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1

Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil  

PubMed Central

A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Bacteria with 16S rRNA sequences closely related (>99.7% identity) to Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri sequences dominated during the initial phase of oil degradation in the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Field data were compared to the results of previous laboratory microcosm experiments, which revealed significant differences. PMID:15128509

Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

2004-01-01

2

Sediment toxicity and benthic communities in mildly contaminated mudflats  

SciTech Connect

Sediment physicochemical characteristics, benthic community structure, and toxicity were measured at reference and contaminated intertidal mudflats around the North Island of New Zealand. Chronic whole-sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine amphipod, Chaetocorophium lucasi and the marine bivalve, Macomona lilana, and pore-water toxicity tests were conducted with embryos of the echinoid, Fellaster zelandiae. Although concentrations of organic chemicals and heavy metals were up to several orders of magnitude higher at the sites considered to be contaminated, levels of contamination were relatively low compared to internationally based sediment quality guidelines. Although no pronounced difference was found in benthic community structure between reference and contaminated sites, multivariate analysis indicated that natural sediment characteristics and factors related to contamination may have been affecting community structure. Although benthic effects caused by present levels of contamination are not yet dramatic, subtle changes in community structure related to pollution may be occurring. The two whole-sediment and the pore-water toxicity tests presented different response patterns. Growth of C. lucasi and M. liliana was a less sensitive endpoint than survival. None of the three toxicity tests responded more strongly to the contaminated than to the reference sites, that is, neither natural-sediment and pore-water characteristics nor unmeasured contaminants affected the test organisms. It is possible that sediment collection and handling may have induced chemical changes, confounding interpretation of toxicity tests.

Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Williams, E.K.; Martin, M.L.; Van Dam, L.F.; Mills, G.N. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., Hamilton (New Zealand)

1998-03-01

3

[River beach contamination index in monitoring of schistosomiasis].  

PubMed

Diseased animals are the main source of infection of schistosomiasis. River beach wild fecal contamination is the direct risk factor for schistosomiasis transmission, and the river beach contamination index has important significance in the schistosomiasis monitoring. This paper reviews the river beach wild fecal contamination to the identification and evaluation of the risk of schistosomiasis transmission. PMID:23236806

Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jia-Gang

2012-08-01

4

Fish in Long Beach waters have risky contamination levels From staff reports Long Beach Press Telegram  

E-print Network

Fish in Long Beach waters have risky contamination levels From staff reports Long Beach Press coast showed high levels of methylmercury and moderate levels of PCBs in fish in Long Beach bay waters the coast. In the bay waters of Long Beach, the levels found in fish were of "high concern," according

5

Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

1994-12-31

6

A baseline assessment of beach debris and tar contamination in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean.  

PubMed

Data on beach debris and tar contamination is provided for 21 natural beach sites in Bonaire, Southeastern Caribbean. Transects amounting to a combined length of 991 m were sampled March-May 2011 and a total of 8960 debris items were collected. Highest debris and tar contamination were found on the beaches of the windward east-coast of the island where geometric mean debris concentrations (± approx. 70% confidence limits) were 115±58 items m(-1) and 3408±1704 g m(-1) of beach front. These levels are high compared to data collected almost 20 years earlier on the nearby island of Curaçao. Tar contamination levels averaged 223 g m(-1) on windward beaches. Contamination levels for leeward west-coast beaches were generally two orders of magnitude less than windward beaches. PMID:23497789

Debrot, Adolphe O; van Rijn, Jimmy; Bron, Patrick S; de León, Ramon

2013-06-15

7

Comparative effects of mercury contamination and wastewater effluent input on Gram-negative merA gene abundance in mudflats of an anthropized estuary (Seine, France): a microcosm approach.  

PubMed

The macrotidal Seine estuary (France) is one of the most man-altered and mercury-contaminated European estuaries. Molecular quantification by competitive PCR has shown that the highest quantities of Gram-negative merA genes in intertidal freshwater mudflat sediments are located in recent sediment deposits independently of mercury concentrations, suggesting that particle-attached allochtonous mercury-resistant merA bacteria are deposited on mudflat surfaces. To investigate this hypothesis, a microcosm experiment was carried out to evaluate the respective contributions of (i) the input of allochtonous merA bacteria supplied by WWTP-treated effluents and (ii) merA gene abundance corresponding to a response of the sediment's autochthonous bacterial community to mercury contamination. Gram-negative merA gene quantification and T-RFLP analysis of both 16S rDNA and merA genes demonstrated that deposited allochtonous bacteria did not develop in estuarine sediments, whereas mercury contamination (10microg g(-1) wet sediment) selected an autochthonous mercury-resistant merA bacterial community. Thus, in mudflats of highly anthropized macrotidal estuaries, i.e. those subjected to intense hydrosedimentary processes and continuously contaminated by mercury and fecal bacteria, inputs of allochtonous merA bacteria are largely responsible for the high quantities of merA genes on the surface of mudflat sediments. PMID:19013517

Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Berthe, Thierry; Duran, Robert; Petit, Fabienne

2009-01-01

8

Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

9

Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban

R. D. Johnson; G. O. Mendez; J. X. La; J. A. Izbicki

2005-01-01

10

Can QMRA be used to Discount Pathogen Risk to Swimmers from Animal Fecal Contamination? Doheny Beach, CA Case Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimated health risks to swimmers from seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at Doheny Beach, California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) with a view to aiding beach closure decisions. Surfzone pathogens from seagulls were thought to...

11

Relationships Between Environmental Factors and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination at Campbell Cove Beach  

E-print Network

contaminated with sewage. (Largier & Taggart 2006). filling sample bottles from ankle deep beach water of most animals, and are used to indicate fecal contamination in water and sediment (R T Noble el alRelationships Between Environmental Factors and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination at Campbell

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

12

Bacterial contamination at Huntington Beach, California - is it from a local offshore wastewater outfall?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summers of 1999 and 2000, beaches at Huntington Beach, California, were repeatedly closed to swimming because of high bacteria levels in the surf zone. The city’s beaches are a major recreational and commercial resource, normally attracting millions of visitors each summer. One possible source of the bacterial contamination was the Orange County Sanitation District’s sewage outfall, which discharges treated wastewater 4.5 miles offshore at a depth of 200 feet. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating organizations have been investigating whether ocean currents and waves transport the wastewater to the beaches. These studies indicate that bacteria from the outfall are not a significant source of the beach contamination.

Xu, Jingping; Noble, Marlene; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

2003-01-01

13

Tar contamination on beaches in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar pollution on Curaçao beaches was monitored at 10 stations around the island on monthly visits for 14 months. Accumulated tar at stations in coastal areas susceptible to tar pollution (the wave-exposed northeast coast and the industrial, central south-west coast) averaged 954 ± 779 g m?1 (SD), excluding the most grossly polluted study site. Two wave-sheltered southwest coast beaches lying

Adolphe O. Debrot; John E. Bradshaw; Aubrey B. Tiel

1995-01-01

14

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition,\\u000a quantities and distribution of marine debris along ?150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia,\\u000a Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations\\u000a were observed. Plastics accounted for

Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul

2009-01-01

15

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

2009-01-01

16

NUTRIENT TRANSPORT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED BEACHES: EVALUATION WITH LITHIUM AS A CONSERVATIVE TRACER  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches typically involves fertilization with nutrients that are thought to limit the growth rate of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Much of the available technology involves application of fertilizers that release nutrients in a water-soluble ...

17

Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

18

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated beach sediments treated with nutrient amendments.  

PubMed

Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity of PAH-biodegrading microorganisms. This study focused on addressing the limitation of nutrient availability for PAH biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments. In our previous study, three nutrient sources including inorganic soluble nutrients, the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA), as well as their combinations, were applied to beach sediments contaminated with an Arabian light crude oil. Osmocote was the most effective nutrient source for aliphatic biodegradation. This study presents data on PAH biodegradation in the oil-spiked beach sediments amended with the three nutrients. Biodegradation of total target PAHs (two- to six-ring) in all treatments followed a first-order biodegradation model. The biodegradation rates of total target PAHs in the sediments treated with Os were significantly higher than those without. On Day 45, approximately 9.3% of total target PAHs remained in the sediments amended with Os alone, significantly lower than the 54.2 to 58.0% remaining in sediment treatments without Os. Amendment with Inipol or soluble nutrients alone, or in combination, did not stimulate biodegradation rates of PAHs with a ring number higher than 2. The slow-release fertilizer (Os) is therefore recommended as an effective nutrient amendment for intrinsic biodegradation of PAHs in oil-contaminated beach sediments. PMID:15224921

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

2004-01-01

19

Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.  

PubMed

Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of indigenous microorganisms, as well as the removal of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH) over a 45-day study period. PMID:24229785

Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

2013-12-15

20

Effect of nutrient amendments on indigenous hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments.  

PubMed

Nutrient amendment to oil-contaminated beach sediments is a critical factor for the enhancement of indigenous microbial activity and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine environment. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of the slow-release fertilizers Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA) combined with inorganic nutrients on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments using an open irrigation system with artificial seawater over a 45-d period. Osmocote is comprised of a semipermeable membrane surrounding water-soluble inorganic N, P, and K. Inipol, which contains organic N and P, has been used for oil cleanup on beach substrate. Nutrient concentrations and microbial activity in sediments were monitored by analyzing sediment leachates and metabolic dehydrogenase activity of the microbial biomass, respectively. Loss of aliphatics (n-C12 to n-C33, pristane, and phytane) was significantly greater (total loss between 95 and 97%) in oil-spiked sediments treated with Os alone or in combination with other nutrient amendments, compared with an unamended oil-spiked control (26% loss) or sediments treated with the other nutrient amendments (28-65% loss). A combination of Os and soluble nutrients (SN) was favorable for the rapid metabolic stimulation of the indigenous microbial biomass, the sustained release of nutrients, and the enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in leached, oil-contaminated sediments. PMID:12931877

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

2003-01-01

21

Accessing Hurricane-Produced Mudflat BSC  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mudflats (open water in background) derived via erosion and habitat conversion from former mangrove forests often have a band of mangroves adjacent to the creek bank.  Here a researcher accesses a mudflat at high tide to make measurements....

22

Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and associated shallow ground water will be analyzed for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (including optical properties to characterize the composition of the organic carbon), fecal sterols, DNA (using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Poylmorphism), and phospholipid fatty acids.

Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

2005-12-01

23

Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach  

E-print Network

at an embayed beach Zhongfu Ge,a,* Richard L. Whitman,a Meredith B. Nevers,a Mantha S. Phanikumar coli were conducted at Chicago's 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000­2005, in order to find

24

Use of BOX-PCR Subtyping of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. to Determine the Source of Microbial Contamination at a Florida Beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siesta Key Beach, located on the Gulf Coast of Florida, is frequently mentioned among the top ten beaches in the US. In summer 2004, high levels of indicator bacteria caused health warnings to be posted, and a storm drainage system was implicated as a possible source of microbial contamination. A study was initiated to determine whether indicator bacteria that persisted

Miriam J. Brownell

2006-01-01

25

Use of Spatial Sampling and Microbial Source-Tracking Tools for Understanding Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifying spatial patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in each area, determining weather patterns that caused elevated E. coli, and applying microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to specific sites. Three MST methods were used during this study: multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of E. coli isolates and the presence of human-specific genetic markers within two types of bacteria, the genus Bacteroides and the species Enterococcus faecium. At Edgewater, sampling for E. coli was done during 2003-05 at bathing-area sites, at nearshore lake sites, and in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore areas. Spatial sampling at nearshore lake sites showed that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin; E. coli concentrations near the mouths of rivers and outfalls remote to the beach were elevated (greater than 235 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) but decreased along transport pathways to the beach. In addition, E. coli concentrations were generally highest in bathing-area samples collected at 1- and 2-foot water depths, midrange at 3-foot depths, and lowest in nearshore lake samples typically collected 150 feet from the shoreline. Elevated E. coli concentrations at bathing-area sites were generally associated with increased wave heights and rainfall, but not always. E. coli concentrations were often elevated in shallow ground-water samples, especially in samples collected less than 10 feet from the edge of water (near foreshore area). The interaction of shallow ground water and waves may be a mechanism of E. coli storage and accumulation in foreshore sands. Infiltration of bird feces through sand with surface water from rainfall and high waves may be concentrating E. coli in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore sands. At Lakeshore, sampling for E. coli was done at bathing-area, nearshore lake, and parking-lot sites during 2004-05. Low concentrations of E. coli at nearshore lake sites furthest from the shoreline indicated that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin. High concentrations of E. coli in water and bed sediments at several nearshore lake sites showed that contamination was emanating from several points along the shoreline during wet and dry weather, including the boat ramp, an area near the pond drainage, and parking-lot sediments. Physical evidence confirmed that runoff from the parking lot leads to degradation of water quality at the beach. MST samples were collected to help interpret spatial findings and determine whether sources of fecal contamination were from wastewater or bird feces and if a human-specific marker was present. MAR indices were useful in distinguishing between bird feces and wastewater sources because they were about 10 times higher in the latter. The results from MAR indices agreed with results from the two human-specific markers in some but not all of the samples tested. Bacteroides and enterococci human-specific markers were found on one day at Edgewater and two days at Lakeshore. On three days at Edgewater and two days at Lakeshore, the MAR index indicated a mixed source, but neither marker was found in bathing-water samples; this may be because bacterial indicator concentrations were too low to detect a marker. Multiple tools are needed to help identify sources of fecal contamination at coastal beaches. Spatial sampling identified patterns in E. coli concentrations and yielded information on the physical pathways of contamination. MST methods provided information on whether the source was likely of human or nonhuman origin only; however, MST did not provide information on the pathways of contamination.

Francy, Donna S.; Bertke, Erin E.; Finnegan, Dennis P.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Rhoades, John; Stumpe, Lester

2006-01-01

26

Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

2013-12-01

27

Use of slow-release fertilizer and biopolymers for stimulating hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments.  

PubMed

Nutrient concentration and hydrocarbon bioavailability are key factors affecting biodegradation rates of oil in contaminated beach sediments. The effect of a slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote, as well as two biopolymers, chitin and chitosan, on the bioremediation of oil-spiked beach sediments was investigated using an open irrigation system over a 56-day period under laboratory conditions. Osmocote was effective in sustaining a high level of nutrients in leached sediments, as well as elevated levels of microbial activity and rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Chitin was more biodegradable than chitosan and gradually released nitrogen into the sediment. The addition of chitin or chitosan to the Osmocote amended sediments enhanced biodegradation rates of the alkanes relative to the presence of Osmocote alone, where chitosan was more effective than chitin due to its greater oil sorption capacity. Furthermore, chitosan significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:16291209

Xu, Ran; Yong, Li Ching; Lim, Yong Giak; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2005-01-01

28

Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2. Further inspections demonstrate that the occurrence and the amplitude of erosion are also governed by consolidation state of the surface sediment and water level on the mudflat.

Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

2014-05-01

29

Where Has All the Oil Gone? The use of trace metals as potential indicators of oil contamination in marine sediments and beach sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report initial results to determine if select trace metals are effective indicators for the magnitude and spatial extent of Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil contamination in Gulf of Mexico marine sediments and beach sands. Since crude oil is known to have elevated concentrations of nickel and vanadium, contamination can be detected even after the degradation of oil by measuring enrichment of these metals within marine sediments and beach sands. A sample of crude oil from the Macondo Prospect, source of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, was fully digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. Results indicate the crude oil is enriched in nickel, vanadium, and cobalt, with concentrations of 0.86 ppm, 2.76 ppm, and 84 ppb, respectively. With this known trace metal enrichment in DWH oil, Gulf of Mexico marine sediments from 400 and 1100m water depth near DeSoto Canyon and beach sands from Pensacola, FL were examined for enrichment of V, Ni, and Co. Both marine sediment and beach sand samples were partially digested with HNO3 before analysis via ICP-MS. With marine sediments, the visually contaminated layer at or near the surface typically exhibited an enrichment in Ni, V, and Co compared to the pristine control sediments. Vanadium and nickel enrichment in marine sediments varied from 10 to 32% and 0 to 22%, respectively. Visible contamination in beach sands was found between 20-60cm beneath the surface and, likewise, showed Ni, V, and Co enrichment up to 33%, 45%, and 100%. This data shows that enrichment of V, Ni, and Co in marine sediments and beach sands may be an effective proxy for contamination even after the degradation of oil. Marine sediments and beach sands will continue to be monitored for trace metal enrichment in an effort to assess the continuing impacts of the DWH spill on the Gulf of Mexico.

Roeder, T. K.; Hastings, D. W.; Holzinger, C.; Playle, E.; Brooks, G.; Huettel, M. H.; Kostka, J. E.; Larson, R. A.; Flower, B. P.

2011-12-01

30

Beach Debris in Curaçao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on beach debris contamination is provided for 10 pocket beaches in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Non-overlapping transects were sampled in December 1992 and October 1993, and a total of 8486 debris items were recorded. Accumulated debris contamination was especially high on the pocket beaches of the windward north-east coast where debris concentrations ranged from 19 to 253 items m?1 and

Adolphe O Debrot; Aubrey B Tiel; John E Bradshaw

1999-01-01

31

Application of enterococci antibiotic resistance patterns for contamination source identification at Huntington Beach, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington Beach, California, one of the most popular surfing spots in the world, is plagued by sporadic, elevated levels of fecal bacteria. To assist with pollution source identification, we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns (ARPs) of enterococci from four known sources (bird feces, urban runoff, coastal marsh sediment and sewage effluent from local sanitation district) and one unknown source (seawater) using

Samuel Choi; Weiping Chu; Jennifer Brown; Sarah J. Becker; Valerie J. Harwood; Sunny C. Jiang

2003-01-01

32

Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge from a Contaminated Beach Aquifer is Enhanced During Neap Tide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out to assess the fortnightly effects of mixed semi-diurnal tides and tidally-induced aquifer overheight on the timing, magnitude, and quality of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from an unconfined beach aquifer impacted by septic tank effluent at Stinson Beach, California. Groundwater- and ocean elevations, salinity, and nutrient concentrations were monitored throughout a 14-day neap/spring cycle. A freshening of the surf zone coupled with an increase in nutrient concentrations was observed at neap tide and attributed to discharge of fresh, nutrient-rich groundwater during that part of the fortnight. Nutrient concentrations in the surf zone returned to near-offshore levels during the spring tide. Estimates of SGD were made with chemically- and physically-based methods. Fresh SGD was maximal during the neap tide although total SGD was maximal during the spring tide. An overheight of time-averaged piezometric head was observed in the aquifer near the beach face throughout the 14-day experiment. This overheight varied significantly with tidal range, thereby controlling the seaward hydraulic gradient across the fresh part of the aquifer and, thus, the flow of nutrient-rich fresh groundwater to the coastal ocean. We discuss the role of aquifer overheight in controlling submarine discharge of fresh groundwater and related non-point source pollution from unconfined aquifers in similar environments.

de Sieyes, N. R.; Yamahara, K. M.; Boehm, A. B.

2007-05-01

33

Development and application of a quantitative PCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium for assessing gull-associated fecal contamination at Lake Erie beaches.  

PubMed

Gulls represent one of the major fecal contamination sources responsible for the degradation of water quality at Lake Erie beaches. For assessing gull-associated fecal contamination, a real-time quantitative PCR assay (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences from Catellicoccus marimammalium, which are abundant in gull feces, was developed and evaluated by comparing assay results with beach survey data that included gull counting, and quantifying densities of Escherichia coli and human-associated fecal markers at two Lake Erie beaches. In evaluating the specificity and sensitivity of the qPCR assay with animal and wastewater samples, C. marimammalium was detected in most gull fecal samples (80.7%), some chicken fecal samples (24.1%), but was not readily detected from other fecal samples of animals and humans, and wastewater. Among 66 Lake Erie water samples collected in 2010, C. marimammalium was frequently detected from Villa Angela (36.4%) and Headlands beaches (57.6%). C. marimammalium densities were not associated with E. coli densities or sanitary survey data. E. coli counts were likely driven by other sources, such as human, rather than gulls at the study sites. The presumption that human contamination influenced E. coli counts was supported by more frequent detection of the human-specific Bacteroides gyrB marker (gyrB) at Villa Angela (33.3%) than Headlands (6.1%). Since E. coli may not be an effective indicator for assessing gull-related fecal contamination at these beaches, where contamination sources are mixed, our novel qPCR assay can be useful for understanding fecal source contributions from gulls not explained by gull abundance or E. coli densities. PMID:23542477

Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung

2013-06-01

34

Relationships between hydrosedimentary processes and occurrence of mercury-resistant bacteria (merA) in estuary mudflats (Seine, France).  

PubMed

The Seine estuary (France) is one of the world's macrotidal systems that is most contaminated with heavy metals. To study the mercury-resistant bacterial community in such an environment, we have developed a molecular tool, based on competitive PCR, enabling the quantification of Gram-negative merA gene abundance. The occurrence of the Gram-negative merA gene in relation with the topology (erosion/deposit periods) and the mercury contamination of three contrasted mudflats was investigated through a multidisciplinary approach and compared with a non-anthropized site (Authie, France). The higher abundance of the Gram-negative merA gene in the Seine estuary mudflats indicates a relationship between the degree of anthropization and the abundance of the merA gene in the mudflat sediments. In the Seine mudflats, the maxima of abundance are always located in fresh sediment deposits. Therefore, the abundance is closely related with the hydrosedimentary processes, which thus seem to be determining factors in the occurrence of the Gram-negative merA gene in the surface sediments of the Seine's mudflat. PMID:18381217

Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Berthe, Thierry; Lafite, Robert; Deloffre, Julien; Ouddane, Baghdad; Petit, Fabienne

2008-06-01

35

Great Lakes BeachCast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Lakes Information Network developed this website to "broadcast critical information about beach closings and educational content on human health concerns." The website provides the latest news on erosion control projects, contamination and cleanup efforts, beach testing efforts, and other environmental news. Users can explore monitoring data and maps by location. The website also contains the proceedings from the Great Lakes Beach Conferences from 2001 and 2002 and the US EPA's Beach Program activities.

36

Great Lakes Beach Health  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

37

Simple and Effective Undisturbed Core sampling in Mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mudflats of creek and estuarine system posses fine sediments which preserve historical record of various changes in the associated environment due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Undisturbed core sediment sampling from the undisturbed mud flat ecosystem is a difficult task due to following factors. Navigation by ship or boats to mudflats is restricted due to less water depth or no water conditions in the intertidal regions. Manual entry is the only available simpler option to reach undisturbed mudflats. Manual sampling in mudflats involve difficult long walks over soft slushy sediments prevailing in the various ecological zones of creek and estuarine system. Hence, undisturbed sediment coring necessitates simple light weight corer without any heavy operative machinery and associated accessories. This manuscript details a simple undisturbed core sediment sampler and operations involved in successfully collecting 22 undisturbed short cores in mudflat environment. The used corer is manual push-sampler type with piston. 1.5 meter long corer is of transparent acrylic body with cylindrical cross section and 2mm thickness. In spite of the sampler being thin walled type, core recovery length could not be much longer due to available limited manual force to push-in and pull-out operations of the corer in the mud and very sticky and stiff nature of the sediment at the termination depth of the core. Though this corer is not the ultimate, this manuscript will definitely pave way for developing best corer and operational practices for such sampling in such difficult environments.

Ilangovan, D.; Fernandes, L.

2012-04-01

38

The Beach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered what sand is made of? Where does it come from? How can we keep our beaches clean? Let's work together using the internet to find out a little bit more about the beach. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide TASK Dear students, Miss Kaysha was at the beach last week and she saw lots of sand. She wants to know how it got there and what it is made of. She also saw ...

