
The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in beach sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of contamination by industrial sites. PMID:19452254
This paper reviews research on beach groundwater dynamics and identifies research questions which will need to be answered before swash zone sediment transport and beach profile evolution can be successfully modelled. Beach groundwater hydrodynamics are a result of combined forcing from the tide and waves at a range of frequencies, and a large number of observations exist which describe the shape and elevation of the beach watertable in response to tidal forcing at diurnal, semi-diurnal and spring-neap tidal frequencies. Models of beach watertable response to tidal forcing have been successfully validated; however, models of watertable response to wave forcing are less well developed and require verification. Improved predictions of swash zone sediment transport and beach profile evolution cannot be achieved unless the complex fluid and sediment interactions between the surface flow and the beach groundwater are better understood, particularly the sensitivity of sediment transport processes to flow perpendicular to the permeable bed. The presence of a capillary fringe, particularly when it lies just below the sand surface, has influences on beach groundwater dynamics. The presence of a capillary fringe can have a significant effect on the exchange of water between the ocean and the coastal aquifer, particularly in terms of the storage capacity of the aquifer. Field and laboratory observations have also shown that natural groundwater waves usually propagate faster and decay more slowly in aquifers with a capillary fringe, and observations which suggest that horizontal flows may also occur in the capillary zone have been reported. The effects of infiltration and exfiltration are generally invoked to explain why beaches with a low watertable tend to accrete and beaches with a high watertable tend to erode. However, the relative importance of processes such as infiltration losses in the swash, changes in the effective weight of the sediment, and modified shear stress due to boundary layer thinning, are not yet clear. Experimental work on the influence of seepage flows within sediment beds provides conflicting results concerning the effect on bed stability. Both modelling and experimental work indicates that the hydraulic conductivity of the beach is a critical parameter. However, hydraulic conductivity varies both spatially and temporally on beaches, particularly on gravel and mixed sand and gravel beaches. Another important, but poorly understood, consideration in beach groundwater studies is the role of air encapsulation during the wetting of beach sand.
Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the summer months of 2003 and 2004 at four US Great Lakes beaches were analyzed using regression analysis to identify relationships between meteorological, physical water characteristics, and beach characterist...
The concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone at Huntington Beach, CA, varies over time scales that span at least 7 orders of magnitude, from minutes to decades. Sources of this variability include historical changes in the treatment and disposal of wastewater and dry weather runoff, El Niño events, seasonal variations in rainfall, spring-neap tidal cycles, sunlight-induced mortality of bacteria, and nearshore mixing. On average, total coliform concentrations have decreased over the past 43 years, although point sources of shoreline contamination (storm drains, river outlets, and submarine outfalls) continue to cause transiently poor water quality. These transient point sources typically persist for 5-8 yr and are modulated by the phase of the moon, reflecting the influence of tides on the sourcing and transport of pollutants in the coastal ocean. Indicator bacteria are very sensitive to sunlight therefore, the time of day when samples are collected can influence the outcome of water quality testing. These results demonstrate that coastal water quality is forced by a complex combination of local and external processes and raise questions about the efficacy of existing marine bathing water monitoring and reporting programs. PMID:12269739
Boehm, A B; Grant, S B; Kim, J H; Mowbray, S L; McGee, C D; Clark, C D; Foley, D M; Wellman, D E
