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Sample records for mudflat beach contaminated

  1. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from

  2. Effects of demolition and beach clean-up operations on birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna

    1988-07-01

    Coastal lands are increasingly exposed to disturbances from demolition, beach clean-up, and construction for development. Although data exist concerning the effects of investigators on breeding populations, little information is available for migrant populations. I investigated the effects of demolition and beach clean-up on resident and migrant birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey. A year's censusing before work initiation was used to determine when demolition and clean-up would affect the least number of birds. Work activity on and along the beach was from 15 October to 15 November 1985. The overall population size was lower in 1985 compared to the same period in 1984, although the drop in numbers was not due solely to human disturbance. Human work activity influenced avian distribution along the mudflat: birds moved farther along the beach and out onto the mudflat when activity began, and moved back onto the mudflat when activity ceased. For gulls, foraging efficiency was lowered when work began and did not return to previous levels until 60-90 min after work began. Gulls that moved farther out on the mudflat had significantly lower foraging efficiencies than did those that remained close to the beach. Efforts to mitigate the adverse effects on birds by restricting human activity to a 100 m stretch of beach at any one time succeeded in significantly reducing adverse effects and in allowing birds some space to rest and feed.

  3. Analyze of waves dynamic over an intertidal mudflat of a sandy-gravely estuarine beach - Field survey and preliminary modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morio, Olivier; Sedrati, Mouncef; Goubert, Evelyne

    2014-05-01

    As well as marine submersion or erosive phenomena, clay-silted sediment in-filling on estuarial and bay beaches are a main issue in these human-attractive areas. Coupled sandy/gravely and clay/silty intertidal areas can be observed in these particular coastal areas, depending of rivers characteristic (discharge of particle, water flow), ocean dynamics (wave exposure, current) and sediments sources. All around the world, sandy/gravely beaches are exposed to punctual or continuous input clay sediments. Vilaine estuary, Bay of Arcachon and Bay of Seine in France, Plymouth Bay in UK and also Wadden Sea in Deutschland are few examples of muddy/sandy coupled or mixed system. The beach of Bétahon (Ambon town, Brittany - France) is located on the external Vilaine estuary and is an example of this issue. This meso-macrotidal intermediate (low tide terrace) beach presents heterogeneous sediments. The upper intertidal zone is composed by sand and gravel and characterized by a steep slope. A very gentle slope characterized the lower part of the beach and is constituted by silt and clay. Clay/sand limit is characterized by a decimetric erosion cliff of mudflat along the beach. In order to understand bed variations and sediment transport of this complex heterogeneous beach, a well understanding of wave dynamic across the beach is necessary. This study focus on wave dynamics over the beach, using field observations and MIKE 21 3D wave numerical model. This paper is a preliminary approach of an upcoming global understanding of this estuarial beach behavior. Swell from deep-sea to near-shore area is modeled over a 100 km² area and real wind, deep sea wave characteristic, river water flow and tidal level are defined as open boundary conditions for the regional model. This last one is based on multiple bathymetric surveys over the last 50 years. Local model, triangular mesh gridded to 5 meters, covering Bétahon beach , is based on topographic and photographic survey of the mudflat

  4. Use of dispersant in mudflat oil-contaminated sediment: behavior and effects of dispersed oil on micro- and macrobenthos.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Philippe; Gilbert, Franck; Militon, Cécile; Stora, Georges; Bonin, Patricia; Michotey, Valérie; Guasco, Sophie; Duboscq, Karine; Cagnon, Christine; Jézéquel, Ronan; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether the use of dispersant would be suitable for favoring the hydrocarbon degradation in coastal marine sediments without impacting negatively micro- and macrobenthic organisms. Mudflat sediments, maintained during 286 days in mesocosms designed to simulate natural conditions, were contaminated or not with Ural blend crude oil (REBCO) and treated or not with third-generation dispersant (Finasol OSR52). While the dispersant did not lead to an increase of hydrocarbon biodegradation, its use enables an attenuation of more than 55 % of the sediment concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) correlating T-RFLP patterns with the hydrocarbon content and bacterial abundance indicated weak differences between the different treatments except for the mesocosm treated with oil and dispersant for which a higher bacterial biomass was observed. The use of the dispersant did not significantly decrease the macrobenthic species richness or macroorganisms' densities in uncontaminated or contaminated conditions. However, even if the structure of the macrobenthic communities was not affected, when used in combination with oil, biological sediment reworking coefficient was negatively impacted. Although the use of the dispersant may be worth considering in order to accelerate the attenuation of hydrocarbon-contaminated mudflat sediments, long-term effects on functional aspects of the benthic system such as bioturbation and bacterial activity should be carefully studied before. PMID:26062462

  5. Effects of metal contamination in situ on osmoregulation and oxygen consumption in the mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax (Ocypodidae, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Capparelli, Mariana V; Abessa, Denis M; McNamara, John C

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of estuaries by metals can impose additional stresses on estuarine species, which may exhibit a limited capability to adjust their regulatory processes and maintain physiological homeostasis. The mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax is a typical estuarine crab, abundant in both pristine and contaminated areas along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This study evaluates osmotic and ionic regulatory ability and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in different salinities (<0.5, 25 and 60‰ S) and oxygen consumption rates at different temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) in U. rapax collected from localities along the coast of São Paulo State showing different histories of metal contamination (most contaminated Ilha Diana, Santos>Rio Itapanhaú, Bertioga>Picinguaba, Ubatuba [pristine reference site]). Our findings show that the contamination of U. rapax by metals in situ leads to bioaccumulation and induces biochemical and physiological changes compared to crabs from the pristine locality. U. rapax from the contaminated sites exhibit stronger hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities and show greater gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities than crabs from the pristine site, revealing that the underlying biochemical machinery can maintain systemic physiological processes functioning well. However, oxygen consumption, particularly at elevated temperatures, decreases in crabs showing high bioaccumulation titers but increases in crabs with low/moderate bioaccumulation levels. These data show that U. rapax chronically contaminated in situ exhibits compensatory biochemical and physiological adjustments, and reveal the importance of studies on organisms exposed to metals in situ, particularly estuarine invertebrates subject to frequent changes in natural environmental parameters like salinity and temperature. PMID:26992327

  6. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring methods for microbial indicators of fecal contamination are an integral component for protecting the health of swimmers exposed to potentially contaminated bathing beach waters. The design of monitoring systems which will accurately characterize the quality of water is...

  7. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  8. Can QMRA be used to Discount Pathogen Risk to Swimmers from Animal Fecal Contamination? Doheny Beach, CA Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimated health risks to swimmers from seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at Doheny Beach, California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) with a view to aiding beach closure decisions. Surfzone pathogens from seagulls were thought to...

  9. Bacterial contamination at Huntington Beach, California - is it from a local offshore wastewater outfall?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Noble, Marlene; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    During the summers of 1999 and 2000, beaches at Huntington Beach, California, were repeatedly closed to swimming because of high bacteria levels in the surf zone. The city’s beaches are a major recreational and commercial resource, normally attracting millions of visitors each summer. One possible source of the bacterial contamination was the Orange County Sanitation District’s sewage outfall, which discharges treated wastewater 4.5 miles offshore at a depth of 200 feet. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating organizations have been investigating whether ocean currents and waves transport the wastewater to the beaches. These studies indicate that bacteria from the outfall are not a significant source of the beach contamination.

  10. Vulnerability of Selected Beaches to Petroleum Contamination, Placentia Bay, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, M.; Catto, N.

    2009-04-01

    Placentia Bay currently hosts the highest volume of ship traffic in along the Atlantic Canadian coastline, and is additionally exposed to accidental and deliberate discharges of petroleum products by Trans-Atlantic ship traffic. Placentia Bay has been identified as the region in Canada that is most likely to suffer a petroleum contamination event within the next 10 years. The morphological, sedimentological, energy regime, and marine debris characteristics of 4 beaches at the head of Placentia Bay were investigated in detail. Differing morphological, sedimentological and energy regime conditions alter the sensitivity of each system to oil spill contamination. Differences in the type and amount of marine debris between each system alter the potential risk of exposure to oil spill contamination. Based on differences in sensitivity and exposure, a vulnerability assessment was created for each system. This system was applied to additional beaches and rocky coastlines to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight the actual vulnerability of each study beach relative to the spectrum of beaches actually present throughout eastern Newfoundland. Typical of the majority of beaches throughout Placentia Bay, the 4 study beaches are characterized by gravel dominated, reflective, moderate to high energy systems. Observations of sediment re-working and accretionary features along the beaches of Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance indicate that self-cleaning would not be an effective agent of oil removal in the case of a spill. The absence of sediment re-working and protected nature of Goose Cove beach suggest that oil would persist in this environment for an extended period of time. Evidence of high wave energies at Hollett's Cove indicates that this beach would self-clean effectively. Differing types and quantities of marine debris indicate that each beach, with the exception of Goose Cove, would likely be exposed to oil originating from a Placentia Bay spill. The

  11. Huntington beach shoreline contamination investigation, phase III: coastal circulation and transport patterns : the likelihood of OCSD's plume impacting Huntington beach shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene; Xu, Jingping; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Robertson, George

    2003-01-01

    A consortium of agencies have conducted an extensive investigation of the coastal ocean circulation and transport pathways off Huntington Beach, with the aim of identifying any causal links that may exist between the offshore discharge of wastewater by OCSD and the significant bacterial contamination observed along the Huntington Beach shoreline. This is the third study supported by OCSD to determine possible land-based and coa Although the study identifies several possible coastal ocean pathways by which diluted wastewater may be transported to the beach, including internal tide, sea-breeze and subtidal flow features, there were no direct observations of either the high bacteria concentrations seen in the OCSD plume at the shelf break reaching the shoreline in significant levels or of an association between the existence of a coastal ocean process and beach contamination at or above AB411 levels. It is concluded that the OCSD plume is not a major cause of beach contamination; no causal links could be demonstrated. This conclusion is based on the absence of direct observation of plume-beach links, on analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline contamination and coastal ocean processes, and on the observation of higher levels of contamination at the beach than in the plume.

  12. Bioremediation of oil contaminated beach material in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, P.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The Office of Research and Development within the Environmental Protection Agency has been evaluating bioremediation to help clean up beaches in Alaska's Prince William Sound following the March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bioremediation techniques have been used elsewhere to accelerate the natural biological degradation of environmental contaminants. The purpose of EPA's project was to determine the best bioremediation approach for the oil contaminated shoreline of Prince William Sound. The major portion of the EPA study, therefore, has been a field demonstration to determine if nutrient (fertilizer) addition to contaminated beaches will effectively stimulate hydrocarbon breakdown by indigenous bacteria. Concurrently, a monitoring program has been instituted to check for any possible adverse environmental effects from nutrient addition. Techniques of applying nutrient mixtures to the beaches have been investigated.