2009-04-26

39

Beach Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides students with an in-class practice of landscape interpretation using slides of beaches shown by the instructor. Students view a select number of slides and are asked to classify each beach shown using the Wright and Short Beach Classification: dissipative, reflexive, and intermediate by visually identifying landforms and processes of each beach type. The outcome of this activity is that students have practice identifying landforms and processes and applying their observations and interpretations of geomorphic features and processes for an applied purpose. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Davis, Lisa

40

Interplay between biology and sedimentology in a mudflat (Biezelingse Ham, Westerschelde, The Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to investigate the importance of biological processes on the sediment characteristics and the morphology of a mudflat in the Westerschelde (The Netherlands). For this purpose, a transect in the Biezelingse Ham mudflat was sampled on a monthly basis. In spring, the muddy part of the mudflat was dominated by a biofilm of microphytobenthos that

J. F. C de Brouwer; S. Bjelic; E. M. G. T. De Deckere; L. J. Stal

2000-01-01

41

Beach Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will read about children playing at the beach. These children want to know how tall their sand castle is and use some very creative ways to find the height. Students will follow the same idea and have the opportunity to use beach equipment to do the same. A fun and engaging lesson on non-standard measurement.

Worley, Chris

2012-09-13

42

BEACH Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency has released data from the third annual National Health Protection Survey of Beaches for the 1999 swimming season. Based on voluntarily returned surveys, the site offers information on water quality at 1,891 beaches in the US. Using an interactive map, users can find out if the water at a selected beach is being monitored, who is responsible for monitoring, and if any advisories or closures have been issued. Initial entries for each beach include basic monitoring information, contact information, and a map. Users can also read the submitted survey form in full. Additional resources at the BEACH Watch site include summary results from the survey, a fact sheet, technical reports and reference, brochures amd pamphlets, a FAQ, and related links.

43

Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with nonpoint source of fecal contamination.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g., chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (<2 to 3320 CFU/100 mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r ? 0.36, p < 0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF) for environmental parameters. PMID:20925349

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Gidley, Maribeth L; Plano, Lisa R W; Fleisher, Jay M; Wang, John D; Elmir, Samir M; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

2010-11-01

44

Seasonal sediment storage on mudflats adjacent to the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

210Pb and 234Th activity profiles in sediment cores from underconsolidated mudflats 300 km downdrift of the Amazon river mouth record an ephemeral surface layer of fine-grained sediment up to 1.5 m thick. This layer contains about l.5 × 108 tons of Amazon sediment deposited rapidly (~1 cm\\/d) from a fluid-mud suspension (10–400 g\\/l) during the months between January and June.

M. A. Allison; C. A. Nittrouer; G. C. Kineke

1995-01-01

45

Beach Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Beach Erosion site of the WhyFiles (last mentioned in the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), a project funded by the graduate school of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has been recently updated. Its newest addition includes a story about the population of the tiny Pacific Island nation of Tuvalu that is preparing to abandon its home due to rising sea levels. The site takes a look at this subject and the resulting increased beach erosion that takes place around the world. Visitors can read about the physical processes of beach erosion, view a QuickTime movie of a house falling into the ocean, and more. The site includes good descriptions, photographs, and links to additional information (although some were broken at the time of this annotation), giving interested readers insight into this widespread phenomenon.

1999-01-01

46

Daytona Beach Activities Schedule  

E-print Network

Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

47

On the beach Introduction  

E-print Network

On the beach Onno Bokhove Introduction: Cutting Edge Mathematical Design of Hele-Shaw Beach Beach-Shaw' Beach Evolution by Breaking Waves Onno Bokhove "Mathematics of Computational Science", University of Twente CASA, TU Eindhoven, November 2011 #12;On the beach Onno Bokhove Introduction: Cutting Edge

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

48

Daytona Beach Student Voices  

E-print Network

Highlights Daytona Beach Student Voices Birthdays Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach Fun in the sun! Join us for a day of surf, sun, and sand at Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach, we will stop at a restaurant

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

49

Influence of subtle substrate differences on feeding by shorebirds on intertidal mudflats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow-feeding shorebirds, dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus and L. scolopaceus), western sandpipers (Calidris mauri), dunlin (C. alpina) and American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), reduced the density of their prey in mudflats with little sand but not in mudflats with a moderate admixture of sand. An experiment in Upper Newport Bay, Southern California, during October and November 1979 to explain the difference in density

M. L. Quammen

1982-01-01

50

Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

2011-01-01

51

Salt-Marsh and Mudflat Ecological Patterns From Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal wetland areas, such as lagoons and estuaries, are complex and delicate environments subject to rapid morphological and ecological evolution, often in response to strong anthropogenic pressure. The combined ecological and economic importance of these dynamic environments has focused attention on monitoring and forecasting change in these natural coastal deposits. Salt marshes and mudflats in tidal environments are characterised by complex spatial patterns of form, both in their geomorphological and ecological features. Spatial patterns of microbial and vegetation assemblage distribution and composition provide essential information for describing the state of intertidal systems while any alteration in these patterns help to understand and assess system change. The present contribution describes quantitative observations of ecological (vegetation and microphytobenthos) and morphological (topography and channel network geometry) of selected systems using remote sensing and field observations performed during the European research project TIDE (Tidal Inlets Dynamics and Environment, EVK3-CT-2001-00064). The optimal observational configuration was assessed to retrieve accurate quantitative maps of salt marsh plants, macroalgae and microphytobenthos, with specific reference to the salt marshes of the Venice Lagoon (Italy) and to the mudflats of the Eden Estuary (Scotland). Statistical analyses applied on the vegetation maps obtained allowed the derivation of relationships between morphological characteristics and vegetation distribution. Finally vegetation biodiversity was quantified in space and its relationship with various topographic/geomorphic parameters (e.g. proximity to the channel network, soil elevation, etc.) was determined.

Belluco, E.; Camuffo, M.; Vardy, S.; Ferrari, S.; Feola, A.; Silvestri, S.; Paterson, D. M.; Marani, A.; Marani, M.

2005-12-01

52

Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

2000-01-01

53

Use of a Phased and Multiple-Method Approach to Identify Sources of Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches in Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were done during the recreational seasons of 2004 and 2005. Daily samples were collected on Monday through Thursday by dipping a sterile 500-mL sampling bottle at 3-ft depths at east, central, and west beach sampling sites; a daily average concentration was used for data analysis. Daily samples were analyzed in a USGS field laboratory for E. coli using the

Donna S. Francy; Erin E. Bertke

54

Daytona Beach Activities Schedule  

E-print Network

Highlights · Daytona Beach · Activities Schedule · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach A day of fun in the sun! WHAT: Come for a day of surf, sun, and sand at world famous Daytona Beach. We will drive to the beach in the morning and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! WHEN: Saturday

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

55

Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of hydrological cycle that lead to (i) an increased mean water level and (ii) provide SPM from the continental area. This feature leads to significant accretion over intertidal area. In the middle and marine estuary the TM is the main SPM supplier. In these parts of the estuary deposition over these intertidal area is driven by (i) tidal cycle in particular fortnightly cycle link to maximum TM resuspension during (strongest) spring tide and (ii) TM location controlled by river inflow that varies following an annual and inter-annual variability. Outside sedimentation period, the erosion is driven by the combination of (i) progressive erosion driven by fortnightly cycle and (ii) sudden erosion controlled either by wave or boat generated waves respectively at the mouth and in the middle/upper estuary. This last is reinforced by the rheological characteristics of deposit that correspond to fluid/low consolidated mud. During most of the year, the Seine estuary mudflats record an erosion pattern. Significant and intensive sedimentation only occurs few days per year. This pattern is linked to highly variable hydrodynamics conditions (bottom shear stress ranging from 0.5 to 5 N.m-2) that control the sediment supply availability. In this infilling macrotidal anthropized system mudflats are close to equilibrium with an annual rate ranging between +/- 5cm.yrs-1: they act as temporal storage area of fined-grained sediments.

lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

2012-12-01

56

Evaluation of the potential bioaccumulation ability of the blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) for assessment of environmental matrices of mudflats.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAHs) was quantified in aquacultures located in intertidal mudflats of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in order to investigate bioaccumulation of PAH in blood cockles, Anadara granosa (A. granosa). Fifty-four samples from environmental matrices and A. granosa were collected. The sampling locations were representative of a remote area as well as PAH-polluted areas. The relationship of increased background levels of PAH to anthropogenic PAH sources in the environment and their effects on bioaccumulation levels of A. granosa are investigated in this study. The levels of PAH in the most polluted station were found to be up to ten-fold higher than in remote areas in blood cockle. These high concentrations of PAHs reflected background contamination, which originates from distant airborne and waterborne transportation of contaminated particles. The fraction and source identification of PAHs, based on fate and transport considerations, showed a mix of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. The relative biota-sediment accumulation factors (RBSAF), relative bioaccumulation factors from filtered water (RBAFw), and from suspended particulate matter (SPM) (RBAFSP) showed higher bioaccumulations of the lower molecular weight of PAHs (LMWs) in all stations, except Kuala Juru, which showed higher bioaccumulation of the higher molecular weight of PAHs (HMWs). Calculations of bioaccumulation factors showed that blood cockle can accumulate PAHs from sediment as well as water samples, based on the physico-chemical characteristics of habitat and behaviour of blood cockles. Correlations among concentrations of PAHs in water, SPM, sediment and A. granosa at the same sites were also found. Identification of PAH levels in different matrices showed that A. granosa can be used as a good biomonitor for LMW of PAHs and tPAHs in mudflats. Considering the toxicity and carcinogenicity of PAHs, the bioaccumulation by blood cockles are a potential hazard for both blood cockles and their consumers. PMID:23583984

Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Gobas, Frank

2013-06-01

57

BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

58

Virtual Beach Manager Toolset  

EPA Science Inventory

The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

59

Sands and environmental conditions impact the abundance and persistence of the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus at recreational beaches  

E-print Network

The marine fecal indicator Enterococcus is measured at beaches to detect fecal contamination events, and beaches are closed to bathers when Enterococcus is found to exceed the federally mandated limit. This dissertation ...

Halliday, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Ann)

2012-01-01

60

Virtual Beach 3: user's guide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

2014-01-01

61

Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches  

PubMed Central

Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5?mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

2009-01-01

62

Morphological response of an exposed intertidal mudflat to its adjacent channel in the Yangtze Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of sediment transport is key to understanding morphological response of intertidal flats. In order to investigate the effect of a channel on its adjacent mudflat, an integrated in situ measurement was carried out on Eastern Chongming Island in Yangtze Estuary. Flow velocities, suspended sediment concentrations, and local bed level changes were measured on six sites throughout an exposed intertidal mudflat and an adjacent small channel. A longer-term monitoring of bed level profiles from 2005 to 2012 was also acquired to determine the morphological variation resulted from sediment transport. Time series of water level and velocity show that this area is flood dominant, suggesting continuous growing intertidal flat. Observed bed elevation, however, shows decreasing trend on the site near the channel. The longer-term bed level profiles also show accretion on the flat above mean sea level (MSL), while degradation on the flat below MSL. It can be inferred from the estimation of net flux of suspended sediments on intertidal mudflat: 1) there are net landward flux on sites above MSL, 2) nearly zero around MSL, and 3) net seaward flux on site blow MSL, which is on the boarder of the small channel. A conceptual model for morphological response of open intertidal growing mudflat to an adjacent channel is proposed such that the upper part continues accreting, while lower part being eroded. The presence of the channel has restrained the expansion of the mudflat.

Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.

2013-12-01

63

Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling,

L. D. McGinnis; C. R. Daudt; M. D. Thompson; S. F. Miller; W. A. Mandell; J. Wrobel

1994-01-01

64

Daytona Beach Fall 2012 Dates  

E-print Network

Highlights Daytona Beach Fall 2012 Dates Birthdays Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach Fun in the sun! Join us for a day of surf, sun, and sand at Daytona Beach. We will be going to the beach Garage at 10:00 am. Our return time will depend on how long we want to spend at the beach. We will return

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

65

VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

66

World Beach Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes visiting a website makes you want to dash out, leave your computer behind, and get busy doing whatever the site's talking about. The World Beach Project is one of those sites. It's a gallery of art made by all kinds of people, using stones gathered on beaches all over the world. Visitors to this site can browse images of these creations, and read a little bit about how each work came about. For example, there are 64 projects in North America, and 232 in Europe and visitors can travel (via the artwork) from the beaches of England to Malaysia to Mexico in seconds. The World Beach Project was devised by artist-in-residence Sue Lawty in association with the Victoria & Albert Museum. Detailed instructions are provided so that anyone can participate in the World Beach Project, or, from the map, simply click the button labeled "I want to add my beach project to the map".

67

The influence of oceanic swell on flows over an estuarine intertidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay  

E-print Network

(ADV) and an optical backscatter sensor (OBS). The experiment continued through wet (high tide) and dry, we deployed an autonomous SonTek Hydra system on a mudflat in Central San Francisco Bay, and measured dominate the near-bed dynamics during calm conditions. Wind waves dominate whenever the wind direction

Talke, Stefan

68

A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

A. Anker; Grave De S

2009-01-01

69

Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jaffe, B.E.; Smith, R.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

2007-01-01

70

State of the Beach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual Surfrider Foundation report surveys the state of the beaches in coastal and Great Lakes states that are home to Foundation chapters. Each state is rated based on the availability of information and status of eight indicators, including beach access, Website access, surf zone water quality, and beach erosion, among others. The report is written from the perspective of a "concerned local citizen" and aimed at "the people who use and care most about this precious resource." The online report contains six sections, including an executive summary, an explanation of the indicators, conclusions, and recommendations.

2000-01-01

71

Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where, since the 1980s, patchy and variable green algal mats are prevailing, distinct belts of an amphipod ( Corophium volutator) and seagrass ( Zostera spp.) had dominated in the 1930s. The zonation between tide marks has been mapped in a sheltered sedimentary bay in the Wadden Sea near the island of Sylt (coastal eastern North Sea). Maps on vegetation from 1924 and on selected macrobenthos from 1932 and 1934 are compared with biannual surveys conducted from 1988 to 2006. Rising high water levels and eutrophication are suggested to be major causes of the observed long-term changes. In front of a saltmarsh, a sandy beach developed and partly displaced former cyanobacterial mats. Advancing sandiness may have inhibited C. volutator and facilitated lugworms, Arenicola marina, in the upper tidal zone. A variable occurrence of green algal mats arising in the 1980s affected infauna and seagrass by smothering the biota underneath. This dissolved a coherent belt of Zostera noltii. In the lower tidal zone, natural disturbances had lasting effects on the occurrence of mussels with attached fucoid algae. The spectrum of species became enriched by alien species (13% of macrobenthic taxa). A reversal to habitat structure and biotic zonation of the 1920-1930s does not seem possible. Aliens, in combination with climate change, are expected to further divert the ecological pattern to new configurations.

Reise, Karsten; Herre, Elisabeth; Sturm, Manfred

2008-03-01

72

Plastic litter on an urban beach---a case study in Brazil.  

PubMed

Beaches are subject to solid waste contamination at the strandline. Litter depositional dynamics is influenced by specific beach morphology and sources of solid wastes. The amount of items on the strandline of Boa Viagem beach (Recife, Brazil) was evaluated during dry and rainy seasons of 2005 to characterize their sources and depositional patterns. The strandline was surveyed once a month to count and classify all visible solid waste items within a belt-transect. Plastics were used for detailed analysis of the wastes accumulated. There were quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in litter accumulation during the year and parts of the beach. The main source of debris was land-based. In general, the beach was low-polluted in the dry season and medium-polluted during the rainy season. The method is a low-cost and highly efficient characterization of solid wastes contamination of urban beaches. PMID:19220998

Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; de Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa; da Costa, Monica Ferreira

2009-02-01

73

Coastal Mudflat Accretion under Energetic Conditions, Louisiana Chenier-Plain Coast, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mudflat accretion on the chenier-plain coast of Louisiana, northern Gulf of Mexico, is anomalous in an area that otherwise experiences widespread land loss due to rapid relative sea level rise. Accretion is shown to be related to energetic events (Winta cold fronts and occasional tropical-dcprrssion srmms) using a 17-year record of meteorological conditions and aerial surveys The results indicate substantial differences between the behavior of sand- and mud-dominated coastal systems under energetic conditions. Comparison of the Louisiana chenier plain to other mud-rich coasts indicates that certain conditions are necessary for mudflat accretion to occur during energetic atmospheric activity. These include an abundant supply of fine-grained fluvial sediment and resuspension events that maintain an unconsolidated sea floor, dominant onshore wind direction during energetic conditions, particularly when onshore winds coincide with high fluvial sediment input to the coastal ocean, and a low tidal range.

Draut, Amy E.; Kineke, Gail C.; Huh, Oscar K.; Grymes, John M., III; Westphal, Karen A.; Moeller, Christopher C.

2005-01-01

74

Foraging behavior of green-winged teal and mallards on tidal mudflats in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-activity budget techniques to measure foraging behavior of green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Observations were made on tidal mudflats in the Atchafalaya River Delta, Louisiana, USA, in the winter of 1994–1995. Green-winged\\u000a teal spent more diurnal time than mallards foraging (68% vs. 35%). Time spent in different foraging postures also differed\\u000a between species. Green-winged

William P. Johnson; Frank C. Rohwer

2000-01-01

75

Novel nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes sequenced from intertidal mudflat bacteria.  

PubMed

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) are actively sought out, due to pharmacologically important activities of their metabolites. In marine environment, the most prevalent nonribosomal peptide antibiotic producers are sponges inhabiting microorganisms. Conversely, strains from marine sediments and more especially from intertidal mudflats have not been extensively screened for the presence of new NRPS. In this study, for the first time, a collection of one hundred intertidal mudflat bacterial isolates (Marennes-Oléron Bay, France) was assessed for (1) the presence of NRPS genes by degenerated PCR targeting conserved adenylation domains and (2) for their production of antimicrobial molecules. (1) Bacteria with adenylation domains (14 strains) were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and grouped into Firmicutes (one strain) and Proteobacteria (13 strains). In silico analysis of the NRPS amino acid sequences (n = 7) showed 41-58% ID with sequences found in the NCBI database. Three new putative adenylation domain signatures were found. (2) The culture supernatant of one of these strains, identified as a Bacillus, was shown to strongly inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis. This study portends that the intertidal mudflat niche could be of interest for the discovery of new NRPS genes and antimicrobial producing strains. PMID:25039651

Tambadou, Fatoumata; Lanneluc, Isabelle; Sablé, Sophie; Klein, Géraldine L; Doghri, Ibtissem; Sopéna, Valérie; Didelot, Sandrine; Barthélémy, Cyrille; Thiéry, Valérie; Chevrot, Romain

2014-08-01

76

Best Beaches in the USA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Stephen Leatherman, professor and director of the Laboratory for Coastal Research at the University of Maryland, College Park, has released his annual list of America's best beaches. "Dr. Beach" considered fifty different factors, including current, wave size, smell, views and vistas, and intensity of beach use, to rate the twenty finest public beaches of 650 nation wide. This site features photos of the winners, a complete list of the Beach Rating Scale Criteria, and Dr. Leatherman's selections for the five best Walking, Wild, and Romantic Beaches.

Leatherman, Stephen.

1997-01-01

77

Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third, rising sea level leads to a natural landward migration of the shoreline. Dramatic examples of coastal erosion, such as houses and roads falling into the sea, are rare in Hawaii, but the impact of erosion is still very serious. The signs of erosion are much more subtle and typically start as a "temporary" hardening structure designed to mitigate an immediate problem which, eventually, results in a proliferation of structures along a stretch of coast. The natural ability of the sandy shoreline to respond to changes in wave climate is lost. The overall goals of this study are to document the coastal erosion history in Hawaii, determine the causal factors of that erosion, provide high-quality data for other "end-users" in applied studies (i.e. coastal engineers, planners, and managers), and increase our general understanding of low-latitude coastal geologic development. This project involves close cooperation between the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the University of Hawaii.

Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

2001-01-01

78

BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

79

Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction  

EPA Science Inventory

The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

80

INFLUENCE OF TIDE AND WAVES ON WASHOUT OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE BIOREMEDIATION ZONE OF A COARSE-SAND BEACH: APPLICATION IN OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach materials. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the...

81

CLASS XI NRLI Beach Management  

E-print Network

SESSION February 2012 06 REPORT BY CLASS XI NRLI Beach Management for Migrating Shore Birds and Human Recreation At the Holiday Inn, Fort Myers Beach, Project Team member Bruce Delaney welcomedthe,emotions,andpeople. this issue Welcome to Ft Myers Beach P.1 Florida Bay P.2 Difficult Dynamics P.3 Fieldtrip to Carlos Pointe P

Florida, University of

82

Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

2013-09-01

83

Tempe Beach ASU Karsten  

E-print Network

Tempe Beach Park TempeTown Lake Mitchell Park ASU Karsten Golf Course Kajikawa Football Practice Park Sun Angel Stadium Whiteman Tennis Center SRC Intramural Fields Tennis Courts Tennis Courts DaleyRd Terrace Rd 8th St Tempe Police Station Tempe Post O ce Centerpoint Tempe City Hall Tempe St. Luke Hospital

Reisslein, Martin

84

Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.  

PubMed

Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

2013-01-01

85

Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

2013-01-01

86

Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin.  

PubMed

Recreational beaches constitute a large part of the 12 billion dollar per year tourism industry in Wisconsin. Beach closures due to microbial contamination are costly in terms of lost tourism revenue and adverse publicity for an area. Escherichia coli (E. coli), is used as an indicator of microbial contamination, as high concentrations of this organism should indicate a recent fecal contamination event that may contain other, more pathogenic, bacteria. An additional problem at many beaches in the state is the nuisance algae, Cladophora. It has been hypothesized that mats of Cladophora may harbor high concentrations of E. coli. Three beaches in Door County, WI were selected for study, based on tourist activity and amounts of algae present. Concentrations of E. coli were higher within Cladophora mats than in surrounding water. Beaches displayed an E. coli concentration gradient in water extending away from the Cladophora mats, although this was not statistically significant. Likewise, the amount of Cladophora observed on a beach did not correlate with E. coli concentrations found in routine beach monitoring samples. More work is needed to determine the impact of mats of Cladophora on beach water quality, as well as likely sources of E. coli found within the mats. PMID:18639919

Englebert, Erik T; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

2008-10-01

87

Heavy metal concentrations in three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Gunsan, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were measured in livers of three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Korea in the East\\u000a Asian-Australian migration flyways. Iron concentrations in red-necked stints (Calidris ruficollis) (geomean = 1,322 ?g\\/g dw) were higher than in terek sandpipers (Xenus cinereus) (467 ?g\\/g dw), and great knots (Calidris tenuirostris) (158 ?g\\/g dw). Copper concentrations in great knots (85.8 ?g\\/g dw) were significantly higher than in red-necked stints (15.9 ?g\\/g dw)\\u000a and terek

Jungsoo Kim; Hwa-Su Lee; Tae-Hoe Koo

2009-01-01

88

Anithiactins A-C, modified 2-phenylthiazoles from a mudflat-derived Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Intensive investigation of the chemical components of a Streptomyces sp. isolated from mudflat sediments collected on the southern coast of the Korean peninsula led to the isolation of three new compounds, anithiactins A-C (1-3). The chemical structures of anithiactins A and C were determined by interpretation of NMR data analyses, while the chemical structure of anithiactin B was established from a combination of NMR spectroscopic and crystallographic data analyses. The structure of anithiactin A was also confirmed by total synthesis. These three anithiactins displayed moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with no significant cytotoxicity. PMID:25455147

Kim, Hiyoung; Yang, Inho; Patil, Rahul S; Kang, Sinwoo; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Min-Sun; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

2014-12-26

89

75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna Beach for New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport under...