A beach nourishment with approximately 1/3 fine-grained sediment (fines; particle diameter <63 ?m) by mass was performed at Southern California's Border Fields State Park (BFSP). The nourishment was found to briefly (<1 day) increase concentrations of surf-zone fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) above single-sample public health standards [104 most probable number (MPN)·(100 mL)(-1)] but had no effect on phytoplankton. Contamination was constrained to the nourishment site: waters 300 m north or south of the nourishment were always below single-sample and geometric mean [? 35 MPN · (100 mL)(-1)] standards. Nourishment fines were identified as a source of the fecal indicator Enterococcus ; correlations between fines and enterococci were significant (p < 0.01), and generalized linear model analysis identified fines as the single best predictor of enterococci. Microcosm experiments and field sampling suggest that the short surf-zone residence times observed for enterococci (e-folding time 4 h) resulted from both rapid, postplacement FIB inactivation and mixing/transport by waves and alongshore currents. Nourishment fines were phosphate-rich/nitrogen-poor and were not correlated with surf-zone phytoplankton concentrations, which may have been nitrogen-limited. PMID:23675635
Rippy, M A; Franks, P J S; Feddersen, F; Guza, R T; Warrick, J A
Predicting erosion and accretion of sand beaches in estuaries is important to managing shoreline development and identifying\\u000a potential relationships between biological productivity and beach change. Wave, sediment and profile data, gathered over twenty-nine\\u000a days on an estuarine sand beach in Delaware Bay, New Jersey, were used to evaluate the performance of four criteria that predict\\u000a beach erosion and accretion due
On September 30, 1977, a large industrial plant in Fernandina Beach, Florida, shut down six artesian wells that had been pumping continuously for several weeks from the Floridan aquifer. Two wells continued pumping until November 20, 1977, at which time the shutdown wells were restarted. A transmissivity of 30 000 ft2 day-1 (2800 m2 day-1) and a storage coefficient of between 2.5 x 10-4 and 4.0 x 10-4 were computed.-from Author
Field observations of the Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, ocean sewage outfall are presented. Measurements of dilution and other wastefield characteristics were obtained by adding dye tracer to the effluent and measuring in-situ. Simultaneous measurements of oceanographic conditions were made by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, thermistor strings, and profiling instruments. Four experiments were performed, two during unstratified conditions when the plume was surfacing, and two during conditions of strong stratification when the plume was submerged. The minimum dilution varied from 30 to 130. The measurements reflect the worst case conditions as the campaigns were all made for weak currents. PMID:11443984
BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...
Extensive beaches located near the Mexico-USA border play an important role in the economy of the city of Playas de Rosarito, Mexico. Intense beach erosion occurred during the winter 1998 as a result of a very energetic wave regime associated to ENSO-El Niño event, in combination with high water levels. The severity of these conditions caused flooding and destruction of
R. Lizárraga Arciniega; A. Chee-Barragán; E. Gil-Silva; T. Mendoza-Ponce; A. Martínez-Díaz de León
On exposed sandy beaches, the destruction of sand dunes and intense recreational activities are often the most common anthropogenic disturbances. It was proposed that such disturbances should have important effects on animals such as ghost crabs. Numbers of burrows of ghost crabs, Ocypode cordimana, were compared between urban and non-urban beaches at different levels on the shore. Overall, there were
The Louisiana coast has been documented as the fastest eroding shoreline in the US. Rapid submergence and high beach erosion rates are the dominant responses to the seasonal wave climate, storm impacts, sea level rise, regional subsidence, and human activities. The cumulative impacts from the three hurricanes, which made landfall in Louisiana in 1985, and Hurricane Gilbert of 1988 produced extreme beach erosion. The magnitude of these effects was expressed in the cross-shore morphology, which was transformed from a wide back-barrier marsh, dune terrace or continuous dune, wide back-beach system to a narrow back-barrier marsh, washover sheet or washover terrace, and beach. The effects from Hurricane Gilbert ensured retention of this latter cross-shore morphology. These events, therefore, provided a unique opportunity to monitor the geomorphic response and recovery of the different subenvironments composing these barrier island beaches. A network of 41 beach profile lines was established in 1985 along straight and curved segments of eroding barrier island coast between Isles Dernieres and Sandy Point. The surveys preceded the 1985 hurricanes and were conducted quarterly through 1988. Efforts were made to quantify the cross-shore variability of beach response in each shoreline segment by analyzing linear and volumetric changes of the beach profiles.
