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1

Sediment toxicity and benthic communities in mildly contaminated mudflats  

SciTech Connect

Sediment physicochemical characteristics, benthic community structure, and toxicity were measured at reference and contaminated intertidal mudflats around the North Island of New Zealand. Chronic whole-sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine amphipod, Chaetocorophium lucasi and the marine bivalve, Macomona lilana, and pore-water toxicity tests were conducted with embryos of the echinoid, Fellaster zelandiae. Although concentrations of organic chemicals and heavy metals were up to several orders of magnitude higher at the sites considered to be contaminated, levels of contamination were relatively low compared to internationally based sediment quality guidelines. Although no pronounced difference was found in benthic community structure between reference and contaminated sites, multivariate analysis indicated that natural sediment characteristics and factors related to contamination may have been affecting community structure. Although benthic effects caused by present levels of contamination are not yet dramatic, subtle changes in community structure related to pollution may be occurring. The two whole-sediment and the pore-water toxicity tests presented different response patterns. Growth of C. lucasi and M. liliana was a less sensitive endpoint than survival. None of the three toxicity tests responded more strongly to the contaminated than to the reference sites, that is, neither natural-sediment and pore-water characteristics nor unmeasured contaminants affected the test organisms. It is possible that sediment collection and handling may have induced chemical changes, confounding interpretation of toxicity tests.

Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Williams, E.K.; Martin, M.L.; Van Dam, L.F.; Mills, G.N. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., Hamilton (New Zealand)

1998-03-01

2

Analyze of waves dynamic over an intertidal mudflat of a sandy-gravely estuarine beach - Field survey and preliminary modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As well as marine submersion or erosive phenomena, clay-silted sediment in-filling on estuarial and bay beaches are a main issue in these human-attractive areas. Coupled sandy/gravely and clay/silty intertidal areas can be observed in these particular coastal areas, depending of rivers characteristic (discharge of particle, water flow), ocean dynamics (wave exposure, current) and sediments sources. All around the world, sandy/gravely beaches are exposed to punctual or continuous input clay sediments. Vilaine estuary, Bay of Arcachon and Bay of Seine in France, Plymouth Bay in UK and also Wadden Sea in Deutschland are few examples of muddy/sandy coupled or mixed system. The beach of Bétahon (Ambon town, Brittany - France) is located on the external Vilaine estuary and is an example of this issue. This meso-macrotidal intermediate (low tide terrace) beach presents heterogeneous sediments. The upper intertidal zone is composed by sand and gravel and characterized by a steep slope. A very gentle slope characterized the lower part of the beach and is constituted by silt and clay. Clay/sand limit is characterized by a decimetric erosion cliff of mudflat along the beach. In order to understand bed variations and sediment transport of this complex heterogeneous beach, a well understanding of wave dynamic across the beach is necessary. This study focus on wave dynamics over the beach, using field observations and MIKE 21 3D wave numerical model. This paper is a preliminary approach of an upcoming global understanding of this estuarial beach behavior. Swell from deep-sea to near-shore area is modeled over a 100 km² area and real wind, deep sea wave characteristic, river water flow and tidal level are defined as open boundary conditions for the regional model. This last one is based on multiple bathymetric surveys over the last 50 years. Local model, triangular mesh gridded to 5 meters, covering Bétahon beach , is based on topographic and photographic survey of the mudflat since 2005 (an amplitude above 1.4 meters has been observed over a start reference state). Modeling significant wave height, wave direction and period are compared to a cross-shore wave dynamics survey over the beach, during one week. Surf zone positions over the beach, wave characteristics at local and regional scales, impacts of mudflat altitude on waves are analyzed and discussed.

Morio, Olivier; Sedrati, Mouncef; Goubert, Evelyne

2014-05-01

3

Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

4

Increasing Beach Recreation Benefits by Using Wetlands to Reduce Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public swimming beach at Maumee Bay State Park (MBSP) on Lake Erie is often posted for occurrences of unsafe levels of bacteria. The main source of bacteria derives from a drainage ditch that discharges near the beach. We have conducted a comprehensive study to determine the feasibility of using a constructed wetland to filter the ditch water, prior to

Sebastain N. Awondo; Kevin J. Egan; Daryl F. Dwyer

2011-01-01

5

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition,\\u000a quantities and distribution of marine debris along ?150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia,\\u000a Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations\\u000a were observed. Plastics accounted for

Isaac R. Santos; Ana Cláudia Friedrich; Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul

2009-01-01

6

Vulnerability of Selected Beaches to Petroleum Contamination, Placentia Bay, NL, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Placentia Bay currently hosts the highest volume of ship traffic in along the Atlantic Canadian coastline, and is additionally exposed to accidental and deliberate discharges of petroleum products by Trans-Atlantic ship traffic. Placentia Bay has been identified as the region in Canada that is most likely to suffer a petroleum contamination event within the next 10 years. The morphological, sedimentological, energy regime, and marine debris characteristics of 4 beaches at the head of Placentia Bay were investigated in detail. Differing morphological, sedimentological and energy regime conditions alter the sensitivity of each system to oil spill contamination. Differences in the type and amount of marine debris between each system alter the potential risk of exposure to oil spill contamination. Based on differences in sensitivity and exposure, a vulnerability assessment was created for each system. This system was applied to additional beaches and rocky coastlines to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight the actual vulnerability of each study beach relative to the spectrum of beaches actually present throughout eastern Newfoundland. Typical of the majority of beaches throughout Placentia Bay, the 4 study beaches are characterized by gravel dominated, reflective, moderate to high energy systems. Observations of sediment re-working and accretionary features along the beaches of Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance indicate that self-cleaning would not be an effective agent of oil removal in the case of a spill. The absence of sediment re-working and protected nature of Goose Cove beach suggest that oil would persist in this environment for an extended period of time. Evidence of high wave energies at Hollett's Cove indicates that this beach would self-clean effectively. Differing types and quantities of marine debris indicate that each beach, with the exception of Goose Cove, would likely be exposed to oil originating from a Placentia Bay spill. The heaviest quantities would be expected at Hollett's Cove and Arnold's Cove. Based on these factors, Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance are considered the most vulnerable beaches to oil contamination. Hollett's Cove and Goose Cove are considered the least vulnerable respectively. Applying the vulnerability assessment to the additional coastlines revealed that the 4 study beaches rank as moderately to highly vulnerable to oil spill contamination. This ranking, combined with the frequency of vessel traffic, indicates that a significant risk exists.

McNeil, M.; Catto, N.

2009-04-01

7

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches. PMID:18256899

Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

2009-01-01

8

Huntington beach shoreline contamination investigation, phase III: coastal circulation and transport patterns : the likelihood of OCSD's plume impacting Huntington beach shoreline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A consortium of agencies have conducted an extensive investigation of the coastal ocean circulation and transport pathways off Huntington Beach, with the aim of identifying any causal links that may exist between the offshore discharge of wastewater by OCSD and the significant bacterial contamination observed along the Huntington Beach shoreline. This is the third study supported by OCSD to determine possible land-based and coa Although the study identifies several possible coastal ocean pathways by which diluted wastewater may be transported to the beach, including internal tide, sea-breeze and subtidal flow features, there were no direct observations of either the high bacteria concentrations seen in the OCSD plume at the shelf break reaching the shoreline in significant levels or of an association between the existence of a coastal ocean process and beach contamination at or above AB411 levels. It is concluded that the OCSD plume is not a major cause of beach contamination; no causal links could be demonstrated. This conclusion is based on the absence of direct observation of plume-beach links, on analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline contamination and coastal ocean processes, and on the observation of higher levels of contamination at the beach than in the plume.

Noble, Marlene; Xu, Jingping; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Robertson, George

2003-01-01

9

Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago's 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

2012-01-01

10

Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago’s 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

2012-01-01

11

Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

12

NUTRIENT TRANSPORT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED BEACHES: EVALUATION WITH LITHIUM AS A CONSERVATIVE TRACER  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches typically involves fertilization with nutrients that are thought to limit the growth rate of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Much of the available technology involves application of fertilizers that release nutrients in a water-soluble ...

13

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated beach sediments treated with nutrient amendments.  

PubMed

Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity of PAH-biodegrading microorganisms. This study focused on addressing the limitation of nutrient availability for PAH biodegradation in oil-contaminated beach sediments. In our previous study, three nutrient sources including inorganic soluble nutrients, the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote (Os; Scotts, Marysville, OH) and Inipol EAP-22 (Ip; ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, PA), as well as their combinations, were applied to beach sediments contaminated with an Arabian light crude oil. Osmocote was the most effective nutrient source for aliphatic biodegradation. This study presents data on PAH biodegradation in the oil-spiked beach sediments amended with the three nutrients. Biodegradation of total target PAHs (two- to six-ring) in all treatments followed a first-order biodegradation model. The biodegradation rates of total target PAHs in the sediments treated with Os were significantly higher than those without. On Day 45, approximately 9.3% of total target PAHs remained in the sediments amended with Os alone, significantly lower than the 54.2 to 58.0% remaining in sediment treatments without Os. Amendment with Inipol or soluble nutrients alone, or in combination, did not stimulate biodegradation rates of PAHs with a ring number higher than 2. The slow-release fertilizer (Os) is therefore recommended as an effective nutrient amendment for intrinsic biodegradation of PAHs in oil-contaminated beach sediments. PMID:15224921

Xu, Ran; Obbard, Jeffrey P

2004-01-01

14

Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.  

PubMed

Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of indigenous microorganisms, as well as the removal of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH) over a 45-day study period. PMID:24229785

Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

2013-12-15

15

Accessing Hurricane-Produced Mudflat BSC  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mudflats (open water in background) derived via erosion and habitat conversion from former mangrove forests often have a band of mangroves adjacent to the creek bank.  Here a researcher accesses a mudflat at high tide to make measurements....

2010-08-13

16

High Levels of Sediment Contamination Have Little Influence on Estuarine Beach Fish Communities  

PubMed Central

While contaminants are predicted to have measurable impacts on fish assemblages, studies have rarely assessed this potential in the context of natural variability in physico-chemical conditions within and between estuaries. We investigated links between the distribution of sediment contamination (metals and PAHs), physico-chemical variables (pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity) and beach fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Fish communities were sampled using a beach seine within the inner and outer zones of six estuaries that were either heavily modified or relatively unmodified by urbanization and industrial activity. All sampling was replicated over two years with two periods sampled each year. Shannon diversity, biomass and abundance were all significantly higher in the inner zone of estuaries while fish were larger on average in the outer zone. Strong differences in community composition were also detected between the inner and outer zones. Few differences were detected between fish assemblages in heavily modified versus relatively unmodified estuaries despite high concentrations of sediment contaminants in the inner zones of modified estuaries that exceeded recognized sediment quality guidelines. Trends in species distributions, community composition, abundance, Shannon diversity, and average fish weight were strongly correlated to physico-chemical variables and showed a weaker relationship to sediment metal contamination. Sediment PAH concentrations were not significantly related to the fish assemblage. These findings suggest that variation in some physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH) or variables that co-vary with these factors (e.g., wave activity or grain size) have a much greater influence on this fish assemblage than anthropogenic stressors such as contamination.

McKinley, Andrew C.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.

2011-01-01

17

Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and associated shallow ground water will be analyzed for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (including optical properties to characterize the composition of the organic carbon), fecal sterols, DNA (using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Poylmorphism), and phospholipid fatty acids.

Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

2005-12-01

18

Public health response to an incident of secondary chemical contamination at a beach in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To gather enough data from a large scale investigation involving two health authorities, to assess the possible concentrations and routes of exposure and the consequent health implications.To use the data to decide whether a polluted beach should remain open to the public. In Spring 1997, a chemical incident came to light at a beach on the south coast of England when a local resident reported a sulphurous smell, visible signs of oil, and reduced numbers of fishing bait. The beach was situated adjacent to a former gasworks site and was accessible to the public. The incident was reported to the local authority and was initially investigated by the Environment Agency and the local authority. An Environment Agency report confirmed contamination of the beach with cyanide, ammonia, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with associated potential health risks. The incident was then referred to the local health authorities for investigation.?METHODS—The investigation was carried out in four stages: comprehensive sampling and analysis to identify the extent of contamination, followed by an assessment of risk to health; establishment of a long term monitoring programme to identify any changes in contaminant concentrations; investigation of the effects of the contamination on shellfish; and review of the routine monitoring data and current sampling strategy.?RESULTS—The initial investigation confirmed that the beach was contaminated, with the most likely source being the adjacent former gasworks site. The level of contamination was not found to be likely to pose a hazard to users of the beach. However, subsequent investigation of shellfish in the area led to warning signs being erected on the beach to prevent human consumption of mussels contaminated with PAHs.?CONCLUSIONS—Several lessons can be learnt from this investigation, which can be applied to incident management more generally: the importance of collaboration and coordination; the need for early involvement of the health authority; and the importance of carrying out appropriate sampling and analysis as soon as possible, to assess the risk to health and the environment.???Keywords: public health; water pollutants; chemical; hydrocarbons; cyanides

Goodfellow, F; Murray, V; Ouki, S; Iversen, A; Sparks, A; Bartlett, T

2001-01-01

19

Use of Spatial Sampling and Microbial Source-Tracking Tools for Understanding Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifying spatial patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in each area, determining weather patterns that caused elevated E. coli, and applying microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to specific sites. Three MST methods were used during this study: multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of E. coli isolates and the presence of human-specific genetic markers within two types of bacteria, the genus Bacteroides and the species Enterococcus faecium. At Edgewater, sampling for E. coli was done during 2003-05 at bathing-area sites, at nearshore lake sites, and in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore areas. Spatial sampling at nearshore lake sites showed that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin; E. coli concentrations near the mouths of rivers and outfalls remote to the beach were elevated (greater than 235 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) but decreased along transport pathways to the beach. In addition, E. coli concentrations were generally highest in bathing-area samples collected at 1- and 2-foot water depths, midrange at 3-foot depths, and lowest in nearshore lake samples typically collected 150 feet from the shoreline. Elevated E. coli concentrations at bathing-area sites were generally associated with increased wave heights and rainfall, but not always. E. coli concentrations were often elevated in shallow ground-water samples, especially in samples collected less than 10 feet from the edge of water (near foreshore area). The interaction of shallow ground water and waves may be a mechanism of E. coli storage and accumulation in foreshore sands. Infiltration of bird feces through sand with surface water from rainfall and high waves may be concentrating E. coli in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore sands. At Lakeshore, sampling for E. coli was done at bathing-area, nearshore lake, and parking-lot sites during 2004-05. Low concentrations of E. coli at nearshore lake sites furthest from the shoreline indicated that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin. High concentrations of E. coli in water and bed sediments at several nearshore lake sites showed that contamination was emanating from several points along the shoreline during wet and dry weather, including the boat ramp, an area near the pond drainage, and parking-lot sediments. Physical evidence confirmed that runoff from the parking lot leads to degradation of water quality at the beach. MST samples were collected to help interpret spatial findings and determine whether sources of fecal contamination were from wastewater or bird feces and if a human-specific marker was present. MAR indices were useful in distinguishing between bird feces and wastewater sources because they were about 10 times higher in the latter. The results from MAR indices agreed with results from the two human-specific markers in some but not all of the samples tested. Bacteroides and enterococci human-specific markers were found on one day at Edgewater and two days at Lakeshore. On three days at Edgewater and two days at Lakeshore, the MAR index indicated a mixed source, but neither marker was found in bathing-water samples; this may be because bacterial indicator concentrations were too low to detect a marker. Multiple tools are needed to help identify sources of fecal contamination at coastal beaches. Spatial sampling identified patterns in E. coli concentrations and yielded information on the physical pathways of contamination. MST methods provided information on whether the source was likely of human or nonhuman origin only; however, MST did not provide information on the pathways of contamination.

Francy, Donna S.; Bertke, Erin E.; Finnegan, Dennis P.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Rhoades, John; Stumpe, Lester

2006-01-01

20

Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2. Further inspections demonstrate that the occurrence and the amplitude of erosion are also governed by consolidation state of the surface sediment and water level on the mudflat.

Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

2014-05-01

21

Impact of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater discharged to the main canal and Indian River lagoon, Vero Beach, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater highly contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) from a leaky storage tank was detected in Vero Beach, Florida in 1978. Aware of this problem, the local and state authorities gave permission to pump out the contaminated water as a means of reducing concentrations in the aquifer. The water was air sprayed to strip the organic compounds and subsequently discharged and mixed by means of a hydraulic pump in the drainage canal. The average discharge rate of contaminated water into the canal was approximately 0.2 million gallons per day. This project was initiated to determine the spatial distribution of pollutants in the canal and river as well as rainfall and canal flow rate effects on water, sediment, and biological organisms. Prior to flushing the well, a baseline survey of trichloroethylene and other related compounds in the canal and river was performed.

Wang, T.; Lenahan, R.; Kanik, M.

1985-04-01

22

Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge from a Contaminated Beach Aquifer is Enhanced During Neap Tide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out to assess the fortnightly effects of mixed semi-diurnal tides and tidally-induced aquifer overheight on the timing, magnitude, and quality of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from an unconfined beach aquifer impacted by septic tank effluent at Stinson Beach, California. Groundwater- and ocean elevations, salinity, and nutrient concentrations were monitored throughout a 14-day neap/spring cycle. A freshening of the surf zone coupled with an increase in nutrient concentrations was observed at neap tide and attributed to discharge of fresh, nutrient-rich groundwater during that part of the fortnight. Nutrient concentrations in the surf zone returned to near-offshore levels during the spring tide. Estimates of SGD were made with chemically- and physically-based methods. Fresh SGD was maximal during the neap tide although total SGD was maximal during the spring tide. An overheight of time-averaged piezometric head was observed in the aquifer near the beach face throughout the 14-day experiment. This overheight varied significantly with tidal range, thereby controlling the seaward hydraulic gradient across the fresh part of the aquifer and, thus, the flow of nutrient-rich fresh groundwater to the coastal ocean. We discuss the role of aquifer overheight in controlling submarine discharge of fresh groundwater and related non-point source pollution from unconfined aquifers in similar environments.

de Sieyes, N. R.; Yamahara, K. M.; Boehm, A. B.

2007-05-01

23

Great Lakes BeachCast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Lakes Information Network developed this website to "broadcast critical information about beach closings and educational content on human health concerns." The website provides the latest news on erosion control projects, contamination and cleanup efforts, beach testing efforts, and other environmental news. Users can explore monitoring data and maps by location. The website also contains the proceedings from the Great Lakes Beach Conferences from 2001 and 2002 and the US EPA's Beach Program activities.

24

Potential of hyperspectral imaging to assess the stability of mudflat surfaces by mapping sediment characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work assessed the suitability of hyperspectral data for estimating mudflat surface characteristics related to stability. Due to the inaccessibility of intertidal areas, precise ground-based measurements of mudflat stability are difficult to conduct. Remote sensing can provide full spatial coverage and non-intrusive measurement. As stability changes on mudflats are linked to subtle differences in mudflat surface characteristics, they can potentially

Geoff Smith; Andrew Thomson; Iris Moller; Jacco Kromkamp

2003-01-01

25

Beach Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... have been reported for ocean, bay, and Great Lakes beaches, but these problems are not limited to ... safety of swimming beaches at rivers and other lakes across the country. A primary goal of the ...

26

The Beach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered what sand is made of? Where does it come from? How can we keep our beaches clean? Let's work together using the internet to find out a little bit more about the beach. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide TASK Dear students, Miss Kaysha was at the beach last week and she saw lots of sand. She wants to know how it got there and what it is made of. She also saw ...

2009-04-26

27

Beach Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides students with an in-class practice of landscape interpretation using slides of beaches shown by the instructor. Students view a select number of slides and are asked to classify each beach shown using the Wright and Short Beach Classification: dissipative, reflexive, and intermediate by visually identifying landforms and processes of each beach type. The outcome of this activity is that students have practice identifying landforms and processes and applying their observations and interpretations of geomorphic features and processes for an applied purpose. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Davis, Lisa

28

Simple and Effective Undisturbed Core sampling in Mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mudflats of creek and estuarine system posses fine sediments which preserve historical record of various changes in the associated environment due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Undisturbed core sediment sampling from the undisturbed mud flat ecosystem is a difficult task due to following factors. Navigation by ship or boats to mudflats is restricted due to less water depth or no water conditions in the intertidal regions. Manual entry is the only available simpler option to reach undisturbed mudflats. Manual sampling in mudflats involve difficult long walks over soft slushy sediments prevailing in the various ecological zones of creek and estuarine system. Hence, undisturbed sediment coring necessitates simple light weight corer without any heavy operative machinery and associated accessories. This manuscript details a simple undisturbed core sediment sampler and operations involved in successfully collecting 22 undisturbed short cores in mudflat environment. The used corer is manual push-sampler type with piston. 1.5 meter long corer is of transparent acrylic body with cylindrical cross section and 2mm thickness. In spite of the sampler being thin walled type, core recovery length could not be much longer due to available limited manual force to push-in and pull-out operations of the corer in the mud and very sticky and stiff nature of the sediment at the termination depth of the core. Though this corer is not the ultimate, this manuscript will definitely pave way for developing best corer and operational practices for such sampling in such difficult environments.

Ilangovan, D.; Fernandes, L.

2012-04-01

29

BEACH Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency has released data from the third annual National Health Protection Survey of Beaches for the 1999 swimming season. Based on voluntarily returned surveys, the site offers information on water quality at 1,891 beaches in the US. Using an interactive map, users can find out if the water at a selected beach is being monitored, who is responsible for monitoring, and if any advisories or closures have been issued. Initial entries for each beach include basic monitoring information, contact information, and a map. Users can also read the submitted survey form in full. Additional resources at the BEACH Watch site include summary results from the survey, a fact sheet, technical reports and reference, brochures amd pamphlets, a FAQ, and related links.

30

Interplay between biology and sedimentology in a mudflat (Biezelingse Ham, Westerschelde, The Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to investigate the importance of biological processes on the sediment characteristics and the morphology of a mudflat in the Westerschelde (The Netherlands). For this purpose, a transect in the Biezelingse Ham mudflat was sampled on a monthly basis. In spring, the muddy part of the mudflat was dominated by a biofilm of microphytobenthos that

J. F. C de Brouwer; S. Bjelic; E. M. G. T. De Deckere; L. J. Stal

2000-01-01

31

Impact of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater discharged to the main canal and Indian River Lagoon, Vero Beach, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants is now widely recognized as a serious threat to the integrity of many municipal and rural water supplies (Burmaster 1982; Wilson and McNabb 1983; Hansen 1983). The source of this contamination includes various waste disposal activities (e.g. industrial impoundments, landfills, accidental spills, underground storage tank leaks, pesticides and fertilizer application). Groundwater highly contaminated with

T. Wang; R. Lenahan; M. Kanik

1985-01-01

32

Health effects of swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational water: Results from studies at nine coastal beaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fecally-contaminated water has long been known to transmit infectious disease. In 2003, EPA and the CDC initiated studies to better describe the health effects associated with exposure to fecal contamination in recreational waters and to test faster ways of measuring ...

33

Biomonitoring and hazard assessment evaluation of contaminated groundwater at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area Beach Point Penincula. Annual report, 31 July 1993-30 July 1994  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated groundwater, which contained multiple heavy metals and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, from the surficial aquifer (well CC-33B) at Beach Point located in the Canal Creek Area of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, Aberdeen, Maryland, was evaluated for toxicity and environmental hazard. Toxicity was detected at various groundwater concentrations by 7 of 9 biomonitoring systems. when estimated maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATC) were established, the data for algae, invertebrates and fish suggested that the groundwater would not be harmful at a concentration of 10% groundwater by volume. Likewise, no genotoxicity (Ames and SEC assays), develop- mental toxicity (FETAX), or chronic histopathology (9-month fish test) occurred at 10% groundwater by volume. The groundwater was considered to be a potentially excessive hazardous material to the benthic biota of the Bush River when a number of conservative assumptions (contaminant distribution and discharge rate of the aquifer) were used in the hazard assessment. However, the potential water quality impacts were judged to be minimal if a mixing zone were to be granted by the State of Maryland which allows for local exceedences of water quality standards.

Burton, D.T.; Herriott, R.S.; Turley, S.D.

1994-08-30

34

Beach Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Beach Erosion site of the WhyFiles (last mentioned in the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), a project funded by the graduate school of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has been recently updated. Its newest addition includes a story about the population of the tiny Pacific Island nation of Tuvalu that is preparing to abandon its home due to rising sea levels. The site takes a look at this subject and the resulting increased beach erosion that takes place around the world. Visitors can read about the physical processes of beach erosion, view a QuickTime movie of a house falling into the ocean, and more. The site includes good descriptions, photographs, and links to additional information (although some were broken at the time of this annotation), giving interested readers insight into this widespread phenomenon.

1999-01-01

35

Beach Erosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two miles of beach at Cape Canaveral eroded by construction of a port and jetties was recently restored. Such work in harbors of many cities often disrupts normal flow of sand for many miles along coasts. Brevard County, FL residents now enjoy a 400 ft. wide public beach in an area in imminent danger of destructive erosion just a year previously. Before and after aerial photos show how more than two miles of beach were rebuilt with 2.7 million cubic yards of sand helping abate the erosion problem caused by construction of jetties. NASA volunteered its remote-sensing technology and instrumented aircraft to provide low-altitude color infrared photography about every three months since 1972.

1976-01-01

36

Beach Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about weathering, erosion, deposition, and landforms. It is designed to determine if students recognize that sand on a beach may have come from distant mountains and landforms as a result of the weathering of rock, subsequent erosion, and deposition.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

37

Bioremediation and Biodegradation Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Beach Sediments Treated with Nutrient Amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

dition, PAHs are thermodynamically stable since they are derivatives of the benzene ring with large negative Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons resonance energies (Mueller et al., 1996). As a result, (PAHs) during the process of bioremediation can be constrained by PAHs are recalcitrant in the environment and are often lack of nutrients, low bioavailability of the contaminants, or scarcity

Ran Xu; Jeffrey P. Obbard

38

Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with non-point source of fecal contamination  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g. chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (< 2 to 3,320 CFU/100mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r=0.58, p<0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r?0.36, p<0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to for environmental parameters to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF).

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Wang, John D.; Elmir, Samir M.; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C.; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C.; Fleming, Lora E.

2010-01-01

39

Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with nonpoint source of fecal contamination.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g., chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (<2 to 3320 CFU/100 mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r ? 0.36, p < 0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF) for environmental parameters. PMID:20925349

Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Gidley, Maribeth L; Plano, Lisa R W; Fleisher, Jay M; Wang, John D; Elmir, Samir M; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

2010-11-01

40

Seasonal sediment storage on mudflats adjacent to the Amazon River  

Microsoft Academic Search

210Pb and 234Th activity profiles in sediment cores from underconsolidated mudflats 300 km downdrift of the Amazon river mouth record an ephemeral surface layer of fine-grained sediment up to 1.5 m thick. This layer contains about l.5 × 108 tons of Amazon sediment deposited rapidly (~1 cm\\/d) from a fluid-mud suspension (10–400 g\\/l) during the months between January and June.

M. A. Allison; C. A. Nittrouer; G. C. Kineke

1995-01-01

41

Faecal-indicator bacteria and sedimentary processes in estuarine mudflats (Seine, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a three-year period, quantification of faecal indicators and the molecular detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella were monitored in sediments from three contrasting mudflats of the Seine estuary (France). The elevation of the mudflat surface was monitored concurrently using a high-resolution altimeter. During the period of the study, estuarine mudflats were areas of deposition for faecal-indicator bacteria and were

Thierry Berthe; Aurélie Touron; Julie Leloup; Julien Deloffre; Fabienne Petit

2008-01-01

42

Beach Water Quality Decision Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for rapid assessment of bacterial contamination at beaches is well known. Bacterial concentrations change rapidly (Bohm, Whitman et al. 1995, Olyphant and Whitman 2004, Whitman and Nevers 2008). The persistence model regulates todays swimming wit...

D. Rockwell D. J. Schwab G. Land G. Mann K. Campbell

2013-01-01

43

Structure and seasonality in a Malaysian mudflat community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of community composition and the functional roles of the dominant species has been carried out in two intertidal areas of Malaysian mudflat dominated by natural populations of the arcid bivalve mollusc Anadara granosa. In addition to A. granosa, organisms of numerical importance are the venerid bivalve Pelecyora trigona, the neogastropod Plicarcularia leptospira, the mesogastropods Stenothyra glabrata and Cerithidea cingulata and the hermit crab Diogenes sp. The mesogastropod Natica maculosa and the neogastropod Thais carinifera may be of some importance to community organization but they are not numerically dominant. Annelids are conspicuous by their absence. The following trophic roles are ascribed to specific members of the community: A. granosa—facultative surface deposit feeder; P. trigona—suspension feeder; P. leptospira—scavenger; C. cingulata—deposit feeder/grazer; S. glabrata—deposit feeder/grazer; N. maculosa—predator; T. carinifera—predator; Diogenes sp.—scavenger/predator. S. glabrata is of particular interest because it appears to fill the niche occupied by mud snails of the genus Hydrobia in temperate mudflat systems. There is evidence of seasonality on the mudflats which points to a spawning of certain forms triggered by the major annual salinity depression at the time of the onset of the north-east monsoon in October/November. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a show no obvious signs of a seasonal fluctuation and the seasonality of the primary consumers is not thought to be related to food abundance. However there is some evidence of seasonality of reproduction in N. maculosa which preys on the seasonally reproducing bivalves.

Broom, M. J.

1982-08-01

44

Decomposition of litter of three mudflat annual species in a northern prairie marsh during drawdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of dry mass, nitrogen and phosphorus from shoot and root litter of mudflat annuals was examined in a series of experimental marshes in the Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada. Litter bags containing shoot material of three mudflat annuals (Aster laurentianus Fern., Atriplex patula L., and Chenopodium rubrum L.) were placed on the sediment surface of the marshes under drawdown

Dale A. Wrubleski; Henry R. Murkin; Arnold G. van der Valk; Craig B. Davis

1997-01-01

45

Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.

2000-01-01

46

Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of hydrological cycle that lead to (i) an increased mean water level and (ii) provide SPM from the continental area. This feature leads to significant accretion over intertidal area. In the middle and marine estuary the TM is the main SPM supplier. In these parts of the estuary deposition over these intertidal area is driven by (i) tidal cycle in particular fortnightly cycle link to maximum TM resuspension during (strongest) spring tide and (ii) TM location controlled by river inflow that varies following an annual and inter-annual variability. Outside sedimentation period, the erosion is driven by the combination of (i) progressive erosion driven by fortnightly cycle and (ii) sudden erosion controlled either by wave or boat generated waves respectively at the mouth and in the middle/upper estuary. This last is reinforced by the rheological characteristics of deposit that correspond to fluid/low consolidated mud. During most of the year, the Seine estuary mudflats record an erosion pattern. Significant and intensive sedimentation only occurs few days per year. This pattern is linked to highly variable hydrodynamics conditions (bottom shear stress ranging from 0.5 to 5 N.m-2) that control the sediment supply availability. In this infilling macrotidal anthropized system mudflats are close to equilibrium with an annual rate ranging between +/- 5cm.yrs-1: they act as temporal storage area of fined-grained sediments.

lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

2012-12-01

47

NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY OF BEACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The annual Beach Survey is designed to gather information about beach water quality, standards, monitoring, and beach health advisories or closures issued during the previous year's bathing season. Each year the survey updates previously submitted beach i...

48

Faecal-indicator bacteria and sedimentary processes in estuarine mudflats (Seine, France).  

PubMed

Over a three-year period, quantification of faecal indicators and the molecular detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella were monitored in sediments from three contrasting mudflats of the Seine estuary (France). The elevation of the mudflat surface was monitored concurrently using a high-resolution altimeter. During the period of the study, estuarine mudflats were areas of deposition for faecal-indicator bacteria and were mainly controlled by sedimentary processes. In the intertidal freshwater and subtidal mudflats, the highest abundances of faecal-indicator bacteria were counted during a depositional period. Maximum levels were observed in the freshwater mudflats during periods of high flow: thermotolerant coliforms: 3.9 x 10(4) cfu cm(-2), enterococci: 1.2 x 10(4) cfu cm(-2), Clostridium perfringens spores: 9.8 x 10(5) spores cm(-2). Loss of culturability of enteric bacteria in sediment microcosms demonstrated the remediatory capacity of the mudflats, even if they might be a secondary source of bacteria-forming spores to the water column through erosion and resuspension events. PMID:18036620

Berthe, Thierry; Touron, Aurélie; Leloup, Julie; Deloffre, Julien; Petit, Fabienne

2008-01-01

49

BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

50

Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.  