  13. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago's 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

  14. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago’s 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

  15. Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

  16. NUTRIENT TRANSPORT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED BEACHES: EVALUATION WITH LITHIUM AS A CONSERVATIVE TRACER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches typically involves fertilization with nutrients that are thought to limit the growth rate of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Much of the available technology involves application of fertilizers that release nutrients in a water-soluble ...

  17. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  18. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W.; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  19. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-09-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  20. High Levels of Sediment Contamination Have Little Influence on Estuarine Beach Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Andrew C.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    While contaminants are predicted to have measurable impacts on fish assemblages, studies have rarely assessed this potential in the context of natural variability in physico-chemical conditions within and between estuaries. We investigated links between the distribution of sediment contamination (metals and PAHs), physico-chemical variables (pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity) and beach fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Fish communities were sampled using a beach seine within the inner and outer zones of six estuaries that were either heavily modified or relatively unmodified by urbanization and industrial activity. All sampling was replicated over two years with two periods sampled each year. Shannon diversity, biomass and abundance were all significantly higher in the inner zone of estuaries while fish were larger on average in the outer zone. Strong differences in community composition were also detected between the inner and outer zones. Few differences were detected between fish assemblages in heavily modified versus relatively unmodified estuaries despite high concentrations of sediment contaminants in the inner zones of modified estuaries that exceeded recognized sediment quality guidelines. Trends in species distributions, community composition, abundance, Shannon diversity, and average fish weight were strongly correlated to physico-chemical variables and showed a weaker relationship to sediment metal contamination. Sediment PAH concentrations were not significantly related to the fish assemblage. These findings suggest that variation in some physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH) or variables that co-vary with these factors (e.g., wave activity or grain size) have a much greater influence on this fish assemblage than anthropogenic stressors such as contamination. PMID:22039470

  1. Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and

  2. Public health response to an incident of secondary chemical contamination at a beach in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, F; Murray, V; Ouki, S; Iversen, A; Sparks, A; Bartlett, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To gather enough data from a large scale investigation involving two health authorities, to assess the possible concentrations and routes of exposure and the consequent health implications.To use the data to decide whether a polluted beach should remain open to the public. In Spring 1997, a chemical incident came to light at a beach on the south coast of England when a local resident reported a sulphurous smell, visible signs of oil, and reduced numbers of fishing bait. The beach was situated adjacent to a former gasworks site and was accessible to the public. The incident was reported to the local authority and was initially investigated by the Environment Agency and the local authority. An Environment Agency report confirmed contamination of the beach with cyanide, ammonia, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with associated potential health risks. The incident was then referred to the local health authorities for investigation.
METHODS—The investigation was carried out in four stages: comprehensive sampling and analysis to identify the extent of contamination, followed by an assessment of risk to health; establishment of a long term monitoring programme to identify any changes in contaminant concentrations; investigation of the effects of the contamination on shellfish; and review of the routine monitoring data and current sampling strategy.
RESULTS—The initial investigation confirmed that the beach was contaminated, with the most likely source being the adjacent former gasworks site. The level of contamination was not found to be likely to pose a hazard to users of the beach. However, subsequent investigation of shellfish in the area led to warning signs being erected on the beach to prevent human consumption of mussels contaminated with PAHs.
CONCLUSIONS—Several lessons can be learnt from this investigation, which can be applied to incident management more generally: the importance of collaboration and coordination; the need

  3. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use. PMID:26481414

  4. Use of Spatial Sampling and Microbial Source-Tracking Tools for Understanding Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Bertke, Erin E.; Finnegan, Dennis P.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Rhoades, John; Stumpe, Lester

    2006-01-01

    Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifying spatial patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in each area, determining weather patterns that caused elevated E. coli, and applying microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to specific sites. Three MST methods were used during this study: multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of E. coli isolates and the presence of human-specific genetic markers within two types of bacteria, the genus Bacteroides and the species Enterococcus faecium. At Edgewater, sampling for E. coli was done during 2003-05 at bathing-area sites, at nearshore lake sites, and in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore areas. Spatial sampling at nearshore lake sites showed that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin; E. coli concentrations near the mouths of rivers and outfalls remote to the beach were elevated (greater than 235 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) but decreased along transport pathways to the beach. In addition, E. coli concentrations were generally highest in bathing-area samples collected at 1- and 2-foot water depths, midrange at 3-foot depths, and lowest in nearshore lake samples typically collected 150 feet from the shoreline. Elevated E. coli concentrations at bathing-area sites were generally associated with increased wave heights and rainfall, but not always. E. coli concentrations were often elevated in shallow ground-water samples, especially in samples collected less than 10 feet from the edge of water (near foreshore area). The interaction of shallow ground water and waves may be a mechanism of E. coli storage and accumulation in foreshore sands. Infiltration of bird feces through sand with surface water from rainfall and high waves may be concentrating

  5. Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2

  6. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...

  7. Simulating hydrodynamics on tidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Lippmann, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycling in estuaries is governed by fluxes from both riverine sources and through estuarine sediment deposits. Although estimates from river sources are relatively common and easily sampled, estimates of nutrient fluxes through the fluid-sediment interface are less common and limited to deeper portions of the bays away from intertidal areas. Lack of quantifiable shear stress estimates over intertidal areas limits our overall understanding of nutrient budgets in estuaries. Unfortunately, observation of intertidal hydrodynamics and nutrient fluxes over tidal flats and near the water's edge is difficult owing to the temporally varying and spatially extensive region where the tides inundate, and thus numerical modeling is often employed. In this work, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a three dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model was used to investigate the shear stresses over intertidal mudflats in the Great Bay, a tidally-dominated New England estuary cut by several tidal channels and with over 50% of the estuary exposed at low tide. The ROMS wetting and drying scheme was used to simulate the rising and falling tide on the flats, a successful approach adapted in other regions of the world but not always inclusive of tidal channels. Bathymetric data obtained in 2009 and 2013 was used to define the model grid. Predicted tides are forced at Adam's Pt., a natural constriction in the estuary about 20 km upstream of the mouth and at the entrance to the Great Bay. Of particular interest are fluxes of material on-to and off-of the tidal flats which contribute to water quality conditions in the estuary, and are largely governed by shear stresses that drive nutrient fluxes at the fluid-sediment interface. Basin wide estimates of near-bottom shear stresses can be used to estimate first order nutrient fluxes over a tidal cycle and hence describe general biogeochemical dynamics of the estuary. Future work will include enhanced forcing of currents by

  8. Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Trace Contamination of Streams and Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in urban streams and ocean beaches in and around Santa Barbara occasionally can exceed public-health standards for recreation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), working with the City of Santa Barbara, has used multi-disciplinary science to trace the sources of the bacteria. This research is helping local agencies take steps to improve recreational water quality. The USGS used an approach that combined traditional hydrologic and microbiological data, with state-of-the-art genetic, molecular, and chemical tracer analysis. This research integrated physical data on streamflow, ground water, and near-shore oceanography, and made extensive use of modern geophysical and isotopic techniques. Using those techniques, the USGS was able to evaluate the movement of water and the exchange of ground water with near-shore ocean water. The USGS has found that most fecal bacteria in the urban streams came from storm-drain discharges, with the highest concentrations occurring during storm flow. During low streamflow, the concentrations varied as much as three-fold, owing to variable contribution of non-point sources such as outdoor water use and urban runoff to streamflow. Fecal indicator bacteria along ocean beaches were from both stream discharge to the ocean and from non-point sources such as bird fecal material that accumulates in kelp and sand at the high-tide line. Low levels of human-specific Bacteroides, suggesting fecal material from a human source, were consistently detected on area beaches. One potential source, a local sewer line buried beneath the beach, was found not to be responsible for the fecal bacteria.

  9. Bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in the liver and blubber of pilot whales (Globicephala melaena) beached on Cape Cod, MA

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    Populations of many marine organisms in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay have been declining for decades. Overfishing, habitat loss, disease, and exposure to toxic contaminants have been implicated as causative factors for reductions in both commercially important species and endangered marine mammal populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to organic contaminants could be a factor in the pilot whale population decline and to develop a simple bioaccumulation model to assess the relative importance of the route of uptake and the significance of total elimination. Liver and blubber samples from ten individuals beached in 1991 on Cape Cod, MA were analyzed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and linear alkyl benzenes (LABs). PCBs, DDT, DDE, DDD, and other chlorinated pesticides were identified and found to be high (ppm range) in several individuals. PAHs and LABs were typically below one ppb. Concentrations of these contaminants in the water and food that pilot whales consume were used in a bioaccumulation model. The model predicted lower concentrations in the whale than the authors observed. For all but the least hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., naphthalene) they predict that food (biomagnification) is the dominant route of uptake into the whales.

  10. Life on the Tidal Mudflats: Elkhorn Slough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Ruth

    Life in an estuarine environment is studied in this set of audio-visual materials prepared for grades 6-12. A 71-frame colored filmstrip, cassette tape narration, and teacher's guide focus upon Elkhorn Slough, a tidal mudflat in the Monterey Bay area, California. Topics examined range from river drainage and the effects of pollution on living…

  11. Developing and sustainably utilize the coastal mudflat areas in China.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Li-Ping; Shao, Tian-Yun; Shao, Hong-Bo; Liu, Zhao-Pu

    2016-11-01

    Coastal mudflat areas are regarded as the important reserve land resource in China. Rational exploitation and development of the mudflat areas can relieve the stress of inadequate land resources. Probing into the developing models of resource exploitation of coastal tidal mudflats is one of the important components of achieving the sustainable development in the coastal areas. Therefore, the development history of coastal mudflats after 1950s in China is briefly introduced in this paper. Then, the status in quo of the modes of development and utilization of coastal mudflat in China the paper is reviewed with a special attention payed to the agricultural use of coastal resource, especially halophytes and improved salt-tolerant varieties planting, agricultural dyke pond and coastal saline-alkali soil remediation. Based on related research frontier, sustainable developmental prospects of these coastal areas are presented as well. PMID:27396318

  12. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  13. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  14. Health effects of swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational water: Results from studies at nine coastal beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated water has long been known to transmit infectious disease. In 2003, EPA and the CDC initiated studies to better describe the health effects associated with exposure to fecal contamination in recreational waters and to test faster ways of measuring ...