General results of a study of energetics on open sandy beaches in South Africa are presented. These sand beaches are considered to interact with adjacent terrestrial environments via the sand dune system and with the sea via the surf zone. A food web is given for the macrofauna showing all known interactions from the supply of food material to the
A. McLachlan; T. Erasmus; A. H. Dye; T. Wooldridge; G. van der Horst; G. Rossouw; T. A. Lasiak; L. McGwynne
Two years of offshore wave data and daily time exposure images from Trafalgar beach, a 2-km-long sandy beach located on the southwest coast of Spain that frequently exhibits rhythmic features, were used to (1) explore the variability of the beachface morphology and (2) determine environmental conditions associated with the different morphological states. The beachface morphology at three distinct alongshore sectors
Miguel Ortega-Sánchez; Sandra Fachin; Francisco Sancho; Miguel A. Losada
Despite its relatively small length (650 m), Sekania beach on Zakynthos island (Ionian sea) is the single most important Caretta caretta L. nesting beach in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this work was to tackle the possible relationships of sand and vegetation characteristics with the nesting activity of sea turtle C. caretta. The vegetation structure and distribution along the
During the dry season in California, when storm action is limited and river flow is weak, the mouths of many estuaries close, creating barrier beaches and ponding water in the backing lagoons. If these barrier beaches do not breach naturally or are not ma...
...d) Area C-1. Long Beach outer harbor between Island Freeman and Island Chaffee beginning at latitude 33Â°44â²20.0â³ N., longitude 118...Area E-1. Long Beach outer harbor northwest of Island Freeman beginning at latitude 33Â°44â²55.0â³ N., longitude...
...d) Area C-1. Long Beach outer harbor between Island Freeman and Island Chaffee beginning at latitude 33Â°44â²20.0â³ N., longitude 118...Area E-1. Long Beach outer harbor northwest of Island Freeman beginning at latitude 33Â°44â²55.0â³ N., longitude...
|The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…
The fate of the petroleum hydrocarbons from Chevron bunker fuel has been studied in natural beaches, sand-containing lysimeters, and laboratory experiments. The importance of various physical, chemical, and biological processes for the dispersal and degradation of spilled bunker fuel has been evaluated. Studies at four sampling locations on three beaches in the San Francisco area affected by oil from an
We studied the beach fidelity of Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) for three seasons at the Rushikulya rookery on the coast of Orissa in India between December and May (2003-2005). We monitored sporadic nesting and arribadas for tagged turtles. Multiple nesting by individual turtles and recapture of tagged turtles confirmed beach fidelity in Olive Ridley Turtles. The inter-nesting intervals ranged
The non-native Asian shore is becoming a dominant species in southeastern Massachusetts beaches. A study was conducted to test whether environmental conditions across beaches in southeastern Massachusetts had an effect on the crab species inhabiting those areas. Although this was the main focus, it was found that the invasive Asian shore crab has had an ecological impact on the native
... 2013-07-01 false Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches...Environmental Impact Â§ 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches...which may present a serious obstacle to fishing or navigation may be dumped only...
the prospect of global warming and consequent sea level rise will have important implications for coastal communities. this article examines the land use implications of alternate sea level rise scenarios on the city of myrtle beach, south carolina. current trends as well as high and low sea level rise scenarios are superimposed on the city's beach profile and near shore
Summary form only given. Baby Beach, at Dana Point Harbor, CA has had a history of impaired water quality resulting in frequent beach postings and closures due to high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations, especially Enterococcus spp. Numerous Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce bacterial levels have been implemented, yet the postings continue. Weekly bacteriological monitoring data indicate a general decline
D. M. Ferguson; M. H. Zhowandai; M. A. Getrich; D. F. Moore; A. Lissner; R. Haimann; D. W. Linger
This report takes a hard look at the day-to-day workings of Palm Beach County (Florida) schools to explain why the systemic change model of Florida's current reform legislation is likely to fail the students in greatest need of improved schooling. The Palm Beach County School District is the 4th largest district in Florida, and the 15th largest in…
Marine litter is now recognized as a major form of marine pollution and key factor for coastal managers. The aims of this paper are to: (a) investigate the perception of beach users on aspects related to solid waste pollution and (b) quantify the input of tourism-related litter to the southern Brazilian coastal ecosystem in areas occupied by beach users with
Isaac Rodrigues Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Mônica Wallner-Kersanach; Gilberto Fillmann
Water samples from 26 Oregon beaches were analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci concentrations by the Oregon Department of Human Services (ODHS) Public Health Laboratory. Nine Oregon beaches exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) single sample maximum density of 104 enterococci colony forming units (cfu) per 100 mL with levels ranging from 121 to 4325 most probable number
...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-35-000] Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory...pursuant to section 201(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC (EMHB) filed a petition for...