2010-07-19

90

NAME: Cedar Beach Creek Habitat Restoration Demonstration Project LOCATION: Cedar Beach County Parke, Suffolk Co., NY  

E-print Network

NAME: Cedar Beach Creek Habitat Restoration Demonstration Project LOCATION: Cedar Beach County: The Cedar Beach Creek Habitat Restoration Demonstration Project will restore local essential ecosystem, beach, and open water mosaic. This project will establish and enhance three critical marine habitats

US Army Corps of Engineers

91

Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

U.S. Geological Survey

2013-01-01

92

Evaluation of Beach Grooming Techniques on Escherichia coli Density in Foreshore Sand at North Beach, Racine, WI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational

Julie L. Kinzelman; Richard L. Whitman; Muruleedhara Byappanahalli; Emma Jackson; Robert C. Bagley

2003-01-01

93

Beach/Fireworks Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Highlights · Beach/Fireworks · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Beach at Crescent Beach. We will drive to the beach and spend the day sunning, swimming, and having fun! After the beach, we will come back to campus to watch fireworks at Flavet Field. WHEN: Saturday, July 3rd. Meet

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

94

In situ versus laboratory analysis of sediment stability from intertidal mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of intertidal mudflat erosion thresholds from in situ and laboratory erosion devices were contrasted. Alteration of the critical erosion shear stresses was potentially brought about either by physical disturbance (vibration, compaction and water loss), ongoing biological activity or changes in the behaviour of infaunal organisms during transport and resting of the excavated cores. In an initial experiment, box cores were collected from the Humber estuary Skeffling mudflats (April 1995) and transported back to the laboratory for measurement in a linear flume. These cores suffered visible disturbance during transport to the laboratory and their erosion thresholds were considerably higher than in situ data obtained by the Sea Carousel erosion device. In the main study, cylindrical cores collected in the Sylt-Rømø Bight (June 1998) were collected and transported in a manner that minimised disturbance. The stability of these cores was measured with the EROMES laboratory erosion device and compared to near-by in situ measurements taken with the cohesive strength meter (CSM) erosion device. These devices use different criterion to calculate the erosion threshold (erosion rate and attenuation threshold, respectively), resulting in differences in the calculated erosion threshold. However, when an attenuation threshold was used for both devices the erosion thresholds were comparable. When disturbance of cores was minimised, in situ and lab erosion thresholds were comparable. However, user bias in site selection can influence results where there is spatial variation in sediment properties. Stability measurements should therefore be made on randomly selected sediment areas.

Tolhurst, T. J.; Riethmüller, R.; Paterson, D. M.

2000-07-01

95

Respect the Beach Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interdisciplinary coastal education program from Surfrider Foundation incorporates science processes, oceanography, watershed ecology and environmental awareness in lessons for K-12 students and community groups. Include: teaching guides, classroom lectures, handouts, video, hands-on projects. Beachology, for grades K-6, studies sand processes, beach ecology, human impacts. Watershed Works, for grades 5-12, explains links between coast and watershed. The Snowrider Project educates alpine communities about hydrologic cycle. Available online as PDF documents.

2012-04-03

96

On the importance of size of plastic fragments and pellets on the strandline: a snapshot of a Brazilian beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments are reported as ubiquitous beach contaminants in the peer-reviewed literature.\\u000a A surface density of 0.3 virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments per square centimeter of the strandline area was registered\\u000a on an urban beach of the northeast of Brazil. This beach is presently not affected by petrochemical facilities or pellet processing\\u000a plants. The main

Monica F. Costa; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti; Maria Christina B. Araújo; Ângela Spengler; Paula S. Tourinho

2010-01-01

97

Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamin...

98

RETRIEVAL OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MUDFLAT SEDIMENTS FROM HYPERSPECTRAL DATA USING THE MODIFIED GAUSSIAN MODEL AND SPECTRAL CURVE FITTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to retrieve parameters relevant to the understanding of sediment dynamics in a bay, Bourgneuf Bay (France) from hyperspectral remote sensing data. The erodability of mudflats is strongly influenced by the sediments bio-physical characteristics. These parameters include sediment grain size, moisture content and mineralogy as well as presence or absence of biofilm, all having an

Charles Verpoorter; Véronique Carrère; Marc Robin

2007-01-01

99

Chemical characterization of porewaters in an intertidal mudflat of the Seine estuary: relationship to erosion–deposition cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seasonal field study was carried out in the Seine estuary to determine the chemistry of sediment porewaters using the `peeper' technique and changes in the elevation of the mudflats using the `Altus' technique. This approach allowed us to evaluate the release of nutrients and to link these releases to the sediment hydrodynamics. Our results show that nutrient and organic

Gabriel Bally; Valérie Mesnage; Julien Deloffre; Olivier Clarisse; Robert Lafite; Jean-Paul Dupont

2004-01-01

100

Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

2014-01-01

101

Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health.  

PubMed

Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the "Microareias 2012" workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications. PMID:24355396

Sabino, R; Rodrigues, R; Costa, I; Carneiro, C; Cunha, M; Duarte, A; Faria, N; Ferreira, F C; Gargaté, M J; Júlio, C; Martins, M L; Nevers, M B; Oleastro, M; Solo-Gabriele, H; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C; Whitman, R L; Brandão, J

2014-02-15

102

Sunny with a chance of gastroenteritis: predicting swimmer risk at california beaches.  

PubMed

Traditional beach management that uses concentrations of cultivatable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) may lead to delayed notification of unsafe swimming conditions. Predictive, nowcast models of beach water quality may help reduce beach management errors and enhance protection of public health. This study compares performances of five different types of statistical, data-driven predictive models: multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least-squares regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, in predicting advisories due to FIB contamination at 25 beaches along the California coastline. Classification tree and the binary logistic regression model with threshold tuning are consistently the best performing model types for California beaches. Beaches with good performing models usually have a rainfall/flow related dominating factor affecting beach water quality, while beaches having a deteriorating water quality trend or low FIB exceedance rates are less likely to have a good performing model. This study identifies circumstances when predictive models are the most effective, and suggests that using predictive models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions may improve public health protection at California beaches relative to current practices. PMID:25489920

Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

2015-01-01

103

John Dewey at the Beach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one educator's reactions to viewing an old movie of educational philosopher John Dewey at the beach, discussing who Dewey was, examining his educational theory, highlighting Dewey's belief that true learning is experimental, and asserting that "Dewey at the beach" is a perfect image for this dynamic educator, who was a common man with a…

Kaplan, Jeffrey S.

2002-01-01

104

Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is the major determinant of shell use. The hermit crab must however fit well into the shell so that compatibility between crab size and shell size becomes crucial. Although shell availability possibly influenced shell use and hermit crab distribution, this is not critical in a tropical setting of high gastropod diversity and abundance.

Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

2014-02-01

105

Temperature changes in the tidal excursion front and surface sediment of a subtropical mudflat in autumn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature changes in sediment and the inundating water of a subtropical mudflat were determined using a series of data-loggers to monitor the temperature on fine days around the equinox at Lota, Queensland, Australia. On fine days the temperature of the forward shallow (ca. 5 cm) section of an incoming tide is up to 8 °C higher than that of the body of water from which it originates. Stationary data-loggers in the sediment indicate that during the day heat exchange occurred between the sediment and inundating waters, the sediment temperatures dropping from up to 10 °C higher than channel waters to temperatures approaching that of channel water in as little as 30 min following inundation. The implications for intertidal nekton and benthos are discussed.

Birt, Mekiel J.; Tibbetts, Ian R.

2007-08-01

106

Now an empty mudflat: past and present benthic abundances in the western Dutch Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benthic fauna of two areas in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, Posthuiswad and Staart van Schieringhals, was described in 1930-1960 and again between 1996 and 2005. Here, we document the changes. Whereas both areas formerly had high densities of species that biogenically structured the intertidal mudflats such as mussels Mytilus edulis and cockles Cerastoderma edule, by 1996 they had shown a tenfold decrease in the densities of molluscs, with no recovery till 2005. Although the number of species of polychaetes and crustaceans may not have changed much, their relative abundance did. Nowadays, more polychaete species are common than before. We briefly discuss whether the changes in benthic community composition could be due to industrial fishery practices or eutrophication effects.

Kraan, Casper; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

2011-03-01

107

Effects of shorebird predation and snail abundance on an intertidal mudflat community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top-down effects of predation are well documented in a variety of ecological communities, including marine soft-sediment systems. It has been proposed that intertidal mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, which host a large population of foraging shorebirds each summer, may exhibit this community dynamic. Biofilm (consisting mainly of diatoms) forms the base of the mudflat community food web, which is dominated by the amphipod Corophium volutator. To assess the potential for a trophic cascade, we conducted a manipulative field experiment examining individual and combined effects of the shorebird Calidris pusilla, a primary predator of C. volutator, and the eastern mudsnail (Nassarius obsoletus), an intraguild predator, on community structure (including macrofauna and large meiofauna retained by a 250-?m screen). Snails exhibited density-dependent top-down effects, primarily from strong negative interactions with juvenile and adult C. volutator, likely due to interference, consumption and emigration. Medium and high densities of snails reduced chlorophyll a concentration (a measure of diatom abundance), likely through consumption and disturbance of the sediment. When present at higher densities, snails also increased variability in community structure. Shorebirds were less influential in determining community structure. They reduced C. volutator biomass through consumption, but there was no resulting effect on primary production. Top-down effects of snails and birds were cumulative on C. volutator, but did not generate a trophic cascade. We suggest that a combination of omnivory and intraguild predation by shorebirds and snails, coupled with relatively low grazing pressure by C. volutator, prevented transmission of top-down effects.

Cheverie, Anne V.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Coffin, Michael R. S.; Barbeau, Myriam A.

2014-09-01

108

Diagenesis of the sandflat and mudflat facies of the upper Queen Formation, Midland basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The upper Queen Formation (Permian, Guadalupian) of the Midland basin, Texas, consists of cyclically interbedded clastics and evaporites that were deposited in a fluvial-dominated continental sabkha environment. Fluvial sandflat deposits, consisting of thin units (0.2-5.0 m) of very fine grained arkosic sandstones constitute reservoir horizons, whereas 0.1-1.3 m thick units of coarse siltstones and evaporites of playa-mudflat deposits are nonproductive. This study addresses the diagenetic histories of the reservoir and nonreservoir clastics. The primary porosity of the clastics was first reduced by pore-filling hematitic smectite clay, anhydrite, and dolomite during an early diagenetic phase. Subsequent dissolution of the anhydrite and dolomite by acidic pore-waters created high porosities (mean = 15%) and permeabilities (mean = 70 md) in the sandflat deposits, porosities which were only slightly occluded by later dissolution and reprecipitation of grain-lining smectite. Pore-water movement and subsequent hydrocarbon migration were both controlled by the coarser grain size and lower clay-matrix and silt content of these sandflat deposits. In contrast, the finer grain size and higher clay-matrix and silt content prevented similar dissolution of cements within the mudflat facies, which have significantly lower porosities (mean{lt}10%) and permeabilities (mean{lt}0.1 md). Fluids and gases used in enhanced recovery techniques will follow pathways created by dissolution of anhydrite and dolomite cements within the sandflat facies. However, caution must be used with fluids that can cause swelling of the grain-lining smectite.

Mckone, C.J.; Malicse, A.; Mazzullo, J.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-03-01

109

Actinian dominated intertidal mudflats: A new case of an extraordinary rare phenomenon from Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, estuarine intertidal mudflats constitute important nurseries for fish and foraging grounds for coastal birds by providing a plenitude of mollusks, worms, and crustaceans as prey, which in turn mostly feed on suspended and benthic microalgae, bacteria, and detritus. Despite the high productivity of such habitats, pronounced variability in both salinity and temperature results typically in low diversity. The only sea anemone reported from estuarine mud is the edwardsiid Nematostella vectensisStephenson, 1935. It occurs widely in the northern hemisphere, and occasionally in extremely high density. Here we document another sea anemone from estuarine mud and muddy sand found in Southern Chile which has similar ecological attributes. Taxonomic confusion has impeded the reporting on this small but prominent member in a macrozoobenthic assemblage, the brooding Anthopleura hermaphroditica (Carlgren, 1899; Anthozoa: Actiniidae). It differs from N. vectensis by the presence of symbiotic algae. Average density under poly- to euhaline conditions in mud and muddy sand at around mid tide level was about 3 actinians per cm 2. An average abundance of 11,000 m - 2 , a biovolume of 487 cm 3 m - 2 , and a biomass of 35.5 g dry organic weight m - 2 were found in mud and muddy sand in two surveys 20 years apart. The mean fishing area of fully expanded individuals covers 42 ± 25 mm 2, corresponding to a circular area with a diameter of 7.3 ± 5.7 mm. Preliminary experiments indicate that associated benthos may be relegated to life below surface by the net of tentacles above the sediment. As no predators on A. hermaphroditica could be found on the mudflat, the success of this mixotrophic sea anemone may entail a trophic dead end.

Schories, Dirk; Reise, Karsten; Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya; Clasing, Elena; Reise, Anneken

2011-02-01

110

Sedimentology of coarse-clastic beach-ridge deposits, Essex, southeast England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distinction of cheniers from other types of beach ridge can often be problematic. The stratigraphy, sedimentology and geomorphological development of sand- and gravel-rich beach ridges at three sites on the northern Essex coast, England were determined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), ground-truthing trenches and auger holes, and historical-aerial photograph analysis. The 900 MHz GPR system used achieved a maximum vertical resolution between 0.02 and 0.06 m. There was good correspondence between the radar stratigraphy obtained from time-migrated radar reflection profiles and the nature and form of bounding surfaces, sets of lamination, beds and bedsets observed in trenches. Data for one of the study sites (Colne Point) illustrate a complex beach-ridge stratigraphy and sequence of development that confirms they are not true cheniers. Instead, the ridges form part of both retrogradational and progradational barrier-spit sequences. Chenier designation at the other two study sites (Foulton Hall and Stone Point) is more straightforward, as the beach ridges lie at the junction between actively eroding mudflat and saltmarsh. However, despite the distinction between the barrier-spit beach ridges and the cheniers, the same types of deposit are recognised in both, indicating similar formative processes. Washover-sheet deposits consist of low-angle (<5°), sub-parallel, landward-dipping stratification, which is concordant with bounding surfaces above and below. Washover sheets develop when high-wave energy/storm-related overwash moves landward onto unflooded marsh or lagoonal surfaces. Washover-delta deposits are characterised by high-angle cross-stratification (up to 28°) that downlaps onto the underlying marsh or lagoonal surface. Washover deltas develop when overwash enters a significant body of standing water to landward, such as a flooded marsh or lagoon. Alternations between washover-sheet and washover-delta development are seen in many instances, but their time scale is unclear due to paucity of detailed information regarding overwash sedimentation rates, or chenier and berm-ridge migration rates. Similarity of the internal structure in both the cheniers and barrier-spit beach ridges confirms that this criterion alone cannot be used to distinguish different types of beach-ridge deposit. Detailed stratigraphic data, preferably complemented by direct evidence for the geomorphological context in which the ridge developed, are also required.

Neal, Adrian; Richards, Julie; Pye, Ken

2003-12-01

111

Beach-cusp formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

1979-01-01

112

Recent Hawaii Beach Nourishment Projects Scott Sullivan  

E-print Network

Recent Hawaii Beach Nourishment Projects Scott Sullivan Vice President, Sea Engineering, Inc. Abstract Hawaii is blessed with beautiful natural sand beaches, but over time many of these beaches have relegated beach maintenance to a relatively low priority. With Hawaii's population increasing, and nature

Frandsen, Jannette B.

113

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade  

E-print Network

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade Developers: Jan Ward, Merry Lojkovic, Kara Davidson the characteristics, behavior, and anatomy of beach hoppers. !" Examine the relationships between the beach hopper (transparent) !" 1-2 buckets !" sieves !" shovel !" small plastic container with lid to hold beach hoppers

114

Concepts in gravel beach dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant processes in gravel beach dynamics are reviewed, highlighting some common themes which unify the various components of the gravel beach system, the repercussions of which impart on how gravel beach dynamics might be understood conceptually. In particular, gravel beach dynamics are thought to be highly dependent on the temporal and spatial variation in grain size, and the continual adjustments made by an active beach step, both of which act not only as the expression of changing morphodynamic conditions, but also as a controlling influence. Morphodynamics, the notion that the exchanges on beaches between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological change takes the form of reciprocal relationships which are mediated through feedback mechanisms (in such a way that they cannot be thought of or studied independently) is not a new one. Yet it appears that for the gravel beach, morphodynamics must be re-defined to describe conditions where variations in sediment size are thought to deserve parity, rather than as merely a sequent entity or boundary condition. 'Morpho-sedimentary-dynamics' is a phrase coined to intuit such cause and effect, detailing the co-evolution of morphology, hydro-hydraulics and sediment properties whilst acknowledging causative pluralism, feedbacks and multiplier effects. This is the recommended conceptual framework within which to crystallise thought and organise further research for the gravel beach. Essentially, it increases the minimum number of parameters needed to describe the state of the gravel beach as a physical system. Therefore, it is advised that simplicity will be most expedient in our future modelling efforts, if complexity is to be adequately encapsulated.

Buscombe, Daniel; Masselink, Gerhard

2006-11-01

115

Coastal Erosion: Where's the Beach?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, explores erosion and accretion of coastal sediments, the two processes that keep our beaches in a constant state of change. Both natural and not-so-natural factors influencing these processes are discussed. Learners can view a variety of weblinks on the topic and conduct their own beach profile investigation, or access profile data from a 1999 Ocean City, Maryland beach and plot the changes over time for a graphic illustration of these processes.

2000-05-01

116

NATURE: Hippo Beach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is the online companion to Hippo Beach, which recently aired on the PBS series NATURE. And as the website explains, "from the study of hippos' essential relationships with birds to the discovery that hippos can communicate underwater, these mammals deserve a closer look." Students can get a closer look with "Sun, Sand, and Hippos," an interdisciplinary lesson plan for grades 3-5. The lesson guides students in researching and creating presentations on hippos and helpful weblinks, worksheets, and a teacher's guide are provided. The website contains other special features as well, including video clips from the program, multimedia activities, informative essays, and more. [RS] This site is also reviewed in the November 14, 2003 NSDL Life Sciences Report.

117

Chemical characterization of porewaters in an intertidal mudflat of the Seine estuary: relationship to erosion-deposition cycles.  

PubMed

A seasonal field study was carried out in the Seine estuary to determine the chemistry of sediment porewaters using the 'peeper' technique and changes in the elevation of the mudflats using the 'Altus' technique. This approach allowed us to evaluate the release of nutrients and to link these releases to the sediment hydrodynamics. Our results show that nutrient and organic matter cycling in a Seine estuary mudflat exhibits a seasonal behaviour, which is mainly influenced by variations in hydrodynamics. Sediments, rich organic matter, were input during floods and they were mineralized during summer and autumn, releasing nutrients and dissolved organic carbon into the sediment porewaters. The nutrient release, including ammonium, is mainly linked to the mineralization of organic matter, while the release of phosphate is delayed. The delay could be the result of phosphate association with organic matter and/or its co-precipitation with calcium and iron. PMID:15245981

Bally, Gabriel; Mesnage, Valérie; Deloffre, Julien; Clarisse, Olivier; Lafite, Robert; Dupont, Jean-Paul

2004-08-01

118

76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0001] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle...

2011-09-02

119

77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2012-0041] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle...

2012-03-09

120

76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2011-0001] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle...

2011-06-28

121

Estimate of removal rate of Nereis virens (Polychaeta: Nereidae) from an intertidal mudflat by gulls ( Larus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), ringed-billed gulls (L. delawarensis) and great blackbacked gulls (L. marinus) on an intertidal mudflat in Maine, USA, was investigated. Remains of fish, mussels, crabs, insects, and the polychaeteNereis virens were recovered from gull feces. Forty-three percent of the fecal samples containedN. virens jaws, setae, or both. A comparison of jaws from fecal

W. G. Ambrose

1986-01-01

122

The effect of geomorphological structures on potential biostabilisation by microphytobenthos on intertidal mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate content of sediments were measured at Skeffling mudflat in the Humber estuary, UK, in July 1997 as part of a fieldwork experiment carried out within the framework of the INTRMUD project. The aim was to analyse the spatial variations of Chl a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations within the surface 1 cm of sediment (together with physical variables) in the different macroscopic sedimentary structures found at four stations along a cross-shore transect. The underlying assumption was that epipelic microalgae (Chl a) produce extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS), largely comprised carbohydrates, when migrating vertically at the sediment surface. This organic material binds sediment particles and thus contributes to enhance sediment cohesiveness/stability. Therefore, the shape and the strength of the relationship between Chl a and colloidal carbohydrates are fundamental for assessing the role of autotrophic microbial communities in biostabilisation processes. At station A, the highest level of the mudflat, there were no obvious sedimentary features, while a ridge (crest) and runnel (trough) system was present at mid-tidal stations (B and C). At station D, the sediment was sandier; crests and troughs were obvious but did not form a ridge and runnel system as at stations B and C. Taking all data together, a significant positive linear relationship between colloidal carbohydrates and Chl a was found, but analysing data separately by station indicated that there was no relationship between variables at the sandy station (D). At stations B and C, there was a difference in the Chl a-carbohydrate relationship between ridges and runnels: (i) there was no relationship in runnels, i.e. carbohydrates concentration was roughly constant whatever the mud Chl a content, and (ii) there was a positive linear relationship in ridges. This indicates that the increase of epipelic biomass on ridges increases the amount of EPS, which is likely to stabilise the sediment surface of these features. The biomass level in runnels is lower and does not enhance the amount of EPS. Therefore, the activity of epipelic microalgae in runnels does not contribute to sediment stability. This observed difference between ridges and runnels does not mean that epipelic microalgae from these two features necessarily behave in a different way; carbohydrates produced by microalgae in runnels are very likely to be dissolved because of the higher water content. Thus epipelic algae cannot build up a pool of carbohydrates in runnels. As a conclusion, it is clear that geomorphological features of intertidal mudflats influence biological processes in a way which exacerbates the physical processes: (i) ridges are regularly exposed and the sediment surface is stabilised, which apparently favours microphytobenthos growth and carbohydrates production with a further increase in sediment stability (according to our initial assumption); (ii) runnels are drainage structures with a high water content, which prevents microphytobenthos from building up a carbohydrate pool. Therefore, there seems to be a synergistic effect between physical and biological processes on ridges to stabilise the sediment surface.

Blanchard, G. F.; Paterson, D. M.; Stal, L. J.; Richard, P.; Galois, R.; Huet, V.; Kelly, J.; Honeywill, C.; de Brouwer, J.; Dyer, K.; Christie, M.; Seguignes, M.

2000-07-01

123

Coupling Between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in the Salinas De San Pedro Mudflat, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 [ppm], which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001-0.005 (Cd); 0.04-0.02 (Cr); 0.13-0.38 (Cu); 0.11-0.38 (Pb); 0.0009-0.020 (Se); and 0.188-0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved O2 [ppm] in the pore water sediment indicates suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 [ppm] and loss on ignition (LOI) [%] correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI; that is to say the excess CO2 may caused higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower soil organic matter (LOI) [%] on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of reduced components. The heavy metal concentrations in sediment samples were slightly higher in suboxic layer, yet it appears that salt marsh sediment in Salinas de San Pedro act like a sink for nutrient and carbon by maximizing carbon sequestration.

Rezaie Boroon, M.; Diaz, S.; Torres, V.; Lazzaretto, T.; Dehyn, D.

2013-12-01

124

Tidal pulsing alters nitrous oxide fluxes in a temperate intertidal mudflat.  

PubMed

Environmental pulses, or sudden, marked changes to the conditions within an ecosystem, can be important drivers of resource availability in many systems. In this study, we investigated the effect of tidal pulsing on the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), a powerful greenhouse gas, from a marine intertidal mudflat on the north shore of Massachusetts, USA. We found these tidal flat sediments to be a sink of N2O at low tide with an average uptake rate of -6.7 +/- 2 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1). Further, this N20 sink increased the longer sediments were tidally exposed. These field measurements, in conjunction with laboratory nutrient additions, revealed that this flux appears to be driven primarily by sediment denitrification. Additionally, N2O uptake was most responsive to dissolved inorganic nitrogen with phosphorus (DIN + DIP) addition, suggesting that the N2O consumption process may be P limited. Furthermore, nutrient addition experiments suggest that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) releases N20 at the highest levels of nitrate fertilization. Our findings indicate that tidal flats are important sinks of N2O, potentially capable of offsetting the release of this potent greenhouse gas by other, nearby ecosystems. PMID:25163127

Vieillard, A M; Fulweiler, R W

2014-07-01

125

Response of archaeal communities to oil spill in bioturbated mudflat sediments.  