PubMed

Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris. PMID:15530520

Claereboudt, Michel R

2004-11-01

51

Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

52

Field investigation of ridge runnel dynamics on an intertidal mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow-parallel linear ridge-runnel ( R- R) bedforms composed of mainly cohesive sediments have been investigated at an intertidal site located at Hills Flats in the Severn Estuary, UK. It is argued that the sequences of sand-mud laminae in the ridge sediments indicate strongly that R- R are depositional bedforms. Faint R- R topography scoured in the underlying soft bedrock and parallel rows of coarser particle now found at the base of ridges are evidence of secondary vortices that may have provided a catalyst for mud ridge growth. Bed shear stress remains below the erosion threshold for all but the most recent and weak surficial mud deposits which are removed by evorsion [mechanical erosion by turbulent flows that may also carry sand and/or gravel] during Spring tidal flow ca. 60 cm/s. Differences in flow characteristics between ridges and runnel are minor. Corrasion [to erode or be eroded by abrasion] by sparse coarse sediment largely prevents net deposition in the runnels. Over time a slight imbalance between mud deposition and erosion rates allows slow growth of the ridges suggesting that these mudflats may be especially sensitive to slight changes in the local hydrodynamic regime and/or sediment supply.

Williams, Jon J.; Carling, Paul A.; Amos, Carl L.; Thompson, Charlie

2008-08-01

53

Intertidal mudflat and saltmarsh conservation and sustainable use in the UK: a review.  

PubMed

The adoption of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance in Ramsar, Iran in 1971 committed the UK to conserve and sustainably use intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes for the benefit of present and future generations. Through consideration of their importance and value, current status, the characteristics, causes and consequences of their loss, and the associated responses to loss, this paper reviews the UK progress towards the conservation and sustainable use of intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes. Uncertainties in their current status and trends make it difficult to assess the overall net change in extent across the UK. However, it is apparent that losses due to erosion continue to exceed gains from intertidal mudflat and saltmarsh reparation (IMSR) schemes in south-east and southern England. IMSR schemes in the UK have been generally limited to relatively small-scale trials in comparison to elsewhere in Europe and in the USA. No research to date has unequivocally identified the causes of erosion. Regardless of the cause, the loss of intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes has adverse impacts on the provision of ecosystem services upon which humans and other species depend. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that alongside further science-based research, there is a need to develop a decision-making process capable of accommodating complexity, uncertainty and multiple diverse perspectives, through which more informed, timely decisions and more effective, concerted actions to conserve and sustainably use intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes can be taken. PMID:23669560

Foster, Natalie M; Hudson, Malcolm D; Bray, Simon; Nicholls, Robert J

2013-09-15

54

Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling,

L. D. McGinnis; C. R. Daudt; M. D. Thompson; S. F. Miller; W. A. Mandell; J. Wrobel

1994-01-01

55

Beach and Dune.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flora, vegetation, and microenvironment of beach and dune are sufficiently different to warrant their separate treatment in this chapter. Beach is defined here as the expanse of sandy substrate between mean tide and the foredune or, in the absence of ...

M. G. Barbour A. F. Johnson

1977-01-01

56

A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

A. Anker; Grave De S

2009-01-01

57

NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

58

Asymmetric fluxes of water and sediments in a mesotidal mudflat channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamics of a small tributary channel and its adjacent mudflat is studied in Willapa Bay, Washington State, USA. Velocity profiles and water levels are simultaneously measured at different locations in the channel and on the mudflat for two weeks. The above tidal flat and channel hydrodynamics differ remarkably during the tidal cycle. When the water surface level is above the tidal flat elevation, the channel is inactive. At this stage, the above tidal flat flow is predominantly aligned along the Bay axis, oscillating with the tide as a standing wave with peak velocities up to 0.3 m/s. When the mudflat becomes emergent, the flow concentrates in the channel. During this stage, current velocities up to 1 m/s are measured during ebb; and up to 0.6 m/s during flood. Standard equations for open-channel flow are utilized to study the channel hydrodynamics. From the continuity equation, a lateral inflow is predicted during ebb, which likely originates from the drainage of the mudflat through the lateral runnels. Both advective acceleration and lateral discharge terms, estimated directly from the velocity profiles, play a significant role in the momentum equation. The computed drag coefficient for bottom friction is small, due to an absence of vegetation and bottom bedforms in the channel. Sediment fluxes are calculated by combining flow and suspended sediment concentration estimated using the acoustic backscatter signal of the instruments. A net export of the sediment from the channel is found during ebb, which is not balanced by the sediment import during flood. When the mudflat is submerged, ebb-flood asymmetries in suspended sediment concentration are present, leading to a net sediment flux toward the inner part of the Willapa Bay. Finally, a residual flow is detected inside the channel at high slack water, probably associated with the thermohaline circulation.

Mariotti, G.; Fagherazzi, S.

2011-01-01

59

[Seasonal changes of fish species composition and diversity in mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay].  

PubMed

In order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the Bay in. March (early spring), May (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2009. A total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, Cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), followed by Gobiidae (8 species, 19.1%). According to the lifestyle of fish, these 41 species could be divided into five ecological types, i.e., freshwater type (21 species), brackish-water type (16 species), inshore type (2 species), anadromous type (Coilia ectenes), and catadromios type (Anguilla japonica). The fish abundance was the highest (54. 5 fish per net) in summer, followed by in spring and autumn, and the lowest (17.7 fish per net) in early spring. In the three habitats, mudflat area and inning area had the similar seasonal change of fish abundance, i.e., the lowest in early spring, the highest in summer, and then decreased in autumn. Only two or three species were the dominant species in different seasons. In mudflat area, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus and Liza carinatus; while in inning and aquaculture areas, the dominant species were Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Pseudorasbora parva. The values of Margalef's richness index (D), Pielou's evenness index (J), and Shannon index (H) were lower in March than in other months, but had no significant differences among May, July, and October (P > 0.05). The H value ranged in 0. 27-2. 13, being the lowest in March and higher in May and October (1.66 and 1.63, respectively). Overall, the fish abundance and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay had apparent seasonal changes. PMID:21443016

Jia, Xing-huan; Zhang, Heng; Jiang, Ke-yi; Wu, Ming

2010-12-01

60

Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jaffe, B. E.; Smith, R. E.; Foxgrover, A. C.

2007-01-01

61

State of the Beach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual Surfrider Foundation report surveys the state of the beaches in coastal and Great Lakes states that are home to Foundation chapters. Each state is rated based on the availability of information and status of eight indicators, including beach access, Website access, surf zone water quality, and beach erosion, among others. The report is written from the perspective of a "concerned local citizen" and aimed at "the people who use and care most about this precious resource." The online report contains six sections, including an executive summary, an explanation of the indicators, conclusions, and recommendations.

2000-01-01

62

Hydrography and Beach Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrologic and beach dynamics studies were conducted in and near Rookery Bay Sanctuary south of Naples on the southwest coast of Florida. These studies determined water exchange rates, tidal range variations, the characteristics of the tidal prism, bottom...

T. N. Lee B. J. Yokel

1973-01-01

63

Beaches and Coastal Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes the rationale for using microbial source tracking (MST) methods at beach sites and coastal water bodies\\u000a (Sect. 20.1), as MST methods are especially useful for evaluating waters impacted by nonpoint sources of pollution. This chapter\\u000a also describes the most common traditional and alternative MST markers used at beach sites (Sect. 20.2). Two case studies\\u000a are presented (Sect.

Helena M. Solo-Gabriele; Alexandria B. Boehm; Troy M. Scott; Christopher D. Sinigalliano

64

Beach cleaning method  

SciTech Connect

A method of separating oil and other floatatable debris from the sand on a beach by localized flooding of the beach is disclosed. Suitable large diameter conduits are provided to introduce large quantities of water to a selected area of the beach, the water mixing with the sand and causing oil and other debris on or buried in the sand to float, and thus to rise toward the surface of the sand. A second flooding operation refloats the debris and a skimmer mechanism then removes the floating oil and other material while allowing the water to return to the beach area. The water supply is provided by means of suitable conduits carried by a truck, tractor, or other beach vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, the water required for flooding is obtained from the ocean by an extension of the supply conduits, with the forward motion of the tractor providing the required water flow through the conduits to the area to be cleaned. Alternatively, the desired water flow can be obtained by means of a low lift pump in the conduits, the pumps being hydraulically operated from the beach vehicle. The first flooding operation provides water to move the oil and other debris toward a center line, while the second provides water to refloat the material in the vicinity of the intake for the skimmer.

Cloutier, C.C.

1981-11-24

65

Observations of currents, salinity, turbidity and intertidal mudflat characteristics and properties in the Tavy Estuary, UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from a study of the velocity, salinity, temperature and turbidity behaviour on intertidal mudflats bounding a 400 m wide cross-section in the central reaches of a small, macrotidal, ria estuary (the Tavy Estuary, Southwest England, UK). Measurements were made during low freshwater inflow, summer spring tides. The mudflats comprised a muddy mixture of predominantly silt and clay, with bulk densities typically in the range 1.2-1.4 g ml -1. Bed sediment in the main channel, and on the upper shores of both banks, comprised a mixture of predominantly coarse, non-cohesive sediment, with very small fractions of silt and clay. Two near-bed instrument packages were continuously deployed during the observational period, one on each of the intertidal mudflats located on opposite sides of the estuarine main channel. The instruments recorded water level, velocity, temperature, salinity and turbidity at 0.25 m above the bed. Tidal-cycle measurements of these variables were additionally made throughout the water column in the cross-section's main channel. Longitudinal and vertical surveys of temperature, salinity and turbidity were made throughout the estuary in order to aid interpretation. Maximum bed shear stresses were flood dominant in the main channel and strongly ebb dominant on the upper mudflats. Currents over the intertidal mudflats had much slower peak speeds than those in the main channel. The data presented here indicate that vertically mixed, relatively high-salinity, high-turbidity waters flooded onto the upper mudflats during spring tides, and that the suspended particulate matter largely settled to the bed there, both during the flood and over high-water slack. With one exception, there was little evidence of any subsequent strong sediment resuspension during the salinity-stratified ebb (at least when depths >0.25 m). These results are consistent with the long-term depositional environment associated with rapidly rising sea levels of the early Holocene, and with the present, relatively slower rate of sea-level rise.

Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.

2000-09-01

66

Beaches: Profiles, processes and permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems involved in the interaction between waves and beaches are complex and it is not yet possible to predict on empirical grounds, let alone theoretical grounds, the shape of a beach after it is subjected to given wave conditions. This investigation began as a study of the use of crushed coal as a model beach material to represent natural beaches of quartz sand but subsequently developed into a more general study of the processes which determine the shape of beach profiles formed in beach materials with different permeabilities.

Gourlay, M. R.

1980-06-01

67

Best Beaches in the USA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Stephen Leatherman, professor and director of the Laboratory for Coastal Research at the University of Maryland, College Park, has released his annual list of America's best beaches. "Dr. Beach" considered fifty different factors, including current, wave size, smell, views and vistas, and intensity of beach use, to rate the twenty finest public beaches of 650 nation wide. This site features photos of the winners, a complete list of the Beach Rating Scale Criteria, and Dr. Leatherman's selections for the five best Walking, Wild, and Romantic Beaches.

Leatherman, Stephen.

1997-01-01

68

Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third, rising sea level leads to a natural landward migration of the shoreline. Dramatic examples of coastal erosion, such as houses and roads falling into the sea, are rare in Hawaii, but the impact of erosion is still very serious. The signs of erosion are much more subtle and typically start as a "temporary" hardening structure designed to mitigate an immediate problem which, eventually, results in a proliferation of structures along a stretch of coast. The natural ability of the sandy shoreline to respond to changes in wave climate is lost. The overall goals of this study are to document the coastal erosion history in Hawaii, determine the causal factors of that erosion, provide high-quality data for other "end-users" in applied studies (i.e. coastal engineers, planners, and managers), and increase our general understanding of low-latitude coastal geologic development. This project involves close cooperation between the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the University of Hawaii.

Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

2001-01-01

69

BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

70

Coastal Mudflat Accretion under Energetic Conditions, Louisiana Chenier-Plain Coast, USA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mudflat accretion on the chenier-plain coast of Louisiana, northern Gulf of Mexico, is anomalous in an area that otherwise experiences widespread land loss due to rapid relative sea level rise. Accretion is shown to be related to energetic events (Winta cold fronts and occasional tropical-dcprrssion srmms) using a 17-year record of meteorological conditions and aerial surveys The results indicate substantial differences between the behavior of sand- and mud-dominated coastal systems under energetic conditions. Comparison of the Louisiana chenier plain to other mud-rich coasts indicates that certain conditions are necessary for mudflat accretion to occur during energetic atmospheric activity. These include an abundant supply of fine-grained fluvial sediment and resuspension events that maintain an unconsolidated sea floor, dominant onshore wind direction during energetic conditions, particularly when onshore winds coincide with high fluvial sediment input to the coastal ocean, and a low tidal range.

Draut, Amy E.; Kineke, Gail C.; Huh, Oscar K.; Grymes, John M., III; Westphal, Karen A.; Moeller, Christopher C.

2005-01-01

71

Novel Biphenyl-Oxidizing Bacteria and Dioxygenase Genes from a Korean Tidal Mudflat?†  

PubMed Central

Gene-targeted FLX titanium pyrosequencing integrated with stable isotope probing (SIP) using [13C]biphenyl substrate revealed that tidal mudflat sediments harbor novel aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD). More than 80% of the detected ARHD genes comprise four clades (0.5 distance) with 49 to 70% amino acid identity to sequences in public databases. The 16S rRNA sequences enriched in the 13C fraction were from the Betaproteobacteria, bacilli (primarily Paenibacillus-like), and unclassified phyla.

Lee, Tae Kwon; Lee, Jaejin; Sul, Woo Jun; Iwai, Shoko; Chai, Benli; Tiedje, James M.; Park, Joonhong

2011-01-01

72

The influence of oceanic swell on flows over an estuarine intertidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine the role that remotely forced ocean waves play in the hydrodynamics of an intertidal, estuarine mudflat. The observations indicate that long-period (10–20 s) ocean waves are a potentially important source of near-bed energy and shear stress in this environment. Over a two-week period in February 2001, we deployed an autonomous SonTek Hydra system on a

S. A. Talke; M. T. Stacey

2003-01-01

73

Geomorphology of Puget Sound Beaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to synthesize information about the geomorphology and dynamics of Puget Sound's beaches. It summarizes important peer-reviewed literature relevant to these beach environments and assemblies background information that should ...

D. Finlayson

2006-01-01

74

Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide  

EPA Science Inventory

Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

75

Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, chemical, 210Pb dating, and microscopic methods.  

PubMed

The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminated mudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data, metal contents, and the (210)Pb dating technique. The 1.8 m vertical section at Airoli (Navi Mumbai) reveals an increase of magnetic susceptibility (?) from background values of (20-50) to (75-100) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] in the anthropogenically affected zone above ?93 cm. A sharp rise of ? from (75-100) to (130-215) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] subdivides the anthropogenically affected zone at a depth of ?63 cm. Characterization with rock magnetic parameters (SIRM, Soft IRM, and S-ratio) reveals a significant contribution of ferri(o)magnetic phases in the upper zone. Based on the magnetic classification sampling intervals for cost-intensive PAH and metal analyses were determined. Steadily increasing contents of PAH and metals of anthropogenic origin are observed above the boundary depth at ?93 cm. A sediment accumulation rate of 1.2 ± 0.3 cm/yr provided by (210)Pb dating dates the ?63 cm boundary to 1951. Increasing industrial activity, including the establishment of a coal-fired power plant in 1956, and refineries between 1955 and 1960, correlates well with the substantial increase of ?, PAH, and metal contents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation on magnetic extracts from the contaminated zone reveals the presence of magnetic spherules derived from industrial high-temperature processes. PMID:21138292

Blaha, U; Basavaiah, N; Deenadayalan, K; Borole, D V; Mohite, R D

2011-01-15

76

SOUND BEACH SOCCER CLUB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound Beach Soccer Club, our local travel club of the Long Island Junior Soccer League, is proud to bring you the 2009 Summer Soccer Camp. For the 4th year running, the camp will once again be held at the North Shore Heritage Park (\\

SUMMER CAMP

2009-01-01

77

Impact of crab bioturbation on benthic flux and nitrogen dynamics of Southwest Atlantic intertidal marshes and mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the SW Atlantic intertidal burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata on benthic metabolism, benthic flux, and benthic N cycling processes was investigated through field experiments and in situ benthic chambers incubations. Our experimental results show that the presence and activity of N. granulata and its burrows may affect the direction and magnitude of nutrient benthic fluxes. Bioturbation enhanced ammonium efflux at mudflats, and influx at marshes. The flux of nitrate toward the sediment was stimulated by crabs at light and dark conditions in marshes, but only under light exposure in mudflats. Crab bioturbation stimulated benthic metabolism, N mineralization, nitrification and denitrification potentials in both sites. Crabs seem to have contrasting effects on dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) availability between marshes and mudflats, as reflected on benthic DIN flux. This different effect on DIN availability and also the possible different effects of crabs on N 2-fixers organisms could explain the opposite N 2 fixation pattern found for both habitats, since crabs promoted N 2 fixation in marshes, but diminished its rate in mudflats. Thus, the results obtained here through manipulative field experiments using benthic chambers suggest that macrofauna may influence the N benthic cycle and DIN fluxes in estuarine sediments. Besides, these macrofauna effects could be context-dependent, being many of them opposite between mudflats and marshes. We concluded that the above mentioned effects and the bioturbation-macrophytes interaction may be affecting the dissolved nutrient exportation from marshes to open waters.

Fanjul, Eugenia; Bazterrica, María C.; Escapa, Mauricio; Grela, María A.; Iribarne, Oscar

2011-05-01

78

INFLUENCE OF TIDE AND WAVES ON WASHOUT OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE BIOREMEDIATION ZONE OF A COARSE-SAND BEACH: APPLICATION IN OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach materials. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the...

79

Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.  

PubMed

Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

2013-01-01

80

Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands.

Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

2013-01-01

81

77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach...in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

2012-08-20

82

Field experiments on the role of epibenthic predators in determining prey densities in an estuarine mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of caging experiments was performed on an estuarine mudflat at three seasons of the year, in which Carcinus maenas L. and Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer) were either excluded from, or allowed to prey upon, the benthos in order to determine to what extent infaunal abundance and mortality was a result of predation by epibenthic predators. The difficulties of conducting and interpreting the results of such experiments are recognized. The benthic macrofauna of this mudflat is dominated numerically by small annelids and there is evidence that adult C. maenas can cause significant increases in the oligochaete component of this assemblage, probably as a result of disturbance caused by its burrowing activity. Juvenile C. maenas on the other hand significantly reduced the abundance of small annelids, particularly the dominant polychaete Manayunkia aestuarina (Bourne) and could be responsible for year-to-year variations in abundance of this species. The role of fish predators (in this case P. microps) is more problematical but it is suggested that in the densities at which they occur naturally on the mudflat they have little direct effect on the abundance of prey species. There is no evidence that seasonal mortality of small annelids is reduced in the absence of predation and this is taken to indicate that not all mortality is due to epibenthic predation. Certain changes in relative abundance of the component species of the harpacticoid copepod community were discerned but it is suggested that the plasticity of their reproductive potential is such that the effect of predation on the group as a whole is usually masked.

Gee, J. M.; Warwick, R. M.; Davey, J. T.; George, C. L.

1985-09-01

83

Heavy metal concentrations in three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Gunsan, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were measured in livers of three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Korea in the East\\u000a Asian-Australian migration flyways. Iron concentrations in red-necked stints (Calidris ruficollis) (geomean = 1,322 ?g\\/g dw) were higher than in terek sandpipers (Xenus cinereus) (467 ?g\\/g dw), and great knots (Calidris tenuirostris) (158 ?g\\/g dw). Copper concentrations in great knots (85.8 ?g\\/g dw) were significantly higher than in red-necked stints (15.9 ?g\\/g dw)\\u000a and terek

Jungsoo Kim; Hwa-Su Lee; Tae-Hoe Koo

2009-01-01

84

Respect the Beach Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interdisciplinary coastal education program from Surfrider Foundation incorporates science processes, oceanography, watershed ecology and environmental awareness in lessons for K-12 students and community groups. Include: teaching guides, classroom lectures, handouts, video, hands-on projects. Beachology, for grades K-6, studies sand processes, beach ecology, human impacts. Watershed Works, for grades 5-12, explains links between coast and watershed. The Snowrider Project educates alpine communities about hydrologic cycle. Available online as PDF documents.

2012-04-03

85

Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological resolution and continuity inherent to beach ridge and beach deposits. The plan-view geomorphic expression of beach ridges typically consists of ridge sets with multi-decadal intervals, whereas their internal sedimentary structures define shorter time scales. Records of beach sedimentation and erosion are likely to be reworked by episodic high-magnitude beach retreat, and the resultant record of the net progradation is likely to be sporadic and discontinuous. The height of sandy beach ridges is often variable due to differing degrees of aeolian sand accumulation, and they are thus not used as sea-level indicators unless purely wave-built. Gravel ridge height is a relatively reliable indicator of sea level, but can vary in response to storminess fluctuations. Subsurface sediment facies boundaries are preferred as sea-level indicators, and those proposed include: boundaries of aeolian/beach, foreshore/shoreface, and upper/lower shorefaces. Catastrophic events are expressed in both erosional and depositional records. Erosion surfaces, or scarp imprints, revealed in a cross section of beach deposits, indicate storm or tsunami events. However, erosional events are likely to rework previous records of sedimentation and even other erosional events, and thus the apparent history decoded from the resultant deposits tends to be biased. Several attempts for estimating the frequency and intensity of prehistoric cyclones rely on assumed relationships between the level of coarse sand beach ridges and cyclone inundation. The formative process of coarse sand ridges remains uncertain and needs to be clarified, as it constitutes the fundamental basis of these attempts. The growth rates of beach-ridge systems are expected to reflect fluctuations in river sediment discharge to the coast and in aeolian sand flux due to onshore winds, both of which are affected by climate change. Assessment of the growth rate is potentially improved by ground-penetrating radar survey of subsurface structure and by detailed chronology. Orientation of beach ridges reflects long-term trends in wave dir

Tamura, Toru

2012-09-01

86

Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

U.S. Geological Survey

2013-01-01

87

Mercury Speciation and Distribution in Coastal Wetlands and Tidal Mudflats: Relationships with Sulphur Speciation and Organic Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores were analysed from four coastal wetland sites within the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy to compare mercury speciation\\u000a and sediment characteristics. The coastal wetland sediments were low in total mercury (mean?=?17.4?±?9.9 ng g?1); however, MeHg concentration was 92 times higher (mean of 249 pg g?1) than intertidal mudflat sediment (mean of 2.7 pg g?1). Total mercury concentrations in intertidal mudflat cores were also low

Nelson J. O’Driscoll; João Canário; Nathan Crowell; Tim Webster

88

Sand hazards on tourist beaches.  

PubMed

Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

Heggie, Travis W

2013-01-01

89

Recovery of meiofauna communities following mudflat disturbance by trampling associated with crab-tiling.  

PubMed

The provision of artificial shelters for the collection of crabs, known as crab-tiling, and the subsequent harvesting of the soft "peeler" crabs for angling bait, are associated with trampling disturbance of intertidal mudflats in the United Kingdom. Recovery of meiofauna communities following crab-tiling activity was investigated on an intertidal mudflat in SW England. Harvesting of experimental plots was reproduced six times over a 2-week period. Meiofauna was collected at low tides 12h, 36 h and 144 h after treatment. Meiofaunal and nematode abundance, and nematode species number, was significantly greater in controls compared to crab-tile stations at 12h. At 36 h and 144 h there were no significant differences between treatments, indicating recovery had occurred in 12-36 h. Multivariate analysis showed nematode assemblage composition from control plots to be significantly different from crab-tile plots at 12h. No significant differences were observed between sediment physical parameters with treatment. Results suggest that the predominant effect of disturbance may be vibration-induced burial, which causes nematodes to bury deeper into the sediment, beyond the depth sampled, and explains the rapid recovery. PMID:17499353

Johnson, Gareth E L; Attrill, Martin J; Sheehan, Emma V; Somerfield, Paul J

2007-10-01

90

Tidal and meteorological forcing of sediment transport in tributary mudflat channels  

PubMed Central

Field observations of flow and sediment transport in a tributary channel through intertidal mudflats indicate that suspended sediment was closely linked to advection and dispersion of a tidal salinity front. During calm weather when tidal forcing was dominant, high concentrations of suspended sediment advected up the mudflat channel in the narrow region between salty water from San Francisco Bay and much fresher runoff from the small local watershed. Salinity and suspended sediment dispersed at similar rates through each tidal inundation, such that during receding ebbs the sediment pulse had spread spatially and maximum concentrations had decreased. Net sediment transport was moderately onshore during the calm weather, as asymmetries in stratification due to tidal straining of the salinity front enhanced deposition, particularly during weaker neap tidal forcing. Sediment transport by tidal forcing was periodically altered by winter storms. During storms, strong winds from the south generated wind waves and temporarily increased suspended sediment concentrations. Increased discharge down the tributary channels due to precipitation had more lasting impact on sediment transport, supplying both buoyancy and fine sediment to the system. Net sediment transport depended on the balance between calm weather tidal forcing and perturbations by episodic storms. Net transport in the tributary channel was generally off-shore during storms and during calm weather spring tides, and on-shore during calm weather neap tides.

Ralston, David K.; Stacey, Mark T.

2011-01-01

91

Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health.  

PubMed

Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the "Microareias 2012" workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications. PMID:24355396

Sabino, R; Rodrigues, R; Costa, I; Carneiro, C; Cunha, M; Duarte, A; Faria, N; Ferreira, F C; Gargaté, M J; Júlio, C; Martins, M L; Nevers, M B; Oleastro, M; Solo-Gabriele, H; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C; Whitman, R L; Brandão, J

2014-02-15

92

Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

2014-01-01

93

Importance of different carbon sources for macroinvertebrates and fishes of an interlinked mangrove-mudflat ecosystem (Tanzania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves function as important shelter and feeding habitats for marine fauna, but the degree to which mangrove-derived carbon contributes to local food webs has long been debated. In this study, stable isotope analysis was used as a technique to elucidate the role of mangrove carbon in the diets of the macroinvertebrate and fish fauna of an intertidal fringing mangrove forest and adjacent intertidal/subtidal mudflats in a macrotidal Tanzanian estuary. The expectation was that sessile species and those with low motility depend to a larger extent on local carbon sources than highly motile species. A clear distinction in ? 13C was present between primary producers from mangrove and mudflat habitats. Macroinvertebrates revealed a gradient in their ? 13C where Sesarma crabs were the only species that directly utilised mangrove carbon by feeding on mangrove leaves/detritus. Uca crabs and the gastropod Littoraria scabra showed a higher dependence on microphytobenthos from the mangrove substratum. Among the fish fauna, the amphibious mudskipper was the only species to which the mangroves were accessible during low tide. Consequently this was the only fish species for which it was clear that it fed in the mangrove habitat, most commonly on mangrove-associated Uca crabs. All other species of sessile as well as motile macroinvertebrates and fish from the mangrove and mudflat habitat showed a high degree of utilisation of mudflat carbon. Overall, mangrove carbon thus contributed little to the mangrove and mudflat food webs, despite the high tidal amplitude and the resulting potential for exchange of carbon and fauna in the estuary studied here. Utilisation of mangrove carbon appears to depend more on the ecology of the species in consideration (e.g., species-specific use of zones within the mangrove habitat) than on their potential motility or tolerance to exposure during low tide.

Kruitwagen, G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Lugendo, B. R.; Mgaya, Y. D.; Bonga, S. E. Wendelaar

2010-08-01

94

Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is the major determinant of shell use. The hermit crab must however fit well into the shell so that compatibility between crab size and shell size becomes crucial. Although shell availability possibly influenced shell use and hermit crab distribution, this is not critical in a tropical setting of high gastropod diversity and abundance.

Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

2014-02-01

95

Overview of Pacific Island carbonate beach systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach systems in Pacific Islands are Holocene deposits of reef-dervied and terrigenous sediment. Thus, geologic setting is important in determining the success at which beach systems are established. Generally, older islands exhibit better beach system development. Although modern beach systems are composed of Holocene sediment, development of suitable accommodation space requires more geologic time.

Richmond, B. M.

2000-01-01

96

Actinian dominated intertidal mudflats: A new case of an extraordinary rare phenomenon from Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, estuarine intertidal mudflats constitute important nurseries for fish and foraging grounds for coastal birds by providing a plenitude of mollusks, worms, and crustaceans as prey, which in turn mostly feed on suspended and benthic microalgae, bacteria, and detritus. Despite the high productivity of such habitats, pronounced variability in both salinity and temperature results typically in low diversity. The only sea anemone reported from estuarine mud is the edwardsiid Nematostella vectensisStephenson, 1935. It occurs widely in the northern hemisphere, and occasionally in extremely high density. Here we document another sea anemone from estuarine mud and muddy sand found in Southern Chile which has similar ecological attributes. Taxonomic confusion has impeded the reporting on this small but prominent member in a macrozoobenthic assemblage, the brooding Anthopleura hermaphroditica (Carlgren, 1899; Anthozoa: Actiniidae). It differs from N. vectensis by the presence of symbiotic algae. Average density under poly- to euhaline conditions in mud and muddy sand at around mid tide level was about 3 actinians per cm 2. An average abundance of 11,000 m - 2 , a biovolume of 487 cm 3 m - 2 , and a biomass of 35.5 g dry organic weight m - 2 were found in mud and muddy sand in two surveys 20 years apart. The mean fishing area of fully expanded individuals covers 42 ± 25 mm 2, corresponding to a circular area with a diameter of 7.3 ± 5.7 mm. Preliminary experiments indicate that associated benthos may be relegated to life below surface by the net of tentacles above the sediment. As no predators on A. hermaphroditica could be found on the mudflat, the success of this mixotrophic sea anemone may entail a trophic dead end.

Schories, Dirk; Reise, Karsten; Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya; Clasing, Elena; Reise, Anneken

2011-02-01

97

Coastal Erosion: Where's the Beach?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, explores erosion and accretion of coastal sediments, the two processes that keep our beaches in a constant state of change. Both natural and not-so-natural factors influencing these processes are discussed. Learners can view a variety of weblinks on the topic and conduct their own beach profile investigation, or access profile data from a 1999 Ocean City, Maryland beach and plot the changes over time for a graphic illustration of these processes.

2000-05-01

98

The distribution of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in sediments from a mangrove forest and adjacent mudflat in Zhangjiang Estuary, China.  

PubMed

The distribution of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) were studied in sediments collected from mangrove forest, forest fringe and adjacent mudflat in the Zhangjiang Estuary, China. The aim was to examine the spatial distribution of AVS and SEM in sediments of the Estuary and determine the influence of mangrove trees on AVS and SEM concentrations in the sediments. The results indicated that AVS concentrations in forest sediments were significantly lower than those in mudflat sediments. There was a significant positive correlation between AVS values and moisture contents in forest sediments, while LOI played an important role in AVS concentrations of mudflat sediments. In the forest sediment core, the peak value of AVS appeared deeper in the sediment profile compared to it appeared in the mudflat core. The distribution of SEM showed different trends from that of AVS, and potential toxicity existed in the upriver forest sediments. PMID:20434182

Jingchun, Liu; Chongling, Yan; Spencer, Kate L; Ruifeng, Zhang; Haoliang, Lu

2010-08-01

99

Testing the Waters: A Guide to Water Quality at Vacation Beaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As Americans head for the beach, the Natural Resource Defense Council (NRDC) issues its twelfth annual report on the status of beach and recreational water quality. Entitled Testing the Waters, the report offers readers a fifty-fifty appraisal of the nation's lake and ocean recreational beach sites. That is, while water quality overall is indeed improving in the United States, beach water quality is suffering notable setbacks, with increasing reports of beach closings and harmful bacteria or contaminant postings. With more than one third of all Americans visiting or vacationing at beach areas, water quality is no small issue, as it impacts both health and economic vitality of areas branded by closings or warnings. In public interest, therefore, the NRDC urges that more be done to ensure that water quality is carefully monitored, reported, and addressed at governmental, corporate, and local levels. Toward that end, the NRDC lists both the good and the bad, groups they identify as "Beach Buddies" and "Beach Bums," respectively those areas that monitor and disclose findings and those that don't. With state-by-state listings of water quality reports and links to many other environmentally dedicated resources, the report should interest all who use America's recreational water sites.