  15. Quality of ground water in the Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, Florida, 1996-1998, with emphasis on contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, Anne; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Kish, George; Bernard, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The high permeability of the sand and limestone sediments and shallow water table of the Biscayne aquifer make ground water vulnerable to contamination by human activities. To assess potential contamination in the aquifer, untreated ground water was sampled from 30 public-supply wells (40-165 feet deep) in Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach Counties, 32 shallow wells (10-50 feet deep) in a recently urbanized (residential and light commercial) part of Broward County, and 3 shallow reference wells in Broward County. Results from sample analyses indicate that major ions, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were generally within the range indicative of background concentrations, except for: (1) substantially higher bromide concentrations in water from public-supply wells in southern Miami-Dade County; (2) a few relatively high (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) concentrations of nitrate in water from public-supply wells near agricultural lands in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties; and (3) a few relatively high concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) in water from some shallow urban wells near golf courses. Pesticides were detected in every public-supply well, in most of the shallow, urban monitoring wells (78 percent), and in one reference well; however, no pesticide concentration exceeded any drinking-water standard. Fifteen different pesticides or their degradation products were detected. The most frequently detected pesticides were atrazine and tebuthiuron; less frequently detected were the herbicides diuron, fenuron, prometon, metolachlor, simazine, and 2,6-diethylaniline. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in most of the public-supply wells (77 percent) and shallow, urban wells (91 percent) and in two of the three reference wells. Thirty-two different VOCs were detected in ground water in the Biscayne aquifer, with cis-1,2-dichloroethene the most frequently detected VOC in the public

  16. Structure and seasonality in a Malaysian mudflat community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom, M. J.

    1982-08-01

    An assessment of community composition and the functional roles of the dominant species has been carried out in two intertidal areas of Malaysian mudflat dominated by natural populations of the arcid bivalve mollusc Anadara granosa. In addition to A. granosa, organisms of numerical importance are the venerid bivalve Pelecyora trigona, the neogastropod Plicarcularia leptospira, the mesogastropods Stenothyra glabrata and Cerithidea cingulata and the hermit crab Diogenes sp. The mesogastropod Natica maculosa and the neogastropod Thais carinifera may be of some importance to community organization but they are not numerically dominant. Annelids are conspicuous by their absence. The following trophic roles are ascribed to specific members of the community: A. granosa—facultative surface deposit feeder; P. trigona—suspension feeder; P. leptospira—scavenger; C. cingulata—deposit feeder/grazer; S. glabrata—deposit feeder/grazer; N. maculosa—predator; T. carinifera—predator; Diogenes sp.—scavenger/predator. S. glabrata is of particular interest because it appears to fill the niche occupied by mud snails of the genus Hydrobia in temperate mudflat systems. There is evidence of seasonality on the mudflats which points to a spawning of certain forms triggered by the major annual salinity depression at the time of the onset of the north-east monsoon in October/November. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a show no obvious signs of a seasonal fluctuation and the seasonality of the primary consumers is not thought to be related to food abundance. However there is some evidence of seasonality of reproduction in N. maculosa which preys on the seasonally reproducing bivalves.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  18. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  19. Distribution of extracellular carbohydrates in three intertidal mudflats in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brouwer, J. F. C.; de Deckere, E. M. G. T.; Stal, L. J.

    2003-02-01

    In this study, the spatial distribution of two operationally defined extracellular carbohydrate fractions (water- and EDTA-extractable carbohydrates) were examined in three intertidal mudflats in Western Europe (Dollard, the Netherlands; Marennes, France; Humber, UK). The three mudflats were sampled along cross-shore transects and sediment cores were sliced to a depth of 5 cm. In these mudflats, diatoms were the dominant component of the microphytobenthos. Carbohydrate content showed little variation with depth, but it varied along transects within each mudflat. Carbohydrate contents were also significantly different between the mudflats, and the carbohydrate contents of the stations within a mudflat grouped together resulting in separate clusters. This was also observed when the Marennes mudflat was investigated on a temporal scale. These results suggest that processes that act on the scale of whole mudflats determine the variations in extracellular carbohydrate contents. In the surface 0.5 cm of the sediment, water-extractable carbohydrates showed a correlation with both chlorophyll a content and median grain size, while EDTA-extractable carbohydrates were only correlated with median grain size. Incubation experiments also showed the importance of microphytobenthos as a source of extracellular carbohydrate, especially when subjected to the light. Analyses of the monosaccharide distribution of the carbohydrate fractions revealed that the carbohydrate composition was largely similar between the areas investigated. Structurally, the carbohydrates found in these sediments seem to represent a biorefractory part of the freshly produced carbohydrates that remained after rapid degradation of the more labile component.

  20. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  1. Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of

  2. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  3. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  4. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris. PMID:15530520

  5. Evaluation of the potential bioaccumulation ability of the blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) for assessment of environmental matrices of mudflats.

    PubMed

    Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Gobas, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The spatial distribution of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAHs) was quantified in aquacultures located in intertidal mudflats of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in order to investigate bioaccumulation of PAH in blood cockles, Anadara granosa (A. granosa). Fifty-four samples from environmental matrices and A. granosa were collected. The sampling locations were representative of a remote area as well as PAH-polluted areas. The relationship of increased background levels of PAH to anthropogenic PAH sources in the environment and their effects on bioaccumulation levels of A. granosa are investigated in this study. The levels of PAH in the most polluted station were found to be up to ten-fold higher than in remote areas in blood cockle. These high concentrations of PAHs reflected background contamination, which originates from distant airborne and waterborne transportation of contaminated particles. The fraction and source identification of PAHs, based on fate and transport considerations, showed a mix of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. The relative biota-sediment accumulation factors (RBSAF), relative bioaccumulation factors from filtered water (RBAFw), and from suspended particulate matter (SPM) (RBAFSP) showed higher bioaccumulations of the lower molecular weight of PAHs (LMWs) in all stations, except Kuala Juru, which showed higher bioaccumulation of the higher molecular weight of PAHs (HMWs). Calculations of bioaccumulation factors showed that blood cockle can accumulate PAHs from sediment as well as water samples, based on the physico-chemical characteristics of habitat and behaviour of blood cockles. Correlations among concentrations of PAHs in water, SPM, sediment and A. granosa at the same sites were also found. Identification of PAH levels in different matrices showed that A. granosa can be used as a good biomonitor for LMW of PAHs and tPAHs in mudflats. Considering the toxicity and carcinogenicity of PAHs, the bioaccumulation by blood cockles

  6. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  7. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  8. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  9. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  10. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

  11. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. The effect of wave-induced turbulence on intertidal mudflats: Impact of boat traffic and wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney, R.; Deloffre, J.; Brun-Cottan, J.-C.; Lafite, R.

    2007-03-01

    Semi-diurnal and fortnightly surveys were carried out to quantify the effects of wind- and navigation-induced high-energy events on bed sediments above intertidal mudflats. The mudflats are located in the upper fluvial part (Oissel mudflat) and at the mouth (Vasière Nord mudflat) of the macrotidal Seine estuary. Instantaneous flow velocities and mudflat bed elevation were measured at a high frequency and high resolution with an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) and an ALTUS altimeter, respectively. Suspended particulate matter concentrations were estimated by calibrating the ADV acoustic backscattered intensity with bed sediments collected at the study sites. Turbulent bed shear stress values were estimated by the turbulent kinetic energy method, using velocity variances filtered from the wave contribution. Wave shear stress and maximum wave-current shear stress values were calculated with the wave-current interaction (WCI) model, which is based on the bed roughness length, wave orbital velocities and the wave period ( TS). In the fluvial part of the estuary, boat passages occurred unevenly during the surveys and were characterized by long waves ( TS>50 s) induced by the drawdown effect and by short boat-waves ( TS<10 s). Boat waves generated large bottom shear stress values of 0.5 N m -2 for 2-5 min periods and, in burst of several seconds, larger bottom shear stress values up to 1 N m -2. At the mouth of the estuary, west south-west wind events generated short waves ( TS<10 s) of HS values ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 m. In shallow-water environment (water depth <1.5 m), these waves produced bottom shear stress values between 1 and 2 N m -2. Wave-current shear stress values are one order of magnitude larger than the current-induced shear stress and indicate that navigation and wind are the dominant hydrodynamic forcing parameters above the two mudflats. Bed elevation and SPM concentration time series showed that these high energy events induced erosion processes of

  13. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  14. Morphodynamic evolution of an intertidal mudflat under the influence of Amazon sediment supply - Kourou mud bank, French Guiana, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensac, Erwan; Gardel, Antoine; Lesourd, Sandric; Brutier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The coastal environment between the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers is characterised by the migration of large mud banks formed by accretion of the muddy discharge from the Amazon. The migration of mud in the shallow coastal waters is associated with the creation of mudflats that form a surface for the development of coastal mangroves after consolidation. This study focuses on the fine-scale sedimentary processes involved in the morphodynamic evolution of a consolidated mudflat and its erosion. Mudflats can be divided into two areas: the seafront and the inner part between the seafront and the land. This study highlights a link between tidal mud supply, biofilm migration and increasing elevation in the latter area. The migration of a biofilm through each cycle of tidal supply prevents erosion and permits the continuous accretion of the entire mudflat over several years. This increase in topography is also modulated by fortnightly tidal cycles. Desiccation greatly impacts the mudflat's structure at a yearly scale. This process plays an important role in the erosion of the seafront area under wave action by allowing the formation of mud pebbles, which are progressively abraded into fluid mud supplied to the inner part of the mudflat by over-wash processes. This study provides a better understanding of the behaviour of mudflats on the wave-exposed coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon by describing: (1) the processes involved in sediment exchanges between mudflats and mud banks, (2) the mechanisms associated with the persistence of mudflats along the French Guiana coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon, and (3) the processes involved in the erosion and recycling of these mudflats.

  15. The effect of evaporation and nutrient enrichment on the erodability of mudflats in a mesotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Viggato, T.; Vieillard, A. M.; Fulweiler, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Large areas of mesotidal estuaries become subaerial during low tide. Here we study the effect of nutrient enrichment and several meteorological and hydrodynamic parameters on the erodability of mudflat substrates when they are emergent. We tested the impact of nutrient fertilization on tidal flat sediments over a two week period in September 2011 in Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts (USA). High resolution measurements from our experiment indicate that daily nutrient enrichment does not change the erosion threshold of the muddy substrate, nor affect the concentration of chlorophyll a at the surface. Sediment erodability is instead directly related to the potential evaporation rate and to the duration of the subaerial period. Chlorophyll a concentration decreases when evaporation is high, possibly due to the downward migration of diatoms. Sediment concentrations in the water column during submergence strongly depend on bottom shear stresses triggered by tidal currents. Surprisingly, they are also related to the total evaporation that occurred in the previous emergence period. We conclude that subaerial desiccation at low tide decreases the erodability of mudflat sediments. This strengthening effect is not lost during the following submerged period, thus limiting the erosive effect of tidal currents. For the first time we show that not only subaqueous but also subaerial processes control the erodability of mudflats. Global warming and other climatic variations regulating long-term evaporation rates can therefore directly affect the stability of mudflats in mesotidal environments.