PubMed

The response of archaeal community to oil spill with the combined effect of the bioturbation activity of the polychaetes Hediste diversicolor was determined in mudflat sediments from the Aber-Benoît basin (Brittany, French Atlantic coast), maintained in microcosms. The dynamics of the archaeal community was monitored by combining comparative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprints and sequence library analyses based on 16S rRNA genes and 16S cDNA. Methanogens were also followed by targeting the mcrA gene. Crenarchaeota were always detected in all communities irrespective of the addition of H. diversicolor and/or oil. In the presence of oil, modifications of archaeal community structures were observed. These modifications were more pronounced when H. diversicolor was added resulting in a more diverse community especially for the Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. The analysis of mcrA transcripts showed a specific structure for each condition since the beginning of the experiment. Overall, oiled microcosms showed different communities irrespective of H. diversicolor addition, while similar hydrocarbon removal capacities were observed. PMID:24057322

Stauffert, Magalie; Duran, Robert; Gassie, Claire; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

2014-01-01

126

Estuarine macrofauna responses to continuous in situ nutrient addition on a tropical mudflat.  

PubMed

A field experiment to assess the effects of continuous nutrient addition on the macrobenthic community was carried out on an estuarine mudflat on the northeast coast of Brazil. The experiment began on 5 October 2005 and ended on 8 February 2006. Macrofauna was compared at approximately four-week intervals in triplicate plots with three levels (Control - C, Low Dose - LD and High Dose - HD) of weekly fertilizer additions for 17 weeks. Inorganic fertilizer (N-P-K) was applied on nine randomly defined quadrangular plots (4m(2) each). All measurements were calculated from species abundances. Multivariate analyses as well as the univariate indices (richness, abundance and Shannon-Wiener index) showed statistically significant differences between the enriched and control areas during the period of the experiment. The expected gradual response based on the succession model of Pearson and Rosenberg was not observed. The nutrient doses used were high enough to cause severe decreases in abundance, richness and evenness, and an increase in dominance. PMID:24835372

Botter-Carvalho, Mônica L; Carvalho, Paulo V V C; Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

2014-06-15

127

75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units...from ``FPL Energy Point Beach...to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach...for Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units...a significant effect on the quality of the human environment....

2010-05-06

128

LAKE WORTH INLET (PALM BEACH HARBOR) NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT  

E-print Network

LAKE WORTH INLET (PALM BEACH HARBOR) NAVIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA 24 January 2014 ABSTRACT: Lake Worth Inlet connects Palm Beach Harbor to the Atlantic Ocean. The port is located in Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida. The Port of Palm Beach is the fourth busiest

US Army Corps of Engineers

129

33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.736 Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL....

2014-07-01

130

33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.736 Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL....

2012-07-01

131

33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.736 Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL....

2010-07-01

132

33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.736 Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL....

2013-07-01

133

33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.736 Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL....

2011-07-01

134

West Onslow Beach and New River Inlet (Topsail Beach), North Carolina  

E-print Network

West Onslow Beach and New River Inlet (Topsail Beach), North Carolina 17 April 2008 Abstract: Topsail Beach lies along the southwestern end of Topsail Island, a sandy barrier island about two miles are estimated at $9,200,00 The proposed project for coastal storm damage reduction is a traditional beach

US Army Corps of Engineers

135

Newport Beach Police Department Press Release870 Santa Barbara Dr., Newport Beach, CA 92660  

E-print Network

Newport Beach Police Department Press Release870 Santa Barbara Dr., Newport Beach, CA 92660, at approximately 8 a.m., Newport Beach Police Detectives served a search warrant in the 1000 block of Valencia for 496 PC ­ Possession of Stolen Property. They were booked at the Newport Beach Police Jail and were

Rose, Michael R.

136

MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN  

E-print Network

MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m

137

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California  

E-print Network

NAME: City of Long Beach's Colorado Lagoon LOCATION: Long Beach, California ACRES: 28.3 acres NON-FEDERAL SPONSORS: City of Long Beach Friends of Colorado Lagoon PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Colorado Lagoon is a 28 of visitors from communities within and surrounding the City of Long Beach, California. There are over 700

US Army Corps of Engineers

138

Week 5, A 'Sweet As' Beach and Ride Murdering Beach at sunset.  

E-print Network

Week 5, A 'Sweet As' Beach and Ride Murdering Beach at sunset. I'm starting to get used Point trailhead, we turned off on a steep road down to Murdering Beach. Apparently a murder did occur here at some point, giving the beach its awful name. Or perhaps it was named by the locals to keep

Bardsley, John

139

Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

2007-09-01

140

Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2011-01-01

141

Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach occupancy,  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach occupancy, 2009 2010 Cefas contract report C3635 Environment Report RL 01/10 #12;1 Environment Report RL 01/10 Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach. Survey area 9 Map 1 The Cumbrian coast beach occupancy survey area 10 3.1 General observations 11 3

142

(dm-)Beach Creation by Breaking Waves  

E-print Network

(dm-)Beach Creation by Breaking Waves Onno Bokhove Walsh Cottage GFD, July 2010 Thanks: Wout Zweers curiosity ... ·! ... playing on beach, Hele-Shaw cell (Kuipers) ... #12;Theatre of waves and sand #12 through a dynamic beach and wave ... #12;Intermezzo on design #12;#12;Laboratory Set-up Specs Quasi-3D; 2D

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

143

City of Manhattan Beach Community Development  

E-print Network

City of Manhattan Beach Community Development Phone: (310) 802-5500 FAX: (310) 802-5501 TDD: (310 Sacramento, Ca. 95814 Attention: Joe Loyer j mloycr@cncrgy.stalc.ca.us Subject: City of Manhattan Beach the City of Manhattan Beach adoption of our local more stringent energy efficiency standards. In accordance

144

Week 14, Surfing It Is Smaills Beach  

E-print Network

Week 14, Surfing It Is Smaills Beach One of the things that I had hoped to be able to do while I enjoy swimming at the beach; the ocean is cold this far south, even in summer. Over the past couple to go out for an hour before school. And we also have two body boards, so going to the beach is now

Bardsley, John

145

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Beach Occupancy, 2007  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Beach Occupancy, 2007 Environment Report RL 02/08 Customer: Sellafield Beach Occupancy, 2007 Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science Lowestoft Laboratory to Seamill 12 4.2.1 Beach description 12 4.2.2 Activities 13 4.3 Seamill Lane to Coulderton and Nethertown 15

146

The Belgian sandy beach ecosystem: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the available knowledge on sedimentology, hydrodynamics and five major ecosystem components (microphytobenthos, vascular plants, terrestrial arthropods, zoobenthos, and avifauna) of Belgian sandy beaches. It covers the area from the foredunes to the lower foreshore, takes an ecosystem approach to beaches of this specific geographic area. Morphodynamically, Bel- gian beaches are (ultra-)dissipative, macrotidal, and wide. Characteristic grain sizes

Jeroen Speybroeck; Dries Bonte; Wouter Courtens; Tom Gheskiere; Patrick Grootaert; Jean-Pierre Maelfait; Sam Provoost; Koen Sabbe; Eric W. M. Stienen; Vera Van Lancker; Wouter Van Landuyt; Magda Vincx; Steven Degraer

2008-01-01

147

Photo-regulation in microphytobenthos from intertidal mudflats and non-tidal coastal shallows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigated seasonal changes in the photo-regulatory mechanisms of microphytobenthos found in intertidal mudflats (Aiguillon Bay, the Atlantic, France) and non-tidal sandy coastal shallows (Puck Bay, the Baltic, Poland) based on photosynthetic pigment characteristics and the estimates of photosynthetic parameters obtained through oxygen evolution measurements. The intertidal communities consisted of motile diatom species typical of epipelon. The non-tidal microphytobenthos was composed of epipsammic species mostly belonging to four taxonomic groups chiefly contributing to the assemblage biomass, namely cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, green algae and diatoms (comprising mainly small-sized species). The epipelon was low light acclimated as shown by the lower values of photoprotective/photosynthetic (PPC/PSC) carotenoids and diatoxanthin/diadinoxanthin (Dt/Dd) ratios. In contrast, the epipsammon exhibited features of high light acclimation (high PPC/PSC and Dt/Dd ratios). In both microphytobenthos types, the photosynthetic capacity (Pm) showed the same seasonal variation pattern and there were no statistically significant differences between the investigated sites in corresponding seasons (P > 0.05). In both assemblage types, the photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance (?) decreased over time. The epipelon had higher ? compared to the epipsammon. Seasonal changes of the photoacclimation index (Ek) estimated for the epipelic communities reflected variations observed in Pm, whereas in the epipsammon an increasing trend in Ek values was observed. Ek was always higher for the epipsammon when comparing analogous seasons, which further corroborated low and high light acclimation in the epipelic and epipsammic communities, respectively. The presence of the photoinhibition parameter (?) in the epipelon and the lack of it in the epipsammon suggested that the latter was resistant to high irradiance and the physiological mechanisms were sufficient to protect it from photoinhibition. In the epipelon, a downturn in photosynthetic rates showed that it was susceptible to high light intensities, suggesting that physiological photoprotective mechanisms must be supported by behavioural photoacclimation in order to avoid damaging light influence.

Pniewski, Filip F.; Biskup, Paulina; Bubak, Iwona; Richard, Pierre; Lata?a, Adam; Blanchard, Gerard

2015-01-01

148

Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

were collected on a shallow estuarine mudflat in northern San Francisco Bay to examine the physical processes controlling waves, turbulence, sediment resuspension, and their interactions. Tides alone forced weak to moderate currents of 10-30 cm s-1 in depths of 0-3 m, and maintained a background suspension of 30-50 mg L-1 of fine sediment. In the presence of wind waves, bottom orbital velocities spanned 20-30 cm s-1, suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) at 15 and 30 cm above the bed (cmab) increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and vertical gradients in SSC were strong enough to produce turbulence-limiting stratification, with gradient Richardson numbers exceeding 0.25. Simultaneously, turbulent stresses (decomposed from wave motions) increased by an order of magnitude. The apparent contradiction of energetic turbulence in the presence of strong stratification was reconciled by considering the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget: in general, dissipation and buoyancy flux were balanced by local shear production, and each of these terms increased during wave events. The classic wave-current boundary layer model represented the observations qualitatively, but not quantitatively since the velocity profile could not be approximated as logarithmic. Rather, the mean shear was elevated by the Stokes drift return flow and wind-generated surface stress, which diffused sediment upward and limited stratification. Our findings highlight a pathway for waves to supply energy to both the production and destruction of turbulence, and demonstrate that in such shallow depths, TKE and SSC can be elevated over more of the water column than predicted by traditional models.

MacVean, Lissa J.; Lacy, Jessica R.

2014-03-01

149

Seasonal distribution of chlorophyll on mudflats in New South Wales, Australia measured by field spectrometry and PAM fluorometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability of chlorophyll (as an index of micro-algal abundance) between warm and cool seasons at different heights on (distances across) the shore was investigated on intertidal mudflats in warm-temperate Australia. Chlorophyll was measured using ratios of reflectances from field spectrometry and minimal fluorescence ( F0) from PAM fluorometry to compare patterns obtained using these two methods. A single sampling period comprised 2 days of sampling, one for each mudflat, with 2 sampling periods nested within each month, 2 months within each of a cool and warm season in each of 2 years. Large differences in amounts of chlorophyll were found between the two mudflats, although spatial and temporal patterns of variation were generally similar. There were greater amounts of chlorophyll in the cooler months than in the warmer months in each location in each year, which contrasts with many of the patterns reported from elsewhere. There was more chlorophyll on the upper than on the lower shore and the increases from summer to winter were generally greater at the higher levels. Large variation in chlorophyll from week to week within each month demonstrated the need for adequate replication in studies of seasonal patterns of variability. Measurements made by a field spectrometer and a PAM fluorometer were largely consistent, but, at certain times, they showed an opposite pattern. The reasons for these differences were investigated further by looking at differences in other pigments, but the different results from the two methods could not to be explained by changes in composition of the micro-algal assemblage and, as yet, remain unexplained.

Murphy, R. J.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Chapman, M. G.; Underwood, A. J.

2009-08-01

150

Microorganism dynamics during a rising tide: Disentangling effects of resuspension and mixing with offshore waters above an intertidal mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resuspension of microphytobenthic biomass that builds up during low tide has been acknowledged as a major driver of the highly productive food web of intertidal mudflats. Yet, little is known about the contribution to pelagic food web of the resuspension of other microorganisms such as viruses, picoeukaryotes, cyanobacteria, bacteria, nanoflagellates, and ciliates, living in biofilms associated with microphytobenthos and surficial sediment. In the present study, a novel approach that involves simultaneous Lagrangian and Eulerian surveys enabled to disentangle the effects of resuspension and mixing with offshore waters on the dynamics of water column microorganisms during a rising tide in the presence of waves. Temporal changes in the concentration of microorganisms present in the water column were recorded along a 3 km cross-shore transect and at a fixed subtidal location. In both surveys, physical and biological processes were separated by comparing the time-evolution of sedimentary particles and microorganism concentrations. During a rising tide, sediment erosion under wave action occurred over the lower and upper parts of the mudflat, where erodibility was highest. Although erosion was expected to enrich the water column with the most abundant benthic microorganisms, such as diatoms, bacteria and viruses, enrichment was only observed for nanoflagellates and ciliates. Grazing probably overwhelmed erosion transfer for diatoms and bacteria, while adsorption on clayed particles may have masked the expected water column enrichment in free viruses due to resuspension. Ciliate enrichment could not be attributed to resuspension as those organisms were absent from the sediment. Wave agitation during the water flow on the mudflat likely dispersed gregarious ciliates over the entire water column. During the rising tide, offshore waters imported more autotrophic, mainly cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus sp. than heterotrophic microorganisms, but this import was also heavily grazed. Finally, the water column became a less heterotrophic structure in the subtidal part of the semi-enclosed bay, where mixing with offshore waters occurs (50% decrease), compared to the intertidal mudflat, when resuspension occurs. The present study suggests that this differential evolution resulted predominantly from dilution with offshore waters less rich in heterotrophic microorganisms. Indeed, any input of microorganisms accompanying physical transfers due to bed erosion or offshore water mixing was immediately buffered, probably to the benefit of grazers.

Guizien, Katell; Dupuy, Christine; Ory, Pascaline; Montanié, Hélène; Hartmann, Hans; Chatelain, Mathieu; Karpytchev, Mikhaïl

2014-01-01

151

Beach lamination: Nature and origin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

Clifton, H.E.

1969-01-01

152

Inside the "Long Beach Way"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

Olson, Lynn

2007-01-01

153

Freezeup Processes on Arctic Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations made along the northern Alaskan coast during 1972 served to indicate the processes by which arctic winter beach features are formed. In sub-zero (centigrade) temperatures ice forms on the surface of brackish lagoonal and estuarine waters, and is often moved offshore by wind-generated and tidal currents. When waves, wind, and storm surges coincide with the presence of ice in

A. D. SHORT; J. R. l J. WISEMAN

154

Egg oiling to reduce hatch-year ring-billed gull numbers on Chicago's beaches during swim season and water quality test results.  

PubMed

A burgeoning ring-billed gull population along Chicago's Lake Michigan beaches contributes to degraded water quality through fecal contamination. Egg oiling was conducted at Chicago's gull colonies to reduce production and the influx of hatch-year (HY) gulls using Chicago's beaches, with a second, long-term objective of eventually reducing adult gull numbers through attrition. We also investigated swim season water quality trends through the course of this work. From 2007 to 2009, 52, 80, and 81%, of nests at the two primary nest colonies had their eggs rendered inviable by corn oil application. Counts of HY and after hatch-year (AHY) gulls were analyzed during treatment years for 10 beaches. Water quality data were available from the Chicago Park District during our three treatment years and the prior year (baseline) for 19 beaches. HY counts declined at all 10 surveyed beaches from the initial year (52% nests with oiled eggs) to subsequent years with ~80% of nests oiled. Overall, HY gulls numbers on beaches decreased 86% from 2007 to 2009. Decreases in beach usage by AHY gulls were not detected. Compared to pretreatment, the number of beaches with improved water quality test rates increased each year through the course of the study. The frequency of water quality tests showing bacterial exceedances compared to 2006 declined at 18 of 19 beaches by 2009. Egg oiling resulted in fewer HY gulls using Chicago's beaches and was likely a beneficial factor for reduced frequencies of swim advisories and swim bans. PMID:22492207

Engeman, Richard M; Hartmann, John W; Beckerman, Scott F; Seamans, Thomas W; Abu-Absi, Sarah

2012-06-01

155

Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects of E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking./grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. coli recovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colongy-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. coli counts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p <0.0001), and there was no significant difference between control and raking treatments (p<0.01). This study demonstrates the beach management implications related to grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

2003-01-01

156

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN MADE LAKES IN THE SURFICIAL AQUIFER SYSTEM IN PALM BEACH COUNTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of man made lakes in Palm Beach County has been a continuing controversy since the initiation of muck, soil, sand and lime rock excavation. Initially the focus of the controversy was not the potential for ground water and surface water contamination, safety hazards or the actual removal of the excavated materials, but the unsightly blight which the unmaintained

Allen Trefry

1991-01-01

157

A Universal Nutrient Application Strategy For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Polluted Beaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Biostimulation by nutrient application is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. Maximizing the nutrient residence time is key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup. We considered the nutrient injection strategy through a perforated pipe at the high ti...

158

Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and deposit-feeding species (e.g., the bivalve Macoma balthica, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae or the amphipod Corophium volutator) may completely hide its effect on sediment erodibility if these species are present in high numbers.

Andersen, T. J.; Lanuru, M.; van Bernem, C.; Pejrup, M.; Riethmueller, R.

2010-04-01

159

The effects of bioturbation on sediment transport on an intertidal mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory flume studies were conducted to determine the relative importance of various biological and physical factors controlling sediment erosion threshold and transport rate on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy. Studies were conducted in a July period of maximum solar exposure. The upper and mid-intertidal stations of the flat were dominated by silt-clay sediments, while the lower intertidal was dominated by very fine sand. The tube-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator was the most abundant infaunal species with densities exceeding ˜1300 ind·m -2 based on counts of burrow openings. Sediment-penetrometry and water-content measurements indicated no change in unconsolidated shear strength and porosity, respectively, along the intertidal transect. Despite the apparently cohesive nature of the sediment, erosion occurred as small ripples. Critical shear velocities (u ?crit) for erosion determined with intact cores in a laboratory flume were relatively consistent between stations and sampling dates (mean = 2.1 cm·s -1 ± 0.2 SD), with no relationship to Corophium density, sediment chlorophyll a, or physical variables. Field-treatment of sediment with formalin did not cause an obvious change in u ?crit as determined by flume experiments. Corophium seemed to have little effect on erosion thresholds because incipient motion could be observed between tube burrows, beyond the local influence of the amphipod. In contrast to erosion thresholds, sediment-erosion rates measured with bedload traps were negatively correlated with density of small Corophium, probably due to binding of sediment into burrows and the ambient sediment microfabric, all of which reduce the availability of sediment for transport. Adult amphipods, which occurred at low density probably due to territorial/competitive interactions, had no obvious effect on erosion rate since only a small proportion of the sediment surface was impacted by their bioturbation. Although a portion of the amphipod population exerts a stabilizing influence on sediment-erosion rates, concurrent studies at the site indicate that Corophium seasonally reduces the sediment-erosion threshold by grazing on microflora which would otherwise inhibit the initiation of grain motion. Due to this decoupling of erosion rate and threshold, it is necessary to measure both processes in assessing the effects of benthic biota on sediment transport.

Grant, Jon; Daborn, Graham

160

Morphodynamic monitoring of beach cusps at Massaguaçú Beach (SP), Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study site is Massaguaçú beach in the Southeast of Brazil. It is a reflective beach with steep profile and narrow surf-zone. Tides are semi-diurnal and micro-tidal with a maximum range of 1.2 m. Wave climate varies from E-SE, in spring and summer, to S-SW, in winter and fall, the most energetic period. This work aims to monitor 2 cusps for 24 hours in order to collaborate with the comprehension of their formation in Massaguaçú beach. For that, a field experiment of 24 hours was carried out on July 26 and 27, 2012. It consisted of topographic surveys through the use of a DGPS covering a beach segment of about 100 m, sediment sampling and an ADCP deployed at the depth of about 8 m to collect wave information. Offshore wave data was obtained from a wave buoy from the Brazilian National Buoy Program (PNBOIA) located in Santos, at approximately 200 km from the study area. During the field work there were two blocks of cusps in the upper and medium parts of the beach, the lower one was steep from the first profile at 15:10 up to 19:10. At 20:10, cusps started to appear in the lower shoreface developing a distance between two cusp troughs of approximately 45 m with a vertical difference from the crest to trough of about 0.45 m. According to wave climate parameter, the average Tp was of 15.2 s and the average Hs was of 1.06 m. The Hs increased 0.2 m from 0.76 m at 17:30 to 0.99 m at 18:50, varying about 0.2 m up to the end of the experiment. There was discrete variation in the wave direction, where the mean wave direction was from SE. Massaguaçú is composed of medium to coarse sands with no variation along the field work. We could observe the formation of cusps in the lower shoreface, but no feature migration. Although limited in time, the experiment could provide some information in the rapid growth of these coastal features.

Sousa, P. H.; Siegle, E.

2013-05-01

161

Impacts of disturbance from construction work on the densities and feeding behavior of waterbirds using the intertidal mudflats of Cardiff Bay, UK.  

PubMed

The impact of disturbance from construction work around Cardiff Bay, south Wales, on the densities and feeding behavior of seven waterbird species was studied over an 11-year period. Construction of a barrage across the mouth of the bay has subsequently resulted in its impoundment; other major works included the construction of a bridge carrying a divided highway. Construction work disturbance significantly reduced the densities of five species--green-winged teal (Anas crecca), Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata), and common redshank (Tringa totanus)--on adjacent intertidal mudflats, and thus the overall carrying capacity of the bay. Construction work also reduced the feeding activity of Eurasian oystercatcher, dunlin, and common redshank on these mudflats. The possible impact of the loss of birds from these mudflats upon the populations that the bay supported is discussed. Evidence from other local studies suggests that the displacement of common redshank from these mudflats did not contribute to a decline in this species. PMID:12402100

Burton, Niall H K; Rehfisch, Mark M; Clark, Nigel A

2002-12-01

162

Folly Beach Turtle Watch Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides nesting data for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) using this South Carolina beach. Entries include: location, date discovered, number of eggs, expected and actual hatch dates, percent hatched, and photos. Data archives extend back to 1998. Site also includes information: on what you can do to help nesting turtles, strandings, impacts of beachfront construction on sea turtles, and a photo collection of turtle nesting.

2011-02-09

163

1250 BELLFLOWER BOULEVARD, LONG BEACH, CA 90840 CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH  

E-print Network

KKJZ AS HC 1250 BELLFLOWER BOULEVARD, LONG BEACH, CA 90840 CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH PA SRM FND HRL IPCDC LIB MLSC PP/CMREC WHSE RH1 RH4 RH5 RH3 RH2 SH MMC VEC SLH BEACH DRIVE 1 = Apprx.500 Steps Beach Striders Campus Tour · 2.35 miles · apprx.4700 steps #12;KKJZ AS HC 1250 BELLFLOWER

Sorin, Eric J.