2002-01-01

100

Improving water quality through California's Clean Beach Initiative: an assessment of 17 projects.  

PubMed

California's Clean Beach Initiative (CBI) funds projects to reduce loads of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) impacting beaches, thus providing an opportunity to judge the effectiveness of various CBI water pollution control strategies. Seventeen initial projects were selected for assessment to determine their effectiveness on reducing FIB in the receiving waters along beaches nearest to the projects. Control strategies included low-flow diversions, sterilization facilities, sewer improvements, pier best management practices (BMPs), vegetative swales, and enclosed beach BMPs. Assessments were based on statistical changes in pre- and postproject mean densities of FIB at shoreline monitoring stations targeted by the projects. Most low-flow diversions and the wetland swale project were effective in removing all contaminated runoff from beaches. UV sterilization was effective when coupled with pretreatment filtration and where effluent was released within a few hundred meters of the beach to avoid FIB regrowth. Other BMPs were less effective because they treated only a portion of contaminant sources impacting their target beach. These findings should be useful to other coastal states and agencies faced with similar pollution control problems. PMID:19496001

Dorsey, John H

2010-07-01

101

The St. Louis Post-Dispatch and Early Coverage of Times Beach: Watchdog or Muted Trumpet?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Times Beach, Missouri, a small town close to the Meramec River and about 25 miles from St. Louis, is now deserted due to contamination from dioxin, a contaminant generated during the production of some cleansers, herbicides, and pesticides. From November 30, 1982, until the end of January 1983, the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" ran 55 articles about…

La Pierre, Yvette

102

Choctawhatchee Beach Mouse, Perdido Key Beach Mouse and Alabama Beach Mouse Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The old field mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) is distributed throughout northeastern Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. Certain subspecies occur on beaches and dunes of the Atlantic coast of Florida and the Gulf Coast of Alabama and...

1987-01-01

103

Estimate of removal rate of Nereis virens (Polychaeta: Nereidae) from an intertidal mudflat by gulls ( Larus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), ringed-billed gulls (L. delawarensis) and great blackbacked gulls (L. marinus) on an intertidal mudflat in Maine, USA, was investigated. Remains of fish, mussels, crabs, insects, and the polychaeteNereis virens were recovered from gull feces. Forty-three percent of the fecal samples containedN. virens jaws, setae, or both. A comparison of jaws from fecal

W. G. Ambrose

1986-01-01

104

The effect of geomorphological structures on potential biostabilisation by microphytobenthos on intertidal mudflats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate content of sediments were measured at Skeffling mudflat in the Humber estuary, UK, in July 1997 as part of a fieldwork experiment carried out within the framework of the INTRMUD project. The aim was to analyse the spatial variations of Chl a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations within the surface 1 cm of sediment (together with physical variables) in the different macroscopic sedimentary structures found at four stations along a cross-shore transect. The underlying assumption was that epipelic microalgae (Chl a) produce extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS), largely comprised carbohydrates, when migrating vertically at the sediment surface. This organic material binds sediment particles and thus contributes to enhance sediment cohesiveness/stability. Therefore, the shape and the strength of the relationship between Chl a and colloidal carbohydrates are fundamental for assessing the role of autotrophic microbial communities in biostabilisation processes. At station A, the highest level of the mudflat, there were no obvious sedimentary features, while a ridge (crest) and runnel (trough) system was present at mid-tidal stations (B and C). At station D, the sediment was sandier; crests and troughs were obvious but did not form a ridge and runnel system as at stations B and C. Taking all data together, a significant positive linear relationship between colloidal carbohydrates and Chl a was found, but analysing data separately by station indicated that there was no relationship between variables at the sandy station (D). At stations B and C, there was a difference in the Chl a-carbohydrate relationship between ridges and runnels: (i) there was no relationship in runnels, i.e. carbohydrates concentration was roughly constant whatever the mud Chl a content, and (ii) there was a positive linear relationship in ridges. This indicates that the increase of epipelic biomass on ridges increases the amount of EPS, which is likely to stabilise the sediment surface of these features. The biomass level in runnels is lower and does not enhance the amount of EPS. Therefore, the activity of epipelic microalgae in runnels does not contribute to sediment stability. This observed difference between ridges and runnels does not mean that epipelic microalgae from these two features necessarily behave in a different way; carbohydrates produced by microalgae in runnels are very likely to be dissolved because of the higher water content. Thus epipelic algae cannot build up a pool of carbohydrates in runnels. As a conclusion, it is clear that geomorphological features of intertidal mudflats influence biological processes in a way which exacerbates the physical processes: (i) ridges are regularly exposed and the sediment surface is stabilised, which apparently favours microphytobenthos growth and carbohydrates production with a further increase in sediment stability (according to our initial assumption); (ii) runnels are drainage structures with a high water content, which prevents microphytobenthos from building up a carbohydrate pool. Therefore, there seems to be a synergistic effect between physical and biological processes on ridges to stabilise the sediment surface.

Blanchard, G. F.; Paterson, D. M.; Stal, L. J.; Richard, P.; Galois, R.; Huet, V.; Kelly, J.; Honeywill, C.; de Brouwer, J.; Dyer, K.; Christie, M.; Seguignes, M.

2000-07-01

105

Landing techniques in beach volleyball.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

106

Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

107

High Resolution Mid to Late Holocene Paleoclimatic Reconstruction from the Mudflats of Gulf of Kachchh Coast, Western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) governs one of the major climatic phenomenon in southern Asia, particularly the Indian subcontinent. It has been studied relatively sparsely, however, along the western margin of India. The Holocene period is well known for its abrupt short paleoclimatic fluctuations. Here we present a high resolution study on a Middle to Late Holocene mudflat sequence along the coast of the Gulf of Kachchh, western India. Mudflats are known to be robust sediment archives of paleoclimatic change, owing to their being a predominantly depositional environment, which acts as a 'sink' for suspended sediments. The major catchment for the Gulf of Kachchh sediments is the Indus River and adjoining landmasses of the Kachchh and Saurashtra peninsulas. We carried out a multiproxy approach employing sedimentological, mineral magnetic and geochemical parameters to study the fluctuations in the ISM. Our monsoonal proxies show four major phases of alternating high and low flux of sediments to the mudflats on the coast of the Gulf of Kachchh, which can be related to alternating wet and drier phases that span a few decades to a few hundred years in time. The ISM, as evidenced by our data, underwent several sharp fluctuations during the Middle to Late Holocene. The study also has significant implications in understanding human response to climate change in the region during Middle to Late Holocene.

Prizomwala, S. P.; Bhatt, N.; Hirt, A. M.; Winkler, W.

2012-04-01

108

Estuarine macrofauna responses to continuous in situ nutrient addition on a tropical mudflat.  

PubMed

A field experiment to assess the effects of continuous nutrient addition on the macrobenthic community was carried out on an estuarine mudflat on the northeast coast of Brazil. The experiment began on 5 October 2005 and ended on 8 February 2006. Macrofauna was compared at approximately four-week intervals in triplicate plots with three levels (Control - C, Low Dose - LD and High Dose - HD) of weekly fertilizer additions for 17weeks. Inorganic fertilizer (N-P-K) was applied on nine randomly defined quadrangular plots (4m(2) each). All measurements were calculated from species abundances. Multivariate analyses as well as the univariate indices (richness, abundance and Shannon-Wiener index) showed statistically significant differences between the enriched and control areas during the period of the experiment. The expected gradual response based on the succession model of Pearson and Rosenberg was not observed. The nutrient doses used were high enough to cause severe decreases in abundance, richness and evenness, and an increase in dominance. PMID:24835372

Botter-Carvalho, Mônica L; Carvalho, Paulo V V C; Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

2014-06-15

109

[Characterization of microbial activities in marine mudflat sediment using FDA hydrolase analysis].  

PubMed

A method based on fluorescence spectrometry was developed to detect the microbial activities in marine mudflat sediment, where is characterized by high salinity, complex organic compounds and low microbial biomass. This paper optimized the sample extracts, the detection equipment for reaction products, the pretreatment methods, and the experimental conditions. The optimal procedure is described as following. Fresh sediment was first extracted with sterilized and aged seawater, followed by the addition of Tween-80 solution, then uniformly dispersed by thorough oscillating, and kept steady for precipitation. After filtration through a sterilized membrane (1. 2 microm, sterilized in boiling water repeatedly) , the supernatant was supplemented with an appropriate amount of FDA solution and allowed to react in dark for 180 min at temperature ranged 25-30 degrees C . The reaction was terminated by the addition of acetone, and the fluorescence intensity of the reaction mixture was measured within 25 min using a molecular fluorescence photometer at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm and an emission wavelength of 530 nm, and the detection range of this method (dry weight) was 3.0 x10(3)-1. 1 x 10(5) ind.g-1. The microbial activity was reported as fluorescence content in per unit sediment mass (microg.g-1, dry weight). PMID:24364298

Liu, Ye; Zou, Li; Liu, Lu; Gao, Dong-Mei

2013-10-01

110

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mudflat snails (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Amphiboloidea) supports an Australasian centre of origin.  

PubMed

Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata. PMID:22210412

Golding, Rosemary E

2012-04-01

111

Tybee Island, Georgia, Beach Erosion Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action consists of restoration and periodic nourishment of 13,200 feet of ocean beach and a rubble stone terminal groin extending 800 feet seaward on Tybee Island, Georgia. Environmental impacts include the restoration and maintenance of scenic beach ...

1972-01-01

112

78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the...The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will...

2013-06-13

113

Reflection wave on sloping beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most water wave simulations use fixed boundaries. This simplification of course change the wave height prediction near the shore. In this paper, we will find a relation between reflected wave and incoming wave on a sloping beach. This result is important for later use in water wave simulations with moving boundaries. In this paper, we solve the 1-D nonlinear shallow water equation, using the conservative finite volume method. The scheme plus wet and dry procedure can simulate wave running up and down on a sloping beach. Comparison with Carrier and Greenspan analytical run up and down waves shows a good agreement. Then, we use this scheme to find a relation between reflected and incident wave on a sloping beach, incorporating the moving shoreline. And we obtain amplitude ratio and phase difference depending on wave frequency for moderate bottom slopes.

Erwina, N.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

2014-03-01

114

Standing edge waves on a pocket beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of edge waves obtained on a narrow pocket beach are described. The beach (named Usgo) is located on the north coast of Spain immediately to the west of the city of Santander and is exposed to the Atlantic Ocean. The edge wave field on this beach is analyzed utilizing data from a longshore array of current meters located

H. Tuba Özkan-Haller; César Vidal; Iñigo J. Losada; Raúl Medina; Miguel A. Losada

2001-01-01

115

Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

2007-09-01

116

Intensive water quality monitoring in a Taiwan bathing beach.  

PubMed

A total of 357 water samples were collected from a public beach in northern Taiwan during beach season, and the densities of enterococci were analyzed by Enterolert methods. The mean enterococci level was 356 MPN/100 ml and ranged from <10 to 2,005 MPN/100 ml, which was classified as high contamination level according to the WHO water quality guideline (95 percentile >1,000 MPN/100 ml). Most of the deteriorated water quality conditions occurred during rainfall. By excluding data from the rain days, the overall beach water quality would be considered in the moderate contamination level (95 percentile 200-1,000 MPN/100 ml). Among the selected microbiological parameters tested, the densities of total coliforms and enterococci exhibited the highest correlation (r = 0.449, p = 0.009), followed by the concentrations of total coliforms and fecal coliforms (r = 0.403, p = 0.02). Nonetheless, no significant correlation was found between enterococci and fecal coliform levels (r = 0.197, p = 0.271). PMID:17972152

Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Yu-Li

2008-09-01

117

Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

were collected on a shallow estuarine mudflat in northern San Francisco Bay to examine the physical processes controlling waves, turbulence, sediment resuspension, and their interactions. Tides alone forced weak to moderate currents of 10-30 cm s-1 in depths of 0-3 m, and maintained a background suspension of 30-50 mg L-1 of fine sediment. In the presence of wind waves, bottom orbital velocities spanned 20-30 cm s-1, suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) at 15 and 30 cm above the bed (cmab) increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and vertical gradients in SSC were strong enough to produce turbulence-limiting stratification, with gradient Richardson numbers exceeding 0.25. Simultaneously, turbulent stresses (decomposed from wave motions) increased by an order of magnitude. The apparent contradiction of energetic turbulence in the presence of strong stratification was reconciled by considering the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget: in general, dissipation and buoyancy flux were balanced by local shear production, and each of these terms increased during wave events. The classic wave-current boundary layer model represented the observations qualitatively, but not quantitatively since the velocity profile could not be approximated as logarithmic. Rather, the mean shear was elevated by the Stokes drift return flow and wind-generated surface stress, which diffused sediment upward and limited stratification. Our findings highlight a pathway for waves to supply energy to both the production and destruction of turbulence, and demonstrate that in such shallow depths, TKE and SSC can be elevated over more of the water column than predicted by traditional models.

MacVean, Lissa J.; Lacy, Jessica R.

2014-03-01

118

Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.  

PubMed

This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

2010-05-01

119

Interaction and influence of two creeks on Escherichia coli concentrations of nearby beaches: Exploration of predictability and mechanisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impact of river outfalls on beach water quality depends on numerous interacting factors. The delivery of contaminants by multiple creeks gready complicates understanding of the source contributions, especially when pollution might originate up- or down-coast of beaches. We studied two beaches along Lake Michigan that are located between two creek outfalls to determine the hydrometeorologic factors influencing near-shore microbiologic water quality and the relative impact of the creeks. The creeks continuously delivered water with high concentrations of Escherichia coli to Lake Michigan, and the direction of transport of these bacteria was affected by current direction. Current direction reversals were associated with elevated E. coli concentrations at Central Avenue beach. Rainfall, barometric pressure, wave height, wave period, and creek specific conductance were significantly related to E. coli concentration at the beaches and were the parameters used in predictive models that best described E. coli variation at the two beaches. Multiple inputs to numerous beaches complicates the analysis and understanding of the relative relationship of sources but affords opportunities for showing how these complex creek inputs might interact to yield collective or individual effects on beach water quality. Copyright ?? 2007 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Nevers, M. B.; Whitman, R. L.; Frick, W. E.; Ge, Z.

2007-01-01

120

Folly Beach Turtle Watch Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides nesting data for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) using this South Carolina beach. Entries include: location, date discovered, number of eggs, expected and actual hatch dates, percent hatched, and photos. Data archives extend back to 1998. Site also includes information: on what you can do to help nesting turtles, strandings, impacts of beachfront construction on sea turtles, and a photo collection of turtle nesting.

2011-02-09

121

33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.736 Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL....

2013-07-01

122

77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...coastal recreation waters, including the Great Lakes. EPA encourages coastal and Great Lakes states and tribes that have received BEACH...EPA also encourages eligible coastal and Great Lakes tribes to apply for BEACH Act grants to...

2012-02-06

123

Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in public beach waters in Quebec  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E coli in the recreational waters of beaches in southern Quebec. METHODS: Sampling occurred over two summers; in 2004, 674 water samples were taken from 201 beaches, and in 2005, 628 water samples were taken from 177 beaches. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antimicrobial-resistant E coli isolates against a panel of 16 antimicrobials were determined using microbroth dilution. RESULTS: For 2004 and 2005, respectively, 28% and 38% of beaches sampled had at least one water sample contaminated by E coli resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and more than 10% of the resistant isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial of clinical importance for human medicine. The three antimicrobials with the highest frequency of resistance were tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. DISCUSSION: The recreational waters of these beaches represent a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria for people engaging in water activities. Investigations relating the significance of these findings to public health should be pursued.

Turgeon, Patricia; Michel, Pascal; Levallois, Patrick; Chevalier, Pierre; Daignault, Danielle; Crago, Bryanne; Irwin, Rebecca; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman F; Louie, Marie

2012-01-01

124

A Universal Nutrient Application Strategy For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Polluted Beaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Biostimulation by nutrient application is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. Maximizing the nutrient residence time is key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup. We considered the nutrient injection strategy through a perforated pipe at the high ti...

125

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAN MADE LAKES IN THE SURFICIAL AQUIFER SYSTEM IN PALM BEACH COUNTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of man made lakes in Palm Beach County has been a continuing controversy since the initiation of muck, soil, sand and lime rock excavation. Initially the focus of the controversy was not the potential for ground water and surface water contamination, safety hazards or the actual removal of the excavated materials, but the unsightly blight which the unmaintained

Allen Trefry

1991-01-01

126

Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California mega rip currents on a dissipative beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Ocean Beach is a dissipative beach, which is associated with large powerful rip currents. The processes that cause these rip currents on Ocean Beach have not been studied. As well, the general dimension of size, shape and velocity (the 3-dimension seaward distance and vertical distance) of these rip currents are also unknown. This report looks at

F. J. Smith

2003-01-01

127

Dramatic improvements in beach water quality following gull removal.  

PubMed

Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, and water quality improvements were quantified. Fecal indicator bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria were measured before and during gull control using culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Harassment by dogs was an effective method of gull control: average daily gull populations fell from 665 before to 17 during intervention; and a significant reduction in the density of a gull-associated marker was observed (p < 0.001). Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli densities were also significantly reduced during gull control (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively for culture methods; p = 0.012 and p = 0.034, respectively for qPCR). Linear regression results indicate that a 50% reduction in gulls was associated with a 38% and 29% decrease in Enterococcus spp. and E. coli densities, respectively. Potentially human pathogenic bacteria were detected on 64% of days prior to gull control and absent during gull intervention, a significant reduction (p = 0.005). This study demonstrates that gull removal can be a highly successful beach remedial action to improve microbial water quality. PMID:22913457

Converse, Reagan R; Kinzelman, Julie L; Sams, Elizabeth A; Hudgens, Edward; Dufour, Alfred P; Ryu, Hodon; Santo-Domingo, Jorge W; Kelty, Catherine A; Shanks, Orin C; Siefring, Shawn D; Haugland, Richard A; Wade, Timothy J

2012-09-18

128

Climate change and microbiological water quality at California beaches.  

PubMed

Daily microbiological water quality and precipitation data spanning 6 years were collected from monitoring stations at southern California beaches. Daily precipitation projected for the twenty-first century was derived from downscaled CNRM CM3 global climate model. A time series model of Enterococcus concentrations that was driven by precipitation, matched the general trend of empirical water quality data; there was a positive association between precipitation and microbiological water contamination (P < 0.001). Future projections of precipitation result in a decrease in predicted Enterococcus levels through the majority of the twenty-first century. Nevertheless, variability of storminess due to climate change calls for innovative adaptation and surveillance strategies. PMID:22805768

Semenza, Jan C; Caplan, Joshua S; Buescher, Guido; Das, Tapash; Brinks, Mitchell V; Gershunov, Alexander

2012-09-01

129

75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2010-0123] FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE...NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June...

2010-03-31

130

"Beach-Ball" Robotic Rovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic vehicles resembling large beach balls proposed for carrying scientific instruments. Conceived for use in exploring planet Mars, also useful on Earth to carry meteorological or pollution-monitoring equipment to remote locations across rough terrain and even across water. Each vehicle features approximately spherical balloonlike outer shell inflated to suitable pressure. Three diametral tethers approximately perpendicular to each other attached to shell. Control box moves itself along tethers to shift center of gravity, causing vehicle to roll. Alternatively, instead of shell, structure of approximately spherical outline made of twisted rods; of course, not suitable for traversing water or thick vegetation.

Smyth, David E.

1995-01-01

131

Recent Beach Restoration Projects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar to many places in the world, Taiwan's coastlines have experienced short term beach erosion arising from awesome waves and storm surges which have aggravated the long term erosion caused by various man-made factors. To combat beach erosion, hard structures using seawalls more than 500 km with protective precast concrete blocks have been installed throughout the island since the 1970s.

John R. C. Hsu; Melissa M. J. Yu; Shue-Ruey Liaw; Jyh-Cheng Chu; Chien-Chung Chen; Nan-Jing Wu

132

Hydrodynamic variability on megatidal beaches, Normandy, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments aimed at characterising the hydrodynamics of megatidal beaches outside the surf zone were carried out between 1990 and 1994 on the Cotentin coast of the Cherbourg Peninsula in Normandy. The database was established from the records of several electromagnetic current meters and pressure sensors and from field surveys. The mean spring tidal range on these beaches varies between

Franck Levoy; Olivier Monfort; Claude Larsonneur

2001-01-01

133

PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

134

Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples (samples collected above the shoreline) than in samples collected in ankle-deep water below the shoreline, significantly larger in the left and middle areas of the beach than the right area, and substantially larger than similar studies at E. coli- contaminated beaches on Lake Erie in Ohio. Concentrations of E. coli in the water column also were significantly larger after resuspension of sediments. Results of MST indicate a predominance of waterfowl-associated markers in nearshore sediments at Grand Glaize Beach consistent with frequent observations of goose and vulture fecal matter in sediment, especially on the left and middle areas of the beach. The combination of spatial and temporal sampling and MST indicate that an important source of E. coli contamination at Grand Glaize Beach during 2012 was E. coli released into the water column by bathers resuspending E. coli-contaminated sediments, especially during high-use days early in the recreational season.

Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

2014-01-01

135

Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

Smith, D. R.; Pooler, P. S.; Loveland, R. E.; Botton, M. L.; Michels, S. F.; Weber, R. G.; Carter, D. B.

2002-01-01

136

Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts  

PubMed Central

Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems.

Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

2014-01-01

137

Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts.  

PubMed

Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

2014-01-01

138

Spatial and temporal variability of metals in inter-tidal beach sediment of Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Nine metals were monitored in the beach sediment in Mumbai from May 2011 to March 2012 to evaluate the spatial and temporal distributions. The average heavy metal concentrations exhibited the following order: Fe > Mn > Cr > Co > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cd for the four sampling sites. The mean concentrations (± SD) of Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd were estimated to be 31.15?±?10.02 g kg(-1), 535.04?±?76.42, 151.98?±?97.90, 92.76?±?14.18, 67.52?±?11.32, 59.57?±?15.19, 54.65?±?15.01, 32.24?±?8.07 and 18.75?±?1.76 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results indicated that the sediments were polluted with Cd, Cr, Co and Pb due to high anthropogenic influences. Spatial variation of metals revealed that most of the metals were high in Dadar beach and low in Aksa beach. Cd was the highest contaminant metal studied with a mean contamination factor of 93.75. The pollution load indices of the studied beaches ranged from 1.63 (Aksa) to 1.91 (Dadar) and indicated that the beach sediments were polluted with heavy metals. The heavy metal contents increased in relation to monsoon, and most of the heavy metals showed significantly high concentrations in November during the post-monsoon. The statistical analysis revealed significant effect of study site on all the metals studied. Further, there was a significant difference on metal accumulation on bimonthly basis in relation to weather pattern in Mumbai beaches. PMID:24065133

Jayasiri, H B; Vennila, A; Purushothaman, C S

2014-02-01

139

Basic Information on the Beach Standards, Monitoring, & Notification Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. EPA BEACH Program website describes how the public's health and environmental quality of our nation's beaches can be improved. It focuses on strengthening beach standards and testing, providing faster laboratory test methods, predicting pollution, investing in health and methods research, and informing the public about the environmental quality of our beaches.

2006-11-30

140

A universal nutrient application strategy for the bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches.  

PubMed

Biostimulation by nutrient application is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. Maximizing the nutrient residence time is key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup. We considered the nutrient injection strategy through a perforated pipe at the high tide line and we simulated numerically beach hydraulics, which allowed us to estimate the optimal injection flow rate of nutrient solution. Our results indicate that the optimal application is one that starts following the falling high tide and lasts for half tidal cycle. The saturated wet-front of the nutrient solution on the beach surface would move seaward with the same speed of the falling tide keeping a constant distance with the tide line. The numerical results were generalized to beaches of wide ranges of hydraulic and tidal properties using a novel dimensionless formulation for water flow and solute transport in porous media. Nomographs were presented to provide the flow rate based on four parameters: The beach slope and hydraulic conductivity, and tidal amplitude and period. PMID:17588615

Li, Hailong; Zhao, Qinghong; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

2007-08-01

141

Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

2010-01-01

142

Tracking biological pollution sources using PCR-DGGE technology at Ta-An Beach.  

PubMed

The environmental authority of Taiwan has announced that ocean quality standard A, with E. coli less than 1,000 CFU/100 mL is safe for swimming. Ta-An Beach in central Taiwan was found to have exceeded 1,000 CFU/100 mL, which is 51% of the total monitoring records. Sewage, piggery and duck wastewater are discharged directly into this area. The traditional pollution source trace methods did not clearly identify the pollution source. This study used PCR-DGGE technology to establish micro-organisms fingerprints from water samples using comparative analysis with microbiological composition, and then determined the possible sources of biological contamination. The E. coli colonies at all samples were processed using linear regression analysis and compared with each other. The R(2) is 0.4102-0.7387 for the livestock farm and beach. This shows a positively relation. The piggery impact is more obvious. The beach microbial communities exhibited high similarity with piggery wastewater from the upstream region. We confirmed that the major pollution source for Ta-An Beach comes from piggery wastewater. The proposed method has high stability and reliability. It can be used as the basis for rapid identification of pollution sources at other beach water sites in the future. PMID:21076208

Shen, Shu-Min; Hwang, Hoei-Yuan; Fang, Hung-Yuan

2010-01-01

143

Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments.  

PubMed

We investigated the physical properties of beaches contaminated with plastic fragments. We compared sediment cores from Hawai'i Island's Kamilo Beach, notable for plastic accumulation, to cores from a nearby beach. Compared to the nearby beach, Kamilo sediments contained more plastics (up to 30.2% by weight), were coarser-grained, and were more permeable (t-test, p<0.0001). 85% of the fragments were polyethylene, and 95% were concentrated in the top 15 cm of the cores. We constructed artificial cores of standardized grain size and varying plastic-to-sediment ratios. Adding plastic significantly increased the permeability (ANOVA, p=0.002), which was partially attributed to the fragments increasing the mean grain size. Sediments with plastic warmed more slowly (16% maximum decrease in thermal diffusivity), and reached lower maximum temperatures (21% maximum increase in heat capacity). These changes have a variety of potential effects on beach organisms, including those with temperature-dependent sex-determination such as sea turtle eggs. PMID:21700298

Carson, Henry S; Colbert, Steven L; Kaylor, Matthew J; McDermid, Karla J

2011-08-01

144

Tar loads on Omani beaches  

SciTech Connect

Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-11-01

145

Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-07-01

146

Agroenvironmental determinants associated with the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in beach waters in Quebec, Canada.  

PubMed

Exposure to microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials may constitute a health risk to human populations. It is believed that one route of exposure occurs when people engage in recreational activities in water contaminated with these microorganisms. The main objective of this study was to explore population-level and environmental determinants specifically associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) generic Escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters sampled from beaches located in southern Quebec, Canada. Water samples originated from the Quebec provincial beach surveillance program for the summers of 2004 and 2005. This study focused on three classes of determinants, namely: agricultural, population-level and beach characteristics for a total of 19 specific factors. The study was designed as a retrospective observational analysis and factors were assessed using logistic regression methods. From the multivariable analysis, the data suggested that the percentage of land used for spreading liquid manure was a significant factor associated with the presence of AMR E. coli (OR=27.73). Conceptually, broad factors potentially influencing the presence of AMR bacteria in water must be assessed specifically in addition to factors associated with general microbial contamination. Presence of AMR E. coli in recreational waters from beaches in southern Quebec may represent a risk for people engaging in water activities and this study provides preliminary evidence that agricultural practices, specifically spreading liquid manure in agricultural lands nearby beaches, may be linked to the contamination of these waters by AMR E. coli. PMID:21824340

Turgeon, P; Michel, P; Levallois, P; Chevalier, P; Daignault, D; Crago, B; Irwin, R; McEwen, S A; Neumann, N F; Louie, M

2011-09-01

147

75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh...performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park...aircraft over a specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State...

2010-04-21

148

Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Noble, M. A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G. L.; Rosenfeld, L. K.

2006-01-01

149

A Day at the Beach, Anyone?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A field trip to the shore can engage students in real-world science and offer plentiful opportunities for interdisciplinary learning. This field trip "action plan" ensures that a day at the beach goes smoothly for students and chaperones alike.