  16. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

  17. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  18. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  19. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in the United States, 2004-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have been rarely investigated and their relationship with beach closure is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 20...

  20. Supratidal beach deposits in Giralia Bay (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - a record for past tropical cyclones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Gelhausen, Henrik; Brill, Dominik; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Leopold, Matthias; Opitz, Stephan; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Past coastal flooding events related to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis may be inferred from geomorphic and sedimentary archives, i.e. in the form of particular landforms (beach ridges, washover fans), deposits (washover sediments in lagoons) or erosional features. In Giralia Bay, southern Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), sandy ridge sequences in supratidal elevations form the landward margin of extensive mudflats. The formation of these ridges, as in other mudflats of NW Australia, is assumed to be mainly driven by TCs, although their relation to depositional processes and inundation levels during spring tide conditions, exceptional precipitation and discharge events, and storm surges needs to be clarified. Based on a simple process monitoring setup using a time-lapse camera and pressure gauges, geomorphological mapping by means of unmanned aerial vehicle survey and structure-from-motion techniques, as well as sedimentological and geochronological investigations, this study aims at (i) establishing the chronostratigraphy and reconstructing the formation of the supratidal beach deposits; (ii) identifying the most important driving processes involved in their formation; and (iii) understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. Sediment trenches cross the youngest, most seaward part of the ridge sequence. At the base of the sedimentary succession, sandy units are interbedded with mud layers, reflecting depositional conditions similar to the present distal mudflat. In the upper part of the ridges, mud intercalations recede, and sand layers of varying grain size distribution and mineralogical content dominate. Younger sediment layers clearly attach to older ones documenting the stepwise accretion of the ridges onto the mudflat. Muddy intercalations in the upper part of the succession are interpreted to represent deposition in locally restricted swales. Monitoring covered the time period between August 2013 and 2015 and capture an exceptional

  1. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Smith, R.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; Herre, Elisabeth; Sturm, Manfred

    2008-03-01

    Where, since the 1980s, patchy and variable green algal mats are prevailing, distinct belts of an amphipod ( Corophium volutator) and seagrass ( Zostera spp.) had dominated in the 1930s. The zonation between tide marks has been mapped in a sheltered sedimentary bay in the Wadden Sea near the island of Sylt (coastal eastern North Sea). Maps on vegetation from 1924 and on selected macrobenthos from 1932 and 1934 are compared with biannual surveys conducted from 1988 to 2006. Rising high water levels and eutrophication are suggested to be major causes of the observed long-term changes. In front of a saltmarsh, a sandy beach developed and partly displaced former cyanobacterial mats. Advancing sandiness may have inhibited C. volutator and facilitated lugworms, Arenicola marina, in the upper tidal zone. A variable occurrence of green algal mats arising in the 1980s affected infauna and seagrass by smothering the biota underneath. This dissolved a coherent belt of Zostera noltii. In the lower tidal zone, natural disturbances had lasting effects on the occurrence of mussels with attached fucoid algae. The spectrum of species became enriched by alien species (13% of macrobenthic taxa). A reversal to habitat structure and biotic zonation of the 1920-1930s does not seem possible. Aliens, in combination with climate change, are expected to further divert the ecological pattern to new configurations.

  3. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  4. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  5. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action. PMID:27188067

  6. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  7. On the ecology of meiofauna in an organically polluted estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, Lucas A.; Romeijn, Karin; Admiraal, Wim

    1984-12-01

    The structure, distribution and seasonal changes of the benthic meiofauna in an organically polluted, tidal, brackish-water mudflat in the Ems-Dollart estuary were analysed. Towards the outfall of polluted fresh water, macrofauna disappeared, numbers of meiofauna increased but the diversity of the meiofauna decreased. In the area surrounding the outfall the numbers and biomass of nematodes and oligochaetes increased rapidly in spring and remained high until autumn ( c. 13 × 10 6 individuals m -2; c. 2gCm -2). The benthic fauna comprised small numbers of species, dominated by a few fast-growing diatom-feeding nematodes ( Eudiplogaster pararmatus and Dichromadora geophila) and oligochaetes ( Amphichaeta sannio and Paranais litoralis). Eudiplogaster pararmatus exhibits brood care and it tolerates low salinities. Dichromadora geophila which is oviparous, behaved similarly regarding tolerances, life cycle and feeding but this species was less successful than Eudiplogaster in colonizing the mudflats near the outfall. The success of the two naidid oligochaete species results from their method of reproduction by means of binary fission. Most organisms fed on benthic diatoms. In spite of intensive mineralization in the mudflat, only one bacteria-feeding organism was found in abundance (the nematode Leptolaimus papilliger). The absence of macrofaunal organisms, e.g. Nereis diversicolor, is probably also responsible for the development of high densities of meiofauna in the upper sediment layers of the mudflats in the vicinity of the outfall. The heavy load of organic waste entering the Dollart reduced the diversity within the benthic ecosystem, but nevertheless a simple system remained, based on the recurrent reoxidation of the sediment surface.

  8. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  9. Morphodynamics of Accreting Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Sherwood, C. R.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Beaches along the Pacific Northwest coast of the US have been shown to have large seasonal variability in shoreline position with several 10's of meters of recession occurring during the winter (high-energy waves) and typically similar scales of beach recovery during the summer (low-energy waves). However, many beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year over decades, resulting in significant shoreline realignment. This historical shoreline advance has been primarily due to the dispersal of sand from the flanks of the ebb-tidal deltas following jetty construction at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The installation of jetties removed the shallow shoals from the influence of tidal currents, resulting in a shoreface profile that was too shallow for the inherent wave energy. Onshore transport of large quantities of sand occurred over the next several decades, decreasing through time. While much of the original source material is now exhausted, many beaches today are still rapidly accreting on inter-annual time scales. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for this continued accretion. The primary morphodynamic mechanism for sub-aerial beach growth, and shoreline progradation on a seasonal scale, is hypothesized to be the development, onshore migration, and welding of inter-tidal (swash) bars to the upper beach face. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with accreting beaches we have completed two field experiments and are applying computational models that link measured sediment transport to wave and current forcing. Experiments completed in Spring 2001 and Summer 2002 combined process measurements with observations of

  10. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  11. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2007-06-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 × 10 6 m 3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ± 14 × 10 6 m 3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ± 3.4 to 60.6 ± 6.2 km 2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ± 3 × 10 6 m 3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 × 10 6 m 3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ± 3.9 km 2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers.

  12. High-resolution topography using SfM-photogrammetry from UAV for coastal mudflat geomorphic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Jules; Brunier, Guillaume; Michaud, Emma; Anthony, Edward; Morvan, Sylvain; Dussouillez, Philippe; Gardel, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    The coast between the Amazon and the Orinoco river mouths comprises mud banks formed from the large muddy discharge of the Amazon and migrating westward under the influence of waves and currents. These banks are highly dynamic and strongly affected by complex hydro-bio-geochemical interactions that are also important in mangrove colonization of bare mudflats in the upper intertidal zone of these banks. The surface topography of these mud banks is further affected by physical and biological processes such as tidal channel incision and bioturbation. Surveying the morphology of these mudflats over large areas and at a high-resolution without perturbing their surface is a real challenge that cannot be accomplished using classical survey methods such as RTK-GPS or Total Stations. To overcome this hurdle, we conducted a SfM(Surface from Motion)-photogrammetry experiment over 1 ha of a large intertidal mudflat colonized by pioneer mangroves at the mouth of the Sinnamary estuary in French Guiana. We developed a topographic data acquisition system based on sub-vertical aerial photography from a UAV flying at low altitude (15 m), in order to produce images at 3 mm resolution. A light DJI F550 drone was used, with an automatic flight programming using GPS navigation and a flight plan designed on photogrammetric criteria. The payload was a lightweight (250 grams) Ricoh GR camera with an APS-C sensor of 16.2 Megapixel and including an intervalometer triggering function. The drone had a flight autonomy of 12 minutes thus covering entirely the surrounding mudflat platform. The landing procedure was conducted manually in order for the drone to land safely on a very narrow artificial ground base set up for our experiment. 3D-models and derived products were generated using Agisoft Photoscan Professionnal software. We produced a gridded Digital Surface Model (DSM) and an orthophoto in visible bands at 1 cm and 5mm pixel resolution respectively. The vertical accuracy of the DSM based

  13. River flow control on intertidal mudflat sedimentation in the mouth of a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvilliez, Antoine; Lafite, Robert; Deloffre, Julien; Lemoine, Maxence; Langlois, Estelle; Sakho, Issa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of hydrological variability influenced by climatic phenomena upon the sedimentary exchange between the turbidity maximum (TM) and a river mouth intertidal mudflat. This study, carried out over a period of 10 years (1997-2006) in the Seine Estuary (France), is specifically focused on two extreme periods: a wet one from 2001 to 2002 and a drier one from 2005 to 2006. This study is based on an original approach combining data gathered via low-altitude remote sensing with altimeter readings and ground-level measurements. During this 10 year period, we observed a link between climate change and the sedimentary processes on the mudflat surface. The modifications of sedimentary processes are mainly connected to the multiannual variability of hydrological flow rates that control the positioning of the turbidity maximum, the source of the sedimentary material deposited in this intertidal zone. The TM at the mouth of the Seine estuary is well developed; its maximum mass is estimated to be between 300,000 tons and 500,000 tons (Avoine et al., 1981) with maximum concentrations in the surface waters ranging from 1 to 2 g • l- 1 (Le Hir et al., 2001). Most of the fine particles stored within the TM have been found to originate from within the catchment area (Dupont et al., 1994). In the Seine estuary, the dynamics of the estuarine TM, in response to hydrodynamic forcings, have been previously described (Avoine et al., 1981) and modeled (e.g. Brenon and Le Hir, 1999; Le Hir et al., 2001). The TM is upstream of the northern mudflat when the river flow is low (< 450 m • s- 1) and nearby the study area when the river flow is higher. Thus during wet periods, the sedimentation rates increase by + 17 cm • y- 1, while during the drier one (when the turbidity maximum is located upstream of the estuary) we observed an erosion rate of 7.6 cm • y- 1. Sedimentation events in the mudflat resulting from spring tides are less frequent

  14. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  15. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TIDE AND WAVES ON WASHOUT OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE BIOREMEDIATION ZONE OF A COARSE-SAND BEACH: APPLICATION IN OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach materials. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the...