164

2008 VIRGINIA BEACH TOURISM ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDY  

E-print Network

2008 VIRGINIA BEACH TOURISM ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDY by Gilbert R. Yochum, Ph.D. gyochum University Research Foundation Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (757) 683 May 2009 2008 VIRGINIA BEACH TOURISM¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼¼ 2008 Virginia Beach Visitor Annual Summary Direct City Taxes and Fees

165

VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

166

123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

167

124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

168

111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

169

110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

170

121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

171

130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

172

120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

173

128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

174

129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

175

127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

176

122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

177

125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

178

10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

179

126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

180

BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

181

45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

182

104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

183

8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

184

7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

185

Video observations of beach cusp morphodynamics Rafael Almar a  

E-print Network

Video observations of beach cusp morphodynamics Rafael Almar a , Giovanni Coco b, , Karin R. Bryan of video images collected at Tairua Beach (New Zealand). Twenty-four beach cusp episodes were selected

186

Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Process Parameters on Pathogen Transport and Fate in a Recreational Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US has very long shorelines (95,471 miles) contributing remarkable yearly revenue to the country by providing numerous recreational beaches. The beaches of both inland lakes and marine regions must be closed when the level of waterborne pathogens indicated by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform (TC), fecal coli form (FC, or Escherichia coli, E. coli) and Enterococcus exceed microbial water quality standards. Beach closures are of mounting concern to beach managers and the public due to the increasing risk to human health from waterborne pathogens. Monitoring FIB with laboratory analysis usually takes at least 18 hours during which beach goers may have been unintentionally exposed to the contaminated water. Therefore a water quality model to quickly and precisely forecast FIB has been a very effective tool for beach management to help beach managers in making decisions if beaches are safe enough to open to the public. The fate and transport of pathogens in the surf-zone of a beach area is a complex process involving various factors of hydrodynamics, hydrology, chemistry, microbiology. These factors including dispersion coefficient, wind velocity, particle settling velocity, fraction of bacteria attached, solar insolation, discharges to the beach, geometry of the beach, etc, are the essential components for a mechanistic model to describe the inactivation of FIB. To better understand the importance of these factors and their roles in impacting inactivation, transport and removal of FIB is extremely important to enhance the effectiveness and preciseness of a predictive model. The aim of this paper is to report the sensitivity analysis results of these factors in the surf zone of a creational beach using a verified water quality model system. The relative importance of these parameters is being ranked. For instance, the current sensitivity analysis shows that sunlight insolation has greater impact on pathogen inactivation than water temperature and settling velocity (figure 1). The analysis results and conclusion may provide indication for general beach management and further inactivation investigation of pathogens. Figure 1: Relative contributions of settling and solar insolation to the overall inactivation of E. coli at the Mt. Baldy Beach (Liu et al. 2006)

Liu, L.; Fu, X.

2010-12-01

187

PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

188

Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

Elliott, Judy

2008-01-01

189

Plastics and beaches: A degrading relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic debris in Earth’s oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai’s beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics

Patricia L. Corcoran; Mark C. Biesinger; Meriem Grifi

2009-01-01

190

Groundwater contamination field methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

Johnson, Ivan

191

Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts  

PubMed Central

Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

2014-01-01

192

Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.  

PubMed

Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

2014-01-01

193

Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-07-01

194

Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Noble, M.A.; Xu, J.P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

2006-01-01

195

Basic Information on the Beach Standards, Monitoring, & Notification Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. EPA BEACH Program website describes how the public's health and environmental quality of our nation's beaches can be improved. It focuses on strengthening beach standards and testing, providing faster laboratory test methods, predicting pollution, investing in health and methods research, and informing the public about the environmental quality of our beaches.

2006-11-30

196

Surf City and North Topsail Beach, NC 27 August 2010  

E-print Network

Surf City and North Topsail Beach, NC 27 August 2010 Abstract: Surf City and North Topsail Beach elevation of 15 feet NGVD fronted by a 7-foot NGVD (50-foot wide) beach berm. The project also includes Topsail Beach. The total average annual benefits are $39,775,000 with $11,180,000 in total annual costs

US Army Corps of Engineers

197

Palm Beach County nonprofits get creative, gain By EMILY ROACH  

E-print Network

Palm Beach County nonprofits get creative, gain stability By EMILY ROACH Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 5:47 a.m. Tuesday, Aug. 30, 2011 Posted: 10:26 p.m. Monday, Aug. 29, 2011 Palm Beach. The center had committed six years earlier to moving to West Palm Beach's city hall complex on Clematis

Belogay, Eugene A.

198

Intratidal erosion and deposition rates inferred from field observations of hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes: A case study of a mudflat-saltmarsh transition at the Yangtze delta front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of erosional and depositional processes in intertidal wetland environments is of great importance to coastal geomorphologists, ecologists, and engineers. To evaluate the morphodynamic response of intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes to tidal inundation, we measured water depth, wave activity, current velocity profiles, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and sediment composition at a dynamic mudflat-saltmarsh transition on eastern Chongming Island, at the Yangtze delta front, China. Based on these data, we calculated bed shear stresses generated by the combined current-wave action (?cw), and the critical shear stress required to erode the surface sediments (?ce), and so were able to calculate the erosional (E) and depositional (D) fluxes. The erodibility parameter (ME) and settling velocity (ws) used in the calculations of E and D were calibrated using daily measurements of bed-level change. Our results showed that the mudflat experienced alternating phases of net erosion and net deposition during tidal inundation. The burst-based changes in bed level ranged from -0.92 (net erosion) to +0.43 mm/10 min, and the cumulative bed-level changes over an entire tidal cycle ranged from approximately 0 to -5.4 mm (net erosion), with an average change of -3.4 mm/tide (net erosion) over five consecutive spring tides. In contrast, only net deposition was recorded on the saltmarsh during our observations. The burst-based changes in bed level ranged from around 0 to +0.56 mm/10 min, and the cumulative changes over a tidal cycle ranged from around 0 to +5 mm, with an average of +2.6 mm/tide for the five consecutive spring tides. We conclude that net erosion and net deposition during tidal cycles alternate on the mudflat, but that only net deposition occurs on the saltmarsh.

Shi, B. W.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, Y. P.; Yu, Q.; Li, M. L.

2014-11-01

199

How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh mudflat systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large mudflats and strong winds, whereas small mudflats and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and an eventual lateral equilibrium are possible only with large allochthonous sediment supply. Once marshes expanded, marsh retreat can be prevented by a sediment supply smaller than the one that filled the basin. At the GCE, the Altamaha River allows for enhanced allochthonous supply directly to the salt marsh platform, reducing the importance of waves on the tidal flat. As a result, infilling or retreat become the prevalent behaviors. For the VCR, the presence of seagrass decreases near bed shear stresses and sediment flux to the salt marsh platform, however, seagrass also reduces the wave energy acting on the boundary of the marsh reducing boundary erosion. Results indicate that the reduction in wave power allows for seagrass to provide a strong stabilizing affect on the coupled salt marsh tidal flat system, but as external sediment supply increases and light conditions decline the system reverts to that of a bare tidal flat. Across all systems and with current rates of sea level rise, retreat is a more likely marsh loss modality than drowning.

Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

2013-12-01

200

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

201

Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology and geomorphology in different time scales.

Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

2014-10-01

202

Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

203

Draft Genome Sequences for Oil-Degrading Bacterial Strains from Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from beach sands contaminated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. PMID:24356826

Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Marks, Kala P.; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om

2013-01-01

204

Measurement and Modelling of Gravel Beach Groundwater Response to Wave Run-up: Effects on Beach Profile Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

HORN, D. and LI, L., 2006. Measurement and modelling of gravel beach groundwater response to wave run-up: effects on beach profile changes. Journal of Coastal Research, 22(5), 1241-1249. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Beach profile change in the swash zone on gravel beaches is characterised by enhanced onshore sediment transport and berm formation, and infiltration loss in the swash

Diane Horn; Ling Li

2006-01-01

205

Longshore Sediment Transport Rates on a Reef-Fronted Beach: Field Data and Empirical Models Kaanapali Beach, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVERSOLE, D. and FLETCHER, C.H., 2003. Longshore sediment transport rates on a reef-fronted beach: field data and empirical models Kaanapali Beach, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research, 19(0), 000-000. West Palm Beach (Flor- ida), ISSN 0749-0208. Longshore sediment transport (LST) measured at monthly beach profiles on Kaanapali Beach, Maui is compared to three predictive models. We observe cumulative net sediment transport

Dolan Eversole; Charles H. Fletcher

206

Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

2014-12-15

207

A Day at the Beach, Anyone?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A field trip to the shore can engage students in real-world science and offer plentiful opportunities for interdisciplinary learning. This field trip "action plan" ensures that a day at the beach goes smoothly for students and chaperones alike.

Fredericks, Anthony D.; Childers, Julie

2004-07-01

208

What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

2003-01-01

209

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

210

Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

2009-12-01

211

Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level

Omar Defeo; Anton McLachlan; David S. Schoeman; Thomas A. Schlacher; Jenifer Dugan; Alan Jones; Mariano Lastra; Felicita Scapini

2009-01-01

212

Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

1993-01-01

213

An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim ?.

2014-08-01

214

Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0  

EPA Science Inventory

Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

215

Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is…

Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

216

76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...waters of the Intracoastal Waterway in Pompano Beach, Florida during the Pompano Beach...

2011-12-12

217

Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further highlights the need to include biological interactions, the degree of human disturbance and other variables such as environmental heterogeneity and the connectivity of the individual beaches when assessing inter-beach differences in macrofaunal assemblages.

Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

2008-08-01

218

Beach morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial.  

PubMed

In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil contamination of the intertidal area of two beaches located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both beaches has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the beach. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the beach. PMID:16650444

Bernabeu, A M; Nuez de la Fuente, M; Rey, D; Rubio, B; Vilas, F; Medina, R; González, M E

2006-10-01

219

Characterization of microbial community structure and population dynamics of tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating tidal mudflat communities.  

PubMed

Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are common groundwater contaminants that also impact tidal flats, especially near urban and industrial areas. However, very little is known about dechlorinating microbial communities in tidal flats. Titanium pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and dechlorinator-targeted quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) characterized reductive dechlorinating activities and populations in tidal flat sediments collected from South Korea's central west coast near Kangwha. In microcosms established with surface sediments, PCE dechlorination to TCE began within 10 days and 100% of the initial amount of PCE was converted to TCE after 37 days. cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) was observed as dechlorination end product in microcosms containing sediments collected from deeper zones (i.e., 35-40 cm below ground surface). Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR results revealed Desulfuromonas michiganensis-like populations predominanted in both TCE and cis-DCE producing microcosms. Other abundant groups included Desulfuromonas thiophila and Pelobacter acidigallici-like populations in the surface sediment microcosms, and Desulfovibrio dechloracetivorans and Fusibacter paucivorans-like populations in the deeper sediment microcosms. Dehalococcoides spp. populations were not detected in these sediments before and after incubation with PCE. The results suggest that tidal flats harbor novel, salt-tolerant dechlorinating populations and that titanium pyrosequencing provides more detailed insight into community structure dynamics of the dechlorinating microcosms than conventional 16S rRNA gene sequencing or fingerprinting methods. PMID:21053056

Lee, Jaejin; Lee, Tae Kwon; Löffler, Frank E; Park, Joonhong

2011-07-01

220

Microbial interactions in marine water amended by eroded benthic biofilm: A case study from an intertidal mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow macrotidal ecosystems with large intertidal mudflats, the sediment-water coupling plays a crucial role in structuring the pelagic microbial food web functioning, since inorganic and organic matter and microbial components (viruses and microbes) of the microphytobenthic biofilm can be suspended toward the water column. Two experimental bioassays were conducted in March and July 2008 to investigate the importance of biofilm input for the pelagic microbial and viral loops. Pelagic inocula (< 0.6 ?- and < 10 ? filtrates) were diluted either with < 30 kDa-ultrafiltered seawater or with this ultrafiltrate enriched with the respective size-fractionated benthic biofilm or with < 30 kDa-benthic compounds (BC). The kinetics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), bacteria and viruses were assessed together with bacterial and viral genomic fingerprints, bacterial enzymatic activities and viral life strategies. The experimental design allowed us to evaluate the effect of BC modulated by those of benthic size-fractionated microorganisms (virus + bacteria, + HNF). BC presented (1) in March, a positive effect on viruses and bacteria weakened by pelagic HNF. Benthic microorganisms consolidated this negative effect and sustained the viral production together with a relatively diverse and uneven bacterial assemblage structure; (2) in July, no direct impact on viruses but a positive effect on bacteria modulated by HNF, which indirectly enhanced viral multiplication. Both effects were intensified by benthic microorganisms and bacterial assemblage structure became more even. HNF indirectly profited from BC more in March than in July. The microbial loop would be stimulated by biofilm during periods of high resources (March) and the viral loop during periods of depleted resources (July).

Montanié, Hélène; Ory, Pascaline; Orvain, Francis; Delmas, Daniel; Dupuy, Christine; Hartmann, Hans J.

2014-09-01

221

The salt that wasn't there: Mudflat facies equivalents to halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, southeastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Four halite beds of the Permian Restler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over horst lateral distances to correlative classic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. The authors interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccials are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Restler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional)halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin, It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion.

Powers, D.W.; Holt, R.M.

2000-01-01

222

Nonlinear Magnetic Beach* Boris N. Breizman and Alexey V. Arefiev  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Magnetic Beach* Boris N. Breizman and Alexey V. Arefiev Institute for Fusion Studies into the directed energy of the ion flow. This work can be viewed as a nonlinear version of the magnetic beach

223

USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

224

Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

1990-10-01

225

Depositional settings of sand beaches along whitewater rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The numbers and sizes of sand beaches suitable for recreation along selected whitewater rivers in the western United States depend on sand concentrations, range of discharge and the size, frequency and type of depositional settings. River-width expansions downstream from constrictions are the predominant depositional setting for sand beaches in the upper Grand Canyon and along five Wild and Scenic Rivers in Idaho, but not along other rivers. Beaches located upstream from constrictions are rare, in general, except in the Grand Canyon. Beaches found in expansions without constrictions dominate depositional sites along the Yampa and Green Rivers, are fairly common along the rivers in Idaho, but are relatively rare in the Grand Canyon. The magnitude of flow expansion is a reliable predictor of beach size. Beaches located on the inside of curves are uncommon, in general, but can be important recreation sites. The mid-channel bar setting is the least important from a recreation standpoint because that setting is rare and beaches there are typically small, and emergent only at low flow. The frequency of beaches is highly variable among rivers and the concentration of sand in transport is only partially responsible. Of the rivers studied, the unregulated Yampa River carries the highest concentrations of suspended sand and has among the most beaches (1.2 beaches km-1). Emergent sand beaches are essentially nonexistent along the Deschutes River and are rare along other Oregon rivers, yet these rivers transport some sand. Sand beaches are fairly common (0.8-1.1 beaches km-1) along the regulated Colorado River, but are comparatively rare (0.6 beaches km-1) along the unregulated Middle Fork Salmon River. The suspended sand concentrations in study reaches of these two rivers are similar, and the difference in the frequency of beaches may be largely because the processes that create beach-deposition settings are less active along the Middle Fork Salmon.

Vincent, K.R.; Andrews, E.D.

2008-01-01

226

Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress recruitment and survival at all intertidal zones. Our results suggest use of incompatible fine fill sediments from dredging projects creates unsuitable intertidal habitat that excludes burrowing macroinvertebrates and could delay beach ecosystem recovery. Through effects on beach invertebrates that are prey for shorebirds and fish, the ecological impacts of filling with mismatched fine sediments could influence higher trophic levels and extend beyond the beach itself.

Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

2014-10-01

227

107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

228

Grand Strand Geology and its impact on Beach Nourishment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brief analysis of the geologic setting of the Grand Strand (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, and vicinity) coast and the limited occurrence of sand suitable for beach re-nourishment. Students use a USGS Fact Sheet to examine the beach, near offshore, and edge of Coastal Plain geology.

Farley, Martin

229

Spring 2014 | Dr. Al-Kodmany Back to the Beach  

E-print Network

I Spring 2014 | Dr. Al-Kodmany Back to the Beach A Community-Based Approach to Sustainable Economic Development Miller Beach, City of Gary, Indiana #12;II Instructor Kheir Al-Kodmany Project Managers Moira, beaches and parks, and a vibrant and diverse community that is committed to seeing it thrive well

Illinois at Chicago, University of

230

Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia  

E-print Network

Lynnhaven River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Project Virginia Beach, Virginia 24 September 2013 the Lynnhaven River Basin. The watershed is located within the City of Virginia Beach in Southeastern Virginia is the City of Virginia Beach. The study area consists of the entire Lynnhaven River Basin, a 64-square- mile

US Army Corps of Engineers

231

On Track for the Future: Capitalizing on Miller Beach's Regional  

E-print Network

M On Track for the Future: Capitalizing on Miller Beach's Regional Connectivity and Natural Beauty #12;Special thanks to the City of Gary, NIRPC, and the many residents of Miller Beach whose: Capitalizing on Miller Beach's Regional Connectivity and Natural Beauty M #12;April 30, 2014 Professor Janet

Illinois at Chicago, University of

232

SWASH ZONE CHARACTERISTICS AT OCEAN BEACH, SAN FRANCISCO, CA  

E-print Network

1 SWASH ZONE CHARACTERISTICS AT OCEAN BEACH, SAN FRANCISCO, CA L. H. Erikson1 , D.M. Hanes2 , P.M. Barnard2 , and A. E. Gibbs2 Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity

233

Rhomboid beach pattern: A laboratory investigation O. Devauchelle,1  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Rhomboid beach pattern: A laboratory investigation O. Devauchelle,1 L December 2009; accepted 21 January 2010; published 18 June 2010. [1] The formation of beach rhomboid beach pattern: A laboratory investigation, J. Geophys. Res., 115, F02017, doi:10.1029/2009JF001471. 1

Lajeunesse, Eric

234

Gingrich Palm Beach County supporters 'disappointed but not discouraged'  

E-print Network

Gingrich Palm Beach County supporters 'disappointed but not discouraged' 2012-02-01 17:16:03 PALM BEACH COUNTY, Fla. -- As expected Newt Gingrich lost in Florida by a landslide. The polls predicted of three created a "Palm Beach County for Newt Gingrich 2012" Facebook page in November. Shortly afterwards

Belogay, Eugene A.

235

DEGREE PROGRAM COMPARISON CHART ODU and ODU Virginia Beach  

E-print Network

DEGREE PROGRAM COMPARISON CHART ODU and ODU Virginia Beach UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS ODU-VB ODU ODU has 69 Undergraduate Degree programs; 31 are available at ODU Virginia Beach* # of Degrees-to-degree completion by complementing Beach course offerings with online & main campus offerings. GRADUATE DEGREE

236

Project # 1109 September 13-16, 2011 Clearwater Beach, FL  

E-print Network

Project # 1109 #12;#12;September 13-16, 2011 Clearwater Beach, FL i Welcome to our 51st Annual-16, 2011 Clearwater Beach, FL iii Table of Contents Welcome Letter ...................................................................................... 24 #12;The International Citrus & Beverage Conference iv #12;September 13-16, 2011 Clearwater Beach

Florida, University of

237

World Catalog of the Beach-Fly Family Canacidae (Diptera)  

E-print Network

World Catalog of the Beach-Fly Family Canacidae (Diptera) WAYNE N. MATH IS I SMITHSONIAN O G Y · N U M B E R 5 3 6 World Catalog of the Beach-Fly Family Canacidae (Diptera) Wayne N. Mathis of the Beach-Fly Family Canacidae (Diptera). Smithsonian Contributions toZoology, number 536,18 pages, 1992

Mathis, Wayne N.

238

Recreational Shellfish Beach Closures Due to Biotoxins or Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map represents the Health Status of beaches in the state of Washington. The interactive map allows users to click on counties, water bodies, and beaches to view seasons and limits. The page also includes links to text bulletins regarding beach closures, descriptions of marine biotoxins and associated health effects, and a factsheet of shellfish program publications.

Washington State Department of Health

239

103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

240

Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

2014-07-01

241

PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.  

PubMed

The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines. PMID:24775069

Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

2014-06-15

242

Identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at Southwestern Lake Michigan bathing beaches.  

PubMed

Ring-billed (Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815) and herring (Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. Gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in beach sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. This study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathogens in gull populations at Racine, Wisconsin. For 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005, and 7 weeks in 2006, 724 gull fecal samples were examined for pathogen occurrence on traditional selective media (BBL CHROMagar-Salmonella, Remel Campy-BAP, 7% horse blood agar) or through the use of novel isolation techniques (Campylobacter, EC FP5-funded CAMPYCHECK Project), and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogens commonly harbored in gulls. An additional 226 gull fecal samples, collected in the same 12-week period in 2004, from a beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were evaluated with standard microbiological methods and PCR. Five isolates of Salmonella (0.7%), 162 (22.7%) isolates of Campylobacter, 3 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila group 2 (0.4%), and 28 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.9%) were noted from the Racine beach. No occurrences of Salmonella and 3 isolates of Campylobacter (0.4%) were found at the Milwaukee beach. A subset of the 2004 samples was also examined for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and was found to be negative. Information as to the occurrence of human pathogens in beach ecosystems is essential to design further studies assessing human health risk and to determine the parameters influencing the fate and transport of pathogens in the nearshore environment. PMID:19096455

Kinzelman, Julie; McLellan, Sandra L; Amick, Ashley; Preedit, Justine; Scopel, Caitlin O; Olapade, Ola; Gradus, Steve; Singh, Ajaib; Sedmak, Gerald

2008-12-01

243

75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...issued to FPL Energy Point Beach...the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units...significant adverse effect on the probability...regarding Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units...a significant effect on the quality of the human environment....

2010-03-24

244

The Potential of a Legislative Approach to Managing Beach Use: The Case of Beach Bylaws in the Republic of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways in which people use beaches have important implications for coastal zone management, and in order for beach use to be sustainable, it often needs to be managed. The degree and mode of management depends on the circumstances of the beach, region, and country in question. The present legislation and coastal zone management framework in Ireland has shortcomings when

ANDREW COOPER; JOHN MC KENNA

2000-01-01

245

Study of beach cusps via high resolution TLS acquisitions on the pocket beach of Porsmilin (Brittany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach cusps are rhythmic shoreline features made up of series of horns and embayments. Their build-up occurs in specific conditions (steep beachface, low-energy wave conditions...). These features can notably be characterized by the cusp spacing ? and their prominence ? (difference in beachface gradient between embayment and horn). At present, two main theories confront to explain the formation of such features on natural beaches : standing edge waves (special class of waves propagating longshore) and self-organisation hypothesis. - Standing edge wave theory proposes that the superimposition of incident waves and standing edge waves generates longshore variations of swash height linked with the position of edge wave nodes and anti-nodes. These variations of swash height result in regular zones of erosion. Depending on the context, different types of edge-waves may occur. The predicted beach cusp spacing is : ? = (g T^2 tan?) / ? for a sub-harmonic edge wave model ? = (g T^2 tan?) / 2? for a synchronous edge wave model with : ? : beach cusp spacing (m) g : gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s) T : incident wave period (s) tan? : beach gradient - Self-organisation theory suggests that a combination of interactions and feedbacks between swash flow and beach topography leads to the growth of morphologic irregularities of a given wavelength (because of flow divergence or convergence), resulting in beach cusp formation and maintaining. The predicted beach cusp spacing is then : ? = f S with : ? : beach cusp spacing (m) S : horizontal extent of the swash flow (m) f : empirical constant (~1.5) Three multitemporal Terrestrial Laser Scan acquisitions have been carried out for three consecutive days on the sandy beach of Porsmilin (Brittany, France) with a spatial resolution varying from few centimetres to few metres. Moreover the hydrodynamic conditions have been obtained thanks to the Previmer project website (http://www.previmer.org/), notably based on WaveWatch3 and MARS-2D models. This study proposes to profit from the high resolution and accuracy of Terrestrial Laser data to measure the geometry and the spacing of beach cusps, to compare the measured parameters to the predicted ones (with both theories) and thus to attempt to identify the hydrodynamic process which sparks off their formation.

Chabrol, C.; Jaud, M.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.; Augereau, E.; Cuq, V.

2011-12-01

246

Mile and Half Mile Beaches at Reid State Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide introduces visitors to the sediments and geologic histories of Mile and Half Mile beaches in Reid State Park on the coast of Maine. Topics include the source of the sand presently found on the beaches, the origin and migration of beach deposits, dunes, and marsh peat deposits as sea level has risen, and some history of the area. Some suggested activities for visitors include observing grain size sorting of beach sands, observing the size and angle of waves washing ashore, and making measurements of beach cusps and berms. References and links to additional information are included.

247

An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

2007-01-01

248

Walruses Spill Over Beach Banks onto Tundra  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Thousands of walruses gathered to rest on the shore near the Alaskan coastal community of Point Lay during September of 2013 after sea ice disappeared from their offshore foraging grounds in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Walruses clamber up on to the grassy tundra of the barrier island, once the beach b...