Fredericks, Anthony D.; Childers, Julie

2004-07-01

150

Surf zone flushing on embayed beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Using a numerical model, we show that the surf zone of embayed <span class="hlt">beaches</span> systematically flushes out more floating material (simulated using passive tracers) than on open <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, with most exits occurring through the headland rips. For obliquely incident waves, a headland rip acts as a persistent conduit for transporting floating material out of the surf zone and into the inner shelf region. Wave angle and embayment size determine which headland rip (upwave or downwave) flushes out more the surf zone material. For narrow embayed <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, passive drifters exit the surf zone through the upwave headland rip. For wider embayed <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, the longshore current has enough room to develop and is further deflected against the downwave headland where most drifters exit the surf zone. Our results indicate that wave-exposed rugged coasts strongly enhance exchange of floating matter (e.g., pollutants and nutrients) at the ocean/continent interface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castelle, Bruno; Coco, Giovanni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22SOLID+WASTE%22&id=EJ677488"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is the Impact of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Debris?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2010113539"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> and Nearshore Sedimentation, Western Lake Michigan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systematic measurement of barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, wave period, breaker height, angle of wave approach, and long-shore current velocity at Illinois <span class="hlt">Beach</span> State Park in 1974 and Sheboygan, Wisconsin in summer 1972 shows the relation...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Davis W. T. Fox</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMEP43A0645T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wave Overtopping of a Barrier <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier <span class="hlt">beach</span> is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a <span class="hlt">beach</span> impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for <span class="hlt">beach</span> permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP23A..08C"> <span id="translatedtitle">How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large <span class="hlt">mudflats</span> and strong winds, whereas small <span class="hlt">mudflats</span> and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and an eventual lateral equilibrium are possible only with large allochthonous sediment supply. Once marshes expanded, marsh retreat can be prevented by a sediment supply smaller than the one that filled the basin. At the GCE, the Altamaha River allows for enhanced allochthonous supply directly to the salt marsh platform, reducing the importance of waves on the tidal flat. As a result, infilling or retreat become the prevalent behaviors. For the VCR, the presence of seagrass decreases near bed shear stresses and sediment flux to the salt marsh platform, however, seagrass also reduces the wave energy acting on the boundary of the marsh reducing boundary erosion. Results indicate that the reduction in wave power allows for seagrass to provide a strong stabilizing affect on the coupled salt marsh tidal flat system, but as external sediment supply increases and light conditions decline the system reverts to that of a bare tidal flat. Across all systems and with current rates of sea level rise, retreat is a more likely marsh loss modality than drowning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-09/pdf/2012-11196.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Atlantic Ocean, Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule...Atlantic Ocean in Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA. In recent years, there have...Changes The Coast Guard did receive one comment in response to the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-07/pdf/2012-5543.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Ocean in Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA. This action is necessary...2012-0095 using any one of the following methods...If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will hold one at a time and place announced...Ocean in Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA. In recent years,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sfu.ca/%7Esdashtga/publications/Dash_etal_Sed_06.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentology and stratigraphy of a transgressive, muddy gravel <span class="hlt">beach</span>: Waterside <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Bay of Fundy, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediments exposed at low tide on the transgressive, hypertidal (>6 m tidal range) Waterside <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, New Brunswick, Canada permit the scrutiny of sedimentary structures and textures that develop at water depths equivalent to the upper and lower shoreface. Waterside <span class="hlt">Beach</span> sediments are grouped into eleven sedimentologically distinct deposits that represent three depositional environments: (1) sandy foreshore and shoreface; (2) tidal-creek</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SHAHIN E. DASHTGARD; MURRAY K. GINGRAS; KARL E. BUTLER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37341859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visitors' Motivation for Attending the South <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Wine and Food Festival, Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to identify the major factors that motivated visitors to attend the South <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Wine and Food Festival in Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida, and determine whether these factors varied among the visitors from the United States, Canada, South America, Europe, and Asia. A survey of 475 visitors to South Florida was conducted in February 2006. Forty?four</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yvette Reisinger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=258391"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Health: Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> 3.0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is a free decision-support system designed to help <span class="hlt">beach</span> managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24356826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Draft genome sequences for oil-degrading bacterial strains from <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. PMID:24356826</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Marks, Kala P; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om; Kostka, Joel E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3868850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequences for Oil-Degrading Bacterial Strains from <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Marks, Kala P.; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=219204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span> impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.199...36P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> changes from sediment delivered by streams to pocket <span class="hlt">beaches</span> during a major flood</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The significance of sediment delivered via storm-associated stream discharge in altering sediment characteristics, <span class="hlt">beach</span> form, and volume is evaluated on pocket <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with different basin characteristics and wave exposures. The focus is on changes on three <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on Elba Island, Italy caused by a flood event in September 2002 that had an estimated recurrence interval of 200 years. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> profiles and foreshore sediment samples were gathered in 1999 and 2000 to identify pre-storm characteristics, in September 2002 to reveal the immediate effects of the storm, and in 2003 and 2004 to reveal post-storm recovery. Foreshore sediments were finer and better sorted and contained no pebbles prior to the flood. Coarsening of the sand and granule fraction was evident after the flood, along with pebble accumulations, especially near major streams. Mean size, sorting values and percent pebbles one and two years after the flood were generally greater than pre-flood conditions but less than immediately after the flood. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> profiles reveal conspicuous erosion immediately after the flood, when sediment delivered by streams is transported to subaqueous deltas. Thereafter, sediment moves onshore and alongshore to adjacent <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to restore subaerial volumes. The location of streams within a compartment, relative to the location of capes and headlands, is important in determining the movement of sediment added to the <span class="hlt">beach</span> by streams. The sites are all sheltered from the highest-energy waves from the west, facilitating longshore transport to the west. Where the largest stream is located at the east end of a compartment, sediment discharged from it is source material for the downdrift <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to the west. Where the largest stream is at the west end of the compartment, the ability to supply sediment to the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to the east is restricted. Hence, broad-scale geologic controls (headlands and capes) enhance or diminish the ability of streams to influence <span class="hlt">beach</span> change throughout the pocket. The inability of <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on two of the sites to migrate landward, due to human development of uplands, will be an issue in the future. Lack of sediment to replenish <span class="hlt">beaches</span> through erosion of the upland, places increased emphasis on the role of coastal streams in the <span class="hlt">beach</span> sediment budget. Changing watershed attributes to allow more sediment discharge during high-energy, low-frequency events (e.g. devoting more land to agriculture) would be a way of helping to restore <span class="hlt">beach</span> sediment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pranzini, Enzo; Rosas, Valentina; Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...81....1D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Threats to sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> ecosystems: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to <span class="hlt">beaches</span> arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every <span class="hlt">beach</span> on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of <span class="hlt">beach</span> systems or the human impacts on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent <span class="hlt">beach</span> habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70106982"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> science in the Great Lakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monitoring <span class="hlt">beach</span> waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, <span class="hlt">beach</span> managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “<span class="hlt">Beach</span> Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=66368"> <span id="translatedtitle">USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stretches of <span class="hlt">beach</span> along popular Huntington <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-11/pdf/2010-260.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 1373 - <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...coastal recreation waters, including the Great Lakes. EPA encourages coastal and Great Lakes States and Tribes that have received <span class="hlt">BEACH</span>...EPA also encourages eligible coastal and Great Lakes Tribes to apply for 2010 <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> Act...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=EISCT731595D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> Erosion Control Project Sherwood Island State Park, Westport, Connecticut.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> widening and sand retention structures are proposed along 6,000 feet of shorefront at Sherwood Island State Park, Town of Westport, Fairfield County, Connecticut. Environmental impacts include restoration and protection of valuable <span class="hlt">beach</span> fronting on...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=COM7411551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intertidal Macrobiology of Selected Sandy <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> in Southern California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study is designed to provide information about the intertidal macrofauna of representative sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in southern California, along with the factors affecting their distribution. Nine <span class="hlt">beaches</span> between Coal Oil Point in the north and Deheny State Par...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. M. Patterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16650444"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of the intertidal area of two <span class="hlt">beaches</span> located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both <span class="hlt">beaches</span> has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. PMID:16650444</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernabeu, A M; Nuez de la Fuente, M; Rey, D; Rubio, B; Vilas, F; Medina, R; González, M E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/80765015156w5244.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary characterization of Tagus estuarine <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (Portugal)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background, Aim and Scope  The distribution of sediments in estuarine <span class="hlt">beaches</span> is controlled by the interactions between sediment supply, hydrodynamic\\u000a processes and human intervention. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the sediments of Tagus estuarine <span class="hlt">beaches</span>\\u000a in order to understand their origin and to contribute to a better knowledge of the Tagus estuary sediment budget.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Surface sediment samples</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paula Freire; Rui Taborda; Ana M. Silva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=492333"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic Diversity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urban Rivers and <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Repetitive element anchored PCR was used to evaluate the genetic profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from surface water <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> with urban stormwater, sanitary sewage, and gull feces to determine if strains found in environmental samples reflect the strain composition of E. coli obtained from host sources. Overall, there was less diversity in isolates collected from river and <span class="hlt">beach</span> sites than with isolates obtained from human and nonhuman sources. Unique strain types comprised 28.8, 29.2, and 15.0% of the isolate data sets recovered from stormwater, river water, and <span class="hlt">beach</span> water, respectively. In contrast, 50.4% of gull isolates and 41.2% of sewage isolates were unique strain types. River water, which is expected to contain E. coli strains from many diffuse sources of nonpoint source pollution, contained strains most closely associated with other river water isolates that were collected at different sites or on different days. However, river sites impacted by sewage discharge had approximately 20% more strains similar to sewage isolates than did sites impacted by stormwater alone. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> sites with known gull fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> contained E. coli most similar to other <span class="hlt">beach</span> isolates rather than gull isolates collected at these same sites, indicating underrepresentation of possible gull strains. These results suggest large numbers of strains are needed to represent contributing host sources within a geographical location. Additionally, environmental survival may influence the composition of strains that can be recovered from <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> waters. Understanding the ecology of indicator bacteria is important when interpreting fecal pollution assessments and developing source detection methodology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLellan, Sandra L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ww4.doh.wa.gov/scripts/esrimap.dll?name=bioview&BCmd=Map&BStep=1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recreational Shellfish <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Closures Due to Biotoxins or Pollution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This map represents the Health Status of <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in the state of Washington. The interactive map allows users to click on counties, water bodies, and <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to view seasons and limits. The page also includes links to text bulletins regarding <span class="hlt">beach</span> closures, descriptions of marine biotoxins and associated health effects, and a factsheet of shellfish program publications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Health, Washington S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/sedimentary/SGP2014/activities/84346.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Grand Strand Geology and its impact on <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Nourishment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brief analysis of the geologic setting of the Grand Strand (Myrtle <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, South Carolina, and vicinity) coast and the limited occurrence of sand suitable for <span class="hlt">beach</span> re-nourishment. Students use a USGS Fact Sheet to examine the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, near offshore, and edge of Coastal Plain geology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farley, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1561.photos.014187p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">103. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">103. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Orange County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wave+AND+energy&pg=6&id=ED326415"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beaches</span> in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a <span class="hlt">beach</span>. In this student guide, two types of <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a <span class="hlt">beach</span> is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614268D"> <span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">beach</span> (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte <span class="hlt">beach</span>) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> and a southern sector (Nazaré bay <span class="hlt">beach</span>) that corresponds to an embayed <span class="hlt">beach</span>, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte <span class="hlt">beach</span> generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte <span class="hlt">beach</span> but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing <span class="hlt">beach</span> seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte <span class="hlt">beach</span> (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through 600 m downdrift of the injection point. Tracer was injected at a rate of 16 kg each 30 sec and collected at a frequency of 10 min at each site. Complementary sampling was performed at the inner shelf and at the <span class="hlt">beach</span> southern of the headland. In order to follow tracer downdrift movement and headland sediment bypassing low resolution sampling was extended through three more days. Oceanographic forcing throughout the experiment was measured by an offshore wave buoy and an ADCP specifically deployed for the experiment. During the first tidal cycle, data from field observations using a hand held UV light showed a southward tracer displacement of more than 600 m. After the second tidal cycle, sediment tracer was detected in the Nazaré bay <span class="hlt">beach</span> showing headland bypassing. Further insights on the sediment transport at the Nazaré canyon head system will be supported by the analysis of sediment samples collected at the <span class="hlt">beach</span> and inner shelf using an automated image analysis system. This work was done in the framework of the PTDC/MAR/114674/2009 program, financed by FCT which the authors acknowledge gratefully.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS31B..07D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú <span class="hlt">beach</span> (SP), Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of <span class="hlt">beaches</span> characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the <span class="hlt">beach</span> face. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective <span class="hlt">beaches</span> cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Visible <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was the influence of the water level. Waves acting at higher water levels are able to produce the less dynamic upper layer of cusps. During 31 consecutive days from 8 July 2011 to 8 August of the same year these features show four periods with the presence of cusps on the upper and lower portion of the foreshore with three periods with cups only on the upper portion of the foreshore. The analyzed dataset shows the highly dynamic behavior of cusps, with rapid generation and destruction, related directly to its forcing hydrodynamic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS33C1681C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps via high resolution TLS acquisitions on the pocket <span class="hlt">beach</span> of Porsmilin (Brittany)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> cusps are rhythmic shoreline features made up of series of horns and embayments. Their build-up occurs in specific conditions (steep beachface, low-energy wave conditions...). These features can notably be characterized by the cusp spacing ? and their prominence ? (difference in beachface gradient between embayment and horn). At present, two main theories confront to explain the formation of such features on natural <span class="hlt">beaches</span> : standing edge waves (special class of waves propagating longshore) and self-organisation hypothesis. - Standing edge wave theory proposes that the superimposition of incident waves and standing edge waves generates longshore variations of swash height linked with the position of edge wave nodes and anti-nodes. These variations of swash height result in regular zones of erosion. Depending on the context, different types of edge-waves may occur. The predicted <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp spacing is : ? = (g T^2 tan?) / ? for a sub-harmonic edge wave model ? = (g T^2 tan?) / 2? for a synchronous edge wave model with : ? : <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp spacing (m) g : gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s) T : incident wave period (s) tan? : <span class="hlt">beach</span> gradient - Self-organisation theory suggests that a combination of interactions and feedbacks between swash flow and <span class="hlt">beach</span> topography leads to the growth of morphologic irregularities of a given wavelength (because of flow divergence or convergence), resulting in <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp formation and maintaining. The predicted <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp spacing is then : ? = f S with : ? : <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp spacing (m) S : horizontal extent of the swash flow (m) f : empirical constant (~1.5) Three multitemporal Terrestrial Laser Scan acquisitions have been carried out for three consecutive days on the sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> of Porsmilin (Brittany, France) with a spatial resolution varying from few centimetres to few metres. Moreover the hydrodynamic conditions have been obtained thanks to the Previmer project website (http://www.previmer.org/), notably based on WaveWatch3 and MARS-2D models. This study proposes to profit from the high resolution and accuracy of Terrestrial Laser data to measure the geometry and the spacing of <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps, to compare the measured parameters to the predicted ones (with both theories) and thus to attempt to identify the hydrodynamic process which sparks off their formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chabrol, C.; Jaud, M.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.; Augereau, E.; Cuq, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS23G..05F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting and Forecasting <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Bacteria Concentration Using EPA's Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Software</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beaches</span> in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads to erroneous decisions due to the great variability in bacterial concentrations. <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> are closed when they could be open and vice versa, their true status unknown until the next day. Studies show that mathematical models based on multi-variable linear regression (MLR) principles can produce better estimates, or nowcasts, using real-time explanatory variables, such as turbidity, cloud cover, and rainfall. To make such models generally available, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a program called Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (VB). VB is public-domain software for developing site-specific predictive models. It features capabilities that make it possible with reasonable effort to develop, and compare the performance of, static and dynamic MLR models. The results of tests on 2006 Huntington <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Lake Erie <span class="hlt">beach</span> data are presented. In addition to nowcasting, the work begins to address the question, can weather and water forecasts be used to forecast <span class="hlt">beach</span> conditions in advance? A preliminary affirmative answer is provided based on an analysis of the Huntington <span class="hlt">Beach</span> data, with weather forecasts for nearby Cleveland-Hopkins international airport, and NOAA lake condition forecasts. We encourage those engaged in <span class="hlt">beach</span> monitoring and management to request VB, applying the nowcast and forecast models developed with it to their locations of interest. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for presentation, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frick, W. E.; Ge, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA189312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Floating Tire Breakwater Tests Pickering <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Delaware.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents a 1-week long field monitoring effort conducted at Pickering <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Delaware. The purpose of the study was to gain information concerning mooring line response of a floating breakwater subjected to boat-generated waves. Data are comp...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J. Grace J. E. Clausner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology at the <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Lecture: Wayne Hu</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the <span class="hlt">Beach</span>" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wayne Hu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2010113541"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> Access Enhancement. Phase One. Final Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Division of <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> and Shores contracted the services of the University of Florida, Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism to inventory and map all public owned properties which front the Atlantic Ocean, Straits of Florida, and Gulf of Mexico, a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22New+York+Times%22&pg=6&id=EJ767525"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Interview with Beatrice <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Szekely</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents an interview with Beatrice <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steiner-Khamsi, Gita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=EISGA731792F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tybee Island, Georgia, <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Erosion Control Project.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The proposal concerns restoration and periodic nourishment of 13,200 feet of ocean <span class="hlt">beach</span> and a rubble stone terminal groin extending 800 feet seaward. Proposed for the future, when and if needed, is the placement of two additional rubble groins 760 feet a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB293980"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> and Inlet Task Force Report (Florida).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> erosion and inlet shoaling have been determined by both public and private authorities to be a serious problem for the economy and general welfare of the citizens and residents of Florida. To effectively cope with this problem, the state must develo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2011101931"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cliffwood <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Fossil Preserve Environmental Assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Fossil Preserve built as part of the Cliffwood <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Shore Protection project in the mid 1970's is important to scientists. The Township of Aberdeen now wants the Preserve filled to halt further cliff erosion and avoid safety problems. Before filling ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology at the <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Lecture: Wayne Hu</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the <span class="hlt">Beach</span>" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wayne Hu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.maine.gov/doc/nrimc/mgs/explore/marine/sites/apr02.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mile and Half Mile <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> at Reid State Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This guide introduces visitors to the sediments and geologic histories of Mile and Half Mile <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Reid State Park on the coast of Maine. Topics include the source of the sand presently found on the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, the origin and migration of <span class="hlt">beach</span> deposits, dunes, and marsh peat deposits as sea level has risen, and some history of the area. Some suggested activities for visitors include observing grain size sorting of <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands, observing the size and angle of waves washing ashore, and making measurements of <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps and berms. References and links to additional information are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19096455"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at Southwestern Lake Michigan bathing <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ring-billed (Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815) and herring (Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. Gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these <span class="hlt">contamination</span> sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. This study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathogens in gull populations at Racine, Wisconsin. For 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005, and 7 weeks in 2006, 724 gull fecal samples were examined for pathogen occurrence on traditional selective media (BBL CHROMagar-Salmonella, Remel Campy-BAP, 7% horse blood agar) or through the use of novel isolation techniques (Campylobacter, EC FP5-funded CAMPYCHECK Project), and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogens commonly harbored in gulls. An additional 226 gull fecal samples, collected in the same 12-week period in 2004, from a <span class="hlt">beach</span> in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were evaluated with standard microbiological methods and PCR. Five isolates of Salmonella (0.7%), 162 (22.7%) isolates of Campylobacter, 3 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila group 2 (0.4%), and 28 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.9%) were noted from the Racine <span class="hlt">beach</span>. No occurrences of Salmonella and 3 isolates of Campylobacter (0.4%) were found at the Milwaukee <span class="hlt">beach</span>. A subset of the 2004 samples was also examined for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and was found to be negative. Information as to the occurrence of human pathogens in <span class="hlt">beach</span> ecosystems is essential to design further studies assessing human health risk and to determine the parameters influencing the fate and transport of pathogens in the nearshore environment. PMID:19096455</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinzelman, Julie; McLellan, Sandra L; Amick, Ashley; Preedit, Justine; Scopel, Caitlin O; Olapade, Ola; Gradus, Steve; Singh, Ajaib; Sedmak, Gerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22592782"> <span id="translatedtitle">Speciation and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococci isolated from recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Malaysia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the first study on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in coastal bathing waters in Malaysia. One hundred and sixty-five enterococci isolates recovered from two popular recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Malaysia were speciated and screened for antibiotic resistance to a total of eight antibiotics. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium was highest in both <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio was 0.384:1 and 0.375:1, respectively, for isolates from Port Dickson (PD) and Bagan Lalang (BL). Analysis of Fisher's exact test showed that association of prevalence of E. faecalis and E. faecium with considered locations was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Chi-square test revealed significant differences (?(2) = 82.630, df = 20, p < 0.001) in the frequency of occurrence of enterococci isolates from the considered sites. Resistance was highest to nalidixic acid (94.84 %) and least for chloramphenicol (8.38 %). One-way ANOVA using Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test showed that resistance to ampicillin was higher in PD <span class="hlt">beach</span> isolates than BL isolates and the difference was extremely statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Frequency of occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) isolates were higher for PD <span class="hlt">beach</span> water (64.29 %) as compared to BL <span class="hlt">beach</span> water (13.51 %), while MAR indices ranged between 0.198 and 0.48. The results suggest that samples from Port Dickson may contain MAR bacteria and that this could be due to high-risk faecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> from sewage discharge pipes that drain into the sea water. PMID:22592782</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Yook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24775069"> <span id="translatedtitle">PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to monitor PAH <span class="hlt">contamination</span> to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> shorelines. PMID:24775069</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Geomo.104..165C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphological responses of an estuarine intertidal <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> to constructions since 1978 to 2005: The Seine estuary (France)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1834 the Seine estuary (France) has been the site of numerous construction projects with the aim to accommodate and secure boat traffic. Since 1978, the increasing of the activities of Le Havre port, located at the mouth of the estuary, has accelerated the construction work rate. Several dykes, a bridge, and new port facilities have been constructed in rapid succession, modifying considerably the hydrodynamic conditions which sustain a partially vegetated sandy-muddy tidal flat located in the North bank of the estuary between the new port of Le Havre and the Normandy bridge achieved in 1995. The present study deals with the morphological evolution of this zone from 1978 to 2005. The use of a low altitude remote sensing technique combined with traditional methods of ground survey and probes allow to demonstrate the impact of human activities on sedimentary and vegetation dynamics. The Northern <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> of the estuary is the most affected by these human activities, which surface have reduced of 62% during the last 27 years with an intensified local erosion during the last 27 months corresponding to a loss 1 250 000 m 3 of fine-grained sediment. At the same time, the general sanding up in the channel of the zone has caused a loss of more than 31% of the tidal prism, more than three quarters of which occurred during the last three years. Results also establish that the response times of the sedimentary or topographic readjustment to an installation depend on the extent and the nature of the construction. In fact, the sedimentary readjustments to an installation can be delayed by up to 10 years in the case of the Seine estuary. This delay is explained by a rapid succession of construction works which may occult the effect of a single installation. Except in the case of a dyke built perpendicular to ebb and flood currents, the impacts of these installations reach a hydro-sedimentary equilibrium on the level between 1 and 7 years after their completion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cuvilliez, Antoine; Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert; Bessineton, Christophe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://actionbioscience.org/environment/Jensen_McLellan.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> Closings: Science versus Public Perception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article addresses how <span class="hlt">beach</span> closings are on the rise, but the public is not being given accurate information to help them get involved in solving the problem. The media, the publics primary information source, must provide information based on factual scientific evidence, not be swayed by economic and political factors, and work with scientists to obtain data and facts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erika Jensen and Sandra McLellan (Great Lakes WATER Institute;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3189908"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holocene cemented <span class="hlt">beach</span> deposits in Belize</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two types of cemented <span class="hlt">beach</span> deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eberhard Gischler; Anthony J. Lomando</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS62E..11T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wave Reflection on a Steep <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wave reflection was measured during the RIPEX/Steep<span class="hlt">Beach</span> experiment conducted at the Sand City <span class="hlt">Beach</span> in Monterey Bay, California during April/May 2001. The morphology is a barred shoreline, cut by rip channels spaced 100-200 m apart. The <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope is steep at 1:5, and the slope offshore of the bar is 1:20. Measuring wave reflection in the dissipative surf zone is complicated because the wave field is not spatially homogeneous and the nodes of the reflected waves pose difficulties in analysis. The inverse approach by Dickson et.al. (1995) is extended to the case of local pressure/velocity (puv) measurements, to avoid having to assume spatial homogeniety. In this inverse approach, the various expected puv cross-spectra and energy density spectra are modeled for a reflective wave field and compared with actual measurements. The unknown coefficients as a function of frequency are reflection coefficient, phase difference, mean incident wave direction, and incident wave energy of the model, and are determined iteratively in a least square sense. The estimated reflection coefficients increase towards the shoreline inside the surf zone, decrease with increasing frequency and vary with the tidal stage. Dickson, W.S., T.H.C. Herbers, and E.B. Thornton, 1995, Wave Reflection from Breakwater, J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 121 (5), 262-268.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thornton, E. B.; Stanton, T. P.; Reniers, A. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESRv..132...85T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aeolian transport of coarse sand over <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges in NE Australia: A reply to a discussion of '<span class="hlt">Beach</span> ridges and prograded <span class="hlt">beach</span> deposits as palaeoenvironment records'</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nott (2013) argued that Tamura's (2012) review of <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges as palaeoenvironment records comprises an incorrect interpretation of the processes of building coarse sand <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges in NE Australia. Nott (2013) stressed no possibility of aeolian transport of coarse sand onto <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges during both cyclone and non-cyclone conditions. The facts presented by Nott (2013) however fail to completely rule out the possibility that aeolian transport could be at least contributing to the building of the <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges. This reply aims to clarify the original intentions of Tamura (2012), which Nott (2013) appears to have misunderstood, and further examines the possibility of aeolian transport of coarse sand onto the <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges from incipient ridges. If this does occur, then it is appropriate to question how this might affect the theory and algorithm employed by Nott et al. (2009) and Forsyth et al. (2010) to assess the intensity and frequency of prehistoric cyclone landfall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tamura, Toru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18057641"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experience with the antibiotic resistance analysis and DNA fingerprinting in tracking faecal pollution at two lake <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Posting or closing of swimming <span class="hlt">beaches</span> because of faecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> is a widespread problem reported in many locations. In a risk-based approach to this problem, the risk to swimmers' health is assessed by field monitoring of indicator bacteria and the associated risks are managed by source controls and other remedial measures. In risk assessment, great advances have been made in recent years with the introduction of microbial source tracking (MST) techniques. Two such techniques, antibiotic resistance analysis and DNA fingerprinting, were applied in a study of causes of faecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> at two lake <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Toronto, Ontario. Both methods identified bird faeces as the dominant sources of E. coli. Coping with this type of pollution presents a major environmental challenge. PMID:18057641</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edge, T A; Hill, S; Stinson, G; Seto, P; Marsalek, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41004818"> <span id="translatedtitle">The morphodynamics of megatidal <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Normandy, France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on the west coast of Cotentin, on the Cherbourg Peninsula in Normandy, France, experience mean spring tidal ranges of 9.3–11.4m. A study of the morphology, hydrodynamics and grain-size characteristics of these <span class="hlt">beaches</span> was carried out in order to highlight the influence of large tidally induced water level fluctuations on their morphodynamics. These <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are herein referred to as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Levoy; E. J. Anthony; O. Monfort; C. Larsonneur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42679860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tailings <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope prediction: a new rheological method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new semi-empirical model for tailings <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope prediction is presented. The model is based on existing non-Newtonian rheology theory combined with some well-established turbulent channel flow equations. It is shown that solid particles do not deposit from the self-formed channels of the tailings slurry as it flows down the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, and that the slope of the <span class="hlt">beach</span> is dictated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. G. Fitton; A. G. Chryss; S. N. Bhattacharya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..108...64O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> profile and model validation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal <span class="hlt">mudflats</span>. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further refinements at the upper shore where S. plana dominates the species assemblage, whereas there is still a need to include further formulations of biota effects to simulate the erosion experimental results at the lower shores where other molluscs and Annelids significantly contribute to the species assemblage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sébastien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015997"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes along a seawall and natural <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: Fourchon, LA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper compares shoreline and <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A <span class="hlt">beach</span> consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of <span class="hlt">beach</span> response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042198"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Impacts on <span class="hlt">beach</span> water quality and human health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary <span class="hlt">beach</span> closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verhougstraete, M. P.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Rose, J. B.; Whitman, Richard L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24776951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of submarine groundwater discharge on bacterial indicators and swimmer health at Avalon <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA, USA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring <span class="hlt">beach</span> water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship that can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Avalon <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California (USA), where the indicator relationship is potentially affected by the discharge of sewage-<span class="hlt">contaminated</span> groundwater and by solar radiation levels at this shallow, relatively quiescent <span class="hlt">beach</span>. The goals of this study were to determine: 1) if swimmers exposed to marine water were at higher risk of illness than non-swimmers; 2) if FIB measured in marine water were associated with swimmer illness, and; 3) if the associations between FIB and swimmer health were modified by either submarine groundwater discharge or solar radiation levels. There were 7317 individuals recruited during the summers of 2007-08, 6165 (84%) of whom completed follow-up within two weeks of the <span class="hlt">beach</span> visit. A total of 703 water quality samples were collected across multiple sites and time periods during recruitment days and analyzed for FIB using both culture-based and molecular methods. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated that swimmers who swallowed water were more likely to experience Gastrointestinal Illness (GI Illness) within three days of their <span class="hlt">beach</span> visit than non-swimmers, and that this risk was significantly elevated when either submarine groundwater discharge was high (AOR [95% CI]:2.18 [1.22-3.89]) or solar radiation was low (2.45 [1.25-4.79]). The risk of GI Illness was not significantly elevated for swimmers who swallowed water when groundwater discharge was low or solar radiation was high. Associations between GI Illness incidence and FIB levels (Enterococcus EPA Method 1600) among swimmers who swallowed water were not significant when we did not account for groundwater discharge, but were strongly associated when groundwater discharge was high (1.85 [1.06, 3.23]) compared to when it was low (0.77 [0.42, 1.42]; test of interaction: P = 0.03). These results demonstrate the need to account for local environmental conditions when monitoring for, and making decisions about, public health at recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24776951</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yau, Vincent M; Schiff, Kenneth C; Arnold, Benjamin F; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_146989.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">1 in 10 U.S. <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> Fails Bacteria Test, Survey Finds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... samples taken annually at <span class="hlt">beaches</span> around the country, Great Lakes <span class="hlt">beaches</span> have the highest failure rate, with excessively ... Main Street <span class="hlt">Beach</span> in Chautauqua County In the Great Lakes, 13 percent of samples failed to meet federal ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD778733"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Monitoring of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Erosion Control Projects, Broward County, Florida, and Adjacent Areas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecological monitoring of algae, invertebrates, and fishes was conducted in the southeast Florida coast in connection with offshore dredging and <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment projects. The Pompano <span class="hlt">Beach</span> to Lauderdale-by-the-Sea segment of the Broward County <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Eros...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. J. Harrema J. van Montfrans M. J. Thompson W. P. Azzinaro W. R. Courtenay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-930.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. 334.930 Section... Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. (a) The restricted...west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA119864"> <span id="translatedtitle">West <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Westport, Connecticut, Sherwood Island State Park. Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed Project Report present results of an analysis of <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion problems at Sherwood Island State Park, and investigated several alternative plans of erosion control for West <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, the Sherwood Island State Park. Recommended <span class="hlt">beach</span> widening by pla...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-17/pdf/2012-25646.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Special Local Regulations; Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter...Jupiter, Florida during the Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> World Championship is scheduled to take...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-10/pdf/2011-167.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 1359 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, NC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the 2011 Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>/Quintiles Marathon will be transiting across the bridge...the 2011 Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>/Quintiles Marathon. DATES: This deviation is effective...The Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>/Quintiles Marathon Committee on behalf of the North...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-15/pdf/2013-00515.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida, during the West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: Comments and related...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-15/pdf/2013-08734.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida, during the West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-17/pdf/2013-08990.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast...special local regulation on the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-20/pdf/2012-20355.