  17. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  18. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  19. Valuing water quality advisories and beach amenities in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Chris; Sohngen, Brent; Pendleton, Linwood

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents estimates of the value of reducing beach advisories in Great Lakes beaches located along Lake Erie's shoreline in Ohio. Given the potential health consequences associated with swimming in contaminated water, health officials have made more effort in recent years to ensure that information about beach advisories is available through the media and other sources. A recent survey of over 800 single-day beach visitors during the summer of 1998 found that nearly two thirds of visitors take advantage of this information when making decisions about their beach trips. When accounting for this information in a travel cost model, we find that the average (across all visitors) seasonal benefits of reducing one advisory is approximately 28 per visitor. Individuals who use the media in advance of trips gain less, approximately 24 per year, while those who use only signs posted at the beach would gain more, $38 per year.

  20. Field experiments on the role of epibenthic predators in determining prey densities in an estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. M.; Warwick, R. M.; Davey, J. T.; George, C. L.

    1985-09-01

    A series of caging experiments was performed on an estuarine mudflat at three seasons of the year, in which Carcinus maenas L. and Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer) were either excluded from, or allowed to prey upon, the benthos in order to determine to what extent infaunal abundance and mortality was a result of predation by epibenthic predators. The difficulties of conducting and interpreting the results of such experiments are recognized. The benthic macrofauna of this mudflat is dominated numerically by small annelids and there is evidence that adult C. maenas can cause significant increases in the oligochaete component of this assemblage, probably as a result of disturbance caused by its burrowing activity. Juvenile C. maenas on the other hand significantly reduced the abundance of small annelids, particularly the dominant polychaete Manayunkia aestuarina (Bourne) and could be responsible for year-to-year variations in abundance of this species. The role of fish predators (in this case P. microps) is more problematical but it is suggested that in the densities at which they occur naturally on the mudflat they have little direct effect on the abundance of prey species. There is no evidence that seasonal mortality of small annelids is reduced in the absence of predation and this is taken to indicate that not all mortality is due to epibenthic predation. Certain changes in relative abundance of the component species of the harpacticoid copepod community were discerned but it is suggested that the plasticity of their reproductive potential is such that the effect of predation on the group as a whole is usually masked.

  1. Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Englebert, Erik T; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2008-10-01

    Recreational beaches constitute a large part of the 12 billion dollar per year tourism industry in Wisconsin. Beach closures due to microbial contamination are costly in terms of lost tourism revenue and adverse publicity for an area. Escherichia coli (E. coli), is used as an indicator of microbial contamination, as high concentrations of this organism should indicate a recent fecal contamination event that may contain other, more pathogenic, bacteria. An additional problem at many beaches in the state is the nuisance algae, Cladophora. It has been hypothesized that mats of Cladophora may harbor high concentrations of E. coli. Three beaches in Door County, WI were selected for study, based on tourist activity and amounts of algae present. Concentrations of E. coli were higher within Cladophora mats than in surrounding water. Beaches displayed an E. coli concentration gradient in water extending away from the Cladophora mats, although this was not statistically significant. Likewise, the amount of Cladophora observed on a beach did not correlate with E. coli concentrations found in routine beach monitoring samples. More work is needed to determine the impact of mats of Cladophora on beach water quality, as well as likely sources of E. coli found within the mats. PMID:18639919

  2. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  3. Association of land use and its change with beach closure in the United States, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Jackson, Laura

    2016-11-15

    Land use and its change have great influences on water quality. However, their impacts on microbial contamination of beach water have rarely been investigated and their relationship with beach actions (e.g., advisories or closure) is still unknown. Here, we analyzed beach closure data obtained from 2004 to 2013 for >500 beaches in the United States, and examined their associations with land use around beaches in 2006 and 2011, as well as the land use change between 2006 and 2011. The results show that the number of beach closures due to elevated indicators of health risk is negatively associated with the percentages of forest, barren land, grassland and wetland, while positively associated with the percentages of urban area. The results from multi-level models also indicate the negative association with forest area but positive association with urban area and agriculture. The examination of the change of land use and the number of beach closures between 2006 and 2011 indicates that the increase in the number of beach closures is positively associated with the increase in urban (β=1.612, p<0.05) and agricultural area including pasture (β=0.098, p<0.05), but negatively associated with the increase in forest area (β=-1.789, p<0.05). The study suggests that urbanization and agriculture development near beaches have adverse effects on beach microbial water quality, while afforestation may protect beach water quality and reduce the number of beach closures. PMID:27459255

  4. Sand patties provide evidence for the presence of Deepwater Horizon oil on the beaches of the West Florida Shelf.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, L D; Basso, J; Pulster, E; Paul, J H

    2015-08-15

    The ecological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill are both long-term and pervasive. The distribution of toxicity and mutagenicity in the Gulf of Mexico suggests oil from the DWH spill could have contaminated the West Florida Shelf (WFS). We utilized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis to determine presence and potential origin of oil contaminants in beach sand patty samples. PAH profiles from WFS beaches were statistically significantly similar to DWH contaminated samples from the Northeast Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Shores, AL; Ft. Pickens, FL). Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a major component of Corexit 9500 dispersant was also detected in the sediments. DOSS concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 5.5ngg(-1) dry weight. Additionally, two samples from DWH oil contaminated beaches were acutely toxic and one WFS beach sediment sample was mutagenic. These observations provide support for the theory that DWH oil made its way onto beaches of the WFS. PMID:26104828

  5. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  6. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team.

    PubMed

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus' estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  7. Tidal and meteorological forcing of sediment transport in tributary mudflat channels

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, David K.; Stacey, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Field observations of flow and sediment transport in a tributary channel through intertidal mudflats indicate that suspended sediment was closely linked to advection and dispersion of a tidal salinity front. During calm weather when tidal forcing was dominant, high concentrations of suspended sediment advected up the mudflat channel in the narrow region between salty water from San Francisco Bay and much fresher runoff from the small local watershed. Salinity and suspended sediment dispersed at similar rates through each tidal inundation, such that during receding ebbs the sediment pulse had spread spatially and maximum concentrations had decreased. Net sediment transport was moderately onshore during the calm weather, as asymmetries in stratification due to tidal straining of the salinity front enhanced deposition, particularly during weaker neap tidal forcing. Sediment transport by tidal forcing was periodically altered by winter storms. During storms, strong winds from the south generated wind waves and temporarily increased suspended sediment concentrations. Increased discharge down the tributary channels due to precipitation had more lasting impact on sediment transport, supplying both buoyancy and fine sediment to the system. Net sediment transport depended on the balance between calm weather tidal forcing and perturbations by episodic storms. Net transport in the tributary channel was generally off-shore during storms and during calm weather spring tides, and on-shore during calm weather neap tides. PMID:21499572

  8. Modeling the effect of wind-waves on the evolution of marshplains and mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Brennan, M.; Crooks, S.; Orr, M.; Koseff, J.; Monismith, S.

    2008-12-01

    A one-dimensional sediment and bed model was constructed to assess the long-term evolution of shallow intertidal zones. Observations indicate that shallow intertidal basins tend to be characterized by a bimodal distribution of water depths into higher marshplain and lower mudflats. The model is used to investigate the mechanisms and factors affecting the transition of a shallow coastal region into either a marshplain accreting to mean high-high water level, or eroding into mudflat. Wind waves and tidal currents both affect the deposition and erosion of sediments. For two weeks, field data was collected at a tidal wetlands restoration site in San Francisco Bay, California to provide a comparison with model results. Two locations within the field site with different wind climates are compared to show the impact of wind on the accretion rate. Model sensitivity is tested for parameters, such as the fetch length, initial marsh elevation, and mass flux of sediment, to study their relative importance to accretion. The model provides a tool in engineering and design applications in developing strategies for restoring or protecting existing tidal marshes.

  9. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel. PMID:20949912

  10. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  11. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  12. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health.

    PubMed

    Sabino, R; Rodrigues, R; Costa, I; Carneiro, C; Cunha, M; Duarte, A; Faria, N; Ferreira, F C; Gargaté, M J; Júlio, C; Martins, M L; Nevers, M B; Oleastro, M; Solo-Gabriele, H; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C; Whitman, R L; Brandão, J

    2014-02-15

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the "Microareias 2012" workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications. PMID:24355396

  13. Sunny with a chance of gastroenteritis: predicting swimmer risk at California beaches.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2015-01-01

    Traditional beach management that uses concentrations of cultivatable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) may lead to delayed notification of unsafe swimming conditions. Predictive, nowcast models of beach water quality may help reduce beach management errors and enhance protection of public health. This study compares performances of five different types of statistical, data-driven predictive models: multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least-squares regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, in predicting advisories due to FIB contamination at 25 beaches along the California coastline. Classification tree and the binary logistic regression model with threshold tuning are consistently the best performing model types for California beaches. Beaches with good performing models usually have a rainfall/flow related dominating factor affecting beach water quality, while beaches having a deteriorating water quality trend or low FIB exceedance rates are less likely to have a good performing model. This study identifies circumstances when predictive models are the most effective, and suggests that using predictive models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions may improve public health protection at California beaches relative to current practices. PMID:25489920

  14. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  15. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamin...

  16. Importance of different carbon sources for macroinvertebrates and fishes of an interlinked mangrove-mudflat ecosystem (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruitwagen, G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Lugendo, B. R.; Mgaya, Y. D.; Bonga, S. E. Wendelaar

    2010-08-01

    Mangroves function as important shelter and feeding habitats for marine fauna, but the degree to which mangrove-derived carbon contributes to local food webs has long been debated. In this study, stable isotope analysis was used as a technique to elucidate the role of mangrove carbon in the diets of the macroinvertebrate and fish fauna of an intertidal fringing mangrove forest and adjacent intertidal/subtidal mudflats in a macrotidal Tanzanian estuary. The expectation was that sessile species and those with low motility depend to a larger extent on local carbon sources than highly motile species. A clear distinction in δ 13C was present between primary producers from mangrove and mudflat habitats. Macroinvertebrates revealed a gradient in their δ 13C where Sesarma crabs were the only species that directly utilised mangrove carbon by feeding on mangrove leaves/detritus. Uca crabs and the gastropod Littoraria scabra showed a higher dependence on microphytobenthos from the mangrove substratum. Among the fish fauna, the amphibious mudskipper was the only species to which the mangroves were accessible during low tide. Consequently this was the only fish species for which it was clear that it fed in the mangrove habitat, most commonly on mangrove-associated Uca crabs. All other species of sessile as well as motile macroinvertebrates and fish from the mangrove and mudflat habitat showed a high degree of utilisation of mudflat carbon. Overall, mangrove carbon thus contributed little to the mangrove and mudflat food webs, despite the high tidal amplitude and the resulting potential for exchange of carbon and fauna in the estuary studied here. Utilisation of mangrove carbon appears to depend more on the ecology of the species in consideration (e.g., species-specific use of zones within the mangrove habitat) than on their potential motility or tolerance to exposure during low tide.