249

Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu  

SciTech Connect

Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

Wayne Hu

2009-03-02

250

Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu  

ScienceCinema

Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

Wayne Hu

2010-01-08

251

USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

252

"JAZZ AT THE BEACH" INSTRUMENTAL AUDITION REQUIREMENTS  

E-print Network

"JAZZ AT THE BEACH" INSTRUMENTAL AUDITION REQUIREMENTS GENERAL INFORMATION Undergraduate auditions for acceptance to the Jazz Studies area the week before the fall semester begins. Currently enrolled music majors circumstances prevent your attendance at our regularly scheduled auditions, contact the Jazz Studies Office

Sorin, Eric J.

253

Tar pollution of Sierra Leone beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE widespread occurrence of pelagic tar and plastic wastes in parts of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has been described previously1. Extensive and considerable fouling of the sandy beaches of Sierra Leone by tar lumps has now been observed at Lumley, Sussex, No. 2, Toke and Mamah villages (Fig. 1) during the past 14 months (June, 1973 to July, 1974).

Wazir Okera

1974-01-01

254

Beach Erosion and Sea Turtle Nest  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image depicts a cliff-like escarpment in the sand of a Florida beach. Notice the marked turtle nest (background) and the unusual single exposed egg (right foreground). The protective stakes mark a nest from an earlier week as part of a county research program that marks and records every eighth...

255

Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

256

A root Cheat Sheet A. Stephen Beach  

E-print Network

A root Cheat Sheet A. Stephen Beach June 9, 1998 Abstract This is a quick guide to root programming, but has no experience with root or C++. Its goal is to get the user up and running quickly? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Basic Questions 4 2.1 What is root

Gilfoyle, Jerry

257

Beach Mice1 Brittany L. Bird, Lyn C. Branch, Mark E. Hostetler2  

E-print Network

WEC 165 Beach Mice1 Brittany L. Bird, Lyn C. Branch, Mark E. Hostetler2 1. This document is WEC 165/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. Beach mice, as their name indicates, live on beaches in Florida and Alabama. Beach live with beach mice in these dune habitats, including the six-lined racer, monarch butterflies, snowy

Branch, Lyn C.

258

Morphological modeling of a nourished bayside beach with a low tide terrace  

E-print Network

Morphological modeling of a nourished bayside beach with a low tide terrace Fengyan Shi a, , Feng 2013 Accepted 18 March 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Morphological model Bayside beach Low tide­long term beach profile evolution of a bayside beach with a low tide terrace. Bayside beaches

Kirby, James T.

259

Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aesthetic quality of fourteen beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland was surveyed between May and July 2002 using a protocol designed by the UK’s National Aquatic Litter Group (NALG). Local authority beach cleaning regimes influence the amount of litter found on beaches. Frequent and thorough beach cleaning is necessary to maintain high aesthetic standards. Bathing and amenity beaches

S. E. Somerville; K. L. Miller; J. M. Mair

2003-01-01

260

Research on the mudflats  

E-print Network

program acquires the R.V.Yaquina 1964 Marine biology on the edge Ivan Pratt from the OSU College of Science promoted the study of marine biology throughout the 1940s and 1950s with summer sessions at the Oregon Institute of Marine Biology as well as fieldwork in Newport. He contributed his enthusiasm

261

Assessment of exposures to fecally-contaminated recreational water  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fecally-contaminated recreational waters can pose a health risk to swimmers and other recreators. Since 2003, we have interviewed nearly 27,000 respondents at seven beaches impacted by treated sewage discharge. Information was collected about the duration and exposure...

262

Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.  

PubMed

The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1). PMID:18325933

Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

2008-01-01

263

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C? to C??) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10? to 10.2 × 10? copies g?¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10? to 1.4 × 10? copies g?¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

2011-11-01

264

Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill?†‡  

PubMed Central

A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

2011-01-01

265

Beach Closings: Science versus Public Perception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article addresses how beach closings are on the rise, but the public is not being given accurate information to help them get involved in solving the problem. The media, the publics primary information source, must provide information based on factual scientific evidence, not be swayed by economic and political factors, and work with scientists to obtain data and facts.

Erika Jensen and Sandra McLellan (Great Lakes WATER Institute;)

2005-04-01

266

Edge Waves on a Sloping Beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The set of eigenfrequencies of a mechanical system forms its spectrum. A discussion is given of systems with discrete, continuous and mixed spectra. It is shown that resonance occurs at discrete points of the spectrum, and at cut-off frequencies (end-points of the continuous spectrum). The motion in a semi-infinite canal of finite width closed by a sloping beach has a

F. Ursell

1952-01-01

267

Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Impacts on beach water quality and human health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.

Verhougstraete, M.P.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, Richard L.

2010-01-01

268

Cladophora in the Great Lakes: impacts on beach water quality and human health.  

PubMed

Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy. PMID:20595755

Verhougstraete, M P; Byappanahalli, M N; Rose, J B; Whitman, R L

2010-01-01

269

Internal Wave Turbulence Near a Texel Beach  

PubMed Central

A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea (‘vertically homogeneous’ and ‘horizontally different’), but also when standing still between one’s feet and body (‘vertically different’). On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1°C near a Texel-island (NL) beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature). Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10?4–10?3 m2 s?1, which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography. PMID:22403671

van Haren, Hans; Gostiaux, Louis; Laan, Martin; van Haren, Martijn; van Haren, Eva; Gerringa, Loes J. A.

2012-01-01

270

Wave Reflection on a Steep Beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave reflection was measured during the RIPEX/SteepBeach experiment conducted at the Sand City Beach in Monterey Bay, California during April/May 2001. The morphology is a barred shoreline, cut by rip channels spaced 100-200 m apart. The beach slope is steep at 1:5, and the slope offshore of the bar is 1:20. Measuring wave reflection in the dissipative surf zone is complicated because the wave field is not spatially homogeneous and the nodes of the reflected waves pose difficulties in analysis. The inverse approach by Dickson et.al. (1995) is extended to the case of local pressure/velocity (puv) measurements, to avoid having to assume spatial homogeniety. In this inverse approach, the various expected puv cross-spectra and energy density spectra are modeled for a reflective wave field and compared with actual measurements. The unknown coefficients as a function of frequency are reflection coefficient, phase difference, mean incident wave direction, and incident wave energy of the model, and are determined iteratively in a least square sense. The estimated reflection coefficients increase towards the shoreline inside the surf zone, decrease with increasing frequency and vary with the tidal stage. Dickson, W.S., T.H.C. Herbers, and E.B. Thornton, 1995, Wave Reflection from Breakwater, J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 121 (5), 262-268.

Thornton, E. B.; Stanton, T. P.; Reniers, A. R.

2002-12-01

271

Recognition of beach and nearshore depositional features of Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beach and nearshore depositional features are being mapped with the objectives of determining a quick-look analysis of littoral drift and sedimentation patterns in areas of little or no data. Evaluation of beach and nearshore features aid in the selection of small boat harbors, shoreline protective structures, and general coastal zone development. Through ERTS-1 aircraft support imagery, beach depositional features mapped are cuspate forelands, welded beach ridges, and recurved spits. The nearshore depositional features exhibit a bar and trough topography with three distinct types of sedimentary structures; longshore, transverse, and reticulated bars. Synoptic coverage of beach and nearshore depositional features by ERTS-1 data help in determining the general sedimentation patterns, growth of the beach features and stability of the bar and trough topography.

Kerhin, R. T.

1973-01-01

272

Effect of submarine groundwater discharge on bacterial indicators and swimmer health at Avalon Beach, CA, USA.  

PubMed

Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring beach water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship that can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Avalon Beach, California (USA), where the indicator relationship is potentially affected by the discharge of sewage-contaminated groundwater and by solar radiation levels at this shallow, relatively quiescent beach. The goals of this study were to determine: 1) if swimmers exposed to marine water were at higher risk of illness than non-swimmers; 2) if FIB measured in marine water were associated with swimmer illness, and; 3) if the associations between FIB and swimmer health were modified by either submarine groundwater discharge or solar radiation levels. There were 7317 individuals recruited during the summers of 2007-08, 6165 (84%) of whom completed follow-up within two weeks of the beach visit. A total of 703 water quality samples were collected across multiple sites and time periods during recruitment days and analyzed for FIB using both culture-based and molecular methods. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated that swimmers who swallowed water were more likely to experience Gastrointestinal Illness (GI Illness) within three days of their beach visit than non-swimmers, and that this risk was significantly elevated when either submarine groundwater discharge was high (AOR [95% CI]:2.18 [1.22-3.89]) or solar radiation was low (2.45 [1.25-4.79]). The risk of GI Illness was not significantly elevated for swimmers who swallowed water when groundwater discharge was low or solar radiation was high. Associations between GI Illness incidence and FIB levels (Enterococcus EPA Method 1600) among swimmers who swallowed water were not significant when we did not account for groundwater discharge, but were strongly associated when groundwater discharge was high (1.85 [1.06, 3.23]) compared to when it was low (0.77 [0.42, 1.42]; test of interaction: P = 0.03). These results demonstrate the need to account for local environmental conditions when monitoring for, and making decisions about, public health at recreational beaches. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24776951

Yau, Vincent M; Schiff, Kenneth C; Arnold, Benjamin F; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

2014-08-01

273

109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

274

Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

2012-02-01

275

Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

1989-01-01

276

78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...the Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm...

2013-01-15

277

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2013-07-01

278

78 FR 22195 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2013-04-15

279

77 FR 64904 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2012-10-24

280

78 FR 23519 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Intracoastal Waterway at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2013-04-19

281

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2011-07-01

282

77 FR 35898 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Intracoastal Waterway at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will...Waterway, mile 252.3, at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. DATES: Comments...

2012-06-15

283

33 CFR 165.T05-1082 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC. 165.T05-1082 Section 165...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC. (a) Regulated area. The...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina (34°13?07?...

2013-07-01

284

77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2012-08-21

285

33 CFR 165.T05-0741 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC. 165.T05-0741 Section 165...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC. (a) Regulated area. The...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina (34°03?21? N,...

2013-07-01

286

78 FR 34579 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2013-06-10

287

75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...regulations for the swim portions of ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance...on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. These special...

2010-11-02

288

77 FR 41911 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. DATES: This rule...

2012-07-17

289

78 FR 2650 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2013-01-14

290

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2014-07-01

291

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2010-07-01

292

77 FR 35321 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...surrounding Harbor Island in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. This Special Local Regulation...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, during the swim...

2012-06-13

293

77 FR 30445 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. DATES: Comments...

2012-05-23

294

77 FR 47520 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...surrounding Harbor Island in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. This Special Local Regulation...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, during the swim...

2012-08-09

295

78 FR 19155 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...surrounding Harbor Island in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. This Special Local Regulation...Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, during the swim...

2013-03-29

296

78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...the Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm...

2013-04-15

297

75 FR 56024 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Regulations for the swim portions of ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance...Banks Channel, adjacent to Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. These Special...

2010-09-15

298

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2012-07-01

299

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-138 GREAT LAKES BEACH HEALTH RESEARCH NEEDS  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-138 GREAT LAKES BEACH HEALTH RESEARCH NEEDS: WORKSHOP SUMMARY Great Lakes Beach Association in cooperation with NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory ..........................................................................................25 #12; #12; Report on Great Lakes Beach Health Research Needs: Workshop Summary INTRODUCTION

300

78 FR 6258 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation...IFR) operations within the West Palm Beach, FL airspace area. This action...feet above the surface in the West Palm Beach, FL area. New Standard...

2013-01-30

301

77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter...Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take...

2012-10-17

302

76 FR 1359 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon will be transiting across the bridge...the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon. DATES: This deviation is effective...The Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon Committee on behalf of the North...

2011-01-10

303

Journal of Coastal Research 21 3 522534 West Palm Beach, Florida May 2005 Beach Profile Equilibrium and Patterns of Wave Decay and  

E-print Network

Journal of Coastal Research 21 3 522­534 West Palm Beach, Florida May 2005 Beach Profile.S.A. ABSTRACT WANG, P. and KRAUS, N.C., 2005. Beach profile equilibrium and patterns of wave decay and energy Research, 21(3), 522­534. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. The widely accepted assumption

US Army Corps of Engineers

304

AES Huntington Beach Generation Station Surf Zone  

E-print Network

contamination investigation was required by the California Energy Commission (CEC). AB 4111 indicators (total and fecal coliform, and Enterococcus) and physical and chemical parameters (p HBGS and are discharged to the ocean causing bacterial contamination of the surf zone

305

Metrics to assess ecological condition, change, and impacts in sandy beach ecosystems.  

PubMed

Complexity is increasingly the hallmark in environmental management practices of sandy shorelines. This arises primarily from meeting growing public demands (e.g., real estate, recreation) whilst reconciling economic demands with expectations of coastal users who have modern conservation ethics. Ideally, shoreline management is underpinned by empirical data, but selecting ecologically-meaningful metrics to accurately measure the condition of systems, and the ecological effects of human activities, is a complex task. Here we construct a framework for metric selection, considering six categories of issues that authorities commonly address: erosion; habitat loss; recreation; fishing; pollution (litter and chemical contaminants); and wildlife conservation. Possible metrics were scored in terms of their ability to reflect environmental change, and against criteria that are widely used for judging the performance of ecological indicators (i.e., sensitivity, practicability, costs, and public appeal). From this analysis, four types of broadly applicable metrics that also performed very well against the indicator criteria emerged: 1.) traits of bird populations and assemblages (e.g., abundance, diversity, distributions, habitat use); 2.) breeding/reproductive performance sensu lato (especially relevant for birds and turtles nesting on beaches and in dunes, but equally applicable to invertebrates and plants); 3.) population parameters and distributions of vertebrates associated primarily with dunes and the supralittoral beach zone (traditionally focused on birds and turtles, but expandable to mammals); 4.) compound measurements of the abundance/cover/biomass of biota (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates) at both the population and assemblage level. Local constraints (i.e., the absence of birds in highly degraded urban settings or lack of dunes on bluff-backed beaches) and particular issues may require alternatives. Metrics - if selected and applied correctly - provide empirical evidence of environmental condition and change, but often do not reflect deeper environmental values per se. Yet, values remain poorly articulated for many beach systems; this calls for a comprehensive identification of environmental values and the development of targeted programs to conserve these values on sandy shorelines globally. PMID:25014753

Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Jones, Alan R; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Defeo, Omar; Peterson, Charles H; Weston, Michael A; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D; Scapini, Felicita; Nel, Ronel; Harris, Linda R; Lucrezi, Serena; Lastra, Mariano; Huijbers, Chantal M; Connolly, Rod M

2014-11-01

306

Estimate of oil persisting on the beaches of Prince William Sound 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  

PubMed

We estimated the amount of oil remaining in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 12 yr after the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill to assess its importance as a long-term reservoir of toxic hydrocarbons. We found oil on 78 of 91 beaches randomly selected according to their oiling history. Surface oiling was recorded for randomly placed quadrats, which were then excavated and examined for subsurface oil. The cumulative area of beach contaminated by surface or subsurface oil was estimated at 11.3 ha. Surface oil varied little with tide height, but subsurface oil was more prevalent at the middle tide heights. The mass of remaining subsurface oil is conservatively estimated at 55 600 kg. Analysis of terpanes indicated that over 90% of the surface oil and all of the subsurface oil was from the Exxon Valdez and that Monterey Formation oil deposited after the 1964 Alaska earthquake accounted for the remaining surface oil. These results indicate that oil from the Exxon Valdez remains by far the largest reservoir of biologically available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on beaches impacted by the spill and that biota dependent on these beaches risk continued exposure. PMID:14740712

Short, Jeffrey W; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Harris, Patricia M; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Rice, Stanley D

2004-01-01

307

Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL) that incorporate wave setup and runup, may be particularly applicable to upper intertidal biota whose distributions closely followed the high tide strand line (HTS), a feature which tracks total water level (TWL). Developing a TWL approach may also provide new insights on habitat availability for beach nesting wildlife and coastal strand vegetation. Conservation of beach ecosystems could be enhanced by incorporating sufficient beach habitat to accommodate the dynamic ecological envelopes used by mobile intertidal invertebrates and wildlife.

Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

2013-10-01

308

NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE  

EPA Science Inventory

Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

309

Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches.  

PubMed

Although there is a consensus on the necessity of monitoring solid wastes pollution on beaches, the methods applied vary widely. Therefore, creating, testing and recommending a method that not only allows comparisons of places and periods, but also the detection of source signals, will be important to reach the objectives of the source-prevention principle. This will also allow the optimisation of time, resources, and processing of samples and data. A classification of the items found into specific categories was made according to their most probable source/use (fisheries, food packaging, hazardous, sewage/personal hygiene, beach user, general home). This study tested different widths of sampling transects to be used in the detection of plastics contamination on beaches, until all the categories were significantly represented. Each transect had its total width (50m) sub-divided into eight intervals of 0-2.5m; 2.5-5m; 5-10m; 10-15m; 15-20m; 20-30m; 30-40m; and 40-50m. The accumulated number of categories in the 50m (up to 2.5m; up to 5m and so on) was used to determine the minimal width necessary to qualitatively characterize the area regarding plastics contamination. The diversity of the categories was directly related to the area of the sampling transect. These results indicate that a significant increase in the number of categories in the first intervals tend to stabilize from 15-20m onwards. PMID:16797600

de Araújo, Maria Christina B; Santos, Paulo J P; Costa, Monica F

2006-08-01

310

Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

1997-06-01

311

Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

2013-01-01

312

Beach ridge plains and sea level change  

SciTech Connect

Beach ridge systems of the low-to-moderate energy swash-built type can be used to determine ambient near-shore wave energy values, as well as sea level changes up to 4--5 m. Wave energy values can be obtained from individual samples or mean values of individual samples, the grain-size kurtosis (inverted) is useful, as is the sixth moment measure. Sea level change information comes from sequences of beach ridge samples, spanning one or more abrupt changes in smoothed kurtosis. Other procedures are also available for each of these tasks. Settling-lag ridges (horizontal bedding) may be useful also. Dune ridges and storm-surge ridges are not appropriate for this kind of work. There are also limitations on nature and general size of the sediment in the ridge (preferably quartz sand or coarse silt; 50-gram samples), and on map geometry of the system (no sharp curvature, no splaying; parallelism or nearly so). Sampling must meet strict standards as to location, depth and thickness of the sampled layer: lab work requires 30-minute sieving on quarter-phi screens. Each beach ridge represents a sea level rise and then fall, perhaps 5 to 30 cm, over a few years or decades, but not a storm. The longest presently-known sequence of beach ridge is located in an area of slow glacio-isostatic rebound, and spans some 12,000 years, but ridge systems in stable areas cover only about 3,200 years or less. Each long system typically shows many changes of sea level, in the range of one to 4--5 meters, but there does not appear to be any clearly-marked periodicity that persists throughout the entire record, other than the time interval between the ridges themselves. This interval commonly averages 35--50 years, but in a few settings is only about four years, and in others 10--12. In a few instances, the interval may be 60 years or more.

Tanner, W.F. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1993-03-01

313

View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

314

Excitation of Edge Waves by Waves Incident on a Beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of waves on a beach is known to be influenced significantly by nonlinear effects, and considerable progress has been made toward describing certain of these effects. Carrier and Greenspan [1958] found exact solutions of the shallow water equations describing temporally periodic, finite amplitude standing waves on a beach of constant slope; these waves are two-dimensional in that they

Robert T. Guza; Russ E. Davis

1974-01-01

315

33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of the...

2013-07-01

316

33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.  

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of the...

2014-07-01

317

33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of the...

2012-07-01

318

33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of the...

2010-07-01

319

33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of the...

2011-07-01

320

Tidal Dynamics of the Water Table in Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal motions of the water table height inside a sloping beach are investigated via field measurements and theoretical considerations. Only the movements forced by the tide are considered, so a beach with negligible wave activity was chosen for the field measurements. The data show that even in the absence of precipitation the time averaged inland water table stands considerably above

Peter Nielsen

1990-01-01

321

At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

Fain, Paul

2009-01-01

322

Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

2013-01-01

323

BOB COLE CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC California State University, Long Beach  

E-print Network

University, Long Beach JAZZ STUDIES HANDBOOK 2013-2014 #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Welcome to "Jazz At The Beach" 4 The Jazz Studies Faculty 6 Your Applied Instructor 9 Jazz 18 Ensemble Requirements 19 B.M. in Jazz Studies Curriculum 21 M.M. in Jazz Studies Curriculum 21

Sorin, Eric J.

324

Modeling Ocean Dynamics at Waikiki Beach Undergraduate Senior Thesis  

E-print Network

University Thesis Committee: Baylor Fox-Kemper, Mark Merrifield, and Brad Marston #12;2 Acknowledgements I would like to thank Baylor Fox-Kemper for not only advising me on my thesis, but also providing valuable is to enjoy the white sandy beaches and playful surf. Unfortunately, erosion plagues Waikiki's beaches

Fox-Kemper, Baylor

325

Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological

J. S. Hayworth; T. P. Clement; J. F. Valentine

2011-01-01

326

270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

327

Snowy Plover reproductive success in beach and river habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor reproductive success has contributed to the decline and low population size of the federally listed Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), especially where it breeds on coastal beaches used by humans for recreation. From 2001-2004, we compared reproductive success of color-marked plovers breeding on ocean beaches with those on gravel bars of the lower Eel River in coastal northern

M. A. Colwell; C. B. Millett; J. J. Meyer; J. N. Hall; S. J. Hurley; S. E. McAllister; A. N. Transou; R. R. LeValley

328

Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

329

The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

Sensabaugh, William M.

1983-01-01

330

Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide  

EPA Science Inventory

Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

331

Composition and Distribution of Beach Debris in Orange County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have quantified debris collected on beaches around the world. Only a few of those studies have been conducted in the United States, and they are largely limited to semi-quantitative efforts performed as part of volunteer clean-up activities. This study quantifies the distribution and composition of beach debris by sampling 43 stratified random sites on the Orange County, California

Shelly L. Moore; Dominic Gregorio; Michael Carreon; Stephen B. Weisberg; Molly K. Leecaster

2001-01-01

332

Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

2006-01-01

333

Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Groundwater Foundation's sources of ground water contamination page discusses common contaminates, how they get to ground water, sources of pollution along with cleanup and prevention practices. The site's focal point is a detailed map of contaminants as they enter the water cycle.

2008-10-13

334

Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.  

PubMed

We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (?r) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where ?r is longer than T are more effective than those where ?r is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. PMID:25577475

Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

2015-02-15

335

Composition and distribution of beach debris in Orange County, California.  

PubMed

Many studies have quantified debris collected on beaches around the world. Only a few of those studies have been conducted in the United States, and they are largely limited to semi-quantitative efforts performed as part of volunteer clean-up activities. This study quantifies the distribution and composition of beach debris by sampling 43 stratified random sites on the Orange County, California coast, from August to September 1998. We estimated that approximately 106 million items, weighing 12 metric tons, occur on Orange County beaches. The most abundant items were pre-production plastic pellets, foamed plastics, and hard plastics. Debris density on the remote rocky shoreline was greater than that on high-use sandy beaches for most debris items. This finding partially reflects the periodic clean-up of high-use beaches by local municipalities, and also indicates that a high percentage of the observed debris was transported to the site from waterborne sources. PMID:11381879

Moore, S L; Gregorio, D; Carreon, M; Weisberg, S B; Leecaster, M K

2001-03-01

336

Correlation between quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for measuring Enterococcus spp. over various temporal scales at three California marine beaches.  

PubMed

Several studies have examined how fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements compare between quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the culture methods it is intended to replace. Here, we extend those studies by examining the stability of that relationship within a beach, as affected by time of day and seasonal variations in source. Enterococcus spp. were quantified at three southern California beaches in the morning and afternoon using two qPCR assays, membrane filtration, and defined-substrate testing. While qPCR and culture-based measurements were consistently and significantly correlated, strength of the correlation varied both among and within beaches. Correlations were higher in the morning (0.45 < ? < 0.74 [P < 0.002]) than in the afternoon (0.18 < ? < 0.45 [P < 0.021]) and higher when the fecal contamination was concentrated (0.38 < ? < 0.83 [P < 0.001]) than when it was diffuse (0.19 < ? < 0.34 [P < 0.003]). The ratios of culture-based and qPCR results (CFU or most probable number [MPN] per calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]) also varied spatially and temporally. Ratios ranged between 0.04 and 0.85 CFU or MPN per CCE and were lowest at the beach affected by diffuse pollution. Patterns in the ratios over the course of the day were dissimilar across beaches, increasing with time at one beach and decreasing at another. The spatial and temporal variability we observed indicate that the empirical relationship between culture-based and qPCR results is not universal, even within a beach. PMID:22179252

Converse, Reagan R; Griffith, John F; Noble, Rachel T; Haugland, Richard A; Schiff, Kenneth C; Weisberg, Stephen B

2012-02-01

337

Experience of monitoring beaches for radioactive particles.  