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 50065 - Safety Zone; Jacksonville Sea and Sky Spectacular, Atlantic Ocean; Jacksonville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Jacksonville Sea and Sky Spectacular, Atlantic Ocean; Jacksonville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Jacksonville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida...host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Jacksonville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3208977"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill?†‡</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil <span class="hlt">contamination</span> in <span class="hlt">beach</span> ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg?1 in <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ?10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g?1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g?1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil <span class="hlt">contamination</span>, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> samples. We conclude that oil <span class="hlt">contamination</span> from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.4605E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combining remote sensing data and an inundation model to map tidal <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> regions and improve flood predictions: A proof of concept demonstration in Cook Inlet, Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate flood predictions require high resolution inundation numerical models and detailed coastal and land topography data. However, such data are not always available. A new method to obtain topographic information of flood zones from remote sensing data is demonstrated here for Cook Inlet, Alaska, where tidal range reaches 8-10 m. The moving shoreline is detected from analysis of water coverage in satellite images taken at different tidal stages, and then the shoreline data from different times are combined with water level data from observations and models to produce new topographic maps of previously unobserved <span class="hlt">mudflats</span>. The remote sensing-based analysis provides for the first time a way to evaluate the flood predictions of the inundation model of the inlet. The new flood-zone topography obtained from the remote sensing data will help to construct a more accurate inundation model in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ezer, Tal; Liu, Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25014753"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics to assess ecological condition, change, and impacts in sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> ecosystems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Complexity is increasingly the hallmark in environmental management practices of sandy shorelines. This arises primarily from meeting growing public demands (e.g., real estate, recreation) whilst reconciling economic demands with expectations of coastal users who have modern conservation ethics. Ideally, shoreline management is underpinned by empirical data, but selecting ecologically-meaningful metrics to accurately measure the condition of systems, and the ecological effects of human activities, is a complex task. Here we construct a framework for metric selection, considering six categories of issues that authorities commonly address: erosion; habitat loss; recreation; fishing; pollution (litter and chemical <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>); and wildlife conservation. Possible metrics were scored in terms of their ability to reflect environmental change, and against criteria that are widely used for judging the performance of ecological indicators (i.e., sensitivity, practicability, costs, and public appeal). From this analysis, four types of broadly applicable metrics that also performed very well against the indicator criteria emerged: 1.) traits of bird populations and assemblages (e.g., abundance, diversity, distributions, habitat use); 2.) breeding/reproductive performance sensu lato (especially relevant for birds and turtles nesting on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and in dunes, but equally applicable to invertebrates and plants); 3.) population parameters and distributions of vertebrates associated primarily with dunes and the supralittoral <span class="hlt">beach</span> zone (traditionally focused on birds and turtles, but expandable to mammals); 4.) compound measurements of the abundance/cover/biomass of biota (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates) at both the population and assemblage level. Local constraints (i.e., the absence of birds in highly degraded urban settings or lack of dunes on bluff-backed <span class="hlt">beaches</span>) and particular issues may require alternatives. Metrics - if selected and applied correctly - provide empirical evidence of environmental condition and change, but often do not reflect deeper environmental values per se. Yet, values remain poorly articulated for many <span class="hlt">beach</span> systems; this calls for a comprehensive identification of environmental values and the development of targeted programs to conserve these values on sandy shorelines globally. PMID:25014753</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Jones, Alan R; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Defeo, Omar; Peterson, Charles H; Weston, Michael A; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D; Scapini, Felicita; Nel, Ronel; Harris, Linda R; Lucrezi, Serena; Lastra, Mariano; Huijbers, Chantal M; Connolly, Rod M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=163365"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> SOFTWARE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beaches</span> are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26659316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the effect of <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment and cross-shore sediment variation on <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphodynamic assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of coastal morphodynamics are becoming increasingly more focused on quantification of relationships between processes, form and function of dynamic landform systems because wave climates (e.g., wave height, wave period, seasonality, cyclical patterns) and sediments (i.e., composition, size, and shape) interact in various ways to collectively produce distinctive types of <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. This paper identifies criteria and boundary conditions that characterize</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindino Benedet; Charles W. Finkl; Thomas Campbell; Antonio Klein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1694930"> <span id="translatedtitle">The health effects of swimming at Sydney <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The Sydney <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Users Study Advisory Group.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine the health risks of swimming at ocean <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Sydney, Australia. METHODS. From people attending 12 Sydney <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in the period from December 5, 1989 to February 26, 1990, we recruited a cohort of 8413 adults who agreed to participate in this study. Of these, 4424 were excluded either because they had been swimming in the previous 5 days or because they reported a current illness. Of the remainder, 2839 successfully completed a follow-up telephone interview conducted within 10 days after recruitment. We recorded reported respiratory, gastrointestinal, eye, and ear symptoms and fever that occurred within the 10 days between initial interview on the <span class="hlt">beach</span> and the follow-up interview. RESULTS. A total of 683 participants (24.0%) reported experiencing symptoms in the 10 days following initial interview. Of these, 435 (63.7%) reported respiratory symptoms. Swimmers were almost twice as likely as nonswimmers to report symptoms. There was a linear relationship between water pollution and all reported symptoms with the exception of gastrointestinal complaints. CONCLUSIONS. Swimmers at Sydney ocean <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are more likely to report respiratory, ear, and eye symptoms than beachgoers who do not swim. The incidence of these symptoms increases slightly with increasing levels of pollution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corbett, S J; Rubin, G L; Curry, G K; Kleinbaum, D G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=165685"> <span id="translatedtitle">MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> SOFTWARE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beaches</span> in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SedG..222...42A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mudflat</span>/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Tianshui Basin in central China contains a thick sedimentary sequence (~ 1400 m) of continental deposits, Aragonian to Villafranchian (Miocene-Pliocene) in age. Intense Himalayan movements around the Paleogene/Miocene boundary triggered the uplift of mountain ranges around the Tianshui Basin, providing the deposition site for continental sediments. The sedimentary infill of the basin consists of four stratigraphic units (I to IV). This paper focuses on Unit II. Most of the accommodation space was occupied by Unit I, so during the sedimentation of Unit II, the morphology of the basin was relatively flat, promoting the development of wide distal fan/<span class="hlt">mudflat</span> areas and wide shallow lakes. Deposits include: red mudstones, pedogenic and groundwater calcretes, reworked calcrete deposits, sheet-floods, fluvial channels, rippled sandstones/siltstones, ooidal/peloidal packstones, palustrine limestones, bioturbated marls and intraclastic limestones/marls. The characteristics and organization of the deposits indicate the gradual transition from alluvial to lake environments. Within the distal fan/<span class="hlt">mudflat</span>, the deposition of reworked calcrete clasts as one of the most striking facies of the basin may be attributed to substantial recycling of calcrete levels and red clays. At the lake margins, the presence of ooids and palustrine limestones suggests the possibility of ramp-like margins within different energy settings. The origin of some of the deposits of the basin's QA-I section is under discussion, and their consideration as eolian has been recently proposed. However, we believe this possibility is precluded by the characteristics of the deposits. Our proposal has important implications for revising the interpretation of Miocene paleoclimatic conditions in central Asia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Zhao, Z.; Song, C. H.; Li, J. J.; Zhang, J.; Martín-Pérez, A.; Martín-García, R.; Wang, X. X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3346363"> <span id="translatedtitle">Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal <span class="hlt">Mudflats</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Mudflats</span> and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate <span class="hlt">mudflat</span>. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coulon, Frederic; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Paisse, Sandrine; Goni-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuna Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Duran, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39725945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rocky shore-gravelly <span class="hlt">beach</span> transition, and storm\\/post-storm changes of a holocene gravelly <span class="hlt">beach</span> (Kos island, Aegean sea): Stratigraphic significance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  On Kos island, Greece, along an investigated coastal segment 3 km in length, four adjacent sectors were distinguished, (1)\\u000a Empros <span class="hlt">beach</span>, a rocky shore with plunging cliffs and a steeply dipping, submarine talus, (2) Thermi <span class="hlt">beach</span>, a „coarse-clastic\\u000a <span class="hlt">beach</span>” with a subaerial cliff fringed by a bouldery to coarse gravelly <span class="hlt">beach</span> with poorly developed zonation, (3) Dimitra <span class="hlt">beach</span>,\\u000a a gravelly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diethard Sanders</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61249422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental use of dispersants for spill countermeasures on Arctic <span class="hlt">beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field experiments have been conducted on arctic <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to asses the effectiveness of dispersants for the cleanup of stranded oil. The application of two commercially available chemical dispersants to aged and emulsified oil plots, in the intertidal zone on a semi-sheltered <span class="hlt">beach</span>, resulted in a significant reduction of oil loadings immediately following the experiment as compared to loadings on adjacent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. H. Owens; C. R. Foget; W. Robson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title33-vol1-sec110-74b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Apollo <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-74b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla. Beginning at a point approximately 300 feet south of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JDE...256.3999I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Instability of edge waves along a sloping <span class="hlt">beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The stability of three-dimensional edge waves along a sloping <span class="hlt">beach</span> described in the Lagrangian framework is investigated by the theory of short-wavelength perturbations. We prove that the edge waves with the steepness parameter higher than 7/18 sin?, ? being the sloping angle of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, are unstable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ionescu-Kruse, Delia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB263401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Influencing Equilibrium of a Model Sand <span class="hlt">Beach</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characteristics of a two-dimensional model <span class="hlt">beach</span> subjected to wave action and with initial slope 1:60 were investigated. The hypothesis that the <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile reaches a repeatable equilibrium form was tested. It was found that the entire profile did not h...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. C. Smith J. B. Herbich T. W. Spence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=84925"> <span id="translatedtitle">WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA <span class="hlt">BEACHES</span>, 1999-2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A biological and inorganic assessment of five <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each <span class="hlt">beach</span> site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0347.photos.146640p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH <span class="hlt">BEACH</span>, ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH <span class="hlt">BEACH</span>, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH <span class="hlt">BEACH</span>. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=241934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> v2.2 User Guide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008112242"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> Sanitary Survey Great Lakes Pilot Project, 2007.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes the information provided by grantees that pilot tested a <span class="hlt">beach</span> sanitary survey tool for identifying sources of bacteria to Great Lakes <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in 2007. The purpose of the project was to improve the tool so that it could be used by b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED287913.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Howard <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard <span class="hlt">Beach</span> community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23460426"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> nematodes and environmental characteristics in two Brazilian sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both <span class="hlt">beaches</span> were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both <span class="hlt">beaches</span> were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered <span class="hlt">beaches</span> was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The density and structure of the nematode community at both <span class="hlt">beaches</span> clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation. PMID:23460426</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465163"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> dynamics and nest distribution of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) at Grande Riviere <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Trinidad & Tobago.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Grande Riviere <span class="hlt">Beach</span> in Trinidad and Tobago is an important nesting site in the Caribbean for the Critically Endangered leatherback sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. Community members were concerned that <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion and seasonal river flooding were destroying many of the nests deposited annually and thought that a hatchery was a possible solution. Over the 2001 turtle nesting season, the Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) assessed the spatial and temporal distribution of nests using the Global Positioning System recorded to reference points, and <span class="hlt">beach</span> dynamics using permanent bench mark profile stations, to determine areas of high risk and more stable areas for nesting. A total of 1449 leatherback nests were positioned. It was evident that at the start of the season in March, the majority of leatherback nests were deposited at the eastern section of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. After May, there was a continuing westward shift in nest distribution as the season progressed until August and <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion in the eastern section became predominant. The backshore remained relatively stable along the entire <span class="hlt">beach</span> throughout the nesting season, and erosion was predominant in the foreshore at the eastern section of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, from the middle to the end of the season. Similar trends in accretion and erosion were observed in 2000. River flooding did not occur during the study period or in the previous year. With both high risk and more stable regions for turtle nesting available at Grande Riviere <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, there was no compelling evidence to justify the need for a hatchery. PMID:17465163</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lum, Lori Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B13B..01P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside <span class="hlt">Beach</span>: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (May 13 and August 20), an urban public <span class="hlt">beach</span> on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal <span class="hlt">contaminant</span> concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001CSR....21..563L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic variability on megatidal <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, Normandy, France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several experiments aimed at characterising the hydrodynamics of megatidal <span class="hlt">beaches</span> outside the surf zone were carried out between 1990 and 1994 on the Cotentin coast of the Cherbourg Peninsula in Normandy. The database was established from the records of several electromagnetic current meters and pressure sensors and from field surveys. The mean spring tidal range on these <span class="hlt">beaches</span> varies between 9.3 and 11.4 m. The results show the prevalence of strong longshore currents, with velocities up to 0.5 m s -1, on the low- and mid-tidal <span class="hlt">beach</span> zones. Mostly oriented northward, these currents reflect both a progressive tidal wave and a strong longshore gradient in water level between the Channel Islands embayment and the English Channel. While varying largely during a typical tidal cycle, these longshore velocities are maximum at high tide, reflecting the progressive nature of the tides. This high-tide maximum velocity increases by a factor of 1.5 between the mean tide and mean spring tide, and between the mid- and low-tidal zones due to bed friction effects. Cross-shore velocities are generally weak (<0.1 m s -1), but sometimes stronger in smaller water depths. In the low-tidal zone, they are commonly oriented onshore at the beginning of the rising tide and offshore during the falling tide. This circulation results from a west-east cross-shore gradient in water level that is particularly important around the mean water level. Towards high tides, weak offshore steady flows were observed in the presence of waves. Site-specific relationships were defined in order to characterise the modulation of significant wave height by sea level fluctuations both on the shoreface and in the intertidal zone. The water depth variability during the tidal cycle induces fluctuations in the dissipation by bottom friction, resulting in wave height changes. The influence of tidal currents on the wave height proved to be very small in this context. The tidal fluctuations also influence the instantaneous near-bed currents induced by simultaneous action of non-breaking waves and the tides. During stormy conditions, wave-induced gravity orbital motions dominate the steady flows in the mid-tidal zone, outside the surf zone. At this location, the shallow water friction effect results in weak steady longshore currents, and low water depths explain strong orbital motions. The opposite conditions prevail in the low-tidal zone, where the steady tidal currents are stronger than gravity orbital velocities during a few hours around high tide. Outside this period, with the decrease in water depth and in steady current intensity due to friction effects, the tidal and gravity wave-induced currents have comparable intensities. In both the low- and mid-tidal zones, infragravity motions are weak outside the surf zone. The foregoing results show that outside the surf zone, these megatidal <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are characterised by wave-dominated mid-tidal zones and tide-dominated low-tidal zones during spring tides. We suggest the term "mixed wave-tide-dominated" for these <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with very large tidal ranges.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levoy, Franck; Monfort, Olivier; Larsonneur, Claude</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, SP, Brazil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The environmental <span class="hlt">contamination</span> by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such <span class="hlt">contamination</span> in saline soils of coastal <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. A study was performed on the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of <span class="hlt">contamination</span>, and the correlation between <span class="hlt">contamination</span> level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458) were <span class="hlt">contaminated</span>, 32.3% (148) of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds). The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%), Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%), Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%), coccid oocysts (13.5%), Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%), Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%), Strongyloides sp. (4.8%), several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%). It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall. PMID:22012454</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Floriano, Aline Petrollini; Teixeira, Lais Helena; Bassili, Bianca; Martinez, Araceles; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da; Caseiro, Marcos Montani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12810094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of sedimentary shores of the Galápagos Islands following the wreck of the Jessica.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediment samples were collected from sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> at a variety of sites in the southern Galápagos Archipelago to assess levels of hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">contamination</span> following the wreck of the oil tanker Jessica. Hydrocarbon levels in sediments were generally very low by international standards ranging between 0.4 and 48.9 ppm, with <span class="hlt">contamination</span> attributable to the Jessica only detected at three sites Santa Fe, Playa Estación (Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz) and Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (Isabela). There was evidence of residual hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">contamination</span> from sources other than the wreck of the Jessica. PMID:12810094</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kingston, P F; Runciman, D; McDougall, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3273013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between Quantitative PCR and Culture-Based Methods for Measuring Enterococcus spp. over Various Temporal Scales at Three California Marine <span class="hlt">Beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several studies have examined how fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements compare between quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the culture methods it is intended to replace. Here, we extend those studies by examining the stability of that relationship within a <span class="hlt">beach</span>, as affected by time of day and seasonal variations in source. Enterococcus spp. were quantified at three southern California <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in the morning and afternoon using two qPCR assays, membrane filtration, and defined-substrate testing. While qPCR and culture-based measurements were consistently and significantly correlated, strength of the correlation varied both among and within <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Correlations were higher in the morning (0.45 < ? < 0.74 [P < 0.002]) than in the afternoon (0.18 < ? < 0.45 [P < 0.021]) and higher when the fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> was concentrated (0.38 < ? < 0.83 [P < 0.001]) than when it was diffuse (0.19 < ? < 0.34 [P < 0.003]). The ratios of culture-based and qPCR results (CFU or most probable number [MPN] per calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]) also varied spatially and temporally. Ratios ranged between 0.04 and 0.85 CFU or MPN per CCE and were lowest at the <span class="hlt">beach</span> affected by diffuse pollution. Patterns in the ratios over the course of the day were dissimilar across <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, increasing with time at one <span class="hlt">beach</span> and decreasing at another. The spatial and temporal variability we observed indicate that the empirical relationship between culture-based and qPCR results is not universal, even within a <span class="hlt">beach</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffith, John F.; Noble, Rachel T.; Haugland, Richard A.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Weisberg, Stephen B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=211991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of exposures to fecally-<span class="hlt">contaminated</span> recreational water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure to fecally-<span class="hlt">contaminated</span> recreational waters can pose a health risk to swimmers and other recreators. Since 2003, we have interviewed nearly 27,000 respondents at seven <span class="hlt">beaches</span> impacted by treated sewage discharge. Information was collected about the duration and exposure...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=62998"> <span id="translatedtitle">TESTING A <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long <span class="hlt">beach</span> in Huntington <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California was closed in July and August. Due ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbcgov.com/erm/permitting/sea-turtles/pdf/rumbold_davis_perreta_2001_restecol.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Effect of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Nourishment on Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Sea Turtle) Nesting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Caretta caretta (loggerhead sea turtle) nesting activity was recorded daily during three seasons prior to and two seasons immediately following a <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourish- ment (replenishment) project in Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County, Florida. Surveys were done at the nourished <span class="hlt">beach</span> (Jupiter\\/Carlin) and at two natural <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (Juno and Tequesta). The size of the nourishment effect on nest- ing activity was estimated using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Rumbold; P. W. Davis; C. Perretta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-29/pdf/2010-24236.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 59966 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones <span class="hlt">Beach</span> State Park, Wantagh, NY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones <span class="hlt">Beach</span> State Park...Show at Jones <span class="hlt">Beach</span> State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Wantagh...aircraft over a specified area of the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones <span class="hlt">Beach</span> State...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nourishment practices on Australian sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in <span class="hlt">beach</span> area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of <span class="hlt">beach</span> managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and <span class="hlt">beach</span> scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak <span class="hlt">beach</span> use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRC..108.3101C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Test of self-organization in <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field observations of swash flow patterns and morphology change are consistent with the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps form by self-organization, wherein positive feedback between swash flow and developing morphology causes initial development of the pattern and negative feedback owing to circulation of flow within <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp bays causes pattern stabilization. The self-organization hypothesis is tested using measurements from three experiments on a barrier island <span class="hlt">beach</span> in North Carolina. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> cusps developed after the <span class="hlt">beach</span> was smoothed by a storm and after existing <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps were smoothed by a bulldozer. Swash front motions were recorded on video during daylight hours, and morphology was measured by surveying at 3-4 hour intervals. Three signatures of self-organization were observed in all experiments. First, time lags between swash front motions in <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp bays and horns increase with increasing relief, representing the effect of morphology on flow. Second, differential erosion between bays and horns initially increases with increasing time lag, representing the effect of flow on morphology change because positive feedback causes growth of <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps. Third, after initial growth, differential erosion decreases with increasing time lag, representing the onset of negative feedback that stabilizes <span class="hlt">beach</span> cusps. A numerical model based on self-organization, initialized with measured morphology and alongshore-uniform distributions of initial velocities and positions of the swash front at the beginning of a swash cycle, reproduces the measurements, except for parts of one experiment, where limited surveys and a significant low-frequency component to swash motions might have caused errors in model initialization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, T. K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730024604&hterms=humate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522humate%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kennedy Space Center ocean <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural <span class="hlt">beach</span> maintaining processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20059729"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet radiation protection by a <span class="hlt">beach</span> umbrella.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">beach</span> umbrella intercepts all direct UV irradiance, but only part of the diffuse component. Using a simple sky view factor model, we have determined the fraction of the hemispheric diffuse irradiance that is not intercepted by the umbrella. Assuming a sensor at the surface and close to the center of the umbrella, isotropic diffuse irradiance and for an umbrella of 80 cm radius and 100 cm high, our results show that approximately 34% of the incident horizontal irradiance is not intercepted by the umbrella. These results agree with irradiance measurements conducted with and without the umbrella. The model is next extended to examine receipt of UV radiation by a human figure in a vertical position, either standing or sitting. PMID:20059729</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Utrillas, María P; Martínez-Lozano, José A; Nuñez, Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..107...81G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical grooming and <span class="hlt">beach</span> award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> grooming and <span class="hlt">beach</span> award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit <span class="hlt">beached</span> wrack on sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a <span class="hlt">beach</span> award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Thus, <span class="hlt">beach</span> grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of <span class="hlt">beach</span> macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. It was also revealed that award <span class="hlt">beaches</span> were much more likely to be groomed than non-award <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, with 69% of award <span class="hlt">beaches</span> surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that <span class="hlt">beached</span> wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most <span class="hlt">beach</span> grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that <span class="hlt">beach</span> grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilburn, Andre S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA085802"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Evaluation of a <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Nourishment Project at Hallandale (Broward County) Florida. Volume II. Evaluation of Benthic Communities Adjacent to a Restored <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Hallandale (Broward County), Florida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Benthic communities adjacent to a restored <span class="hlt">beach</span> at Hallandale (Broward County), Florida were analyzed and compared to similar communities at nearby Golden <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (Dade County). Five sand stations and four reef stations were sampled at each locality along ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. A. Marsh, P. R. Bowen, D. R. Deis, D. B. Turbeville, W. R. Courtenay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-30/pdf/2010-32926.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 82382 - <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...coastal recreation waters, including the Great Lakes. EPA encourages coastal and Great Lakes states and tribes that have received <span class="hlt">BEACH</span>...defined in CWA section 502(21) to mean the Great Lakes and marine coastal waters (including...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB89108864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Stability of Rock Slopes and Gravel <span class="hlt">Beaches</span>,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">More than 150 tests have been analyzed in order to describe the dynamically stable profiles of rock slopes and gravel <span class="hlt">beaches</span> under wave attack. Relationships between profile parameters and boundary conditions have been established. These relationships ha...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. W. van der Meer K. W. Pilarczyk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DOESF01963T2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community Wind Electrical Power Case Study: Muir <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. Final Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Muir <span class="hlt">Beach</span> experiences relatively steady northwest coastal winds. Recordings at anemometer stations have indicated wind speeds averaging 10 to 12 mph over the year. This compares favorably with the minimum of 8 to 9 mph generally considered necessary for ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Bluhm R. Freebairn-Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/md0997.photos.082508p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">11. <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">11. <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/md0997.photos.082515p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">18. SAND <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">18. SAND <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937662"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Residual level and ecological risk assessment of OCPs and PCBs in sediments of <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> shellfish culturing areas in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province of East China].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">GC-ECD methods were adopted to determine the residual level of OCPs (including HCHs and DDTs) and PCBs in the surface sediments collected from <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> shellfish culturing areas in Ningbo, with the sources of the OCPs and PCBs analyzed and the ecological risks of the residual OCPs and PCBs evaluated. The residual level of OCPs was 0.80-32.40 ng X g(-1), and that of PCBs was 3.20-33.33 ng X g(-1). The HCHs mainly came from long distance atmospheric transportation and historical residues, while the DDTs had new input at some sites, possibly coming from the application of dicofol. At most sites, there existed potential ecological risks of p, p'-DDT and DDTs, with strong indications in Qiangtou and Xidian where the residual level of p, p'-DDT was higher than the effect rang median (ERM), suggesting an ecological menace to the benthos. The residual PCBs at most sites were in low level ecological risk. PMID:22937662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Yun-Hai; You, Zhong-Jie; Shentu, Ji-Kang; Zhong, Hui-Ying; Chai, Li-Yue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monoaromatic hydrocarbon transformation under anaerobic conditions at Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California: Laboratory studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anaerobic biotransformation of several aromatic hydrocarbons found in gasoline including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) was studied in batch anaerobic laboratory microcosms. Aquifer sediment and ground water were obtained from the site of a historic gasoline spill at Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California. Sulfate is present in the site ground water at 80 mg/L, and sulfate-reducing activity appears to be the dominant intrinsic BTEX bioremediation process where nitrate is absent. In the laboratory, the microcosms were set up with different electron acceptors (sulfate and nitrate) in site ground water and various defined anaerobic media to estimate intrinsic biodegradation rates and to suggest conditions under which anaerobic bioremediation could be enhanced. In unamended microcosms, anaerobic biotransformation of toluene and m + p-xylene occurred at a rate of 7.2 and 4.1 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively, with sulfate as the apparent electron acceptor. Addition of nitrate stimulated nitrate-reducing conditions and increased rates of toluene and m + p-xylene biotransformation to 30.1 and 5.4 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively. The catabolic substrate range was altered to include ethylbenzene in the nitrate-amended microcosms, suggesting an apparent preferential use of different BTEX compounds depending on the electron acceptor available. Under all the conditions studied, more than twice the amount of nitrate or sulfate was used than could be accounted for by the observed BTEX degradation. The results of these experiments indicate that indigenous microorganisms from the Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span> aquifer have significant capability to degrade BTEX hydrocarbons and that intrinsic processes in the Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span> aquifer may remediate a portion of the hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">contamination</span> in situ without intervention. However, the data also suggest that intervention by nitrate addition would enhance the rate and extent of anaerobic BTEX biotransformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Western Region Hazardous Substance Research Center</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.klokavskade.no/upload/publication/bahr_2003_ajsm_injuries%20among%20world-class%20professional%20beach%20volleyball%20players%20-%20the%20federation%20internationale%20de%20volleyball%20beach%20volleyball%20injury%20study.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Injuries Among World-Class Professional <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Volleyball PlayersThe Fédération Internationale de Volleyball <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Volleyball Injury Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Very little is known about the injury characteristics of <span class="hlt">beach</span> volleyball.Purpose: To describe the incidence and pattern of injuries among professional male and female <span class="hlt">beach</span> volleyball players.Study Design: Cohort study—retrospective injury recall and prospective registration.Methods: Injuries occurring over a 7.5-week interval of the summer season were retrospectively registered by interviewing 178 of the 188 participating players (95%) in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roald Bahr; Jonathan C. Reeser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP33B0773H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impacts of Back-<span class="hlt">Beach</span> Barriers on Sandy <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California <span class="hlt">beaches</span> each year. <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> that do not have back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict <span class="hlt">beaches</span> from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span> to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are restricted in the back <span class="hlt">beach</span>, to describe the effects of back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> barriers on sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphology, and to predict how these different <span class="hlt">beaches</span> might behave with future sea-level rise. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> barriers and unrestricted <span class="hlt">beaches</span> using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, <span class="hlt">beaches</span> without back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, given that no extensive artificial <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, unrestricted <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are 50-100% wider than adjacent <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with back-<span class="hlt">beach</span> barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back <span class="hlt">beach</span> is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harden, E. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027159&hterms=Becton+Dickinson&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522Becton%2BDickinson%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Back <span class="hlt">contamination</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discussion of the concept and implications of back <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and of the ways and means for its prevention. Back <span class="hlt">contamination</span> is defined as <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of the terrestrial biosphere with organisms or materials returned from outer space that are capable of potentially harmful terrestrial activity. Since the question of whether or not life exists on other planets may, in reality, not be answered until many samples are returned to earth for detailed study, requirements for the prevention of back <span class="hlt">contamination</span> are necessary. A review of methods of microbiologic <span class="hlt">contamination</span> control is followed by a discussion of the nature of back <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and its risk levels, <span class="hlt">contamination</span> sources and locations, and possible defenses against back <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. The U.S. lunar back <span class="hlt">contamination</span> program is described and shown to provide a valuable basis for further refining the technology for the control of planetary back <span class="hlt">contamination</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillips, G. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0851P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bed Level Fluctuations on a Dissipative <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A field study was conducted on a dissipative <span class="hlt">beach</span> at Perranporth, United Kingdom to quantify inner surf and swash-zone bed level change from time scales of individual swash/wave events to tidal cycles. Elevations were measured at millimeter resolution using a new conductivity concentration profiler that allowed quantification of the bed level throughout the duration of the wave/swash cycle and also during periods of bed exposure. Bed level changes were low-frequency-dominated. But individual event-scale net bed level changes exceeding the low frequency and tidal-scale net bed level change were also observed. Net bed level change for individual events was nearly normally distributed with most individual events displaying little or no net bed level change. 'Large' erosion and accretion events with bed level elevation magnitudes that exceeded net tidal elevation change occurred with similar frequency. The similarity between the frequency of 'large' erosion and accretion events suggests that a few events may be ultimately responsible for the observed net elevation change over the tidal cycle. The 'large' events displayed different hydrodynamic characteristics. Erosion events have longer duration onshore-directed flow and higher maximum onshore-directed velocity magnitude than offshore-directed velocity magnitude. The opposite was found for accretion events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puleo, J. A.; Lanckriet, T. M.; Blenkinsopp, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-03/pdf/2010-4378.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 9616 - FPL Energy Point <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, LLC; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...licensee) for operation of the Point <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Nuclear Plant, Units...and owner from ``FPL Energy Point <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, LLC.'' On January...i.e., fuel cladding, reactor coolant system pressure...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-11/pdf/2012-29802.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 73636 - Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-001] Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Inc.; Notice of Application...filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Hydroelectric Project. f....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-07/pdf/2013-18994.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 48155 - Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission; Intent To...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14345-001] Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Inc.; Notice of Application...filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Hydroelectric Project f....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: shifting paradigms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plastic pellets are worldwide <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0?m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruana B.; Dias, Rodolfo Jasao S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4435T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: shifting paradigms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plastic pellets are worldwide <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0 m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B.; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670631"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: shifting paradigms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plastic pellets are worldwide <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0?m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols. PMID:24670631</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S; Mahiques, Michel M; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..124...32A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sediment transport on dissipative, intermediate and reflective <span class="hlt">beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we review and synthesize field measurements of suspended sediment transport on the shoreface of dissipative, intermediate and reflective <span class="hlt">beach</span> states. The morphodynamic <span class="hlt">beach</span> state continuum was originally established in the 1970s but at the time, only hydrodynamic processes and morphologies in these various states were described. Since the early 1980s when sensors capable of resolving suspended sediment concentration at intra-wave time scale became available, many studies have examined suspended sediment transport by waves and currents on the shoreface. The synthesis of this work shows that the two end states in the morphodynamic continuum, which are the dissipative and reflective states, exhibit relatively small rates of cross-shore sediment transport and weak gradients in that transport which both ensure that the nearshore morphology is relatively stable. The intervening intermediate <span class="hlt">beach</span> states typically exhibit prominent bar topographies and in these states, strong morphodynamic feedbacks between hydrodynamic processes and morphology create locally large transport rates and sharp transport gradients which is the reason for the dynamic nature of these <span class="hlt">beach</span> states. Transport processes driving sediment onshore and offshore within <span class="hlt">beach</span> states are discussed as well as the transport processes responsible for state transitions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aagaard, Troels; Greenwood, Brian; Hughes, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/beaches/dosdonts.cfm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do's and Don'ts for Protecting Your Health and Your <span class="hlt">Beach</span>'s Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">Beach</span>'s Health Dos and Dont's for Protecting Your Health and Your <span class="hlt">Beach</span>'s Health You can do several things to keep yourself ... closed. Learn more about the risks to your health . Be sun safe Check the UV Index Use ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-23/pdf/2011-12376.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will consist of a series of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA032115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sampling Variation in Sandy <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Littoral and Nearshore Meiofauna and Macrofauna.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluates sampling procedures and statistical methos for analysis of the fauna assoicated with high-energy sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. A intensive, one-season sampling of selected physical attributes and fauna of a relatively undistrubed <span class="hlt">beach</span> site in centr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Cox</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD765397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bimodal Composition and Cyclic Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Sediment in Continuously Changing Profiles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the paper simultaneous samplings of both sediment and <span class="hlt">beach</span> profiles in a continuously changing ocean <span class="hlt">beach</span> are reported. Acquisition of these data was coordinated with observations of wind, wave, tide, longshore current, and swash. The site was locate...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Sonu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA046195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chigger (Acarina: Trombiculidae) Surveys of the West Coast <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> of Sabah and Sarawak.