Recent ; increases in hurricane activity along the Gulf of Mexico lend urgency to understanding storm impacts on beach mice (Peromyscus polionotus) that occupy dune systems along this coast in Florida and Alabama. We documented changes in occupancy patterns of the Santa Rosa beach mouse (P. p. leucocephalus) from Hurricane Ivan and examined predictors of habitat use before and after
Alexander J. Pries; Lyn C. Branch; Deborah L. Miller
Beach mice, endangered subspecies of oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), occur in a few, isolated populations along the Gulf Coast of Alabama and Florida, USA. To provide information needed for the management of these species, we conducted population viability analyses (PVA) using a stochastic differential equation (Wiener-drift) model applied to long-term demographic data for four populations of beach mice. In the
Madan K. Oli; Nicholas R. Holler; Michael C. Wooten
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false St. Johns Point, FL to Miami Beach, FL...BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 7.95 St. Johns Point, FL to Miami Beach, FL...line drawn from the seaward extremity of St. Augustine Inlet north jetty to latitude...
Sediment transport studies are useful tools for the determination of sediment budgets, important in the definition of management policies, in particular in environments not fully understood like fetch-limited beaches. Only a few studies have been made with respect to these beaches, and research efforts need to be continued to correctly quantify the main factors governing morphological changes. The present study
Ana Rita Carrasco; Óscar Ferreira; Ana Matias; Paula Freire; João. Alveirinho Dias
A biological assessment of five beach areas, five leachate areas, and four effluent areas was initiated in June 1999. The target sites are being monitored for total and fecal coliform. The average of the total samples taken at each beach site: total coliform ranged from 1877 to...
|On the basis of taxometric analyses of data sets that they created to pose interpretive challenges, S. R. H. Beach, N. Amir, and J. J. Bau (2005) cautioned that using comparison data simulated by J. Ruscio's programs can lead to inaccurate conclusions. Careful examination of S. R. H. Beach et al.'s methods and results plus reanalysis of their…
This study presents: (1) basic data on the benthic fauna and surface sediments of the nearshore zone of Panama City Beach, Fla., before restoration of the beach, and (2) the results of a study on the effect of Hurricane Eloise on the benthic fauna in the ...
...Spectacular, Atlantic Ocean; Jacksonville Beach...waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Jacksonville Beach...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...event over the Atlantic Ocean in Jacksonville...
...Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY...waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support...Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the need to...
...Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY...regulation on the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami Beach...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping COAST GUARD...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 80.160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 80.160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 80.160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping COAST GUARD...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping COAST GUARD...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping COAST GUARD...LINES Atlantic Coast Â§ 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn...
...2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. 110.214 Section 110.214 Navigation and Navigable...Grounds Â§ 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. (a) General Regulations â(1) Anchorage...