PubMed

This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring beaches for hot particles. The experience is from operating a near-continuous monitoring program, for a period of eight years, on beaches near the Dounreay site. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. When large areas are being monitored at high spatial resolution, which is required for efficient particle detection, the volume of data recorded for audit purposes can be very large. The use and abuse of Geographical Information Systems for this work is described. Other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles available to perform the work; and how a particle should be recovered once detected. PMID:17768319

Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Adsley, Ian

2007-09-01

338

77 FR 42652 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area AGENCY: United States Army...waters surrounding the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple...

2012-07-20

339

77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area AGENCY: United States Army...waters surrounding the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple...

2012-05-03

340

At $60.6 million, FPL is Palm Beach County's biggest property taxpayer  

E-print Network

At $60.6 million, FPL is Palm Beach County's biggest property taxpayer By BILL DIPAOLO Palm Beach Quick quiz: Who'll be Palm Beach County's biggest property taxpayer this year? Donald Trump? Wrong. Jack to figures released by the Palm Beach County Tax Collector's office today. That's about 1.6 percent of the $3

Belogay, Eugene A.

341

Revisiting Hele-Shaw Dynamics to Better Understand Beach O. Bokhove1,2  

E-print Network

Revisiting Hele-Shaw Dynamics to Better Understand Beach Evolution O. Bokhove1,2 , A.J. van der during storms, drives the evo- lution of beaches. Beach evolution by non-linear break- ing waves to the classic "Hele-Shaw" lab- oratory experiment can be designed that creates beach mor- phologies

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

342

Great Lakes Beach Recreational Water-Quality Decisionmaking Nearshore Health and Watershed Protection Projects  

E-print Network

Great Lakes Beach Recreational Water-Quality Decisionmaking Nearshore Health and Watershed instrumental in providing beach managers with the tools to make beach closure and advisory decisions at some of the 500 beaches along 11,000 miles of coastline in the Great Lakes. As they broaden the understanding

343

A MODEL OF BEACH PROFILE EVOLUTION INCLUDING WAVE-UNDERTOW INTERACTION  

E-print Network

1 A MODEL OF BEACH PROFILE EVOLUTION INCLUDING WAVE-UNDERTOW INTERACTION Chi Zhang1 , Jinhai Zheng2 , Titi Sui3 , Zeki Demirbilek4 and Lihwa Lin5 A numerical model of beach profile evolution is developed in beach profile evolution. Keywords: beach profile evolution; sandbar; wave; undertow; numerical model

US Army Corps of Engineers

344

!""#$%%&'()*+,-.)-)/+,(012*3#*(440&2.%5667%68%69%:()&!;!2##(*;:2,),/)%Beach Hopper Bonanza  

E-print Network

!""#$%%&'()*+,-.)-)/+,(012*3#*(440&2.%5667%68%69%:()&!;!2##(*;:2,),/)%Beach Hopper Bonanza Field Introduction/Overview This second grade unit focuses on beach hoppers, tiny amphipods found on most sandy beaches. The first three lessons focus on learning beach hopper characteristics in the classroom

345

THE ECOLOGY OF THE SANDY BEACHES OF THE CAPE PENINSULA, SOUTH AFRICA. PART 1: INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in a series of papers devoted to the ecology of the sandy beaches of the Cape Peninsula. Conditions on these beaches are described, with special reference to the beaches of Hout Bay, Llandudno, Milnerton and Muizenberg. Tidal conditions, wave-action, beach profiles and sand movements are discussed, while attention is also given to the particle-size distribution of

A. C. Brown

1971-01-01

346

TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

347

Simulation of Beach Hydraulics for Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains Heavy Oil Residue (HOR) in the lower intertidal zone. The slope of the beach decreases in the seaward direction. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using

B. Khan; M. C. Boufadel; A. M. Bobo

2009-01-01

348

Seasonal dynamics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in surface sediments of a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous field-based investigations have highlighted that the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is physico-chemically and ecologically important for intertidal mudflats. EPS are largely secreted by marine benthic diatoms and their quantity and quality are environmental-dependant. This paper focused on the dynamic pathways, concentration rates and monosaccharides composition of colloidal, bound and residual carbohydrates extracted by using a cationic exchange resin from a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France) during two different sampling periods: winter (February 2008) and summer (July 2008). A wide range of biotic and abiotic parameters were also studied to better understand the effect of environmental parameters, e.g., chlorophyll a, salinity, pore water amount, emersion time, luminosity, C:N ratio and tidal coefficient. Multiple colorimetric assays coupled to gas chromatographic analyses were carried out to perform the biochemical characterizations. Firstly, the quantity of carbohydrates produced during winter (5.28 ?g·?g chl a- 1) was more important than during summer (2.04 ?g·?g chl a- 1). Yet, more proteins were found during summer for the colloidal and bound fractions (0.73 and 1.04 ?g·?g chl a- 1). Further investigations showed that the dynamic pathways were equivalent between winter and summer: bound carbohydrates (BC) quantities increased during the sediment emersion periods on the contrary to colloidal carbohydrates (CC) which tended to drop throughout the emersion time. The quality in monosaccharides was fraction-dependant, whatever the season. CC were always glucose-rich confirming their role of carbon source. BC were mainly composed of rhamnose whose the ratio increased during the emersion period, thus conferring adhesive properties to the extracellular matrix bounding diatoms cells. Residual carbohydrates (RC) were composed of various monosaccharides and a major increase of glucose content was found at the end of emersion, corresponding to intracellular C-storage in prevention to immersion times. Summer-RC were composed of fucose, a monosaccharide specific to these fractions and which was non-present during the winter campaign. Environmental parameters, such as salinity, pore water amount, and tidal coefficient could have a significant impact on the concentration rates and pathways of carbohydrates.

Pierre, Guillaume; Zhao, Jean-Michel; Orvain, Francis; Dupuy, Christine; Klein, Géraldine L.; Graber, Marianne; Maugard, Thierry

2014-09-01

349

Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.  

PubMed

It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

2012-12-30

350

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

Custer, T.W.

2000-01-01

351

West Palm Beach Traffic Calming The Second Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transportation Division of West Palm Beach city, Florida, is implementing innovative practices based on traffic calming, New Urbanism, and associated principles. In North America, the city's program can be considered \\

TIMOTHY STILLINGS; IAN LOCKWOOD

352

2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

353

Nonlinear resonance of trapped waves on a plane beach  

E-print Network

Linear edge waves were first found mathematically by Stokes (1846). It has long been a topic of interest, since edge waves are believed to be responsible for the formation of beach cusps. Galvin (1965) was the first to ...

Li, Guangda, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

354

Modes of embayed beach dynamics: analysis reveals emergent timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embayed beaches, or beaches positioned between rocky headlands, exhibit morphologic changes over many length and time scales. Beach sediment is transported as a result of the day-to-day wave forcing, causing patterns of erosion and accretion. We use the Rocky Coastline Evolution Model (RCEM) to investigate how patterns of shoreline change depend on wave climate (the distribution of wave-approach angles) and beach characteristics. Measuring changes in beach width through time allows us to track the evolution of the shape of the beach and the movement of sand within it. By using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), these changes can be categorized into modes, where the first few modes explain the majority of the variation in the time series. We analyze these modes and how they vary as a function of wave climate and headland/bay aspect ratio. In the purposefully simple RCEM, sediment transport is wave-driven and affected by wave shadowing behind the headlands. The rock elements in our model experiments (including the headlands) are fixed and unerodable so that this analysis can focus purely on sand dynamics between the headlands, without a sand contribution from the headlands or cliffs behind the beach. The wave climate is characterized by dictating the percentage of offshore waves arriving from the left and the percentage of waves arriving from high angles (very oblique to the coastline orientation). A high-angle dominated wave climate tends to amplify coastline perturbations, whereas a lower-angle wave climate is diffusive. By changing the headland/bay aspect ratio and wave climate, we can perform PCA analysis of generalized embayed beaches with differing anatomy and wave climate forcings. Previous work using PCA analysis of embayed beaches focused on specific locations and shorter timescales (<30 years; Short and Trembanis, 2004). By using the RCEM, we can more broadly characterize beach dynamics over longer timescales. The first two PCA modes, which explain a majority of the beach width time series variation (typically >70%), are a 'breathing' mode and a 'rotational' mode. The newly identified breathing mode captures the sand movement from the middle of the beach towards the edges (thickening the beach along the headlands), and the rotational mode describes the movement of sand towards one headland or another, both in response to stochastic fluctuations about the mean wave climate. The two main modes operate independently and on different timescales. In a weakly low-angle dominated wave climate, the breathing mode tends to be the first mode (capturing the most variance), but with greater low-angle dominance (greater morphological diffusivity), the rotational mode tends to be first. The aspect ratio of the bay also affects the order of the modes, because wave shadowing affects sediment transport behind the headlands. Previous work has attributed beach rotation to changes in various climate indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (Thomas et al., 2011); however, PCA analysis of the RCEM results suggests that embayed beaches can have characteristic timescales of sand movement that result from internal system dynamics, emerging even within a statistically constant wave climate. These results suggest that morphologic changes in embayed beaches can occur independently of readily identifiable shifts in forcing.

Murray, K. T.; Murray, A.; Limber, P. W.; Ells, K. D.

2013-12-01

355

VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' DISTANCE BETWEEN RESIDENCES 26 AND 28 WORCHESTER AVENUE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

356

BOB COLE CONSERVATORY CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH  

E-print Network

BOB COLE CONSERVATORY CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC PERCUSSION of Music. Department admission auditions take place in February, March, and November excerpts on 4 separate instruments c. Electives ­ Drum Set, World Percussion, Pan, etc. Live Audition

Sorin, Eric J.

357

24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

358

Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of contamination, the concentration and dispersion of contaminants, plumes and remediation.

Matthew Babcock

359

Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths  

PubMed Central

Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

2014-01-01

360

Evaluating Shoreline Response to Offshore Sand Mining for Beach Nourishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

KELLEY, S.W.; RAMSEY, J.S., and BYRNES, M.R., 2004. Evaluating shoreline response to offshore sand mining for beach nourishment. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(1), 89-100. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. An analytical approach that incorporates analysis of nearshore wave transformation and wave-induced longshore sediment transport was developed to quantify the significance of potential physical environmental impacts associated with offshore sand

Sean W. Kelley; John S. Ramsey; Mark R. Byrnes

2004-01-01

361

Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future, be widely used in beach surveying.

Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

2003-01-01

362

Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.  

PubMed

Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

2014-09-01

363

Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

2014-10-01

364

Benthic communities on a sandy Ligurian beach (NW Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different components of the benthic community of a sandy microtidal beach (Arenzano) in Liguria (NW Mediterranean) were\\u000a investigated during late spring (May) 2002 and 2003. Sampling was carried out in two transects, chosen in order to represent\\u000a the characteristics of the entire beach and their eventual spatial variations. Each transect included two stations: one placed\\u000a in the swash zone

Anabella Covazzi Harriague; Luigi Gaozza; Alessandro Montella; Cristina Misic

2006-01-01

365

Can the gold coast beaches withstand extreme events?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gold Coast sandy beaches of Queensland (Australia) are exposed to energetic wave conditions. Storms, particularly tropical cyclones, have a high potential of destruction. The Gold Coast has not experienced excessive erosive events over the past 30 years. However, some climate indicators suggest that cyclone frequency is likely to increase in response to global climate change within the near future. Over a 2-month period in early 2006, beach surveys were undertaken with a theodolite total station at four different sites. Offshore wave conditions were provided by SWAN regional wave modelling. During this study, the Gold Coast was exposed to three major storms, the first one being the second most energetic over the past 30 years. Results show a substantial variability of the beach response to these events along the Gold Coast, and that engineering structures do not have marked effects. Easterly swells have the greatest impact on the Gold Coast sub-aerial beach morphology. When low wave-energy conditions prevail, the southern Gold Coast beaches recover more quickly than the northern ones, as they are sheltered from high SE waves and draw advantage from the artificial sand bypassing system. Nevertheless, the data show that the Gold Coast beaches are exceedingly fragile. For instance, the early March decadal event considerably weakened the beaches, which resulted in surprisingly high erosion rates all along the Gold Coast during the two following annual wave events. This study suggests that the Gold Coast beaches would not be able to withstand the impact of an increased frequency of extreme events similar in scale to those of 1967.

Castelle, Bruno; Le Corre, Yann; Tomlinson, Rodger

2008-02-01

366

Journal of Coastal Research 26 1 184198 West Palm Beach, Florida January 2010 Limits of Wave Runup and Corresponding Beach-Profile  

E-print Network

Journal of Coastal Research 26 1 184­198 West Palm Beach, Florida January 2010 Limits of Wave Runup and Corresponding Beach-Profile Change from Large-Scale Laboratory Data Tiffany M. Roberts , Ping Wang., and KRAUS, N.C., 2010. Limits of wave runup and corresponding beach-profile change from large

US Army Corps of Engineers

367

Seasonal variations in the risk of gastrointestinal illness on a tropical recreational beach  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to examine the seasonal changes in the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness of beachgoers in the tropics, to compare the association between GI illness and water quality using various indicator organisms, and to study other beach health hazards. A prospective cohort study during two seasonal periods (summer and autumn) was conducted in a beach surrounded by intensive residential development. Analyses demonstrated that although densities of indicators were well below water quality standards throughout the study, they were significantly higher during the autumn season. The incidence of GI illness among beachgoers was also higher during the rainy season. A higher incidence of GI illness was observed for bathers during the autumn season when compared to non-bathers, while a somewhat lower incidence was observed during the summer. This study showed that rainfall contributes to higher levels of microbial contaminants and GI risk to beachgoers. The association between GI illness and Enterococcus using culture counts showed the highest odds ratio among all indicator parameters including those using molecular methods. A much higher risk of GI illness among children under 5 years was observed among all beachgoers. PMID:23165715

Cordero, Lyzbeth; Norat, Jose; Mattei, Hernando; Nazario, Cruz

2014-01-01

368

CONTAMINANT REDISTRIBUTION CAN CONFOUND INTERPRETATION OF OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The physical redistribution of oil between the inside and outside of experimental plots can affect the results of bioremediation field studies that are conducted on shorelines contaminated by real oil spills. Because untreated oil from the surrounding beach will enter the plot, ...

369

Identifying Sources of Fecal Contamination Inexpensively with Targeted Sampling and Bacterial Source Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most bacterial source tracking (BST) methods are too expensive for most communities to afford. We developed targeted sampling as a prelude to BST to reduce these costs. We combined targeted sampling with three inexpensive BST methods, Enterococcus speciation, de- tection of the esp gene, and fluorometry, to confirm the sources of fecal contamination to beaches on Georgia's Jekyll and Sea

Jennifer L. McDonald; Peter G. Hartel; Lisa C. Gentit; Carolyn N. Belcher; Keith W. Gates; Karen Rodgers; Jared A. Fisher; Katy A. Smith; Karen A. Payne

2006-01-01

370

Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms  

PubMed Central

Plastic pellets are worldwide contaminants that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy beaches, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0?m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols. PMID:24670631

Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B.; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T.

2014-01-01

371

Groundwater Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson addresses groundwater contamination from leakage of underground gasoline, oil, or other hazardous chemical tanks. Students read two short articles and investigate causes, effects, solutions, and prevention measures.

Mclelland, Christine

372

77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-000] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application...Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f....

2012-01-20

373

78 FR 48155 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission; Intent To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-001] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application...filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project f....

2013-08-07

374

77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-001] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application...filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f....

2012-12-11

375

33 CFR 100.35T05-0482 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC.  

...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. 100.35T05-0482 Section 100...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. (a) Regulated area. The following...48?44? West, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. All coordinates...

2014-07-01

376

75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FD 35379] RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp...for RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica); Palm Beach Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach); RailAmerica Transportation Corp....

2010-08-31

377

33 CFR 100.35T05-0482 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. 100.35T05-0482 Section 100...Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. (a) Regulated area. The following...48?44? West, at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. All coordinates...

2013-07-01

378

Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

1983-01-01

379

Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of stranded plastic marine debris along the Portuguese coastline was investigated. Number of items m-2 and size range of resin pellets were recorded, corresponding to 53% of total marine debris collected items. In addition, concentrations of adsorbed persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTC) were determined, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Matosinhos (Mt) and Vieira de Leiria (VL) presented the highest number of items m-2 (362 and 332, respectively). Resin pellets with 4 mm diameter were the most abundant (50%). Contaminants concentration was variable. PAH concentrations recorded values between 53 and 44800 ng g-1, PCB ranged from 2 to 223 ng g-1 and DDT between 0.42 and 41 ng g-1. In general, aged and black pellets recorded higher concentrations for all contaminants. Matosinhos (Mt), Vieira de Leiria (VL) and Sines (Si), near industrial areas and port facilities, were the most contaminated beaches. Research efforts are needed to assess the points of entry of industrial plastic pellets in order to take action and minimize impacts on the ecosystems, in particular, points of transfer during transportation from plastic manufacturers to plastic converters should be identified and controlled so that virgin pellets are contained and will not enter rivers and be carried to the oceans where they can remain for a long time and travel great distances.

Antunes, J. C.; Frias, J. G. L.; Micaelo, A. C.; Sobral, P.

2013-09-01

380

Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

2007-01-01

381

Circulation, mixing, and transport in nearshore Lake Erie in the vicinity of Villa Angela Beach and Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio, September 11-12, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Villa Angela Beach, on the Lake Erie lakeshore near Cleveland, Ohio, is adjacent to the mouth of Euclid Creek, a small, flashy stream draining approximately 23 square miles and susceptible to periodic contamination from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) (97 and 163 CSO events in 2010 and 2011, respectively). Concerns over high concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples taken along this beach and frequent beach closures led to the collection of synoptic data in the nearshore area in an attempt to gain insights into mixing processes, circulation, and the potential for transport of bacteria and other CSO-related pollutants from various sources in Euclid Creek and along the lakefront. An integrated synoptic survey was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 11–12, 2012, during low-flow conditions on Euclid Creek, which followed rain-induced high flows in the creek on September 8–9, 2012. Data-collection methods included deployment of an autonomous underwater vehicle and use of a manned boat equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Spatial distributions of water-quality measures and nearshore currents indicated that the mixing zone encompassing the mouth of Euclid Creek and Villa Angela Beach is dynamic and highly variable in extent, but can exhibit a large zone of recirculation that can, at times, be decoupled from local wind forcing. Observed circulation patterns during September 2012 indicated that pollutants from CSOs in Euclid Creek and water discharged from three shoreline CSO points within 2,000 feet of the beach could be trapped along Villa Angela Beach by interaction of nearshore currents and shoreline structures. In spite of observed coastal downwelling, denser water from Euclid Creek is shown to mix to the surface via offshore turbulent structures that span the full depth of flow. While the southwesterly longshore currents driving the recirculation pattern along the beach front were observed during the 2011–12 synoptic surveys, longshore currents with a southwesterly component capable of establishing the recirculation only occurred about 30 percent of the time from June 7 to October 6, 2012, based on continuous velocity data collected near Villa Angela Beach.

Jackson, Patrick R.

2013-01-01

382

Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ?.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of predatory fauna such as decapods and fish, and restrict their abundance.

Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

2014-10-01

383

Identifying sources of fecal contamination inexpensively with targeted sampling and bacterial source tracking.  

PubMed

Most bacterial source tracking (BST) methods are too expensive for most communities to afford. We developed targeted sampling as a prelude to BST to reduce these costs. We combined targeted sampling with three inexpensive BST methods, Enterococcus speciation, detection of the esp gene, and fluorometry, to confirm the sources of fecal contamination to beaches on Georgia's Jekyll and Sea Islands during calm and stormy weather conditions. For Jekyll Island, the most likely source of contamination was bird feces because the percentage of Ent. faecalis was high (30%) and the esp gene was not detected. For the Sea Island beach during calm conditions, the most likely sources of fecal contamination were leaking sewer lines and wildlife feces. The leaking sewer lines were confirmed with fluorometry and detection of the esp gene. For the Sea Island beach during stormflow conditions, the most likely sources of fecal contamination were wildlife feces and runoff discharging from two county-maintained pipes. For the pipes, the most likely source of contamination was bird feces because the percentage of Ent. faecalis was high (30%) and the esp gene was not detected. Sediments were also a reservoir of fecal enterococci for both Jekyll and Sea Islands. Combining targeted sampling with two or more BST methods identified sources of fecal contamination quickly, easily, and inexpensively. This combination was the first time targeted sampling was conducted during stormy conditions, and the first time targeted sampling was combined with enterococcal speciation, detection of the esp gene, and fluorometry. PMID:16641326

McDonald, Jennifer L; Hartel, Peter G; Gentit, Lisa C; Belcher, Carolyn N; Gates, Keith W; Rodgers, Karen; Fisher, Jared A; Smith, Katy A; Payne, Karen A

2006-01-01

384

Alongshore currents over variable beach topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of unstable alongshore currents in the nearshore surf zone over variable barred beach topography are studied using numerical experiments. These experiments extend the recent studies of Allen et al. [1996] and Slinn et al. [1998], which utilized alongshore uniform beach topographies by including sinusoidal alongshore variation to shore parallel sandbars. The model involves finite difference solutions to the nonlinear shallow water equations for forced, dissipative, initial value problems and employs periodic boundary conditions in the alongshore direction. Effects of dissipation are modeled by linear bottom friction. Forcing for the alongshore currents is provided by gradients in the radiation stress, which are specified using linear theory and the dissipation function for breaking waves formulated by Thornton and Guza [1983]. Distinct flows develop depending on the amplitude ? and wavelength ? of the topographic variability and the dimensionless parameter Q, the ratio of an advective to a frictional timescale. For Q greater than a critical value QC the flows are linearly stable. For ?Q = QC - Q>0 the flow can be unstable. For small values of ?Q the effect of increasing ?; is to stabilize or regularize the flows and to cause the mean flow to approximately follow contours of constant depth. Equilibrated shear waves develop that propagate along the mean current path at phase speeds and wavelengths that are close to predictions for the most unstable mode from linear theory applied to alongshore-averaged conditions. At intermediate values of ?Q, unsteady vortices form and exhibit nonlinear interactions as they propagate along the mean current path, occasionally merging, pairing, or being shed seaward of the sandbar. Eddies preferentially form in the mean current when approaching alongshore troughs of the sandbar and break free from the mean current when approaching alongshore crests of the sandbar. At the largest values of ?Q examined the resulting flow fields resemble a turbulent shear flow and are less strongly influenced by the alongshore variability in topography. As the amplitude of the alongshore topographic variability increases, alongshore wavenumber-frequency spectra of the across-shore velocity show a corresponding increase in energy at both higher alongshore wavenumbers and over a broader frequency range with significant energy at wavenumbers of topographic variability and harmonics. Across-shore fluxes of mass and momentum generally increase with increasing topographic amplitude and increasing ?Q. Time- and space-lagged correlations of the across-shore velocity show that correlation length scales decrease as topographic perturbation amplitudes increase. Terms from the vorticity equation show that the alongshore variation of the radiation stresses and the value of ?Q are of importance to the flow behavior. Hybrid experiments separating effects of spatially variable forcing and the dynamic influence of topography on time-averaged currents show that the effects are generally comparable with the relative importance of each effect a function of ?Q. The results show that topographic variability has a significant influence on nearshore circulation.

Slinn, Donald N.; Allen, J. S.; Holman, R. A.

2000-07-01

385

33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. 110.214 Section 110.214 Navigation and Navigable...Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. (a) General Regulations —(1) Anchorage...

2012-07-01

386

33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.  

...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security...

2014-07-01

387

33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.  