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub, a vector of scrub typhus, had previously been found to occur in the coastal vegetation behind the edge of open sand along the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of Peninsular Malaysia. Surveys of the west coast <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of Sabah and...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. L. Dohany O. W. Phang G. Rapmund</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-1155.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... false Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California...1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California...a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2169N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic influences of tidal fluctuations and <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes on benzene transport in unconfined, sandy costal aquifers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oil spills in oceans have led to severe environment and ecosystem problems due to high toxicity substances, large spatial extents, and long temporal durations. The BTEX compounds are key indexes generally used for identifications of such <span class="hlt">contamination</span> events and also for quantifications of residual substances after remediations. Benzene is one of the BTEX compounds, which is recognized to be high toxicity and may threat near-shore ecosystem and human safety. Therefore, the understanding of benzene transport in costal aquifers is critical for predictions of <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> zones and managements and organizations of remediation plans. In this study a numerical investigation was conducted to quantify the influence of tidal fluctuations and <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes on benzene transport in an unconfined coastal aquifer. More specifically, three different tidal amplitudes and three <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes were considered in the two-dimensional HYDROGEOCHEM model to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of the benzene transport. Simulation results show that tidal fluctuations will lead to shallow seawater circulations near the ground surface where the high tides can reach periodically. Such local circulation flows will trap benzene plume and the plume may migrate to the deeper aquifer, depending on the amplitudes of tides and the surface slopes of the coastal lines. The sine curve tides with 0.5 m amplitudes will create circulation plume sizes of about 50m in length and 20m in depth, while the circulation plume sizes for tides with 1.0 m amplitudes will significantly increase to approximately 150 m in length and 60 m in depth. Additionally, double the <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes and keep the same tidal amplitude will lead to 40 m plume movement toward the land. The amplitude of tidal fluctuation is the key factor to decide when and where a benzene plume reaches a largest depth. In general, the plume with tidal amplitude of 0.5 m requires 50 days to reach 90% of the largest depth. However, the plume with tidal amplitude of 1.0 m requires 300 days to reach 90% of the largest depth. Same conclusions can be applied to evaluate the duration times for a benzene plume self-clean, when the benzene source on ground surface is removed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ni, C.-F.; Wei, Y.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2771205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Load from Animal Feces at a Recreational <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this study was to quantify the microbial load (enterococci) contributed by the different animals that frequent a <span class="hlt">beach</span> site. The highest enterococci concentrations were observed in dog feces with average levels of 7.4 × 106 CFU/g; the next highest enterococci levels were observed in birds averaging 3.3 × 105 CFU/g. The lowest measured levels of enterococci were observed in material collected from shrimp fecal mounds (2.0 CFU/g). A comparison of the microbial loads showed that 1 dog fecal event was equivalent to 6,940 bird fecal events or 3.2 × 108 shrimp fecal mounds. Comparing animal contributions to previously published numbers for human bather shedding indicates that one adult human swimmer contributes approximately the same microbial load as one bird fecal event. Given the abundance of animals observed on the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, this study suggests that dogs are the largest contributing animal source of enterococci to the <span class="hlt">beach</span> site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wright, Mary E.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Elmir, Samir; Fleming, Lora E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5502826"> <span id="translatedtitle">External costs of coastal <span class="hlt">beach</span> pollution: an hedonic approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in <span class="hlt">beach</span> recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of <span class="hlt">beach</span> pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilman, E.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ECSS...56..459D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a morphodynamical continuum of macrotidal, low tide bar/rip and ultra-dissipative sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian <span class="hlt">beach</span> sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( ?) and the relative tidal range, the <span class="hlt">beach</span> sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative <span class="hlt">beach</span> type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip <span class="hlt">beach</span> type (LTBR). The resulting <span class="hlt">beach</span> state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the <span class="hlt">beach</span> profiles were related with the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per <span class="hlt">beach</span> site. The species composition was quite similar among <span class="hlt">beach</span> sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all <span class="hlt">beach</span> sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper <span class="hlt">beach</span>, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower <span class="hlt">beach</span> zone at LTBR <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper <span class="hlt">beach</span> of both UD and LTBR <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR <span class="hlt">beach</span> zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.groundwater.org/gi/sourcesofgwcontam.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater <span class="hlt">Contamination</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Groundwater Foundation's sources of ground water <span class="hlt">contamination</span> page discusses common <span class="hlt">contaminates</span>, how they get to ground water, sources of pollution along with cleanup and prevention practices. The site's focal point is a detailed map of <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> as they enter the water cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006681"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy <span class="hlt">beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four years of <span class="hlt">beach</span> elevation surveys at Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span> and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) <span class="hlt">beach</span> are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.4014Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy <span class="hlt">beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four years of <span class="hlt">beach</span> elevation surveys at Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span> and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre <span class="hlt">Beach</span> (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) <span class="hlt">beach</span> are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) <span class="hlt">beach</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615494B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu <span class="hlt">beach</span>, Sardinia (Italy)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu <span class="hlt">beach</span> (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped <span class="hlt">beach</span>, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-23/pdf/2011-21424.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 52596 - Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA; Public Meetings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation...establish Class C airspace at Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA. The purpose of these meetings is to provide...2640 N. Lakewood Blvd., Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA 90815, 562-597-4401. Comments:...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42618839"> <span id="translatedtitle">A haptic geography of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>: naked bodies, vision and touch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">beach</span> and the naked body are a casualty of the idealism that dominates social sciences. Despite the resurgence of work on embodiment, very few accounts have actually explored the centrality of the body on the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Drawing on ethnographic research on the island of Menorca (Spain), this article focuses on practices of nudity on the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Instead of giving</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pau Obrador-Pons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-01/pdf/2011-22354.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, AL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Alabama. This action is necessary...race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Alabama to occur from...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j331p44606464207.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on macrobenthic assemblages on sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, <span class="hlt">beach</span> recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other <span class="hlt">beach</span> user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas A. Schlacher; Darren Richardson; Ian McLean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fsbpa.com/06Proceedings/04-Charles%20W.%20Finkl%20%20Jeffrey%20L.%20Andrews%20and%20Lindino%20Benedet.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ASSESSMENT OF OFFSHORE SAND RESOURCES FOR <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> NOURISHMENT ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF FLORIDA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regional sand resource investigations along the west coast of Florida (from Pinellas County to Collier County) identify types of primary depositional settings that are commonly explored for <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment projects and indicate future availability of sand for <span class="hlt">beach</span> restoration. Because the nature of sedimentary deposits determines sand quality and its potential use for <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment, it is necessary to understand</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles W. Finkl; Jeffrey L. Andrews; Lindino Benedet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=81156"> <span id="translatedtitle">GREAT LAKES <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes <span class="hlt">beaches</span>? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in the Great Lak...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4838250"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphology along the sheltered coastline of Perth, Western Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seasonal change in <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphology is traditionally ascribed to a variation in the incident wave energy level with calm conditions in summer resulting in wide <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with pronounced subaerial berms and energetic conditions in winter causing narrow <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with nearshore bar morphology. The coastline of Perth, Western Australia, is characterised by a large seasonal variation in the incident wave height</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Masselink; C. B. Pattiaratchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-02/pdf/2013-28694.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 72022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, NC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon committee on behalf of the North Carolina...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon scheduled for Sunday, March 16,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-04/pdf/2012-31647.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 669 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, NC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon committee on behalf of the North Carolina...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon scheduled for Sunday, March 17,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-02/pdf/2012-2285.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 5184 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, NC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon. This deviation allows the bridge to...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon committee on behalf of the North Carolina...Quintiles Wrightsville <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Full and Half Marathon scheduled for Sunday, March 18,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40731980"> <span id="translatedtitle">Grain size distribution along the Msasani <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, north of Dar es Salaam Harbour</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> sediments collected from the tidal flat and <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope at the Msasani <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, about 15 km north of the Dar es Salaam Harbour, are used to (1) establish the grain size distribution pattern, (2) assess the effect of man-made and natural structures (rivers, creeks, sea wall and groynes) on the grain size distribution, and (3) assess whether sediments are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfred N. N. Muzuka; Yohana W. Shaghude</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-15/pdf/2013-03533.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast...Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida, to provide...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...delay in the effective date of this rule would be...Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-01/pdf/2013-10212.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Class E Airspace in the West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL area, as new Standard...SIAPs) have been developed at Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County Park Airport...operations within the West Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL airspace area. This...coordinates of the airport. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-20/pdf/2012-20348.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 50062 - Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Daytona <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida...host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Daytona <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL. In...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-03/pdf/2011-10662.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 24813 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida...boat races will be held in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>...safety zone. All waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5142328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times <span class="hlt">Beach</span> confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times <span class="hlt">Beach</span> confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> known to be in the dredged material placed at Times <span class="hlt">Beach</span> by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. <span class="hlt">Contaminant</span> concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular <span class="hlt">beach</span> complex of Lake Michigan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in <span class="hlt">beach</span> water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Using 24 <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential <span class="hlt">beach</span> or <span class="hlt">beach</span> group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for <span class="hlt">beach</span> groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2=0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative <span class="hlt">beach</span> monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some <span class="hlt">beaches</span> defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-<span class="hlt">beach</span>, and individual <span class="hlt">beach</span> predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. PMID:19875791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nevers, Meredith B; Shively, Dawn A; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; McDermott, Colleen M; Schuster, William; Chomeau, Vinni; Whitman, Richard L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS21E1229R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Mona Island, P.R.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sardinera <span class="hlt">beach</span> in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera <span class="hlt">Beach</span> have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent <span class="hlt">beach</span> profiles along Sardinera <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera <span class="hlt">Beach</span> sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, the Mona Shelf and adjacent <span class="hlt">beach</span>, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this <span class="hlt">beach</span> seems to be limited by natural (<span class="hlt">beach</span> rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April. Aerial images from the years 1977, 1992 and 2003 show 14 to 27 meters of recession along the coast line.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50343914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baker <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, San Francisco, California. Rip current-<span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp coupled system: waves, currents, sediments and tides self-organize to form a self-maintaining geometrical coastal geomorphology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report looks beyond waves and explores the probability that waves, currents, sediments and tides self-organize into a rip current-<span class="hlt">beach</span> cusp coupled system to create a <span class="hlt">beach</span> condition which endangers the lives of <span class="hlt">beach</span> bathers. The coastal geography of Baker <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is described, and information given on how, why, and where the greatest dangers occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francis James Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=220110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Modeling of Microbial Indicators at a South Carolina <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Public concerns about water quality at <span class="hlt">beaches</span> have prompted the development of multiple linear regression and other models that can be used to "nowcast" levels of bacterial indicators. Hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from summer, 2009 were used to develop empirical m...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED51D..03N"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Chemistry of Sand: Not All <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> Are Created Equal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In South Carolina, the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> can be a natural laboratory for scientific inquiry. By middle school most students have visited one of the state's <span class="hlt">beaches</span> through field trips or family vacations. These fun experiences can be a platform for scientific inquiry and investigation. Many students can describe a <span class="hlt">beach</span> where the sand was perfect for building sand castles, too sharp to walk on, or just right on a hot summer day. With a dissecting microscope and some weak acid, these observations can be turned into an engaging activity for students to explore the chemical and/or mineralogical make-up of the sand. This presentation will describe an experiment where students use a microscope to draw sand samples and identify some common grains. The students form hypotheses about the amount of carbonate in the samples and test these hypotheses using the weak acid. By the end of the lab students should be able to identify several indications that a chemical reaction has occurred and be able to form and test a hypothesis. They should also understand that sand from different <span class="hlt">beaches</span> may have different mineralogical compositions. This activity incorporates the following National Science Content Standards: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry; properties and changes of properties in matter; chemical reactions; and populations, resources, and environments. The activity was developed with the support of the National Science Foundation's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education Program, Award # 0440568.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newton, A. J.; Brooker, D.; Lyons, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22customer+AND+satisfaction%22&pg=6&id=EJ483407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parents as Valued Customers: The Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Parent Perception Survey.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1993, the teachers in Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> City (Virginia) Public Schools surveyed parents' views concerning classroom practices as part of a client satisfaction project. Intended to increase parent involvement, gauge customer satisfaction, and guarantee continuous improvement, the survey found that comments about teacher efforts were overwhelmingly…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faucette, Sidney L.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56380053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Documenting the global impacts of <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">For centuries, <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Young; A. Griffith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=EISCA731258DR"> <span id="translatedtitle">Los Angeles-Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Harbors, Los Angeles County, California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is proposed to deepen areas in the Los Angeles part of the Los Angeles-Long <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Harbors and use the fill to create new lands for terminals. The federal part of the proposed project involves the deepening of existing Federal project channels and turni...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61384075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expert system for computer interpretation of <span class="hlt">beach</span> and nearshore facies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A user-friendly, rule-based expert system has been designed for interpretation of lithofacies characteristics of <span class="hlt">beach</span> and nearshore depositional environments. Recently, similar expert systems have been widely applied in medicine, business, and mineral exploration. The expert system runs on a VAX 780 (trade name). By incorporating knowledge and understanding of an expert, the system can interact with a user the way</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. B. Krystinik; H. E. Clifton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0489.photos.195428p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">20. 8" PIPELINE ON <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">20. 8" PIPELINE ON <span class="hlt">BEACH</span> AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST TOWARD KALAWAO. NOTE GATE VALVE (LARGER) AND BLOW-OFF VALVE (SMALLER). PIPELINE GENERALLY AT 20' ABOVE SEA LEVEL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB88146063"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shetland <span class="hlt">Beached</span> Bird Survey, March 1986-February 1987,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of <span class="hlt">Beached</span> Bird Surveys in Shetland during the period March 1986 to February 1987 are reported. A greater distance was surveyed than in any of the previous 8 annual periods. The 240 corpses found oiled during the period was the highest proport...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Heubeck J. N. Dymond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/v085/iC06/JC085iC06p03264/JC085iC06p03264.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Statistical Prediction of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Changes in Southern California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">files and wave statistics from southern California constituted the data base for this two-faceted statistical study. First, daily <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile changes were predicted using four different spectral representations of the wave field. These profile changes were predictable using spectral representations of wave energy, radiation stress, energy flux, and wave steepness. Because of constraints on statistical reliability, a longer data set</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David G. Aubrey; Douglas L. Inman; Clinton D. Winant</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED048882.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Development Plan for the Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County Library System.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County Library System is evaluated for its program to date and for its existing public library resources in the County. Population trends are examined and a realistic program for the development of library services over a six-year period is recommended. The estimated costs for implementation of these recommendations are outlined in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA322357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amphibious Cargo <span class="hlt">Beaching</span> (ACB) Lighter Development - Phase I.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents a conceptual design effort for the Amphibious Cargo <span class="hlt">Beaching</span> (ACB) Lighter, a modular barge system which is being developed to replace the Navy Lighter (NL) pontoon causeway system. The ACB Lighter will be rapidly deployed from an au...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60140665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seychelles <span class="hlt">beach</span> tars, well oil tied to same source rock</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geochemical analyses of <span class="hlt">beach</span>-stranded tars from Seychelles can be correlated to comparable analyses of an oil sample from a well in the Seychelles offshore. The analyses also enable the precursor source rock to be characterized. Such a source rock was encountered in the three offshore wells and is extensively developed to the west and south of the granitic islands. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plummer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H33I..05N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbonate <span class="hlt">Beaches</span>: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbonate <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and <span class="hlt">beach</span> dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed <span class="hlt">beach</span> response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term <span class="hlt">beach</span> evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate <span class="hlt">beach</span> evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nairn, R.; Risk, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1680R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Variation of Surface Sediments in the Gochang <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Korea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Gochang <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations of surface sediment and sedimentary environment. The Gochang <span class="hlt">Beach</span> consists of the Dongho, Kwangseungri, Myeongsasipri <span class="hlt">beaches</span> from north to south. During the four seasons of spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November), and winter (February), surface sediments of 135 sites were sampled across nine survey lines (15 sites in each survey line), respectively. The pocket-type Dongho <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the summer. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during three seasons of spring, fall, and winter, whereas medium sands dominated in the northern part of the study area during the summer. These results suggest that a tide is more effective than a wave in the surface sediments of the Dongho <span class="hlt">Beach</span> during the summer. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri <span class="hlt">Beach</span> are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Mud facies partly exists in summer, whereas it is nearly absent in winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during spring, fall, and winter. In the northern part, the study area is dominated by fine sands during summer, whereas by coarse sands during winter. These results are interpreted that tide is more effective than wave on the surface sediment distribution of the Kwangseungri <span class="hlt">Beach</span> during summer season. The open-coast Myeongsasipri <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is mainly composed of fine to medium sand, the distribution of which shows a coast-parallel trend. Grain-size distribution shows a bi-modal trend in the summer and winter and a uni-mode in the spring and fall. Grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was dominated by medium sand, while the lower tidal flat was dominated by find sand. Such a feature is attributed to wave-dominated sedimentation in the winter. The dominant finer-grain size of the summer rather than that of the winter is interpreted that tidal energy played an important role in the tidal flat sedimentation during the summer. Sedimentary environments of the Myeongsasipri <span class="hlt">Beach</span> are suggestive of a seasonal change from wave-dominated conditions in the winter to tide-dominated conditions in the summer as a result of seasonal variations of the intensity of onshore-directed winds and waves. Keywords: seasonal variation, surface sediment, macro-tide, <span class="hlt">beach</span>, Gochang Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) through the project grant of Tracking and Prediction on Impacts of Ancient Extreme Climatic Events in the West and South Coastal Zone of Korea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol Ip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Geomo.101..558L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal cliff behaviour: Observations on the relationship between <span class="hlt">beach</span> levels and recession rates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beaches</span> dissipate wave energy and regulate the frequency that the cliff foot is subject to wave attack. The relationship between <span class="hlt">beach</span> levels and cliff recession rates has been established for Pleistocene soft rock cliffs along the North Norfolk and Suffolk coasts, UK. The results suggest that over a decadal timescale, there is a non-linear increase in the average recession rate as the <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile area above High Water Mark (HWM) decreases. Small changes in <span class="hlt">beach</span> level can result in significant differences in the recession rates. The impact of a unit change in <span class="hlt">beach</span> level on the recession rate depends on the initial <span class="hlt">beach</span> level. On a year-by-year basis, it is possible to divide the <span class="hlt">beach</span> level and recession relationship into a series of zones with characteristic types of behaviour. At low <span class="hlt">beach</span> levels there is high to extremely high recession with considerable variability, whereas at high <span class="hlt">beach</span> levels there is almost zero recession with limited variability. It is concluded that historical recession rates are the product of both the past forcing events and changes in cliff-<span class="hlt">beach</span> state. Extrapolation of historical rates can be extremely unreliable unless it is supported by an understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the cliff-<span class="hlt">beach</span> system and the energy inputs over the observation period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, E. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disentangling Diversity Patterns in Sandy <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> along Environmental Gradients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Species richness in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative importance that salinity and morphodynamic gradients have on macroscale diversity patterns in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barboza, Francisco R.; Gomez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/85661"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">contaminants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. <span class="hlt">Contaminants</span> suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> on herons. Unless otherwise noted, <span class="hlt">contaminant</span> concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Custer, T. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21984862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of erosion and accretion on the distribution of enterococci in <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Although recent work shows that <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is not known how deep within <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 1 m depth were collected at three sites across the <span class="hlt">beach</span> face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina before, during and after large waves from an offshore hurricane. The presence of DNA from the fecal indicator bacterium Enterococci was detected in subsamples at different depths within the cores by PCR amplification. Erosion and accretion of <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand at the three sites also was determined for each sampling day. The results indicate that ocean <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands with persisting enterococci signals could be exposed and redistributed when wind, waves, and currents cause <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion or accretion. PMID:21984862</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gast, Rebecca J; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..53..999W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pro-Environmental <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to <span class="hlt">Beach</span>-Dwelling Birds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vehicles on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., <span class="hlt">beach</span> closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pro-environmental <span class="hlt">beach</span> driving is uncommon and ineffective in reducing disturbance to <span class="hlt">beach</span>-dwelling birds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vehicles on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended (P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., <span class="hlt">beach</span> closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. PMID:24599507</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weston, Michael A; Schlacher, Thomas A; Lynn, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=76257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTAMINANT</span> REDISTRIBUTION CAN CONFOUND INTERPRETATION OF OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physical redistribution of oil between the inside and outside of experimental plots can affect the results of bioremediation field studies that are conducted on shorelines <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> by real oil spills. Because untreated oil from the surrounding <span class="hlt">beach</span> will enter the plot, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...72..138D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source discrimination of fine-grained deposits occurring on marine <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: The Calvados <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (eastern Bay of the Seine, France)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In tide-dominated systems, fine-grained deposits occur in intertidal areas of inner estuaries as loci of convergence of fluvial and marine material. Even in the vicinity of estuaries, mud deposits are rare on open sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. This study focuses on temporary occurrences of muddy sediments on marine <span class="hlt">beaches</span> along the Calvados coastline in Normandy, adjacent to the macrotidal Seine estuary (France). Clay mineralogy, major-minor-trace elements and radionuclides were used as particulate markers to determine the provenance of the mud deposits. The fine fraction, defined here as particles <50 ?m, was analysed, in surficial muddy sediments on seven <span class="hlt">beaches</span> between the Seine estuary and the Orne river mouth, sampled between February 2002 and June 2003. The deposits were compared to earlier Holocene relict deposits, which crop out on some <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and on the shoreface, and to Mesozoic marls and limestones, which have detached from the coastal cliffs. The use of the three types of particulate markers revealed no significant seasonal or geographical variations between the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The muddy deposits were made up of the same sedimentary pool of particles. The clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of these mud deposits enabled modern (i.e. present-day and earlier Holocene fine silts and clays) to be distinguished from ancient (i.e. Mesozoic) sediments. The use of radionuclides ( 60Co and 137Cs) confirmed the marine influence in the modern deposits, with a decreasing gradient along the Calvados <span class="hlt">beaches</span> towards the east. The presence of several specific major-minor-trace elements (e.g. Ti, P) revealed that some of the fine material originated in the Seine estuary. Despite the occurrence of easily erodable rocks (i.e. clays, marls and limestones) in the coastal cliffs, this source represented a limited supply, which is only of local significance. Small rivers, such as the Orne, Dives and Touques which discharge in the study area act as secondary suppliers of fine-grained material to this system. In spite of the exposed coastal setting where strong tidal currents and waves occur, the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> have become a distal part of the Seine estuarine system and form a temporary sink for strongly mixed fine material mainly of riverine (Seine River) and open marine (Bay of the Seine and the Central English Channel) origins. This is consistent with the infilling of the estuary, the reduction in accommodation space in its inner part, and the offshore shifting of the depocentre of the mud.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dubrulle, C.; Lesueur, P.; Boust, D.; Dugué, O.; Poupinet, N.; Lafite, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213468T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrodynamic forces over the <span class="hlt">beach</span> sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in <span class="hlt">beach</span> systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the <span class="hlt">beach</span> profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially <span class="hlt">beach</span> systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are <span class="hlt">beach</span>-dune, <span class="hlt">beach</span>-cliff and <span class="hlt">beach</span>-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access <span class="hlt">beach</span> hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three <span class="hlt">beach</span> systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, <span class="hlt">beach</span> face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run-up levels) and erosion potentials (i.e. volume budget and <span class="hlt">beach</span> planimetric dynamics).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22472787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of recreational health risks associated with surfing and swimming in dry weather and post-storm conditions at Southern California <span class="hlt">beaches</span> using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Southern California is an increasingly urbanized hotspot for surfing, thus it is of great interest to assess the human illness risks associated with this popular ocean recreational water sport from exposure to fecal bacteria <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> coastal waters. Quantitative microbial risk assessments were applied to eight popular Southern California <span class="hlt">beaches</span> using readily available enterococcus and fecal coliform data and dose-response models to compare health risks associated with surfing during dry weather and storm conditions. The results showed that the level of gastrointestinal illness risks from surfing post-storm events was elevated, with the probability of exceeding the US EPA health risk guideline up to 28% of the time. The surfing risk was also elevated in comparison with swimming at the same <span class="hlt">beach</span> due to ingestion of greater volume of water. The study suggests that refinement of dose-response model, improving monitoring practice and better surfer behavior surveillance will improve the risk estimation. PMID:22472787</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tseng, Linda Y; Jiang, Sunny C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..416C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> ridge sedimentology: field observation and palaeoenvironmental interpretation for Anegada Island, British Virgin Islands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> ridge landforms have been observed in different environments and in settings that range from polar to tropical. Their stratigraphy and sedimentology has received a limited amount of discussion in the literature (Tamura, 2012). In coastal geomorphology a <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge can be seen as a transitional deposit between onshore and offshore environments. They are regarded as representing high level wave action along a coastline. In the Caribbean the origin of <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges has been variously attributed to one of three extreme wave events: extreme swell, extreme storm or tsunami waves. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> ridges are arranged in <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge plains where there is succession of the landforms and can be several kilometres long. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> ridge accumulation is not continuous and the coast shows alternating accretion and erosion periods. The use of <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges as palaeostorm archives is therefore not straightforward. The temporal continuity of <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge formation is being assessed on the <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge plains of Anegada, British Virgin Islands (Lesser Antilles). This carbonate platform surrounded by a fringing reef contains two <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge plains. There are more than 30 ridges in the Atlantic facing- coast and around 10 in the south, Caribbean- facing coast. The sediments of the modern <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are dominated by the sand fraction and are 100% biogenic origin due to the isolation of Anegada from terrestrial sediment sources. The <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge sections have been studied in different area of Anegada <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge plains and present low angle seaward-dipping bedding. The sand fraction is dominant in the stratigraphy with a few intact shells. At only one site were coral pebbles deposited in association with the sand fraction. Aeolian deposits represent the upper part of the <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges and reflect the stabilization of the <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridges with ongoing accretion. The sedimentology of the contemporary <span class="hlt">beach</span> and dunes will be discussed in terms of their implications for understanding <span class="hlt">beach</span> ridge genesis and its relationship to extreme wave events. Tamura, T., 2012. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> ridges and prograded <span class="hlt">beach</span> deposits as palaeoenvironment records. Earth-Science Reviews, 114, pp. 279-297.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612845B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Storm recovery on two Italian coarse-grained <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: a comparison between a mixed sand and gravel and a pebble <span class="hlt">beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High energy events emphasize <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion processes, sometimes leading to huge volume deficits not balanced by recovery under fair-weather conditions. In this scenario, artificial replenishments are frequently used as a form of coastal protection with large volumes of sediments re-injected in the system without strongly altering the environment as it happens with hard structures. Since climate change is expected to accentuate in the near future erosion effects, the need to artificially feed <span class="hlt">beaches</span> is likely to increase. Gravel and pebbles are more and more often used as <span class="hlt">beach</span> fill, on some occasions replacing sandy sediments. That was the case for two <span class="hlt">beaches</span> located at either sides of the Italian Peninsula (Portonovo, Adriatic Sea; Marina di Pisa, Ligurian Sea), which constitute the study area of the present research. Portonovo is a 500 m-long mixed sand and gravel <span class="hlt">beach</span> with a significant pebble-sized content (about 40%), unloaded on the <span class="hlt">beach</span> during multiple replenishments. Marina di Pisa is an artificial, 180 m-long <span class="hlt">beach</span>, mainly composed of 40-to-90 mm pebbles; it was built in 2008 as a part of a larger protection scheme. Groins or headlands that prevent any sediment exchange with adjacent areas bound both <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Periodic topographic surveys were carried out to evaluate the response of these human-altered <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to high-energy events. The topographic surveys, undertaken with a DGPS-RTK instrument along cross-shore transects (from the landward end of the backshore to about 1.5 m depth seaward), were done following intense storm events occurred during the time period of the research. Transects were done out every 10 m along the entire length of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Prior to the first topographic survey, a sediment tracing experiment was set up as a form of control of the results provided by the geomorphologic analysis. Pebbles directly sampled from the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> were marked by means of the RFID technology and injected back all along the beachface. As expected, considerable <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile changes after the storms were identified, in particular at Portonovo (mixed <span class="hlt">beach</span>), where huge sediment volumes were displaced longshore according to the incident wave direction as opposed to Marina di Pisa (gravel dominated), where the main <span class="hlt">beach</span> changes developed along the cross-shore direction. In terms of resilience, results showed a better response of the Portonovo <span class="hlt">beach</span> rather than the Marina di Pisa <span class="hlt">beach</span>. The different response might be ascribed to the grain-size that constitutes the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>: no physical process can rework the pebbles at Marina di Pisa once they are moved during the storms towards the back-end of the backshore or seaward of the step, thus preventing any <span class="hlt">beach</span> recovery process to take place. Since the awareness on storm impacts is more critical than in the past, the understanding of <span class="hlt">beach</span> recovery to extreme events needs new insights to combine the preservation of natural <span class="hlt">beach</span> evolution as well as maintenance for end-users. That is particularly pressing on coarse-grained <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, where the need to predict storm impact and recovery is much more vital considering that finding suitable sediment to refill the <span class="hlt">beach</span> is never an easy task.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bertoni, Duccio; Grottoli, Edoardo; Ciavola, Paolo; Sarti, Giovanni; Pozzebon, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599478"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of bacterial communities in sands and water at <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with bacterial water quality violations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recreational water quality, as measured by culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), may be influenced by persistent populations of these bacteria in local sands or wrack, in addition to varied fecal inputs from human and/or animal sources. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to generate short sequence tags of the 16S hypervariable region ribosomal DNA from shallow water samples and from sand samples collected at the high tide line and at the intertidal water line at sites with and without FIB exceedance events. These data were used to examine the sand and water bacterial communities to assess the similarity between samples, and to determine the impact of water quality exceedance events on the community composition. Sequences belonging to a group of bacteria previously identified as alternative fecal indicators were also analyzed in relationship to water quality violation events. We found that sand and water samples hosted distinctly different overall bacterial communities, and there was greater similarity in the community composition between coastal water samples from two distant sites. The dissimilarity between high tide and intertidal sand bacterial communities, although more similar to each other than to water, corresponded to greater tidal range between the samples. Within the group of alternative fecal indicators greater similarity was observed within sand and water from the same site, likely reflecting the anthropogenic contribution at each <span class="hlt">beach</span>. This study supports the growing evidence that community-based molecular tools can be leveraged to identify the sources and potential impact of fecal pollution in the environment, and furthermore suggests that a more diverse bacterial community in <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand and water may reflect a less <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> site and better water quality. PMID:24599478</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halliday, Elizabeth; McLellan, Sandra L; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L; Gast, Rebecca J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3944938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Bacterial Communities in Sands and Water at <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> with Bacterial Water Quality Violations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recreational water quality, as measured by culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), may be influenced by persistent populations of these bacteria in local sands or wrack, in addition to varied fecal inputs from human and/or animal sources. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to generate short sequence tags of the 16S hypervariable region ribosomal DNA from shallow water samples and from sand samples collected at the high tide line and at the intertidal water line at sites with and without FIB exceedance events. These data were used to examine the sand and water bacterial communities to assess the similarity between samples, and to determine the impact of water quality exceedance events on the community composition. Sequences belonging to a group of bacteria previously identified as alternative fecal indicators were also analyzed in relationship to water quality violation events. We found that sand and water samples hosted distinctly different overall bacterial communities, and there was greater similarity in the community composition between coastal water samples from two distant sites. The dissimilarity between high tide and intertidal sand bacterial communities, although more similar to each other than to water, corresponded to greater tidal range between the samples. Within the group of alternative fecal indicators greater similarity was observed within sand and water from the same site, likely reflecting the anthropogenic contribution at each <span class="hlt">beach</span>. This study supports the growing evidence that community-based molecular tools can be leveraged to identify the sources and potential impact of fecal pollution in the environment, and furthermore suggests that a more diverse bacterial community in <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand and water may reflect a less <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> site and better water quality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halliday, Elizabeth; McLellan, Sandra L.