  17. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  18. Now an empty mudflat: past and present benthic abundances in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraan, Casper; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-03-01

    The benthic fauna of two areas in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, Posthuiswad and Staart van Schieringhals, was described in 1930-1960 and again between 1996 and 2005. Here, we document the changes. Whereas both areas formerly had high densities of species that biogenically structured the intertidal mudflats such as mussels Mytilus edulis and cockles Cerastoderma edule, by 1996 they had shown a tenfold decrease in the densities of molluscs, with no recovery till 2005. Although the number of species of polychaetes and crustaceans may not have changed much, their relative abundance did. Nowadays, more polychaete species are common than before. We briefly discuss whether the changes in benthic community composition could be due to industrial fishery practices or eutrophication effects.

  19. Temperature changes in the tidal excursion front and surface sediment of a subtropical mudflat in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birt, Mekiel J.; Tibbetts, Ian R.

    2007-08-01

    Temperature changes in sediment and the inundating water of a subtropical mudflat were determined using a series of data-loggers to monitor the temperature on fine days around the equinox at Lota, Queensland, Australia. On fine days the temperature of the forward shallow (ca. 5 cm) section of an incoming tide is up to 8 °C higher than that of the body of water from which it originates. Stationary data-loggers in the sediment indicate that during the day heat exchange occurred between the sediment and inundating waters, the sediment temperatures dropping from up to 10 °C higher than channel waters to temperatures approaching that of channel water in as little as 30 min following inundation. The implications for intertidal nekton and benthos are discussed.

  20. Effects of shorebird predation and snail abundance on an intertidal mudflat community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheverie, Anne V.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Coffin, Michael R. S.; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2014-09-01

    Top-down effects of predation are well documented in a variety of ecological communities, including marine soft-sediment systems. It has been proposed that intertidal mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, which host a large population of foraging shorebirds each summer, may exhibit this community dynamic. Biofilm (consisting mainly of diatoms) forms the base of the mudflat community food web, which is dominated by the amphipod Corophium volutator. To assess the potential for a trophic cascade, we conducted a manipulative field experiment examining individual and combined effects of the shorebird Calidris pusilla, a primary predator of C. volutator, and the eastern mudsnail (Nassarius obsoletus), an intraguild predator, on community structure (including macrofauna and large meiofauna retained by a 250-μm screen). Snails exhibited density-dependent top-down effects, primarily from strong negative interactions with juvenile and adult C. volutator, likely due to interference, consumption and emigration. Medium and high densities of snails reduced chlorophyll a concentration (a measure of diatom abundance), likely through consumption and disturbance of the sediment. When present at higher densities, snails also increased variability in community structure. Shorebirds were less influential in determining community structure. They reduced C. volutator biomass through consumption, but there was no resulting effect on primary production. Top-down effects of snails and birds were cumulative on C. volutator, but did not generate a trophic cascade. We suggest that a combination of omnivory and intraguild predation by shorebirds and snails, coupled with relatively low grazing pressure by C. volutator, prevented transmission of top-down effects.

  1. Actinian dominated intertidal mudflats: A new case of an extraordinary rare phenomenon from Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schories, Dirk; Reise, Karsten; Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya; Clasing, Elena; Reise, Anneken

    2011-02-01

    Generally, estuarine intertidal mudflats constitute important nurseries for fish and foraging grounds for coastal birds by providing a plenitude of mollusks, worms, and crustaceans as prey, which in turn mostly feed on suspended and benthic microalgae, bacteria, and detritus. Despite the high productivity of such habitats, pronounced variability in both salinity and temperature results typically in low diversity. The only sea anemone reported from estuarine mud is the edwardsiid Nematostella vectensisStephenson, 1935. It occurs widely in the northern hemisphere, and occasionally in extremely high density. Here we document another sea anemone from estuarine mud and muddy sand found in Southern Chile which has similar ecological attributes. Taxonomic confusion has impeded the reporting on this small but prominent member in a macrozoobenthic assemblage, the brooding Anthopleura hermaphroditica (Carlgren, 1899; Anthozoa: Actiniidae). It differs from N. vectensis by the presence of symbiotic algae. Average density under poly- to euhaline conditions in mud and muddy sand at around mid tide level was about 3 actinians per cm 2. An average abundance of 11,000 m - 2 , a biovolume of 487 cm 3 m - 2 , and a biomass of 35.5 g dry organic weight m - 2 were found in mud and muddy sand in two surveys 20 years apart. The mean fishing area of fully expanded individuals covers 42 ± 25 mm 2, corresponding to a circular area with a diameter of 7.3 ± 5.7 mm. Preliminary experiments indicate that associated benthos may be relegated to life below surface by the net of tentacles above the sediment. As no predators on A. hermaphroditica could be found on the mudflat, the success of this mixotrophic sea anemone may entail a trophic dead end.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Gunsan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Hwa-Su; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Iron, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were measured in livers of three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Korea in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways. Iron concentrations in red-necked stints (Calidris ruficollis) (geomean = 1,322 microg/g dw) were higher than in terek sandpipers (Xenus cinereus) (467 microg/g dw), and great knots (Calidris tenuirostris) (158 microg/g dw). Copper concentrations in great knots (85.8 microg/g dw) were significantly higher than in red-necked stints (15.9 microg/g dw) and terek sandpipers (10.4 microg/g dw). However, significant differences in zinc concentrations were not found in livers among shorebird species. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations from this study were within the range of other shorebird studies. We suggest that essential elements such as iron, zinc, and copper are within normal range and are maintained there by normal homeostatic mechanism. Lead and cadmium concentrations differed among shorebird species; red-necked stints (geomeans 27.8 microg/g dw and 4.69 microg/g dw, respectively) were higher than in terek sandpipers (12.9 and 0.44 microg/g dw, respectively), and great knots (5.43 and 0.29 microg/g dw, respectively). Some red-necked stints exceeded toxic levels of lead and cadmium for wild birds. In livers of red-necked stints from Okgu Mudflat, lead and cadmium concentrations were higher than previously reported in other shorebirds. PMID:18763038

  3. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  4. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  5. Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in mudflats along the salinity gradient of an acidified tropical Bornean estuary (South East Asia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brunei River and Bay estuarine system (BES) in the northwest of Borneo is acidic and highly turbid. The system supports extensive intertidal mudflats and presents a potentially steep salinity and pH gradient along its length (45 km). Temporal variation in physical parameters is observed diurnally due to seawater flux during tidal forcing, and stochastically due to elevated freshwater inflow after rains, resulting in a salinity range between 0 and 34 psu. High velocity freshwater run-off from acid sulphate formations during monsoon seasons results in highly variable and acidic conditions (pH 4) at the upper reaches of the BES, whereas the pH is relatively stable (pH 8) at the seaward extremes, due to mixing with seawater from the South China Sea. At their surfaces, the BES mudflats present microbial ecosystems driven by oxygenic phototrophs. To study the effect of various physical parameters on the bacterial diversity of the BES mudflats, surface samples were collected from six sites stretching over 40 km for molecular and phylogentic analysis. Results The bacterial diversity at these sites was compared by community fingerprinting analysis using 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Results revealed functionally conserved, diatom-driven microbial mudflat communities composed of mainly novel, uncultured species. Species composition was evaluated as 50-70% unique for each site along the BES. Clustering of the sequences commonly occurred and revealed that proteobacterial diversity was related to the salinity gradient. When considering all phyla, the diversity varied consistently with physical parameters (including anthropogenic) that are expected to influence microbial composition. Conclusion The BES mudflats were found to comprise the typical functional groups of microorganisms associated with photosynthetic carbon flux, sulfur cycling (Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria

  6. Improving water quality through California's Clean Beach Initiative: an assessment of 17 projects.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, John H

    2010-07-01

    California's Clean Beach Initiative (CBI) funds projects to reduce loads of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) impacting beaches, thus providing an opportunity to judge the effectiveness of various CBI water pollution control strategies. Seventeen initial projects were selected for assessment to determine their effectiveness on reducing FIB in the receiving waters along beaches nearest to the projects. Control strategies included low-flow diversions, sterilization facilities, sewer improvements, pier best management practices (BMPs), vegetative swales, and enclosed beach BMPs. Assessments were based on statistical changes in pre- and postproject mean densities of FIB at shoreline monitoring stations targeted by the projects. Most low-flow diversions and the wetland swale project were effective in removing all contaminated runoff from beaches. UV sterilization was effective when coupled with pretreatment filtration and where effluent was released within a few hundred meters of the beach to avoid FIB regrowth. Other BMPs were less effective because they treated only a portion of contaminant sources impacting their target beach. These findings should be useful to other coastal states and agencies faced with similar pollution control problems. PMID:19496001

  7. Groundwater dynamics in a coastal aquifer: combined effects of tides and beach morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, L.; Erler, D.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between fresh groundwater and seawater, driven by oceanic oscillations and the inland hydraulic head gradient, has been shown to affect the pore water characteristics, which in turn influence the fate of contaminants in coastal aquifers. We show here that beach morphology interacting with the tidal force can also modulate nearshore groundwater flow and solute transport. Detailed field investigations were combined with numerical simulations to examine the groundwater dynamics in a carbonate-sandy intertidal aquifer on the tropical island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Groundwater salinity values revealed different salinity distributions under conditions of different beach profiles, inland heads and tidal signals. Fresh groundwater was also found to discharge around an intertidal beach slope break (located in the middle region of intertidal zone). This suggests that the interplay of beach morphology and tidal forcing may play an important role in groundwater flow and solute transport near the shore. The numerical models enabled quantitatively analysis of the effects of beach morphology on groundwater circulations and solute pathway. We found that (1) the groundwater discharge location is largely controlled by beach morphology in connection with the tidal force; (2) under particular conditions, the groundwater flow pattern is very sensitive to the beach slope breaks. In particular, the beach slope break combined with the tidal oscillation can induce local circulation cells. These results further demonstrate the complexity of nearshore groundwater systems and have implications for future studies of nutrients transport and transformations associated with SGD.

  8. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch and Early Coverage of Times Beach: Watchdog or Muted Trumpet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pierre, Yvette

    Times Beach, Missouri, a small town close to the Meramec River and about 25 miles from St. Louis, is now deserted due to contamination from dioxin, a contaminant generated during the production of some cleansers, herbicides, and pesticides. From November 30, 1982, until the end of January 1983, the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" ran 55 articles about…

  9. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  10. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. PMID:26092255

  11. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  12. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  13. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  14. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach.