...2014-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. 110.214 Section 110.214 Navigation and Navigable...Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. (a) General Regulations —(1) Anchorage...

2014-07-01

388

33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security...

2013-07-01

389

33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. 110.214 Section 110.214 Navigation and Navigable...Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. (a) General Regulations —(1) Anchorage...

2013-07-01

390

33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. 110.214 Section 110.214 Navigation and Navigable...Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. (a) General Regulations —(1) Anchorage...

2011-07-01

391

33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security...

2012-07-01

392

33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. 110.214 Section 110.214 Navigation and Navigable...Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California. (a) General Regulations —(1) Anchorage...

2010-07-01

393

33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security...

2011-07-01

394

33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. (a) Location. The following area is a security...

2010-07-01

395

76 FR 28130 - Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is...Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Coastal Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida, (OTS No. 15445) on May 6, 2011....

2011-05-13

396

33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable...215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area. The waters of...

2012-07-01

397

33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the...

2013-07-01

398

33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable...215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area. The waters of...

2010-07-01

399

33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.  

...false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable...215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area. The waters of...

2014-07-01

400

33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the...

2011-07-01

401

33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.  

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the...

2014-07-01

402

33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable...215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area. The waters of...

2011-07-01

403

33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the...

2010-07-01

404

33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable...215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area. The waters of...

2013-07-01

405

33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110...REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the...

2012-07-01

406

Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

407

33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section...PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263.26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a)...

2012-07-01

408

33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section...PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263.26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a)...

2010-07-01

409

33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).  

... 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section...PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263.26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a)...

2014-07-01

410

33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section...PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263.26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a)...

2011-07-01

411

33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section...PROGRAMS Shore Protection Policy § 263.26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a)...

2013-07-01

412

Do's and Don'ts for Protecting Your Health and Your Beach's Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Beach's Health Dos and Dont's for Protecting Your Health and Your Beach's Health You can do several things to keep yourself ... closed. Learn more about the risks to your health . Be sun safe Check the UV Index Use ...

413

Beach1 functionally antagonizes Rab11 during development and in regulating synaptic morphology  

E-print Network

BEACH proteins comprise an evolutionarily conserved family characterized by the presence of a BEACH (Beige and Chediak-Higashi) domain of unknown function. They have been shown to play a role in a number of important ...

Khodosh, Rita

2005-01-01

414

US Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics (15th : 1999-Myrtle Beach, S.C.),  

E-print Network

US Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics (15th : 1999-Myrtle Beach, S.C.), edited by Kailasam Iyer Symposium on Solid Mechanics (15th : 1999-Myrtle Beach, S.C.), edited by Kailasam Iyer and Shun-chin Chou

Stewart, Sarah T.

415

Integrating Bacterial and Viral Water Quality Assessment to Predict Swimming-Associated Illness at a Freshwater Beach: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background & Objective Recreational waters impacted by fecal contamination have been linked to gastrointestinal illness in swimmer populations. To date, few epidemiologic studies examine the risk for swimming-related illnesses based upon simultaneous exposure to more than one microbial surrogate (e.g. culturable E. coli densities, genetic markers). We addressed this research gap by investigating the association between swimming-related illness frequency and water quality determined from multiple bacterial and viral genetic markers. Methods Viral and bacterial genetic marker densities were determined from beach water samples collected over 23 weekend days and were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These genetic marker data were paired with previously determined human exposure data gathered as part of a cohort study carried out among beach users at East Fork Lake in Ohio, USA in 2009. Using previously unavailable genetic marker data in logistic regression models, single- and multi-marker/multi-water quality indicator approaches for predicting swimming-related illness were evaluated for associations with swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness. Results Data pertaining to genetic marker exposure and 8- or 9-day health outcomes were available for a total of 600 healthy susceptible swimmers, and with this population we observed a significant positive association between human adenovirus (HAdV) exposure and diarrhea (odds ratio ?=?1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.3) as well as gastrointestinal illness (OR ?=?1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.2) upon adjusting for culturable E. coli densities in multivariable models. No significant associations between bacterial genetic markers and swimming-associated illness were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence that a combined measure of recreational water quality that simultaneously considers both bacterial and viral densities, particularly HAdV, may improve prediction of disease risk than a measure of a single agent in a beach environment likely influenced by nonpoint source human fecal contamination. PMID:25409012

Marion, Jason W.; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Chang Soo; Wang, Qiuhong; Lemeshow, Stanley; Buckley, Timothy J.; Saif, Linda J.; Lee, Jiyoung

2014-01-01

416

Mercury Contamination  

PubMed Central

IN BRIEF A residential elemental mercury contamination incident in Rhode Island resulted in the evacuation of an entire apartment complex. To develop recommendations for improved response, all response-related documents were examined; personnel involved in the response were interviewed; policies and procedures were reviewed; and environmental monitoring data were compiled from specific phases of the response for analysis of effect. A significant challenge of responding to residential elemental mercury contamination lies in communicating risk to residents affected py a HazMat spill. An ongoing, open and honest dialogue is emphasized where concerns of the public are heard and addressed, particularly when establishing and/or modifying policies and procedures for responding to residential elemental mercury contamination. PMID:23436951

Thompson, Marcella R.

2013-01-01

417

Environmental contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

2001-01-01

418

Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.  

PubMed

Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. PMID:25460060

Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

2015-02-01

419

Industrial plastic on the southern beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the western beaches of the Gulf of Oman.  

PubMed

The increasing production and use of plastic in the Arabian Gulf combined with shipping and waste disposal practices, have increased the concentration of plastic particles on the sea's surface and beaches. The objective of this investigation was to provide an assessment of the abundance, distribution, potential sources and significance of industrial plastic on the western beaches of the United Arab Emirates on the Arabian Gulf and on the eastern beaches on the Gulf of Oman. The abundance of stranded plastic pellets was highly uneven. By early 1992 alarming levels of fresh plastic pellets were noticed on the Arabian Gulf beaches of the UAE. Large numbers of 25 kg sacks of white plastic spherules manufactured by (SABIC) in Jubail, Saudi Arabia were washed ashore. When compared to the west coast on the Arabian Gulf, the east coast on the Gulf of Oman exhibited much lower levels of plastic pellets. When compared to other parts of the world, the beaches of the UAE on the Arabian Gulf are considered to be heavily polluted with industrial plastic. PMID:15091703

Khordagui, H K; Abu-Hilal, A H

1994-01-01

420

The Predictive Accuracy of Shoreline Change Rate Methods and Alongshore Beach Variation on Maui, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

GENZ, A.S.; FLETCHER, C.H.; DUNN, R.A.; FRAZER, L.N., and ROONEY, J.J., 2007. The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(1), 87-105. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Beach erosion has direct consequences for Hawaii's tourist-based economy, which depends on the attraction of beau- tiful sandy beaches. Within the

Ayesha S. Genz; Charles H. Fletcher; Robert A. Dunn; L. Neil Frazer; John J. Rooney

2007-01-01

421

Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important\\u000a sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped\\u000a beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed\\u000a beaches, where cigarette butts,

Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul; Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Alexandre Matthiensen; Gilberto Fillmann

2011-01-01

422

Exposure of Fauna to Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Traffic on Sandy Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on sandy beaches is common and widespread, but is not universally embraced due to putative environmental impacts on beach biota. For ORVs to impact the beach fauna, traffic areas must overlap with faunal habitat: a fundamental pre-requisite for impact assessments but as yet un-quantified for sandy beaches. Thus, this study quantified the spatial and temporal

Thomas A. Schlacher; Luke M. C. Thompson

2007-01-01

423

External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach  

SciTech Connect

A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

Wilman, E.A.

1984-01-01

424

(Contaminated soil)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

Siegrist, R.L.

1991-01-08

425

Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

2011-01-01

426

Porosity and packing of Holocene river, dune, and beach sands  

SciTech Connect

The porosity and packing of 174 samples of well-sorted surficial and shallowly buried (to 17 m), unconsolidated Holocene sands were determined by point counting the upper surface of thin sections of epoxy-impregnated samples in reflected light. Average depositional porosity for 124 surficial beach sands, river point-bar and braid-bar sands, and eolian dune sands is between 40% and 58%. Beach sands exhibit an average packing value (contact index = CI) of 0.79, river sands an average IC of 0.91, and eolian dune sands an average CI of 1.02. Packing gets tighter with depth, but the authors found no decrease in porosity with depth for river and beach sands buried to 17 m. Thus, packing is more sensitive to small changes in fabric than is porosity. Beach sands typically contain 5.5% oversized pores (OSP), river sands 3.8% OSP, and eolian dune sands 4.0% OSP. Most OSP are packing defects rather than dissolution pores, although trapped air bubbles are common in some beach sands. OSP decrease linearly with depth to 17 m, our deepest sample. Extrapolation of our data indicates that they will be destroyed at a depth less than 100 m. Significant differences in porosity, oversized-pore, and packing values exist between most point-bar and braid-bar deposits and between two heavily sampled point bars, but no significant differences in these values exist when braid-bar sands are compared to other braid-bar sands. Sands form different beaches have significant differences in porosity, oversized pores, and packing. The average porosity is 46% for eolian ripple strata, 50% for grain-fall strata, and 51% for grain-flow strata. Ripple strata are tighter packed than grain-fall and grain-flow strata.

Atkins, J.E. (Conoco, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); McBride, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1991-03-01

427

77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic...descriptor of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic...

2012-04-11

428

77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC...airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error...

2012-05-14

429

GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

430

33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 ...160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2014-07-01

431

33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. 110.100 Section...Areas § 110.100 Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) [Reserved...beginning. (c) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude...

2011-07-01

432

33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.  

...2014-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. 110.100 Section...Areas § 110.100 Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) [Reserved...beginning. (c) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude...

2014-07-01

433

36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in accordance with §§ 1.5 and...

2010-07-01

434

33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 ...160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2011-07-01

435

36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in accordance with §§ 1.5 and...

2011-07-01

436

33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...U.S. Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as...

2012-07-01

437

76 FR 36014 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL AGENCY: Federal...This action proposes to modify the Palm Beach International Airport Class C airspace...the floor of Class C airspace above Palm Beach County Park Airport (LNA) from...

2011-06-21

438

36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?  

...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in accordance with §§ 1.5 and...

2014-07-01

439

76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for...on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6,...

2011-09-01

440

46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping...7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2014-10-01

441

75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display AGENCY...waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display. This safety...Lake Tahoe, in the vicinity of Jameson Beach at South Lake Tahoe, CA around the...

2010-06-18

442

78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...amends Class E Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument...Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace...

2013-05-01

443

33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 ...160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2012-07-01

444

33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary...area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point...

2011-07-01

445

33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across the...specified in this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at...

2010-07-01

446

33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...U.S. Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as...

2010-07-01

447

33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...U.S. Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as...

2014-07-01

448

33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary...area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point...

2013-07-01

449

33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.  

...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary...area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point...

2014-07-01

450

33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 ...160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2010-07-01

451

33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...U.S. Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as...

2013-07-01

452

77 FR 50376 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW); Wrightsville Beach, NC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW); Wrightsville Beach, NC; Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear...the AIWW, mile 283.1 at Wrightsville Beach, NC; the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge across...Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC; Cape Fear and Northeast Cape...

2012-08-21

453

78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide for the safety of...conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida. These operations will...

2013-02-15

454

33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. 110.100 Section...Areas § 110.100 Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) [Reserved...beginning. (c) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude...

2012-07-01

455

46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping...7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2012-10-01

456

76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: This action modifies the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace...the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport. The FAA is...

2011-12-13

457

46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping...7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2011-10-01

458

33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area...U.S. Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as...

2011-07-01

459

46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping...7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2010-10-01

460

33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across the...specified in this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at...

2011-07-01

461

77 FR 25652 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC; Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear...the AIWW, mile 283.1 at Wrightsville Beach, NC; the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge across...for the S.R. 74 Bridge at Wrightsville Beach, NC, the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge...

2012-05-01

462

33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across the...specified in this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at...

2012-07-01

463

33 CFR 110.100 - Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. 110.100 Section...Areas § 110.100 Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif. (a) [Reserved...beginning. (c) Area B-1. Long Beach outer harbor along east side of Pier 400 beginning at latitude...

2013-07-01

464

36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in accordance with §§ 1.5 and...

2013-07-01

465

36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks...regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in accordance with §§ 1.5 and...

2012-07-01

466

33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 ...160 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2013-07-01

467

77 FR 45488 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Intracoastal Waterway at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary...Waterway, mile 252.3, at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone...

2012-08-01

468

33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary...area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point...

2012-07-01

469

33 CFR 167.501 - In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. 167.501 Section...In the approaches to Los Angeles/Long Beach: Precautionary area. (a) The precautionary...area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line connecting Point...

2010-07-01

470

33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation...Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across the...specified in this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at...

2013-07-01

471

46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7.25 Shipping...7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock...the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

2013-10-01

472

South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Palm Beach County high schools show improvement in latest grades  

E-print Network

South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Palm Beach County high schools show improvement in latest grades Beach and Belle Glade had waited to hear for so long. On Tuesday, with new record-breaking academic of struggles, the improved grades at Boynton Beach, Lake Worth and Glades Central High were cause

Belogay, Eugene A.

473

WPTV News Channel 5 New hope for retail recovery in Palm Beach County  

E-print Network

WPTV News Channel 5 New hope for retail recovery in Palm Beach County Posted: 10/19/2011 By: Evan Axelbank PALM BEACH COUNTY, Fla. - When you don't have a job, every purchase becomes a calculation. "It Beach. Martin, 23, has applied for 10 jobs in the last week, mostly at retail outlets like Walmart

Belogay, Eugene A.

474

Measuring Shoreline Changes in Rincon Beach Using Remote Sensing Techniques University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez  

E-print Network

University Measuring Shoreline Changes in Rincon Beach Using Remote Sensing Techniques Advisor Changes in Rincon Beach Using Remote Sensing Techniques Pablo R. Mejías-Santiago #802-05-4749 GEOL 4049 Advisor: Dr. Fernando Gilbes Santaella Measuring Shoreline Changes in Rincon Beach Using Remote Sensing

Gilbes, Fernando

475

Calculation of beach change under interacting cross-shore and longshore processes Hans Hanson a,  

E-print Network

Calculation of beach change under interacting cross-shore and longshore processes Hans Hanson a online 7 March 2010 Keywords: Longshore sediment transport Beach response Groins Coastal structures approach and numerical model that simulates beach and dune change in response to cross-shore processes

US Army Corps of Engineers

476

6/29/2006 BEACH 2006 July 2nd 8th  

E-print Network

6/29/2006 BEACH 2006 July 2nd ­ 8th 1 Leptonic decays of Charm mesons David H. Miller Purdue University (CLEO collaboration) 7th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm And Beauty Hadrons BEACH 2006 2nd to 8th July 2006 University of Lancaster, England. #12;6/29/2006 BEACH 2006 July 2nd ­ 8th 2

477

Economic Impact of THE PLAYERS Championship Golf Tournament at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, March 20051  

E-print Network

FE698 Economic Impact of THE PLAYERS Championship Golf Tournament at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida at the Sawgrass Stadium Golf course in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. This event is part of the PGA TOUR and is operated by PGA TOUR, Inc., which is also headquartered in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. In 2005, the TPC

Florida, University of

478

South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Job growth is expanding in West Palm Beach, Miami  

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South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com Job growth is expanding in West Palm Beach, Miami By Donna Gehrke in Palm Beach and Broward counties, according to new projections released Monday by a leading economist, and will rise by 1.5 percent in Palm Beach County, Wells Fargo Securities senior economist Mark Vitner said

Belogay, Eugene A.

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Experimental study of nearshore dynamics on a barred beach with rip channels  

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Experimental study of nearshore dynamics on a barred beach with rip channels Merrick C. Haller1 performed on a fixed barred beach with periodically spaced rip channels using a range of incident wave-directed flows called rip currents. These currents have been observed on a wide range of beach types

Haller, Merrick

480

For first time since 2007, food stamp use drops in state, Palm Beach County  

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For first time since 2007, food stamp use drops in state, Palm Beach County March 13, 2013|By Donna in Palm Beach County fell in February, according to data from the Florida Department of Children from last year when the number of food stamp recipients in Palm Beach County jumped nearly 14 percent

Fernandez, Eduardo

481

Edisto Beach Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Colleton County, South Carolina  

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Edisto Beach Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Colleton County, South Carolina 20 March 2014. The northern portion of the study area within the Edisto Beach State Park was not included in the recommended the cost of protecting that portion of beach. The non-Federal sponsor for the project is the Town of Edisto

US Army Corps of Engineers

482

U. Akgun, Beach 2006, Lancaster 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWATHE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA  

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U. Akgun, Beach 2006, Lancaster 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWATHE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA c + Lifetime Measurement from SELEX (E781) Experiment Ugur Akgun for the SELEX Collaboration #12;U. Akgun, Beach 2006. Akgun, Beach 2006, Lancaster 3 THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWATHE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA SELEX Experiment at Fermilab

Akgun, Ugur

483

Losing shuttle program to hurt Space Coast far worse than Palm Beach County  

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Losing shuttle program to hurt Space Coast far worse than Palm Beach County By JEFF OSTROWSKI Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 5:07 p.m. Sunday, July 3, 2011 Posted: 4:59 p.m. Sunday, July 3, 2011 agency Space Florida. For many in Palm Beach County's aerospace industry, the shuttle's demise merits

Belogay, Eugene A.

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Sediment Transport Modeling and Application for Ocean Beach and San Francisco Bight, CA  

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Sediment Transport Modeling and Application for Ocean Beach and San Francisco Bight, CA H. Li1 , L) to evaluate a designated dredged-material placement site nearshore the beach erosion hot spot and onshore nourishment alternatives on Ocean Beach, California. Both model results and measurements reveal that tidal

US Army Corps of Engineers

485

Miller Beach 30-Year Plan: Sustainable Economic Development in Gary's Lakefront Neighborhood  

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Miller Beach 30-Year Plan: Sustainable Economic Development in Gary's Lakefront Neighborhood #12 Madeline Grennan Ricardo Lopez Jason Miranda Bailey Muller Alma Tello Kyle Terry #12;Miller Beach_______________________________________________________________58 #12;vision We envision Miller Beach as a place that continues to embrace its increasingly diverse

Illinois at Chicago, University of

486

Docket Number: 12-AFC-03 Project Title: Redondo Beach Energy Project  

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DOCKETED Docket Number: 12-AFC-03 Project Title: Redondo Beach Energy Project TN #: 200423 Document Title: Notice of Site Visit and Informational Hearing Description: Redondo Beach Energy Project - Notice, SACRAMENTO, CA 95814 1-800-822-6228 ­ WWW.ENERGY.CA.GOV APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATION FOR THE REDONDO BEACH

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Geospatial analysis of vulnerable beach-foredune systems from decadal time series of lidar data  

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Geospatial analysis of vulnerable beach-foredune systems from decadal time series of lidar data, Geospatial analysis of vulnerable beach- foredune systems from decadal time series of lidar data, Journal islands and their beach and dune systems. GIS- based per grid cell statistics and map algebra was applied

Mitasova, Helena

488

Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California  

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Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point). Among the most visible manifestations of marine oil in the environment is the formation and beach accumulation is common on many California beaches due to chronic oil emissions from natural oil seeps

Luyendyk, Bruce

489

The Beach Study: An Empirical Analysis of the Distribution of Coastal Property Values  

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165 The Beach Study: An Empirical Analysis of the Distribution of Coastal Property Values empirical evidence suggests that coastal properties, and particularly those proximate to a beach, have empirical evidence suggests that coastal properties, and particularly those proximate to a beach, have

Omiecinski, Curtis

490

Docket Number: 12-AFC-02 Project Title: Huntington Beach Energy Project  

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DOCKETED Docket Number: 12-AFC-02 Project Title: Huntington Beach Energy Project TN #: 200828 Document Title: Huntington Beach Energy Project Preliminary Staff Assessment - Part A Description: N Assessment - Part A HUNTINGTON BEACH ENERGY PROJECT #12;DISCLAIMER Staff members of the California Energy

491

Chuanlei Liu, Beach 2006, Lancaster,UK, 2nd-8th of July Spectroscopy and pentaquark  

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Chuanlei Liu, Beach 2006, Lancaster,UK, 2nd-8th of July 1 ....... Spectroscopy and pentaquark;Chuanlei Liu, Beach 2006, Lancaster,UK, 2nd-8th of July 2 .............. 4-momentum transfer squared regimes 22 )( qpw += H1 ZEUS #12;Chuanlei Liu, Beach 2006, Lancaster,UK, 2nd-8th of July 3

492

Coffee Party percolating on Treasure Coast with gathering in Jensen Beach  

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Coffee Party percolating on Treasure Coast with gathering in Jensen Beach By Christin Erazo Friday, November 5, 2010 JENSEN BEACH -- Civility and solutions are what Bill Ramos hopes to bring to the table Library in Jensen Beach, 1150 Jack Williams Way. The Coffee Party movement was started on the social

Belogay, Eugene A.

493

Up, Down, or Stable: Populations of Endangered Birds in Beach and Estuarine  

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Up, Down, or Stable: Populations of Endangered Birds in Beach and Estuarine Areas in Southern California1 Abby N. Powell2 Abstract The coastal beach-dune ecosystem in California supports two federally to shoreline development, invasion of exotic plants, beach stabilization, and heavy recreational use. Least

Standiford, Richard B.

494

Wave run-up on a high-energy dissipative beach Peter Ruggiero  

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Wave run-up on a high-energy dissipative beach Peter Ruggiero Coastal and Marine Geology Program, U, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA R. A. Beach Consortium for Oceanographic Research in foreshore beach morphology, wave run-up data collected along the central Oregon coast during February 1996

495

Paired Open Beach Seines to Study Estuarine Migrations of Juvenile Salmon  

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Paired Open Beach Seines to Study Estuarine Migrations of Juvenile Salmon HERBERT W. JAENICKE, ADRIAN G. CELEWYCZ, JACK E. BAILEY, and JOSEPH A. ORSI Figure I. - Location of beach seining sites along straight, long unobstructed beaches in southeastern Alaska. The seines were anchored in place

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CEF06, Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, Cyprus, June 22-24, 2006  

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CEF06, Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, Cyprus, June 22-24, 2006 Optimal Endogenous Carbon Taxes School of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 #12;CEF06, Amathus Beach06, Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, Cyprus, June 22-24, 2006 · This research was supported, in part

Nagurney, Anna

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Economic Impact of THE PLAYERS Championship Golf Tournament at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, May 2007  

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1 Economic Impact of THE PLAYERS Championship Golf Tournament at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, May, for the first time since it was relocated to Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, THE PLAYERS® Championship (TPC) golf, and this continued to be the case in 2007 with a purse totaling $9 million. Ponte Vedra Beach is located in the north

Florida, University of

498

New census numbers show Palm Beach County's 85-plus crowd grows 41%  

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New census numbers show Palm Beach County's 85-plus crowd grows 41% By CHRISTINE STAPLETON AND GEORGE BENNETT Palm Beach Post Staff Writers Updated: 8:32 a.m. Thursday, May 5, 2011 Posted: 8:21 a community near West Palm Beach, 87-year-old Lou Hazan tried to offer some insights into the modern

Belogay, Eugene A.

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CONNECTIONS OF CARING: A STUDY OF SEATTLE AQUARIUM VOLUNTEER BEACH NATURALISTS  

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CONNECTIONS OF CARING: A STUDY OF SEATTLE AQUARIUM VOLUNTEER BEACH NATURALISTS By DAOUD NEIL MILLER: A STUDY OF SEATTLE AQUARIUM VOLUNTEER BEACH NATURALISTS By DAOUD NEIL MILLER, Master of Arts in Counseling twelve long-term volunteer shoreline interpreters in the Seattle Aquarium Beach Naturalist program

Coble, Theresa G.

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Week 12, Sticking Close to Home Alex holding me on Murdering Beach  

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Week 12, Sticking Close to Home Alex holding me on Murdering Beach We've been back from our big beach for a barbeque. One of the things that I love about Dunedin is that it's so easy to get out to Murdering Beach to barbeque some sausages and catch the #12;sunset. Then just today, Jen and I rode a loop

Bardsley, John