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Gast, Rebecca J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/404500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more <span class="hlt">contamination</span> than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barakat, M.A.K.; Shimy, T.M.; Mostafa, Y.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module04/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater <span class="hlt">Contamination</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site by the Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum presents an interactive module that provides an introduction to groundwater quality issues. The information is presented as a series of slides with text, animations, quiz questions and interactive features. Topics include types of aquifers, groundwater movement, sources of <span class="hlt">contamination</span>, the concentration and dispersion of <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>, plumes and remediation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Babcock, Matthew; Mayer, Alex; Curriculum, Michigan E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781933531489.12"> <span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater <span class="hlt">Contamination</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This investigation consists of two parts, in which students first model the effects of groundwater <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and then track the flow of the <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. However, Part I does not have to be done in order to do Part II. This Teacher Information sectio</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal evolution of <span class="hlt">beach</span> waste and litter during the bathing season on the Catalan coast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> waste and litter composition and evolution on popular urban (located in the main nucleus of the municipality) and urbanized (located in residential areas outside the main nucleus) <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of the Costa Brava (Catalan coast) were assessed during the bathing season. Waste and litter production (amount and composition) were affected by urbanization and varied during the summer. Urban <span class="hlt">beaches</span> had higher densities of waste deposition and lower percentages of organic, domestic and other miscellaneous waste than urbanized <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Litter characteristics were also influenced by type of <span class="hlt">beach</span>, and varied during the season as a consequence of <span class="hlt">beach</span> use and cleaning practices, but not environmental factors. Urbanized <span class="hlt">beaches</span> obtained higher scores for aesthetic quality of sand than urban <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, and small-sized litter tended to accumulate during the season in the <span class="hlt">beach</span> of Lloret Centre. The most important problems are management of recyclable materials, litter left by users on the sand, and separation of sand from litter. In addition, current efficiency of mechanical cleaning is low, especially in the withdrawal of cigarette butts. These analyses highlight problems that should be addressed in future management of area <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. PMID:18243682</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ariza, Eduard; Jiménez, José A; Sardá, Rafael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.199..106D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global patterns in sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global patterns in species richness in sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>: in gentle slope <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope <span class="hlt">beaches</span> it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in <span class="hlt">beach</span> macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative <span class="hlt">beaches</span> harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary production, in deciphering latitudinal trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641326"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying sources of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> inexpensively with targeted sampling and bacterial source tracking.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most bacterial source tracking (BST) methods are too expensive for most communities to afford. We developed targeted sampling as a prelude to BST to reduce these costs. We combined targeted sampling with three inexpensive BST methods, Enterococcus speciation, detection of the esp gene, and fluorometry, to confirm the sources of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> to <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on Georgia's Jekyll and Sea Islands during calm and stormy weather conditions. For Jekyll Island, the most likely source of <span class="hlt">contamination</span> was bird feces because the percentage of Ent. faecalis was high (30%) and the esp gene was not detected. For the Sea Island <span class="hlt">beach</span> during calm conditions, the most likely sources of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> were leaking sewer lines and wildlife feces. The leaking sewer lines were confirmed with fluorometry and detection of the esp gene. For the Sea Island <span class="hlt">beach</span> during stormflow conditions, the most likely sources of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> were wildlife feces and runoff discharging from two county-maintained pipes. For the pipes, the most likely source of <span class="hlt">contamination</span> was bird feces because the percentage of Ent. faecalis was high (30%) and the esp gene was not detected. Sediments were also a reservoir of fecal enterococci for both Jekyll and Sea Islands. Combining targeted sampling with two or more BST methods identified sources of fecal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> quickly, easily, and inexpensively. This combination was the first time targeted sampling was conducted during stormy conditions, and the first time targeted sampling was combined with enterococcal speciation, detection of the esp gene, and fluorometry. PMID:16641326</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McDonald, Jennifer L; Hartel, Peter G; Gentit, Lisa C; Belcher, Carolyn N; Gates, Keith W; Rodgers, Karen; Fisher, Jared A; Smith, Katy A; Payne, Karen A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2495642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">contaminants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed the <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of flour with an epoxy resin hardener; organic mercury poisoning in an Arab country involved more than 6000 people who had eaten bread made from grain treated with a methyl mercury fungicide. The hazard which may arise from heavy metal accumulation in the body is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazantzis, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40926(239)133"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">beach</span>/cliff system dynamics along the california coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coast of California is comprised of both sandy shorelines and cliffed coastline, and in many areas these features spatially coincide. In order to better understand the regional trends of change along the California coast, the U.S. Geological Survey is quantifying both sandy shoreline change and coastal cliff retreat for the state. The resulting database was used to examine the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>/cliff system. We found inconsistent evidence of a relationship between rates of cliff retreat and shoreline change on the spatial scale of 100-km cells. However, when the data are correlated within individual regions, a strong relationship exists between the geomorphology of the coast and the behavior of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>/cliff system. Areas of high-relief coast show negative correlations, indicating that higher rates of cliff retreat correlate with lower rates of shoreline erosion. In contrast, low- to moderate-relief coasts show strong positive correlations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hapke, C. J.; Reid, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ECSS...58...41H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shorebird use of an exposed sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> in southern California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of <span class="hlt">beach</span> in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span>. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of <span class="hlt">beach</span> habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October to minima of 0.8-2.1 and 2-8 species km -1, respectively, during June. In contrast, species turnover was lowest (1.1-1.7) in October and November, and generally highest (2-4) during early summer (June). The amount of sandy intertidal habitat available to shorebirds on the transect was estimated using sand elevations and predicted tide heights. In the fall and winter, the abundance of shorebirds was significantly and positively correlated with tide height, possibly reflecting feeding opportunities and high tide refuge effects during the highest tides. In the spring when sand levels were low, the abundance of shorebirds was negatively correlated with tide height. Prey availability, <span class="hlt">beach</span> condition and the local availability, and condition of alternative foraging habitats may influence those relationships. Interannual variations in shorebird use and <span class="hlt">beach</span> condition were observed in the course of the study. During an El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event (1997-1998), the extent of sandy habitat was greatly reduced and intertidal habitat was mostly converted to rocky substrate. The overall abundance of shorebirds and the mean abundance of some common species (e.g. sanderling) were depressed, and an uncommon species (surfbird, A. virgata) was unusually abundant during the ENSO event. In summary, the results suggest that sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are important habitat for many species of shorebirds, particularly in areas where alternative coastal foraging habitats, such as coastal wetlands, have become scarce. Understanding the dynamics of and threats to exposed sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> may be increasingly important for shorebird conservation in many coastal regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111593Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Documenting the global impacts of <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For centuries, <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of <span class="hlt">beach</span> (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of <span class="hlt">beach</span> have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand mining include: destruction of natural <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a significant rise in global sea level over the coming decades. Most governments recognize the local impacts of sand mining and mining activities are illegal in many localities. However, enforcement of these protections has been problematic and there has been little pressure to stop the practice from local or international environmental groups. In many cases, addressing the issue of sand mining requires addressing the local issues that allow it to persist. This includes poverty, corruption, and unregulated development. In areas where <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand mining significantly supports the local economy, care needs to be given that local workers are given alternative means of income, and builders are provided an affordable substitute for the sand (e.g. crushed rock). Regardless, it is time for both academics and NGOs to address the cumulative environmental impacts of the direct destruction of the world's <span class="hlt">beaches</span> through mining activities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, R.; Griffith, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53127795"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> protection by a system of permeable groins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new type of permeable groin (called System of Groins Maltec-Savard - SGMS) has been installed at three eroded sites located in the coastal area on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. In this area, the narrow sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with sandy or sand-silty cliff of variable height (10-15~m) are exposed to obliquely incident waves arriving from both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Boczar-Karakiewicz; W. Romanczyk; N. Roy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36154970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carl Graham Fisher Mr. Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span> and much more</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carl Graham Fisher, an Indiana native, was the man who—among other accomplishments—conceived and built Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Montauk Manor (on Long Island), the Indianapolis Speedway, and the country-crossing Lincoln and Dixie highways (which foreshadowed today's interstate highway system). Born into poverty, Fisher left home at age 12 to support his family. He made a name for himself in bicycle endurance racing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stanley Turkel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhFl...17d8103M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Edge capillary-gravity waves on a sloping <span class="hlt">beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown how the solution for velocity potential may be determined when the effect of surface tension is included in the linearized theory of Ursell-type edge waves over a plane-sloping <span class="hlt">beach</span>. The problem is examined without making a hydrostatic assumption. Explicit solutions for edge capillary-gravity waves are given and the dispersion equation is obtained. The influence of capillarity on gravity waves is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muzylev, Sergey V.; Bulgakov, Sergey N.; Duran-Matute, Matias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/514hl7u62557q57r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring bathing <span class="hlt">beach</span> water quality using composite sampling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Michigan water quality standards for public bathing <span class="hlt">beaches</span> require local health departments to collect and analyze a minimum\\u000a of three water samples for Escherichia coli during each sampling event. The geometric mean number of E. coli colonies is then compared to the 300 colonies per 100 ml standard to determine compliance. This article compares the results\\u000a of the currently mandated procedure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey D. Reicherts; Charles William Emerson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31A1701W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Economics of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Nourishment Decisions in Response to Coastal Erosion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beaches</span> are constantly moving and changing. The dynamic transformations of <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are mostly the result of the erosion of sand, which can occur through movements alongshore caused by waves, movements off-shore due to storms, or submersion due to sea-level rise. Predicted climate change impacts include potential changes in storminess and accelerated sea-level rise, which will lead to increased coastal erosion. At the same time, the number of people residing in coastal communities is increasing. The risks from eroding <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (increased coastal flooding, damage to infrastructure, and displaced residents) are therefore increasing in number and scale; and coastal residents are taking actions to protect their homes. One such action is <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment, where sand is added to a resident's property in order to widen the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. We have developed an economic model of <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment decision-making to investigate the relationship between the optimal volume and timing of <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment and factors such as property value, erosion rate, and initial <span class="hlt">beach</span> width. In this model, waterfront property owners nourish a <span class="hlt">beach</span> when the losses in net rental income exceed the costs incurred from nourishing the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. (Rental income is a function of property value, which in turn depends upon the width of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>.) It is assumed that erosion and sea-level rise are related. We examine different nourishment scenarios, including one-time nourishment in the first year; constant annual nourishment; and a myopic decision process in which the homeowner nourishes the <span class="hlt">beach</span> if property losses from erosion over the next five years are expected to exceed the cost of nourishment. One-time nourishment delays property flooding for both constant and accelerating sea level rise; however, this delay is more substantial under constant sea level rise. With continual nourishment, the <span class="hlt">beach</span> can be maintained under constant sea-level rise, provided that the erosion rate is comparable to the additional width from nourishment each year. In contrast, for practical nourishment volumes, erosion from accelerating sea-level rise eventually out-competes <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment and inundation occurs. Under the myopic decision-making model, with both constant and accelerating sea-level rise, nourishment does not take place until a property is critically endangered. The <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope, nourishment volume, property value, and initial <span class="hlt">beach</span> width all are found to be important factors in determining when nourishment should start and how frequently it should occur thereafter. These models can be used by policy-makers to formulate better coastal management policies, by coastal geologists to understand human impacts on <span class="hlt">beach</span> dynamics, and by the insurance industry to realistically anticipate human risk-taking and decision-making.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ware, M.; Ashton, A. D.; Hoagland, P.; Jin, D.; Kite-Powell, H.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.G33D..02R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> Recovery Rates Derived From Airborne LIDAR Following Hurricane Ivan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hurricanes are a major source for erosion and damage along the southeastern US coastline. This study uses airborne LIDAR data to quantify shoreline change due to Hurricane Ivan. Hurricane Ivan made landfall on the Alabama gulf coast in September, 2004 with maximum sustained winds of 58 m/s. Five separate LIDAR data sets of barrier <span class="hlt">beaches</span> situated in the front right quadrant of the hurricane were collected during a six month period before and after landfall allowing an excellent timeline for analyzing change in shoreline position. Shorelines were extracted and incremental shoreline position differences were quantified for a 30 km portion of Panama City <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida. Preliminary results show alternating trends in shoreline change. The hurricane caused an initial average shoreline retreat of more than 16 m relative to pre-storm positions. Within three weeks this shoreline position recovered or moved seaward by 10 m. However, during the 2 month interval between October and December, 2004, the shoreline again retreated 5 m. This 5 m of shoreline retreat in the two months following the initial recovery could be attributed to the <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile transition from summer to winter, and will have to be researched further.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, W.; Zhang, K.; Whitman, D.; Leatherman, S. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial load from animal feces at a recreational <span class="hlt">beach</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this study was to quantify the microbial load (enterococci) contributed by the different animals that frequent a <span class="hlt">beach</span> site. The highest enterococci concentrations were observed in dog feces with average levels of 3.9 x 10(7) CFU/g; the next highest enterococci levels were observed in birds averaging 3.3 x 10(5)CFU/g. The lowest measured levels of enterococci were observed in material collected from shrimp fecal mounds (2.0 CFU/g). A comparison of the microbial loads showed that 1 dog fecal event was equivalent to 6940 bird fecal events or 3.2 x 10(8) shrimp fecal mounds. Comparing animal contributions to previously published numbers for human bather shedding indicates that one adult human swimmer contributes approximately the same microbial load as one bird fecal event. Given the abundance of animals observed on the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, this study suggests that dogs are the largest contributing animal source of enterococci to the <span class="hlt">beach</span> site. PMID:19664785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wright, Mary E; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Elmir, Samir; Fleming, Lora E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geosociety.org/educate/LessonPlans/Groundwater_Contamination.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater <span class="hlt">Contamination</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson addresses groundwater <span class="hlt">contamination</span> from leakage of underground gasoline, oil, or other hazardous chemical tanks. Students read two short articles and investigate causes, effects, solutions, and prevention measures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mclelland, Christine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=47995"> <span id="translatedtitle">ORGANIC <span class="hlt">CONTAMINANTS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organic pollutants may constitute the most widespread waste loadings into the waters of Lake Superior. There are essentially three categories of organic <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>. The first grouping consists of those organic compounds that readily degrade biologically or chemically. The secon...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030001793&hterms=Static+Electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522Static%2BElectricity%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Contamination</span> Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of sterile injectable drugs. <span class="hlt">Contamination</span> was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24768173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several <span class="hlt">beaches</span> along the northern Chilean coast. <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments. PMID:24768173</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/80-60/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a cavity-riddled zone of the shallow aquifer near Riviera <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County, Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shallow aquifer near Riviera <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County, Fla., contains a cavity-riddled zone extending north and south about 5 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean. The zone lies at approximately 60 feet below land surface and varies from 15 to 50 feet in thickness. It is approximately 3 miles in width. Aquifer material is calcareous quartz sand-stone in the cavity zone, whereas the remainder of the consolidated aquifer material is primarily limestone. The zone is overlain by several thin clay beds which provide varying degrees of confinement. The transmissivity of the cavity-riddled zone of the aquifer in the area of investigation is approximately 11,000 square feet per day. Preliminary evaluation indicates that large volumes of water of suitable quality for public supply can be developed from the zone, except in an area adjacent to a landfill where leachate has adversely affected water quality. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fischer, John North, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://va.water.usgs.gov/online_pubs/WRIR/01-4262/wrir_01-4262.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conceptual hydrogeologic framework of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hydrogeologic framework of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> was revised to provide a better understanding of the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential use, and its susceptibility to <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. The revised conceptual framework is based primarily on analyses of continuous cores and downhole geophysical logs collected at 7 sites to depths of approximately 200 ft.The shallow aquifer system at Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is composed of the Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown-East-over aquifer. The shallow aquifer system is separated from deeper units by the continuous St. Marys confining unit.The Columbia aquifer is defined as the predominantly sandy surficial deposits above the Yorktown confining unit. The Yorktown confining unit is composed of a series of very fine sandy to silty clay units of various colors at or near the top of the Yorktown Formation. The Yorktown confining unit varies in thickness and in composition, but on a regional scale is a leaky confining unit. The Yorktown-Eastover aquifer is defined as the predominantly sandy deposits of the Yorktown Formation and the upper part of the Eastover Formation above the confining clays of the St. Marys Formation. The limited areal extent of highly permeable deposits containing freshwater in the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer precludes the installation of highly productive freshwater wells over most of the city. Some deposits of biofragmental sand or shell hashes in the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer can support high-capacity wells.A water sample was collected from each of 10 wells installed at 5 of the 7 core sites to determine the basic chemistry of the aquifer system. One shallow well and one deep well was installed at each site. Concentrations of chloride were higher in the water from the deeper well at each site. Concentrations of dissolved iron in all of the water samples were higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Concentrations of manganese and chloride were higher than the Secondary Drinking Water Regulations in samples from some wells.In the humid climate of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, the periodic recharge of freshwater through the sand units of the shallow aquifer system occurs often enough to create a dynamic equilibrium whereby freshwater flows continually down and away from the center of the ridges to mix with and sweep brackish water and saltwater back toward the tidal rivers, bays, salt marshes, and the Atlantic Ocean.The aquifers and confining units of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span> are heterogeneous, discontinuous, and without exact marker beds, which makes correlations in the study area difficult. Investigations using well cuttings, spot cores, or split-spoon samples with geophysical logs are not as definitive as continuous cores for determining or correlating hydrogeologic units. Future investigations of the shallow aquifer system would benefit by collecting continuous cores.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Barry S.; Harlow, George E., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14...43O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Hydrodynamics of a Breached Barrier <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identifying key drivers of extreme erosion can be relatively straight forward. Severe flooding, large storms and even human interaction have all been responsible for drastically altering the coastline over short time periods. However when events such as barrier breaching occur with no obvious contributory factors, a deeper understanding of the underlying coastal processes is required. Ideally conclusions on morphological drivers should be drawn from field data collection and remote sensing over a long period of time, i.e. decades. Unfortunately when the barrier <span class="hlt">beach</span> at Rossbeigh, County Kerry, Ireland, started to erode rapidly in the early 2000's there was no such data collection conducted. By 2008 approximately 1.5million m3 of sand had been eroded and during the winter period of that year the dune breached, resulting in the formation of a barrier island and a new tidal inlet. The initial breach length was 500m but it continued to expand to 750m and then stabilised. A research project has been ongoing at the Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre of University College Cork since the breaching event. Assessing the threat breaching presents to local infrastructure, housing and industry is part of this research brief. Topographical surveys, sediment sampling, satellite imagery analysis and numerical modelling have previously been conducted to gain an insight into the morphodynamics of Rossbeigh. An initial analysis of the breaching suggested that erosion had slowed and regeneration of the dune was occurring; however further monitoring indicated that as the breach was stabilising other areas of the barrier <span class="hlt">beach</span> were experiencing increased erosion. As a result of this a field monitoring campaign consisting of wave and tidal data collection was undertaken in the summer of 2011 to gain a clearer understanding of the hydrodynamic processes influencing the erosion patterns. Wave gauges were deployed along the <span class="hlt">beach</span> at low water and also 4km offshore. Tidal currents were also measured in the breach area, alongshore of Rossbeigh <span class="hlt">beach</span> and in the vicinity of the newly formed island. The findings provide a new insight into the active processes. The magnitude of tidal currents, directionality of incident waves at high tide and presence of low frequency infragravity waves along Rossbeigh are significant findings that influence the morphology. As a result of this work existing numerical and predictive models require updating to accurately model the morphology of the barrier <span class="hlt">beach</span> and identify future threats to the local coastline.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Shea, M.; Murphy, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996QSRv...15..833I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pleistocene and holocene <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and estuaries along the Southern Barrier of Buenos Aires, Argentina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Buenos Aires aggradation plain has a good record of Quaternary sea-level fluctuations. To the east of the Tandilia Range, the elevations of the Pleistocene <span class="hlt">beaches</span> respond to the tectonic behaviour of the Salado Basin. Holocene <span class="hlt">beaches</span> indicate a maximum transgression higher than 2 m. The low relief permitted an extended horizontal record of <span class="hlt">beach</span>/chenier plains interfingered with estuarine environments (coastal lagoons, marshes) covered by a sandy (Eastern) barrier. Between the Tandilia and Ventania ranges, the location of Pleistocene and Holocene <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are related to a former higher relief; i.e. they are attached to low-altitude cliffs and underneath cliff-top dunes composing the Southern Barrier. At Claromecó, Pleistocene gravel <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, mostly composed of caliche pebbles, occur at heights between 4 and 7 m, and are overlying estuarine Pleistocene environments. <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> of the same age are at a level of 10 m at Mar del Plata Harbour and Arroyo Sotelo (west of Mar Chiquita Lagoon). Holocene <span class="hlt">beaches</span> found at Punta Mogotes and Costa Bonita are at higher altitudes than on the Eastern Barrier (ca. 2-4 m). The Holocene estuarine sequences are related laterally to present operating inlets (Las Brusquitas, La Ballenera, Quequén Grande, Claromecó, Quequén Salado). They are seldon thicker than 2.4 m, and comprise basal layers of black muds; towards the top, the layers are thinner, of coarser grain size and white colours. Grain-size analyses were performed comparatively on Pleistocene, mid-Holocene and present <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Sangamonian <span class="hlt">beaches</span> aregravelly or coarser than medium sand (mean). Holocene <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are usually coarser than medium sand, but dominantly shelly to the north of Mar del Plata, and composed of volcanic clasts to the south of this city. Modern <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are dominated by fine sand, except at some erosive <span class="hlt">beaches</span> between the Mar del Plata capes. They have a lesser content of shells than those of mid-Holocene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Isla, Federico I.; Cortizo, Luis C.; Schnack, Enrique J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1847&hterms=cocoa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcocoa"> <span id="translatedtitle">STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to spectators from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1845&hterms=cocoa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcocoa"> <span id="translatedtitle">STS-95 Payload Specialist Mukai participates in a parade in Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STS-95 Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai is perched on the back of a red 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1846&hterms=crowd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcrowd"> <span id="translatedtitle">STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a parade in Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. waves to a dense crowd of well-wishers from the back of a silver 1999 C-5 Corvette convertible during a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1844&hterms=crowd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcrowd"> <span id="translatedtitle">The STS-95 crew participates in a parade in Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (in front), along with the other crew members behind him, waves to the crowd as he leads a parade of 1999 C-5 Corvette convertibles down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. Organizers of the parade include the Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS21B1745B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">beach</span> grain size and bed slope on nearshore hydro- and morpho-dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two major parameters that determine the <span class="hlt">beach</span> type are sediment grain size and <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope. Intermediate <span class="hlt">beaches</span> normally have steep slopes and are associated with coarse-grained sands and narrow surf zones, while dissipative <span class="hlt">beaches</span> generally have mild slopes and are related to fine sands and wider surf zones. In the numerical experiments, the Delft3D and Xbeach models were combined and used to resolve the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow and the <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphology. The sediment transport module supports both bed-load and suspended load transport of non-cohesive sediments. Numerical simulations were run for different hydrodynamic conditions, but with a focus on different <span class="hlt">beach</span> slopes and grain sizes, and considering hydrodynamic processes, sediment transport in cross- and alongshore directions, as well as foreshore bathymetry changes. Coarsening of the grain size tends to generate a more complex nearshore hydrodynamic pattern. The transformation of incoming waves as they reach shallow water occurs closer the shoreline for steeper profiles. Consistently, the peaks in eddy viscosity, turbulence dissipation rate (TDR), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and wave set-up are shifted onshore for steeper slopes. High values of eddy viscosity, TKE and wave set-up are spread offshore for coarser grain sizes. The TDR is an order of magnitude smaller for the coarsest grains compared with other cases. The numerical results showed that TKE, sediment concentrations and sediment transport rate are greater on steep <span class="hlt">beach</span> than on mild slope <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphology exhibits different erosive characteristics depending on grain size (e.g., foreshore profile evolutions are erosive and accretionary on the fine and coarse sand <span class="hlt">beaches</span>; respectively). The results confirmed that wave energy, <span class="hlt">beach</span> grain size and bed slope are the main factors influencing sediment transport and <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphodynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bakhtyar, R.; Dastgheib, A.; Barry, D. A.; Roelvink, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Southern California, USA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with a history of <span class="hlt">beach</span> closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny <span class="hlt">Beach</span> were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon <span class="hlt">Beach</span> were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) <span class="hlt">Beaches</span>. Human viruses were present at both <span class="hlt">beaches</span> at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring. PMID:24642440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013400"> <span id="translatedtitle">RECOVERY OF MONTEREY BAY <span class="hlt">BEACHES</span> AFTER THE WINTER STORMS OF 1982-83.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The El Nino conditions of 1982 and 1983 produced unusually frequent and intense storms along the central California coast. These storms produced much greater than normal <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion in Monterey Bay, causing extensive damage to coastal structures, erosion of coastal cliffs, and loss of sand from coastal dunes. The <span class="hlt">beaches</span> accreted during the summer of 1983 and eroded again the next winter. Every <span class="hlt">beach</span>, however, showed its own pattern of rebuilding; the eigenfunction analysis showed that the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> did not all reach either their maximum or minimum volumes at the same time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dingler, John, R.; Anima, Roberto, J.; Clifton, H. Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metals in marine environment (mollusc Patella sp., fish Labrus bergylta, crustacean Cancer pagurus, <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand) in a nuclear area, the North Cotentin (France).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of <span class="hlt">contamination</span> by industrial sites. PMID:19452254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Connan, Olivier; Tack, Karine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920001421&hterms=xdata&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dxdata"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Contamination</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> optical surfaces in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) is measured. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular <span class="hlt">contaminants</span>. The measurements are taken using non-coherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the Krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 A. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions) experiment is described and details of the ongoing program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, R. Barry; Herren, Kenneth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/May2012/Feature2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Summer Swimtime: Staying Healthy at the Pool and <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the water. But recreational waters—including swimming pools, lakes and oceans—can sometimes get <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> with bacteria ... in your summer plans. Natural water sources, including lakes, rivers and oceans, often get <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> from storm ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11C1518Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the Relationship Between Physical Environmental Parameters and <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Water Quality in a Subtropical Setting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fecal Indicator Bacteria(FIB) are found in high concentrations in sewage water, and thus are used to indicate whether there is fecal material related pathogen present and to determine whether a <span class="hlt">beach</span> is safe for recreational use. Studies have shown, however, in subtropical regions, FIB concentrations above EPA standards may be present in the absence of known point sources of human or animal waste, thus reducing the efficacy of FIB <span class="hlt">beach</span> monitoring programs. An interdisciplinary study is being conducted in Miami, Florida , the goal is to understand the sources and behavior of FIB on a <span class="hlt">beach</span> without point source loads and also to improve <span class="hlt">beach</span> health hazard warnings in subtropical regions. This study, examines relationship between enterococci (EPA recommended FIB for use in marine water) and physical environmental parameters such as rain, tide and wind. FIB data employed include Florida Department of Health weekly <span class="hlt">beach</span> monitoring enterococci (ENT) data during a five year period and a two-day experiment with hourly sampling at Hobie Cat <span class="hlt">Beach</span> on Virginia Key in the Miami metropolitan area. The environmental data consist of wind from a nearby CMAN tower, and local rain and tide. The analysis also includes data from nearby <span class="hlt">beaches</span> monitored by the Health Department. Results show the correlation coefficient between ENT and tide at Hobie Cat <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is positive but not significant(r=0.17). Rain events have a significant influence on ENT at Hobie Cat <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, with a correlation coefficient of up to 0.7 while at other <span class="hlt">beaches</span> the correlation is less than 0.2. Reasons for this aberration are being investigated. Although this is the only <span class="hlt">beach</span> allowing dogs there are other factors of possible importance, such as tidal flats frequented by birds and weaker water circulation and exchange at this <span class="hlt">beach</span> facing a bay rather than the ocean. Higher ENT levels (> 300CFU/100ml water) are more likely (67% of the time) to be associated with periods of onshore winds, which may affect the circulation of water at the <span class="hlt">beach</span> or cause waves and wave breaking that stir and resuspend the <span class="hlt">beach</span> sediment. To help interpret FIB observations and to improve the use of future monitoring results, a coastal circulation model and a bacteria fate model is being constructed to simulate and predict the FIB transport and distribution at Hobie Cat <span class="hlt">Beach</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, X.; Wang, J. D.; Elmir, S.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Wright, M. E.; Abdelzaher, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and ecological risk in Spartina alterniflora marsh in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate the effects of Spartina alterniflora on heavy metals pollution of intertidal sediments, sediment cores of a S. alterniflora salt marsh and a <span class="hlt">mudflat</span> in Bohai Bay, China were analyzed. The results showed that S. alterniflora caused higher total C and P, but lower bulk density and electrical conductivity. The levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher in S. alterniflora sediment. Both Cd and Zn were higher than the probable effect level at both sites, indicating their toxicological importance. The geo-accumulation and potential ecological risk indexes revealed higher metal <span class="hlt">contamination</span> in S. alterniflora sediment. Multivariate analysis implied that anthropogenic activities altered mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals. The percentage of mobile heavy metals was higher in S. alterniflora sediment, indicating improvement of conversion from the immobilized fraction to the mobilized fraction. These findings indicate that S. alterniflora may facilitate accumulation of heavy metals and increase their bioavailability and mobility. PMID:24930737</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chai, Minwei; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Ruili; Shen, Xiaoxue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4036028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases in Isolated Bacteria from Seawater of Algiers <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> (Algeria)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens(7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(4), Burkholderia cepacia(2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii(1), Chryseomonas luteola(1), Ochrobactrum anthropi(1) and Escherichia coli(1). Screening for extended spectrum ?-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 ?-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alouache, Souhila; Kada, Mohamed; Messai, Yamina; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22095134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antibiotic resistance and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases in isolated bacteria from seawater of Algiers <span class="hlt">beaches</span> (Algeria).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens (7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4), Burkholderia cepacia (2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii (1), Chryseomonas luteola (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1) and Escherichia coli (1). Screening for extended spectrum ?-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 ?-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes. PMID:22095134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alouache, Souhila; Kada, Mohamed; Messai, Yamina; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-215.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California; Naval...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California; Naval...Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, California; Naval...permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wec.ufl.edu/faculty/olim/Reprints_Oli/Oli_et_al_2001_Mice_PVA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Viability analysis of endangered Gulf Coast <span class="hlt">beach</span> mice ( Peromyscus polionotus) populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> mice, endangered subspecies of oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), occur in a few, isolated populations along the Gulf Coast of Alabama and Florida, USA. To provide information needed for the management of these species, we conducted population viability analyses (PVA) using a stochastic differential equation (Wiener-drift) model applied to long-term demographic data for four populations of <span class="hlt">beach</span> mice. In the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madan K. Oli; Nicholas R. Holler; Michael C. Wooten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://wfrec.ufl.edu/main/WFREC/documents/Impact.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Hurricanes on Habitat Occupancy and Spatial Distribution of <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent ; increases in hurricane activity along the Gulf of Mexico lend urgency to understanding storm impacts on <span class="hlt">beach</span> mice (Peromyscus polionotus) that occupy dune systems along this coast in Florida and Alabama. We documented changes in occupancy patterns of the Santa Rosa <span class="hlt">beach</span> mouse (P. p. leucocephalus) from Hurricane Ivan and examined predictors of habitat use before and after</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander J. Pries; Lyn C. Branch; Deborah L. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-17/pdf/2012-11922.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 29251 - Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Hull, MA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...USCG-2012-0314] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket <span class="hlt">Beach...Beach</span> in the vicinity of Hull, MA for a Carnival fireworks display. This temporary safety...Rule Hull Youth Football is sponsoring a Carnival fireworks display on the waters off...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-02/pdf/2013-15815.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Independence Day Fireworks, Kings <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...Independence Day Fireworks, Kings <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco...Tahoe Keys Marina in South Lake Tahoe, CA in approximate position 38[deg]...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=203870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive Modeling of a Fecal Indicator at a Subtropical Marine <span class="hlt">Beach</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Virtual <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Model Builder (VBMB) is a software tool that can be used to develop predictive models at <span class="hlt">beaches</span> based on microbial data and observations (explanatory variables) that describe hydrometeorological and biogeochemical conditions. During the summer of 2008, a study...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA481975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Barrier <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Breaching from the Lagoon Side, With Reference to Northern California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the dry season in California, when storm action is limited and river flow is weak, the mouths of many estuaries close, creating barrier <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and ponding water in the backing lagoons. If these barrier <span class="hlt">beaches</span> do not breach naturally or are not ma...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Patsch N. C. Kraus S. Munger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61355257"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of the barrier system at Ferry <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Maine--Evidence of transgressive and regressive phases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ferry <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is part of a barrier system that borders the southern end of the Saco Embayment. This portion of the coast is characterized by mesotidal conditions and low wave energy. The <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in this area are fronted by a low gradient sandy offshore and backed by a continuous foredune ridge. The backbarrier consists of fresh water ponds at Ferry</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Van Heteren; D. M. Fitzgerald; L. K. Jr. Fink</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=storms+AND+Black&pg=2&id=ED423352"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Gathering Storm: How Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County Schools Fail Poor and Minority Children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report takes a hard look at the day-to-day workings of Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County (Florida) schools to explain why the systemic change model of Florida's current reform legislation is likely to fail the students in greatest need of improved schooling. The Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County School District is the 4th largest district in Florida, and the 15th largest in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carmona, Lisa A.; Wheelock, Anne; First, Joan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=165090"> <span id="translatedtitle">DOES CONTACT WITH SAND AT <span class="hlt">BEACHES</span> INCREASE THE RISK OF ILLNESS?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies found high levels ofE. coli in sand, causing concern and media reports about risks of illness from contact with sand during <span class="hlt">beach</span> recreation. We summarized associations between <span class="hlt">beach</span> sand exposure and gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, eye, ear, cut and urinary tr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nowcast modeling of Escherichia coli concentrations at multiple urban <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of southern Lake Michigan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predictive modeling for Escherichia coli concentrations at effluent-dominated <span class="hlt">beaches</span> may be a favorable alternative to current, routinely criticized monitoring standards. The ability to model numerous <span class="hlt">beaches</span> simultaneously and provide real-time data decreases cost and effort associated with <span class="hlt">beach</span> monitoring. In 2004, five Lake Michigan <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and the nearby Little Calumet River outfall were monitored for E. coli 7 days a week; on nine occasions, samples were analyzed for coliphage to indicate a sewage source. Ambient lake, river, and weather conditions were measured or obtained from independent monitoring sources. Positive tests for coliphage analysis indicated sewage was present in the river and on bathing <span class="hlt">beaches</span> following heavy rainfall. Models were developed separately for days with prevailing onshore and offshore winds due to the strong influence of wind direction in determining the river's impact on the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Using regression modeling, it was determined that during onshore winds, E. coli could be adequately predicted using wave height, lake chlorophyll and turbidity, and river turbidity (RA?