    PubMed

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro Filho, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  15. Population structure of resident, immigrant, and swimming Corophium volutator (Amphipoda) on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2012-05-01

    Spatial variation in biotic and abiotic conditions, and differences in dispersive behavior of different life history stages can result in the formation of zones with different demography for infaunal and epifaunal species within vast intertidal flats. In this study, we evaluated within-mudflat homogeneity of the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator found in the mud (residents), colonizing artificially disturbed areas (immigrants), and caught in the water column (swimmers) on a large mudflat in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. Densities of residents, immigrants, and swimmers were well structured in space (both along and across shore). Occasionally, significant differences in size structure, sex ratio, and proportion of ovigerous females were found at different intertidal levels, but these were short-lived. Comparisons of size and sex structure of residents, immigrants, and swimmers revealed occasional marked differences, with small juveniles and large adult males moving most. However, this size-bias in movement did not translate into zones with different population dynamics, suggesting that ample dispersal, through swimming and drifting in the water column, homogenized the population and masked potential effects of variation in environmental conditions. We therefore conclude that the mudflat represents one homogeneous population.

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mudflat snails (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Amphiboloidea) supports an Australasian centre of origin.

    PubMed

    Golding, Rosemary E

    2012-04-01

    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata. PMID:22210412

  17. Estuarine macrofauna responses to continuous in situ nutrient addition on a tropical mudflat.

    PubMed

    Botter-Carvalho, Mônica L; Carvalho, Paulo V V C; Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

    2014-06-15

    A field experiment to assess the effects of continuous nutrient addition on the macrobenthic community was carried out on an estuarine mudflat on the northeast coast of Brazil. The experiment began on 5 October 2005 and ended on 8 February 2006. Macrofauna was compared at approximately four-week intervals in triplicate plots with three levels (Control - C, Low Dose - LD and High Dose - HD) of weekly fertilizer additions for 17 weeks. Inorganic fertilizer (N-P-K) was applied on nine randomly defined quadrangular plots (4m(2) each). All measurements were calculated from species abundances. Multivariate analyses as well as the univariate indices (richness, abundance and Shannon-Wiener index) showed statistically significant differences between the enriched and control areas during the period of the experiment. The expected gradual response based on the succession model of Pearson and Rosenberg was not observed. The nutrient doses used were high enough to cause severe decreases in abundance, richness and evenness, and an increase in dominance. PMID:24835372

  18. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marirosa; Hunter, Shayla; Cyterski, Mike; Peed, Lindsay A; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Prieto, Lourdes; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-11-01

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamination could be present at beaches solely impacted by urban runoff. Accurately estimating risk requires understanding sources, concentrations, and transport mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these environments. By applying microbial source tracking methods and empirical modeling, we assessed the presence and level of human contamination at urban runoff impacted recreational beaches. We also identified environmental parameters and pollution sources that can influence the concentration and transport of culturable and molecular fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in systems impacted solely by urban runoff. Water samples and physico-chemical parameters were collected from shoreline locations from three South Carolina (SC) beaches (five locations per beach) and two Florida (FL) beaches (three locations per beach). Each SC beach was directly impacted by swashes or tidal creeks receiving stormwater runoff from the urbanized area and therefore were designated as swash drain associated (SDA) beaches, while FL beaches were designated as non-swash drain associated (NSDA). Sampling in swash drains (SD; three sites per SD) directly impacting each SC beach was also conducted. Results indicate that although culturable (enterococci) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (EC23S857, Entero1, and GenBac3) FIB concentrations were, on average, higher at SD locations, SDA beaches did not have consistently higher molecular FIB signals compared to NSDA beaches. Both human-associated markers (HF183 and HumM2) were concomitantly found only at SDA beaches. Bacteroidales species-specific qPCR markers (BsteriF1 and BuniF2) identified differences in the Bacteroidales community, depending on beach

  19. Coupling Between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in the Salinas De San Pedro Mudflat, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Diaz, S.; Torres, V.; Lazzaretto, T.; Dehyn, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 [ppm], which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001-0.005 (Cd); 0.04-0.02 (Cr); 0.13-0.38 (Cu); 0.11-0.38 (Pb); 0.0009-0.020 (Se); and 0.188-0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved O2 [ppm] in the pore water sediment indicates suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 [ppm] and loss on ignition (LOI) [%] correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI; that is to say the excess CO2 may caused higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower soil organic matter (LOI) [%] on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of

  20. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  1. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  2. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  3. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  4. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  5. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  6. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  7. Fecal indicator bacteria in tropical beach sand: Baseline findings from Port Dickson coastline, Strait of Malacca (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Shamira, Siti Shafiqa; Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-09-15

    This pilot study aims to assess Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and its perceived health risks among beachgoers in ten tropical beach sands along Port Dickson coastline (Malaysia). This study also aims to determine the relationship between perceived health symptoms and tropical beach sand exposure behavior. The concentration of E. coli in tropical beach sand ranged from 60cfu/100g to 4113cfu/100g. E. coli contamination was the highest at Tanjung Gemuk (4113±30cfu/100g) and the lowest at Tanjung Tuan (60±15cfu/100g); the high level of contamination could be due to the location of the former at the sewage outlet of nearby hotels. Skin symptoms were the most predominant among the health symptoms indicated by beachgoers. Exposure duration was significantly correlated with the perceived health symptoms among beachgoers in the beaches studied. PMID:27289286

  8. Medium timescale stability of tidal mudflats in Bridgwater Bay, Bristol Channel, UK: Influence of tides, waves and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Jason R.; Kirby, Robert

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an 11-year study into mudflat elevation changes within the intertidal zone at Stert Flats in Bridgwater Bay, Somerset. This site is located in the outer Severn Estuary/inner Bristol Channel which is a macro-hypertidal regime dominated by physical processes, characterized by strong tidal currents, high turbidity and a significant degree of exposure to wind generated waves. Two transects of stakes were installed perpendicular to the coast, extending seawards 300 m from the edge of the saltmarsh onto the mudflats, against which variations in accretion or erosion could be measured. The mudflats themselves consisted of an underlying consolidated clay of Holocene age and a surface veneer of fluid mud and/or mobile sand patches which varied both spatially and temporally. Mudflat development was recorded over both short-term (monthly/seasonal) and medium-term (inter-annual) timescales. The results display a significant degree of scatter over all timescales. Such variability in response may be expected in such a dynamic system where noise can be attributed to a combination of factors such as the mobility of surface fluid mud and sand patches and the migration of the underlying ridge-runnel drainage network. Despite this, the expected short-term variations related to neap-spring tidal conditions and seasonal influences were observed at a number of locations on the transects although these were weakly expressed. The over-riding feature of the profiles is a consistent long-term trend of erosion which appears to be masking shorter term trends within the dataset. Viewed over the 11-year period, the changes in mudflat elevation closely match the pattern of the index of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the 1990s, suggesting a strong climatic control over mudflat development on a medium-term/decadal scale. Most profiles display a strong erosional trend during the early 1990s when the NAO index was positive. The erosional trend peaked in

  9. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  10. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  11. Quality of Tourist Beaches in Huatulco, SW of Mexico: Multiproxy Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retama, I.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    40 beach water and sediment samples were collected from the inter-tidal zones of tourist beaches of Huatulco in the State of Oaxaca, South Western part of Mexico. The samples were collected in an aim to know the concentration pattern of metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Hg) in sediments and microplastics. Physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids, salinity and redox potential. Collection of samples was done during the peak season in April 2013. Our results from water samples indicate that the physico-chemical conditions of the beach water have been altered due to human activities in large numbers. The bioavailable metal concentrations indicate that enrichment of Pb, Cd, Cr and As and it is also supported by the higher values observed from the calculation of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. The higher values in the sediments is either due to natural sources like chemical weathering of rocks and external sources, which points to high tourism, agricultural activities in the region. Identification of micro-plastics was done through SEM photographs, indicating the type of plastic wastes deposited into the beach regions which can indicate the density, durability and the persistence level in the sediments. Eventhough the enrichment of metals and modification of beach water quality is observed, care need to be taken to avoid further damage to the coastal ecosystem. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Beach water, Micro plastics, Trace metals, Contamination indices, Huatulco, Mexico.

  12. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches

  13. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  14. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  15. Effects of antagonistic ecosystem engineers on macrofauna communities in a patchy, intertidal mudflat landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklöf, J. S.; Donadi, S.; van der Heide, T.; van der Zee, E. M.; Eriksson, B. K.

    2015-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that strongly modify abiotic conditions and in the process alter associated communities. Different types of benthic ecosystem engineers have been suggested to facilitate different communities in otherwise similar marine environments, partly because they alter sediment conditions in contrasting ways. However, most studies testing this hypothesis have either not manipulated the presence of engineers, or have transplanted engineers into areas already dominated by other engineers, which limits the ability to assess the relative engineering effects. Here we combined a field survey and a field experiment to investigate if two contrasting ecosystem engineers - the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltei and the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina - facilitate different macrofauna communities. The study was performed in a sheltered mudflat area of the eastern Dutch Wadden Sea, where seagrasses and lugworms form a mosaic of spatially alternating seagrass-dominated elevations (hummocks) and lugworm-dominated depressions (hollows). Results showed that seagrasses facilitated some organisms (mainly attached epifauna) while lugworms facilitated others (primarily burrowing infauna), generating distinctly different macrofauna communities in hummocks and hollows. However, seagrasses had a much stronger effect on the macrofauna communities than lugworms, and competitively excluded lugworms. This contrasts with results from similar studies in hydrodynamically more exposed sand flats, where lugworms instead dominate communities and exclude seagrass. We therefore propose that effects of ecosystem engineering (acting primarily on a local scale) and variation in abiotic conditions (acting on larger scales, e.g., hydrodynamic gradients along the Dutch coastline) strongly interact to dictate the distribution and fitness of engineering species, and indirectly, the diversity and structure of associated benthic communities.