Holocene beachrocks of the Jaguaribe beach, State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, consist of horizontal, cemented layers approximately 40 cm thick. The cement shows three textural varieties: (a) calciferous, surrounding siliciclastic grains, (b) micritic, with an acicular fringe; and (c) cryptocrystalline calcite in pores. Early cementation took place at the water table below beach ridges, where geochemical, hydrodynamic and, perhaps, also
The present contribution considers the dynamics of beaches occupied by outcropping/buried beachrocks, i.e. hard coastal formations consisting of beach material lithified by in situ precipitated carbonate cements. The dynamics of a Greek microtidal beach with beachrocks (Vatera, Lesbos) are examined through the collection and analysis of morphological and sedimentary field data, a 2-D nearshore hydrodynamic model and a specially constructed 1-D morphodynamic model. The results showed that the beachrock-occupied part of the beach is characterised by distinctive morphodynamics as: (i) its beachface is associated with large slopes; (ii) there is a good spatial correlation between the sub-aerial and shallow submerged mean beach profile and the buried/outcropping upper beachrock surface; and (iii) the seaward margins of the submerged beachrock outcrops are always associated with a 'scour step' i.e. a submerged cliff. The results also showed that beachrock outcrops can bias cross-shore sediment exchanges by impeding onshore transport due to the presence of the scour step. In this sense, beachrock outcrops may be considered as offshore transport 'conduits' for the beach sediments. A conceptual model of beach sediment transport, based on the field data and the hydrodynamic modelling is proposed. According to this model, fresh beach material from adjacent terrestrial sources is transported alongshore, towards the central part of the embayment, where a littoral transport convergence zone occurs under most wave conditions. There, the laterally supplied sediments are lost offshore.
Vousdoukas, M. I.; Velegrakis, A. F.; Karambas, T. V.
This is a study of the phenomenon of ‘cinematic tourism’ through The Beach (2000), a cinematic adaptation of a novel that satirises the Western search for experiential authenticity through travel. It is argued that the film replicates this quest for ‘authenticity’; international responses to it point in the same direction. The study explores how The Beach was used by Internet
...Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY...Florida during the Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves air show. The event is scheduled to take...T07-0653 Safety Zone; Embry Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean, Daytona Beach,...
This paper uses a finite mixture logit (FML) model to investigate the heterogeneity of preferences of beach users for water quality at beaches in Southern California. The results are compared with conventional approaches based conditional logit (CL) and random parameters logit (RPL). The FML approach captures variation in preferences by modeling individual recreator choices using a mixture of several distinct
This report is a follow-up to an executive summary prepared in December 1995 entitled 'Hurricane Opal: Executive Summary of a Report on Structural Damage and Beach and Dune Erosion Along the Panhandle Coast of Florida' (FL Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Sy...
|This report takes a hard look at the day-to-day workings of Palm Beach County (Florida) schools to explain why the systemic change model of Florida's current reform legislation is likely to fail the students in greatest need of improved schooling. The Palm Beach County School District is the 4th largest district in Florida, and the 15th largest…
Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge
...2013-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Anchorage Areas Â§ 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the harbor northward of the inner end...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740...NAVIGABLE WATERS Â§ 100.740 Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated...
A variety of extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates, with a high rate of cefotaximase-15 resistance, were identified in seagull feces from Porto, Portugal, beaches. Beaches may therefore present a risk to public health because of the potential pathogen-spreading capacity of migratory birds. PMID:20031053
Simões, Roméo Rocha; Poirel, Laurent; Da Costa, Paulo Martins; Nordmann, Patrice
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla. 110...Anchorage Grounds Â§ 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla. ...vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of the entrances...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL. 110...Anchorage Grounds Â§ 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL. (a) The...regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet...
...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY. 100.106 Section 100...PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS Â§ 100.106 Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY. (a) Regulated...
...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY. 100.106 Section 100...PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS Â§ 100.106 Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY. (a) Regulated...
A variety of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli isolates, with a high rate of cefotaximase-15 resistance, were identified in seagull feces from Porto, Portugal, beaches. Beaches may therefore present a risk to public health because of the potential pathogen-spreading capacity of migratory birds.
Simoes, Romeo Rocha; Poirel, Laurent; Da Costa, Paulo Martins
...2009-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach...Grounds Â§ 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach...said point X. The northern and southern extremities of the 12Â° line...be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of the...
...2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach...Grounds Â§ 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach...said point X. The northern and southern extremities of the 12Â° line...be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of the...
In October 1980 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a beach nourishment project at the Lexington (Michigan) Harbor on the southwest shore of Lake Huron, a project designed to mitigate beach erosion attributable to the installation of the harbor. In...