=0.635, N=94); model performance decreased for offshore winds using wave height, wave period, and precipitation (RA?=0.320, N=124). Variation was better explained at individual <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Overall, the models only failed to predict E. coli levels above the EPA closure limit (235 CFU/100 ml) on five of eleven occasions, indicating that the model is a more reliable alternative to the monitoring approach employed at most recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uoguelph.ca/geology/geol4090/Wasaga%20Beach%20Field%20Trip%20Reading%20-%20Martini%201975%20Sedimentology%20Wasaga%20Beach.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentology of a lacustrine barrier system at Wasaga <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Ontario, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Martini, I.P, 1975. Sedimentology of a lacustrine barrier system at Wasaga <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Onta- rm, Canada. Sediment. Geol., 14. 169--190 In an area of 4 by 15 miles (6.5 x 24 km) at Wasaga <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Ontario, a Holocene system is exposed that can be considered sedimentologically to be a lacustrine \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. P. MARTINI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA575183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency of Extreme Storms Based on <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Erosion at Northern Assateague Island, Maryland.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines morphologic response to storms at northern Assateague Island MD. Time series of hindcast waves and water level were input to drive the SBEACH <span class="hlt">beach</span> erosion and overwash numerical model to estimate <span class="hlt">beach</span> response, ground-truthed by docu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. C. Kraus S. Munger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=amir&id=EJ766177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detecting Small Taxa Using Simulated Comparison Data: A Reanalysis of <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Amir, and Bau's (2005) Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the basis of taxometric analyses of data sets that they created to pose interpretive challenges, S. R. H. <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, N. Amir, and J. J. Bau (2005) cautioned that using comparison data simulated by J. Ruscio's programs can lead to inaccurate conclusions. Careful examination of S. R. H. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> et al.'s methods and results plus reanalysis of their data…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruscio, John; Marcus, David K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42343585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orientation of littoral amphipods in two sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of Brittany (France) with wide tidal excursions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sandhoppers orient towards the shoreline using a sun compass when they are subject to dry conditions. In this study we analysed the orientation of populations from two sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with wide tidal excursions (Brittany, France): at Damgan (sea to the South) and at Le Verger (sea to the North). At Le Verger <span class="hlt">beach</span> Talitrus saltator was found together with Deshayesorchestia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Gambineri; C. Rossano; V. Durier; L. Fanini; C. Rivault; F. Scapini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14642230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Worked Flints Obtained from ``the 25-foot Raised <span class="hlt">Beach</span>'' near HolyWood, co. Down</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE 25-foot raised <span class="hlt">beach</span> is well marked all round the northern and eastern coast of Ireland, and is also recognisable on the opposite coast of England and in the Isle of Man. This post-Tertiary <span class="hlt">beach</span> is contemporaneous with the Upper Estuarine Clays of the Belfast sections,1 and is certainly not later than early Neolithic. At different times worked flints have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henry Home</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1912-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB289393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Affecting the Use of an Artificial <span class="hlt">Beach</span>: A Case Study on Mississippi's Gulf Coast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose was to provide basic data relative to the utilization of the 26-mile, man-made <span class="hlt">beach</span> in Harrison County, Mississippi, and to determine factors related to <span class="hlt">beach</span> use. More specifically, the project was purposed with quantifying the level of beac...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. P. Cartee D. C. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA031992"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Benthic Fauna and Sediments of the Nearshore Zone Off Panama City <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents: (1) basic data on the benthic fauna and surface sediments of the nearshore zone of Panama City <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla., before restoration of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>, and (2) the results of a study on the effect of Hurricane Eloise on the benthic fauna in the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. H. Saloman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.herpconbio.org/Volume_3/Issue_1/Tripathy_Pandav_2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BEACH</span> FIDELITY AND INTERNESTING MOVEMENTS OF OLIVE RIDLEY TURTLES (LEPIDOCHELYS OLIVACEA) AT RUSHIKULYA, INDIA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the <span class="hlt">beach</span> fidelity of Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) for three seasons at the Rushikulya rookery on the coast of Orissa in India between December and May (2003-2005). We monitored sporadic nesting and arribadas for tagged turtles. Multiple nesting by individual turtles and recapture of tagged turtles confirmed <span class="hlt">beach</span> fidelity in Olive Ridley Turtles. The inter-nesting intervals ranged</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BASUDEV TRIPATHY; BIVASH PANDAV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40778480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A spectacular submarine spring is located about 4 km east of Crescent <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL, in the Atlantic Ocean. The single vent feature of Crescent <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Spring provides a unique opportunity to examine onshore–offshore hydrogeologic processes, as well as point source submarine ground water discharge. The Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida consists of Tertiary interspersed limestone and dolomite strata. Impermeable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. W Swarzenski; C. D Reich; R. M Spechler; J. L Kindinger; W. S Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA438823"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport in the Surf Zone Along Long, Straight <span class="hlt">Beaches</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents a theoretical model for predictions of nearshore hydrodynamic characteristics and the local sediment transport rate along long, straight <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. The wave may be periodic or random, the <span class="hlt">beach</span> may be plane or barred, and the bed may be ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. S. Madsen Y. Tajima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cawq.ca/journal/temp/article/311.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accumulation of Marine Debris on an Intertidal <span class="hlt">Beach</span> in an Urban Park (Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluated monthly accumulation rates and types of marine debris washed ashore at a recreational <span class="hlt">beach</span> in Point Pleasant Park, Halifax Harbour, between April and September 2005. Black Rock <span class="hlt">Beach</span> is 70 m long and a total of 2129 marine debris items were collected and sorted, representing a mean accumulation rate of 355 (±68 SE) items month-1. The total</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tony R. Walker; Jon Grant; Marie-Claude Archambault</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6663920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential effects of native and invasive algal wrack on macrofaunal assemblages inhabiting exposed sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> worldwide receive large amounts of drift seaweed, known as wrack, from offshore algal beds and closer rocky intertidal shores. Despite the important influence of algal wrack on macrofaunal assemblages from different coastal systems, relatively little attention has been paid to the macrofaunal responses in sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to macrophyte wrack supplies. Algal wrack is a key resource, i.e.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iván F. Rodil; Celia Olabarria; Mariano Lastra; Jesús López</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27040777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Suitability of Video Imaging for Studying the Dynamics of Nearshore Sandbars in Tideless <span class="hlt">Beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nearshore sandbars, an important natural defense mechanism of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, can be monitored using shore-based video systems. Before studying bar dynamics with video images, we must establish the relationship between the real bar positions and the videoed bar positions (detected by the preferential wave breaking on the shallows). This analysis becomes essential in the two studied tideless <span class="hlt">beaches</span> of Barcelona</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francesca Ribas; Elena Ojeda; Timothy D. Price; Jorge Guillen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-17/pdf/2011-3564.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 9278 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida...Challenge has been held in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles <span class="hlt">Beach</span>...zone around a race area in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>...Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span>...regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-12/pdf/2013-22135.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA AGENCY...navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, VA to support...over the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the need to protect...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-24/pdf/2012-20832.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, SC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, SC...protect life and property on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Myrtle <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, SC. Persons and...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla...Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Fla...vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4032912"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cardiovascular consequence of reclining vs. sitting <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair body position for induction of anesthesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sitting <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair position is regularly used for shoulder surgery and anesthesia may be induced in that position. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular challenge induced by induction of anesthesia is attenuated if the patient is placed in a reclining <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair position. Anesthesia was induced with propofol in the sitting <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair (n = 15) or with the <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair tilted backwards to a reclining <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair position (n = 15). The last group was stepwise tilted to the sitting <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair position prior to surgery. Hypotension was treated with ephedrine. Continuous hemodynamic variables were recorded by photoplethysmography and frontal cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) by near infrared spectroscopy. Significant differences were only observed immediately after the induction when patients induced in a reclining <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair position had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) (35 ± 12 vs. 45 ± 15 % reduction from baseline, p = 0.04) and ScO2 (7 ± 6 vs. 1 ± 8% increase from baseline, p = 0.02) and received less ephedrine (mean: 4 vs. 13 mg, p = 0.048). The higher blood pressure and lower need of vasopressor following induction of anesthesia in the reclining compared to the sitting <span class="hlt">beach</span>-chair position indicate more stable hemodynamics with the clinical implication that anesthesia should not be induced with the patient in the sitting position.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larsen, S?ren L.; Lyngeraa, Tobias S.; Maschmann, Christian P.; Van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7240704"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground water <span class="hlt">contamination</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book covers: Ground water <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and remediation; Ground water flow and <span class="hlt">contaminant</span> migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of <span class="hlt">contamination</span>; Liability for ground water <span class="hlt">contamination</span>; State constraints on <span class="hlt">contamination</span> of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of <span class="hlt">contaminated</span> ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water <span class="hlt">contamination</span>; and <span class="hlt">Contamination</span>, extraction, and injection issues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP21A..05S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span> as a storm proxy: assessing the link between coastal morphology and climate change throughout the Holocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous <span class="hlt">beaches</span> around Antarctica are composed of coarse - gravel to boulder - deposits derived from local but limited sediment supplies and buffered wave energy by sea ice. Antarctic coarse-clastic <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are built and reworked by high-magnitude storm waves. Despite the ambiguous relationship between sea-level and <span class="hlt">beach</span> height, raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are commonly used to reconstruct relative sea-levels assuming the elevation and age of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> reflect post-glacial adjustment. However, as Antarctic <span class="hlt">beaches</span> are influenced by storm waves as well as vertical land motion, the ages of raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span> may provide a proxy for past storminess. We assess the temporal distribution of raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span> for four regions around Antarctica including the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctica. From previously published dated raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, the age distribution (n = 334) suggests distinct periods of enhanced <span class="hlt">beach</span> formation around 1, 2, 3.5, and 5-6 thousand years ago. We compare the temporal distribution of raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with Southern Hemisphere climate proxies to determine links between climate conditions that may have an influence on storminess around Antarctica. Current investigation of granulometry observations from raised <span class="hlt">beaches</span> at several sites along the Antarctic Peninsula is underway to provide additional insight on wave-energy conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simkins, L.; Simms, A.; DeWitt, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-30/pdf/2011-22073.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 53822 - Safety Zone; Labor Day at the Landing Santa Rosa Sound, Fort Walton <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Zone; Labor Day at the Landing Santa Rosa Sound, Fort Walton <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone for a portion of the Santa Rosa Sound in Fort Walton <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida extending...conduct a fireworks display on the Santa Rosa Sound, in Fort Walton <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida from...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-10/pdf/2011-11341.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Florida...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa <span class="hlt">Beach</span>,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/92-4107/@displayLabelpdf@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1992/4107/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County, Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Lantana landfill in Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm <span class="hlt">Beach</span> County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer and pumping five leachate recovery wells. Results of the flow analysis indicate that the telescoping grid modeling approach can be used to simulate ground-water flow in small areas such as the Lantana landfill site and to simulate the effects of possible remedial actions. Water-quality data indicate the leachate-enriched ground water is divided vertically into two parts by a fine sand layer at about 40 to 50 feet below land surface. Data also indicate the extent of the leachate-enriched ground-water <span class="hlt">contamination</span> and concentrations of constituents seem to be decreasing over time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell, G. M.; Wexler, E. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5171929"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental use of dispersants for spill countermeasures on Arctic <span class="hlt">beaches</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field experiments have been conducted on arctic <span class="hlt">beaches</span> to asses the effectiveness of dispersants for the cleanup of stranded oil. The application of two commercially available chemical dispersants to aged and emulsified oil plots, in the intertidal zone on a semi-sheltered <span class="hlt">beach</span>, resulted in a significant reduction of oil loadings immediately following the experiment as compared to loadings on adjacent intertidal control plots. The use of dispersants may, therefore, be of some value in mitigation of the potential adverse effects of oil immediately following stranding. In the semi-sheltered arctic environment in which the 1981 experiments were conducted (fetch up to 100 km; two-month open-water season), natural reworking of the oiled intertidal control plots over a 40-day period was effective in removing approximately 85 to 95% of the original oil loading. Further experiments in 1982 replicated the 1981 study in a more sheltered location, with a fetch area of less than 2 km, and indicate that the use of dispersants was not effective in this very low-energy environment. The conclusions drawn from this arctic experiment have a direct relevance to other coastal environments in lower latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owens, E.H.; Foget, C.R.; Robson, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5701264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expert system for computer interpretation of <span class="hlt">beach</span> and nearshore facies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A user-friendly, rule-based expert system has been designed for interpretation of lithofacies characteristics of <span class="hlt">beach</span> and nearshore depositional environments. Recently, similar expert systems have been widely applied in medicine, business, and mineral exploration. The expert system runs on a VAX 780 (trade name). By incorporating knowledge and understanding of an expert, the system can interact with a user the way an expert consultant would. Interaction consists of a series of questions about lithology, sedimentary structures, and bioturbation of the lithofacies observed in outcrop or core. Uncertain responses are allowed and incorporated into the reasoning. Dialogue varies in different consultations because questions asked by the system depend on users' responses to previous questions. The result is an evaluation of the likelihood that the deposit under consideration is actually a <span class="hlt">beach</span> or nearshore deposit. Significant lithofacies characteristics, the reasoning used in reaching the conclusion, and pertinent references are provided. Expert systems for other depositional environments are being designed. As their availability increases, geologists without easy access to experts on a particular depositional environment will have expert consultants as close as a computer terminal. Also the ability of the system to explain its reasoning and provide references lends the system to instructional uses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krystinik, K.B.; Clifton, H.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JMS....58...19C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wave transformation on a microtidal barred <span class="hlt">beach</span> (Sète, France)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An instrumented field study of the cross-shore evolution of incident waves was conducted on the shoreface of a gentle sloping microtidal barred-<span class="hlt">beach</span> (Sète, France). A spectral analysis of typical hydrodynamic conditions (storm, waning storm and fair-weather) was performed from a series of pressure sensor data and synchronized horizontal velocities and pressure data. Results highlight the role of sedimentary bars in the dissipation and the spectral redistribution of incident energy. At the approach to the coast, the bars act like regulators of energy arriving at the shore and non-linear energy transfers are observed from the gravity to infragravity domain, during breaking or non-breaking situations. Consequently, the ratio of infragravity to gravity wave spectral energy density increases shoreward as significant wave height decreases. The study of incident wave reflection shows that during storm conditions, no significant wave reflection is observed and the <span class="hlt">beach</span> can be classified as dissipative. During fair-weather conditions, a significant reflection from the beachface is observed but the bars do not play any role in this reflection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Certain, Raphaël; Meulé, Samuel; Rey, Vincent; Pinazo, Christel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24802271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-year persistence of <span class="hlt">beach</span> habitat degradation from nourishment using coarse shelly sediments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> nourishment is increasingly used to protect public <span class="hlt">beach</span> amenity and coastal property from erosion and storm damage. Where <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment uses fill sediments that differ in sedimentology from native <span class="hlt">beach</span> sands, press disturbances to sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> invertebrates and their ecosystem services can occur. How long impacts persist is, however, unclear because monitoring after nourishment typically only extends for several months. Here, monitoring was extended for 3-4 years following each of two spatially separated, replicate nourishment projects using unnaturally coarse sediments. Following both fill events, the contribution to <span class="hlt">beach</span> sediments of gravel-sized particles and shell fragments was enhanced, and although diminishing through time, remained elevated as compared to control sites at the end of 3-4 years of monitoring, including in the low intertidal and swash zones, where benthic macroinvertebrates concentrate. Consequently, two infaunal invertebrates, haustoriid amphipods and Donax spp., exhibited suppressed densities over the entire post-nourishment period of 3-4 years. Emerita talpoida, by contrast, exhibited lower densities on nourished than control <span class="hlt">beaches</span> only in the early summer of the first and second years and polychaetes exhibited little response to nourishment. The overall impact to invertebrates of nourishment was matched by multi-year reductions in abundances of their predators. Ghost crab abundances were suppressed on nourished <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with impacts disappearing only by the fourth summer. Counts of foraging shorebirds were depressed for 4 years after the first project and 2 years after the second project. Our results challenge the view that <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment is environmentally benign by demonstrating that application of unnaturally coarse and shelly sediments can serve as a press disturbance to degrade the <span class="hlt">beach</span> habitat and its trophic services to shorebirds for 2-4 years. Recognizing that recovery following nourishment can be slow, studies that monitor impacts for only several months are inadequate. PMID:24802271</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, Charles H; Bishop, Melanie J; D'Anna, Linda M; Johnson, Galen A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geomo.120..258M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastline orientation, aeolian sediment transport and foredune and dunefield dynamics of Moçambique <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Southern Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the role of coastline orientation on foredune and dunefield development at Moçambique <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Southern Brazil. The <span class="hlt">beach</span> displays significant alongshore variations in exposure to the prevailing winds and waves, grain size, <span class="hlt">beach</span>/surfzone morphodynamic type, foredune volume, and type and dimensions of the Holocene dune systems. Two wind analyses and calculation of aeolian drift potentials were carried out, one based on 1 year of wind record and another based on a record of 34 years. Monthly topographic surveys of <span class="hlt">beach</span> and foredunes on 5 profiles along Moçambique <span class="hlt">beach</span> were conducted over one year to obtain data on <span class="hlt">beach</span> mobility and width, aeolian sediment transport and foredune development. Southerly winds dominate, and aeolian sediment supply is minimal in the south, moderate in the central portion and high in the northern portion of the embayment. The relationship between actual sediment supply, foredune building and potential sediment supply is relatively poor over one year due to factors such as <span class="hlt">beach</span> type and mobility, <span class="hlt">beach</span> moisture levels, rainfall, storm surge and wave scarping. The intermediate term (34 year) record indicates a strong relationship between foredune size and volume, winds and shoreline orientation: foredune volume is minimum in the southern part of the <span class="hlt">beach</span> and greatest in the northern part of the <span class="hlt">beach</span>. The Holocene barrier and dunefield development also reflects the long term control of shoreline orientation and increasing longshore gradient in exposure to southerly winds: for the last 6000-7000 years a small foredune developed in the southern portion, parabolics and small transgressive dunes in the central portion, and a large-scale transgressive dunefield in the northern portion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miot da Silva, Graziela; Hesp, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ECSS...67..267R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community structure and intertidal zonation of the macroinfauna in intermediate sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in temperate latitudes: North coast of Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nineteen intermediate exposed sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, located along the northern coast of Spain, were sampled during the summer 1999. Data from 10 of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, located at the eastern part of this coast, were previously reported to evaluate environmental factors affecting benthic macrofauna. Data from nine of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, located at the western part of this coast, were included to compare community structure and intertidal zonation of the macroinfauna on intermediate sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in temperate latitudes. Morphodynamic parameters such as Dean's parameter ( ?), <span class="hlt">Beach</span> State Index (BSI) and relative tide range (RTR) were estimated at each <span class="hlt">beach</span>. <span class="hlt">Beach</span> length, width, intertidal slope, medium grain size, sorting, swash amplitude and wave characteristics were also analyzed. The highest macroinfaunal densities and biomass occurred at the mid and lower shore levels of each <span class="hlt">beach</span>. Crustaceans, mainly cirolanid isopods, were the dominant group found on these <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, whereas molluscs were the least representative. In general, the relationship between community structure and <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphodynamics was similar to that found for the macroinfauna worldwide suggesting that macroinfauna in intermediate sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> is affected, in the same way, by the physical processes associated with different <span class="hlt">beach</span> types. Histograms and kite diagrams representing the intertidal distribution of the macroinfauna and multivariate analysis were used to show the zonation pattern on these exposed <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Intertidal slope values and <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile pattern were found similar in all the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> sampled. We hypothesized that this particular <span class="hlt">beach</span> profile could influence the pattern of macroinfauna zonation. All the 19 <span class="hlt">beaches</span> have two zones in common: the supralittoral zone of air breathers present on all shores at and above the drift line and the littoral zone extending from the drift line down the midshore to just above the water table outcrop. Ordination analyses identified two possible zones within the lower <span class="hlt">beach</span> levels on seven of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, but this cannot be clearly established. The Monte Carlo permutation test was used to select <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope, length and wave height as the best predictor variables of macroinfaunal characteristics and it seems that the species most affected by the main variables showed the clearest zonation on the <span class="hlt">beaches</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodil, I. F.; Lastra, M.; Sánchez-Mata, A. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/sediments/cs/index.cfm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Contaminated</span> Sediments in Water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Sediments <span class="hlt">Contaminated</span> Sediments in Water <span class="hlt">Contaminated</span> Sediments in Water Overview Basic Information Technical Resources CS Data Find ... released years ago while other <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> enter our water every day. Some <span class="hlt">contaminants</span> flow directly from industrial ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri034258/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground-water flow and saline water in the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Population and tourism continues to grow in Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Virginia, but the supply of freshwater is limited. A pipeline from Lake Gaston supplies water for northern Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, but ground water is widely used to water lawns in the north, and most southern areas of the city rely solely on ground water. Water from depths greater than 60 meters generally is too saline to drink. Concentrations of chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Department of Public Utilities, investigated the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds to determine the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential uses, and its susceptibility to <span class="hlt">contamination</span>. Aquifers and confining units of the southern watersheds were delineated and chloride concentrations in the aquifers and confining units were contoured. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model of the shallow aquifer system reached steady state with regard to measured chloride concentrations after 31,550 years of freshwater recharge. Model simulations indicate that if freshwater is found in permeable sediments of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, such a well field could supply freshwater, possibly for decades, but eventually the water would become more saline. The rate of saline-water intrusion toward the well field would depend on the rate of pumping, aquifer properties, and on the proximity of the well field to saline water sources. The steady-state, ground-water-flow model also was used to simulate drawdowns around two hypothetical well fields and drawdowns around two hypothetical open-pit mines. The chloride concentrations simulated in the model did not approximate the measured concentrations for some wells, indicating sites where local hydrogeologic units or unit properties do not conform to the simple hydrogeology of the model. The Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer compose the hydrogeologic units of the shallow aquifer system of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. The Columbia and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers are poorly confined throughout most of the southern watersheds of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>. The freshwater-to-saline-water distribution probably is in a dynamic equilibrium throughout most of the shallow aquifer system. Freshwater flows continually down and away from the center of the higher altitudes to mix with saline water from the tidal rivers, bays, salt marshes, and the Atlantic Ocean. Fresh ground water from the Columbia aquifer also leaks down through the Yorktown confining unit into the upper half of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer and flows within the Yorktown-Eastover above saline water in the lower half of the aquifer. Ground-water recharge is minimal in much of the southern watersheds because the land surface generally is low and flat.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Barry S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC13C1100C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, San Francisco</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span> in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major stimuli in coastal adaptation initiatives and resulted in the Ocean <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Master Plan. Investigation into the planning processes involving multiple stakeholder engagement such as San Francisco (SF) Public Utilities Commission, California Coastal Commission, National Park Service, SF Department of Public Works, SF Recreation and Park Department, SF Planning Department, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers can shed light on trade-offs and synergies of different adaptation responses. The role of the coordinator - SF Planning and Urban Research Commission - as a mediator between different stakeholder interests and priorities, a realistic assessment of current hazard management practices specific to local contexts, and the necessity of combining hazard mitigation policies with coastal management and community management are the key findings of this research. They help inform policy formulation and decision-making in climate change adaptation, and provide a valuable case study that can be transferred to other locations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheong, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS71A0262B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Beach</span> protection by a system of permeable groins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new type of permeable groin (called System of Groins Maltec-Savard - SGMS) has been installed at three eroded sites located in the coastal area on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, Quebec, Canada. In this area, the narrow sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> with sandy or sand-silty cliff of variable height (10-15~m) are exposed to obliquely incident waves arriving from both west (summer) and east (autumn), and to tidal currents (maximum tidal rate is 4.3~m). The periods of summer waves equal 3-5~s, with wave heights of about 0.4-0.7~m. In the autumn, major storm waves reach periods of up to 7-10~s, with wave heights of 1.0-1.2~m. The new groins are sediment traps formed by a central double and permeable groin with several smaller lateral, groins installed on one or both sides of the central groin (Boczar-Karakiewicz et al., 2001). The permeable central and lateral groins are structured by inserting double ranges of wooden piles (diameter of about 10 cm). The space between the ranges of piles (some 0.8~m wide) is filled with tree branches (e.g., the top parts of pine trees, a waste product of the local forest industry). A permeable grid covering the top of the groins forms a cage that holds the branches in place. The lateral groins, are identical but much shorter than the central groin. The whole system dissipates the incident energy of wave- and tidally-generated currents and causes accretion of sand transported by these currents. The GSMS also allows the by-pass of some sediment to adjacent zones without groins. Observations and results of measurements from three experiments field show that: (1) a sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> in front of a coastal cliff secures its stability and attenuates the erosion caused by waves and tidal currents; (2) permeability and flexibility of the SGMS causes the accretion of sediment in the protected area without erosion in the neighboring zones; (3) the SGMS does not generate wave reflection and any secondary current; (4) the materials of the groins are easily available, and the cost is low (waste material of the local forest industry); (5) the construction is simple and can be carried out by low-skilled labor force. Boczar-Karakiewicz, B., W. Romanczyk, N. Roy, N. Pelletier, L. Maltec and J.-P. Savard. 2001. New method of <span class="hlt">beach</span> protection adapted to coastal zones of the estuary of the Saint Lawrence river, Quebec, Canada. Proc. Can. Coast. Conf., Quebec, QC, Canada: 201-214 (in French).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boczar-Karakiewicz, B.; Romanczyk, W.; Roy, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6016076"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Contaminant</span> hydrogeology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrogeology is a rapidly evolving field in which new approaches and tools are being applied to solve problems. This new book fills an important niche. Fetter focuses primarily on chemical processes in the subsurface, avoiding duplication of materials that are covered in other, more classical texts. This book is an excellent follow-up to his earlier text, Applied Hydrogeology, and reviews only briefly the foundational concepts covered in the earlier textbook. <span class="hlt">Contaminant</span> Hydrogeology is written at the graduate student level and assumes prerequisite courses in physics, chemistry, and hydrogeology. For the most part, each of the nine chapters covers a major area of concern common to applied <span class="hlt">contaminant</span> studies. A thorough, theoretical treatment of solute transport through the vadose zone is presented, and a sample problem and a case study add unusually high value to this discussion of a topic that generally is not well understood in the practice. Topics covered include the Buckingham Flux Law, the Richards Equation, vapor-phase transport, equilibrium and nonequilibrium models of mass transport, and preferential flow paths. Nonaqueous-phase liquid migrations under both saturated and unsaturated conditions is covered for horizontal as well as vertical migration. Both light and dense nonaqueous phase liquids are presented, and Darcy's Law for two-phase flow is introduced. The strength of <span class="hlt">Contaminant</span> Hydrogeology lies in the author's ability to translate concepts through practical experience. This book links the theoretical to the practical through example problems and case histories. It should be considered for use in graduate classes and would be a valuable reference in the library of any practicing hydrogeologist.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fetter, C.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020080096&hterms=international+pharmaceutical+companies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dinternational%2Bpharmaceutical%2Bcompanies"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Contamination</span> Analyzer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing <span class="hlt">contamination</span> levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20133068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tools for <span class="hlt">beach</span> health data management, data processing, and predictive model implementation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This fact sheet describes utilities created for management of recreational waters to provide efficient data management, data aggregation, and predictive modeling as well as a prototype geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for data visualization and summary. All of these utilities were developed to assist <span class="hlt">beach</span> managers in making decisions to protect public health. The Environmental Data Discovery and Transformation (EnDDaT) Web service identifies, compiles, and sorts environmental data from a variety of sources that help to define climatic, hydrologic, and hydrodynamic characteristics including multiple data sources within the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Health Database (GLBH-DB) and Web application was designed to provide a flexible input, export, and storage platform for <span class="hlt">beach</span> water quality and sanitary survey monitoring data to compliment <span class="hlt">beach</span> monitoring programs within the Great Lakes. A real-time predictive modeling strategy was implemented by combining the capabilities of EnDDaT and the GLBH-DB for timely, automated prediction of <span class="hlt">beach</span> water quality. The GIS-based tool was developed to map <span class="hlt">beaches</span> based on their physical and biological characteristics, which was shared with multiple partners to provide concepts and information for future Web-accessible <span class="hlt">beach</span> data outlets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Geological Survey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ECSS...61..559C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> isopod Excirolana braziliensis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> isopod Excirolana braziliensis were analyzed to determine latitudinal variations along its distribution, from tropical (9°N) to temperate (39°S) sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Population features exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation: (1) an increase in individual sizes and growth rates towards temperate <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, following an inverse relationship with mean water temperature of the surf zone; (2) a shift from almost continuous to seasonal growth from subtropical to temperate Atlantic <span class="hlt">beaches</span> and a positive relationship between amplitude of intra-annual growth oscillations and temperature range; (3) a linear decrease in life span and an increase in natural mortality from temperate to subtropical <span class="hlt">beaches</span>; and (4) an increase in the individual mass-at-size (length-mass relationship) from subtropical to temperate <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Analyses discriminated by sex were consistent with the patterns illustrated above. Local effects of temperature and <span class="hlt">beach</span> morphodynamics are discussed. Our results demonstrate that the population dynamics of E. braziliensis is highly plastic over latitudinal gradients, with large-scale variations in temperature and concurrent environmental variables leading to an adjustment of the phenotype-environment relationship.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardoso, Ricardo S.; Defeo, Omar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..113..172L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy <span class="hlt">beaches</span> - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, <span class="hlt">Beach</span> Index (BI), sand skewness, <span class="hlt">beach</span> slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a <span class="hlt">beach</span> after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy <span class="hlt">beach</span> macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of <span class="hlt">beach</span> nourishment and other environmental impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302168"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adapting an established measure of supervision for <span class="hlt">beach</span> settings: is the parent supervision attributes profile questionnaire reliable?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Parent Supervision Attributes Profile Questionnaire (PSAPQ), developed to measure aspects of caregiver supervision and protectiveness and previously applied within playgrounds and in the home, was modified for implementation in a <span class="hlt">beach</span> setting. To assess the test-retest reliability of the PSAPQ <span class="hlt">beach</span> modification (PSAPQ-<span class="hlt">BEACH</span>), 20 caregivers completed the PSAPQ-<span class="hlt">BEACH</span> twice, over a mean interval of 18 days (range 10-24). The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the PSAPQ-<span class="hlt">BEACH</span> scores were compared to those of the PSAPQ. All scores on the PSAPQ-<span class="hlt">BEACH</span> were higher than the PSAPQ, providing evidence that the questionnaire remains reliable after its adaptation to <span class="hlt">beach</span> settings. PMID:21302168</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petrass, Lauren A; Blitvich, Jennifer D; Finch, Caroline F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2168141"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence of Human Adenoviruses at Two Recreational <span class="hlt">Beaches</span> of the Great Lakes?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been related to several waterborne diseases such as acute gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, and respiratory illness, and it has been shown that an important human exposure pathway is through recreational waters. However, HAdV occurrence at recreational freshwater <span class="hlt">beaches</span> has not been previously investigated. In this study, a total of 58 water samples were collected from two recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on Lake Michigan (i.e., Silver <span class="hlt">Beach</span> and Washington Park <span class="hlt">Beach</span>) during the summer of 2004. Occurrences of HAdVs in these lake samples were determined using two hexon-based real-time PCR assays (one for monitoring all 51 serotypes of HAdVs and another for specifically detecting F species HAdVs, i.e., serotypes 40 and 41) and compared to an integrated cell culture (ICC) PCR method. The real-time PCR results showed that 8 of 30 Silver <span class="hlt">Beach</span> samples and 6 of 28 Washington Park <span class="hlt">Beach</span> samples contained HAdVs, and F species HAdVs were detected in three of these positive samples. The concentrations of HAdVs ranged from (1.7 ± 0.7) × 101 to (3.4 ± 0.8) × 102 and from (7 ± 2) × 100 to (3.8 ± 0.3) × 103 virus particles/liter for Silver <span class="hlt">Beach</span> and Washington Park <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, respectively. F species HAdVs were detected at levels ranging from (4.8 ± 0.8) × 101 to (4.6 ± 1.5) × 102 virus particles/liter. Approximately 60% of the ICC-PCR analyses agreed with the real-time PCR results. This study revealed the occurrence of HAdVs at Lake Michigan recreational <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Given the potential health risks, further assessment regarding sources, virus transport, and survival is needed to improve the safety of the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xagoraraki, Irene; Kuo, David H.-W.; Wong, Kelvin; Wong, Mark; Rose, Joan B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039487"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental problems in the coastal and wetlands ecosystems of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>, Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many of the city of Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>'s <span class="hlt">beach</span> stabilization and sewage disposal problems are the result of an inadequate understanding of the physical and biological systems. Influenced by population and economic pressures, natural systems were artificially stabilized by engineering projects that had to be constantly maintained. These same pressures continue to prevail today in spite of a new environmental awareness; changes are occurring very slowly. Furthermore, the lack of adequate sewage disposal facilities and the continued urbanization of inappropriate areas are threatening Virginia <span class="hlt">Beach</span>'s attractiveness as a resort area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buzzanell, Peter J.; McGinty, Herbert K., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92T..12T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research Spotlight: Why has oil from the Exxon Valdez persisted so long on <span class="hlt">beaches</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill released more than 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, polluting 800 kilometers of <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. In some areas the spilled oil has persisted on <span class="hlt">beaches</span> more than 20 years later. To examine the factors affecting the persistence of oil from the spill, Xia et al conducted field studies and numerical modeling of the hydrogeological characteristics of a shallow bedrock <span class="hlt">beach</span> on Knight Island in western Prince William Sound, the area most heavily polluted by the spill. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009179, 2010)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tretkoff, Ernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MinDe..48...81C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compositional variations and morphological evolution in platinum <span class="hlt">beach</span> placers, southern New Zealand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Morphologies of placer platinum group minerals (PGM) are more variable and resistant to modification during transport than placer gold grains. This study documents morphological evolution of PGM placer grains during up to 120 km of transport in <span class="hlt">beach</span> placers after river transport from inferred sources up to 200 km inland. PGM morphological changes are calibrated with changes in morphology of associated placer gold. Most of the PGM are Pt-Fe alloy and have been fed into the <span class="hlt">beach</span> placer system from a large river at the western end of the <span class="hlt">beaches</span> on the south coast of New Zealand. The incoming fluvial PGM suite includes Os, Ir and Ru alloys which may have been derived from distal ophiolitic sources. More proximal sources have Ural-Alaskan affinities and these contributed cooperite and braggite, or sperrylite, locally, as well as Pt-Fe alloy grains. Some PGM may have been recycled through Cretaceous-Quaternary fluvial sediments before entering the modern placer system. Recycled placer PGM grains have also been derived from elevated Quaternary <span class="hlt">beaches</span> near the coastline. PGM grains entering <span class="hlt">beach</span> placers have rough surfaces, with remnants of crystal faces, and these evolve to smooth flakes with progressive long-shore transport. PGM flakes have slightly thickened rims caused by impacts by saltating sand on windy <span class="hlt">beaches</span>, and the most distal <span class="hlt">beach</span> placers contain flakes with incipient toroidal shapes. These PGM incipient toroids are poorly developed compared to accompanying well-formed toroidal gold that has developed in nearly all <span class="hlt">beach</span> placers, including those on elevated Quaternary <span class="hlt">beaches</span>. Typical PGM and gold placer grain size decreases with increasing distance o