  16. Photo-regulation in microphytobenthos from intertidal mudflats and non-tidal coastal shallows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pniewski, Filip F.; Biskup, Paulina; Bubak, Iwona; Richard, Pierre; Latała, Adam; Blanchard, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated seasonal changes in the photo-regulatory mechanisms of microphytobenthos found in intertidal mudflats (Aiguillon Bay, the Atlantic, France) and non-tidal sandy coastal shallows (Puck Bay, the Baltic, Poland) based on photosynthetic pigment characteristics and the estimates of photosynthetic parameters obtained through oxygen evolution measurements. The intertidal communities consisted of motile diatom species typical of epipelon. The non-tidal microphytobenthos was composed of epipsammic species mostly belonging to four taxonomic groups chiefly contributing to the assemblage biomass, namely cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, green algae and diatoms (comprising mainly small-sized species). The epipelon was low light acclimated as shown by the lower values of photoprotective/photosynthetic (PPC/PSC) carotenoids and diatoxanthin/diadinoxanthin (Dt/Dd) ratios. In contrast, the epipsammon exhibited features of high light acclimation (high PPC/PSC and Dt/Dd ratios). In both microphytobenthos types, the photosynthetic capacity (Pm) showed the same seasonal variation pattern and there were no statistically significant differences between the investigated sites in corresponding seasons (P > 0.05). In both assemblage types, the photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance (α) decreased over time. The epipelon had higher α compared to the epipsammon. Seasonal changes of the photoacclimation index (Ek) estimated for the epipelic communities reflected variations observed in Pm, whereas in the epipsammon an increasing trend in Ek values was observed. Ek was always higher for the epipsammon when comparing analogous seasons, which further corroborated low and high light acclimation in the epipelic and epipsammic communities, respectively. The presence of the photoinhibition parameter (β) in the epipelon and the lack of it in the epipsammon suggested that the latter was resistant to high irradiance and the physiological mechanisms were sufficient to protect

  17. Trophic resource partitioning within a shorebird community feeding on intertidal mudflat habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, Pierrick; Robin, Frédéric; Kojadinovic, Jessica; Delaporte, Philippe; Rousseau, Pierre; Dupuy, Christine; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    In ecological systems, it is necessary to describe the trophic niches of species and their segregation or overlap to understand the distribution of species in the community. In oceanic systems, the community structure of top predators such as seabird communities has been well documented with many studies in several biogeographical areas. But for coastal habitats, very few investigations on the trophic structure have been carried out in avian communities. In this study, the trophic resource partitioning was investigated on eight of the most abundant species of a shorebird community on the central Atlantic coast of France. Our work comprised a comprehensive sample of birds with different ecomorphogical patterns and data on their main prey to encompass potential sources of overlap and segregation in this community. We examined the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of blood to investigate the trophic structure (1) on a temporal scale by comparing migration and wintering periods; (2) on a spatial scale through inter-site comparisons; and (3) on the community level within groups of phylogenetically related species. Diets appeared different in several cases between periods, between sites and between juveniles and adults for the same sites. A clear trophic partitioning was established with four functional groups of predators in winter inside the community. The Grey Plover, the Bar-tailed Godwit, the Curlew and a majority of the dunlins were worm-eaters mainly feeding on Nereis diversicolor or Nephtys hombergii. Two species were predominantly deposit-suspensivorous mollusc-eaters, including the Red Knot and the Black-tailed Godwit feeding mainly on Macoma balthica. The Oystercatcher fed mainly on suspensivorous molluscs like Cerastodrema edule and two species including the Redshank and some dunlins adopted opportunistic behaviours feeding on mudflat and/or in marshes.

  18. Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacVean, Lissa J.; Lacy, Jessica R.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements were collected on a shallow estuarine mudflat in northern San Francisco Bay to examine the physical processes controlling waves, turbulence, sediment resuspension, and their interactions. Tides alone forced weak to moderate currents of 10-30 cm s-1 in depths of 0-3 m, and maintained a background suspension of 30-50 mg L-1 of fine sediment. In the presence of wind waves, bottom orbital velocities spanned 20-30 cm s-1, suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) at 15 and 30 cm above the bed (cmab) increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and vertical gradients in SSC were strong enough to produce turbulence-limiting stratification, with gradient Richardson numbers exceeding 0.25. Simultaneously, turbulent stresses (decomposed from wave motions) increased by an order of magnitude. The apparent contradiction of energetic turbulence in the presence of strong stratification was reconciled by considering the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget: in general, dissipation and buoyancy flux were balanced by local shear production, and each of these terms increased during wave events. The classic wave-current boundary layer model represented the observations qualitatively, but not quantitatively since the velocity profile could not be approximated as logarithmic. Rather, the mean shear was elevated by the Stokes drift return flow and wind-generated surface stress, which diffused sediment upward and limited stratification. Our findings highlight a pathway for waves to supply energy to both the production and destruction of turbulence, and demonstrate that in such shallow depths, TKE and SSC can be elevated over more of the water column than predicted by traditional models.

  19. Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

    2007-09-01

    The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

  20. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  1. Seasonal distribution of metals in vertical and horizontal profiles of sheltered and exposed beaches on Polish coast.

    PubMed

    Bigus, Katarzyna; Astel, Aleksander; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2016-05-15

    The distribution of alkali and heavy metals in coastal sediments of three Polish beaches was assessed. In all locations there are sandy beaches of different characteristics according to the anthropogenic impact and degree of sheltering. Core sediments collected in Czołpino and Ustka were characterized by the highest concentration of Cd, Ag, Ba, and Al, Cu, Cr, Bi, Na, respectively. Among the alkaline metals core sediments were the most abundant with Ca, Bi, Mg and Na, presenting almost stable decreasing order in all beaches. The majority of dredge material collected can be classified as light or trace contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Hg. An abundance of mineralogical components in core sediments in Ustka increases in Summer and Autumn, while in Puck is stable throughout the year. The content of studied metals in core sediments collected in three Polish beaches changes both in the vertical and horizontal profiles of the beach. PMID:26975611

  2. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus. PMID:27321884

  3. Microorganism dynamics during a rising tide: Disentangling effects of resuspension and mixing with offshore waters above an intertidal mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guizien, Katell; Dupuy, Christine; Ory, Pascaline; Montanié, Hélène; Hartmann, Hans; Chatelain, Mathieu; Karpytchev, Mikhaïl

    2014-01-01

    Resuspension of microphytobenthic biomass that builds up during low tide has been acknowledged as a major driver of the highly productive food web of intertidal mudflats. Yet, little is known about the contribution to pelagic food web of the resuspension of other microorganisms such as viruses, picoeukaryotes, cyanobacteria, bacteria, nanoflagellates, and ciliates, living in biofilms associated with microphytobenthos and surficial sediment. In the present study, a novel approach that involves simultaneous Lagrangian and Eulerian surveys enabled to disentangle the effects of resuspension and mixing with offshore waters on the dynamics of water column microorganisms during a rising tide in the presence of waves. Temporal changes in the concentration of microorganisms present in the water column were recorded along a 3 km cross-shore transect and at a fixed subtidal location. In both surveys, physical and biological processes were separated by comparing the time-evolution of sedimentary particles and microorganism concentrations. During a rising tide, sediment erosion under wave action occurred over the lower and upper parts of the mudflat, where erodibility was highest. Although erosion was expected to enrich the water column with the most abundant benthic microorganisms, such as diatoms, bacteria and viruses, enrichment was only observed for nanoflagellates and ciliates. Grazing probably overwhelmed erosion transfer for diatoms and bacteria, while adsorption on clayed particles may have masked the expected water column enrichment in free viruses due to resuspension. Ciliate enrichment could not be attributed to resuspension as those organisms were absent from the sediment. Wave agitation during the water flow on the mudflat likely dispersed gregarious ciliates over the entire water column. During the rising tide, offshore waters imported more autotrophic, mainly cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus sp. than heterotrophic microorganisms, but this import was also heavily

  4. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p <0.0001), and there was no significant difference between control and raking treatments (p<0.01). This study demonstrates the beach management implications related to grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  5. Interaction and influence of two creeks on Escherichia coli concentrations of nearby beaches: Exploration of predictability and mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Frick, W.E.; Ge, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of river outfalls on beach water quality depends on numerous interacting factors. The delivery of contaminants by multiple creeks greatly complicates understanding of the source contributions, especially when pollution might originate up- or down-coast of beaches. We studied two beaches along Lake Michigan that are located between two creek outfalls to determine the hydrometeorologic factors influencing near-shore microbiologic water quality and the relative impact of the creeks. The creeks continuously delivered water with high concentrations of Escherichia coli to Lake Michigan, and the direction of transport of these bacteria was affected by current direction. Current direction reversals were associated with elevated E. coli concentrations at Central Avenue beach. Rainfall, barometric pressure, wave height, wave period, and creek specific conductance were significantly related to E. coli concentration at the beaches and were the parameters used in predictive models that best described E. coli variation at the two beaches. Multiple inputs to numerous beaches complicates the analysis and understanding of the relative relationship of sources but affords opportunities for showing how these complex creek inputs might interact to yield collective or individual effects on beach water quality.

  6. Interaction and influence of two creeks on Escherichia coli concentrations of nearby beaches: exploration of predictability and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L; Frick, Walter E; Ge, Zhongfu

    2007-01-01

    The impact of river outfalls on beach water quality depends on numerous interacting factors. The delivery of contaminants by multiple creeks greatly complicates understanding of the source contributions, especially when pollution might originate up- or down-coast of beaches. We studied two beaches along Lake Michigan that are located between two creek outfalls to determine the hydrometeorologic factors influencing near-shore microbiologic water quality and the relative impact of the creeks. The creeks continuously delivered water with high concentrations of Escherichia coli to Lake Michigan, and the direction of transport of these bacteria was affected by current direction. Current direction reversals were associated with elevated E. coli concentrations at Central Avenue beach. Rainfall, barometric pressure, wave height, wave period, and creek specific conductance were significantly related to E. coli concentration at the beaches and were the parameters used in predictive models that best described E. coli variation at the two beaches. Multiple inputs to numerous beaches complicates the analysis and understanding of the relative relationship of sources but affords opportunities for showing how these complex creek inputs might interact to yield collective or individual effects on beach water quality. PMID:17636296

  7. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  8. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  9. Speciation of metals and their distribution in tropical estuarine mudflat sediments, southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria C; Nayak, G N

    2015-12-01

    Two sediment cores collected from a mudflat sedimentary environment of Swarna estuary (S3) and Gurpur estuary (MF6), representing the middle estuarine region, Karnataka, India, were investigated to understand bioavailability of metals and their toxicity. The subsamples were analyzed for sand, silt, clay, organic carbon and total metal concentration of Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) and Chromium (Cr) at 2 cm intervals. Sediments (average) are relatively coarser in Gurpur estuary whereas silt, clay, organic carbon along with the studied metals (except Mn and Cu) is noted to be higher in the Swarna estuary. Significant correlations were observed of Al, Fe with finer sediments and most of the trace metals in both the cores indicating a mainly lithogenic source. Further, metal speciation analysis carried out for Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co and Cr on selected samples of both the cores indicated that Fe was largely associated with the residual fraction with 93 ± 0.5% in Gurpur and 84 ± 6% in Swarna estuary. The concentration of studied metals in the residual fraction in the sediments of Gurpur estuary was in the order Mn(90 ± 5%)>Cr(85 ± 1%)>Ni(72 ± 5%)>Zn(69 ± 3%)>Cu(57 ± 5%)>Co(55 ± 2%) and; Cr(80 ± 7%)>Mn(77 ± 10%)>Ni(76 ± 7%)>Zn(67 ± 10%)>Cu(67 ± 10%)>Co(50 ± 7%) in Swarna estuary. When the total (bulk) metals were compared with the Sediment Quality Values (SQV) following Screening Quick Reference Table (SQUIRT), Co values of both the cores fell above Apparent Effect Threshold (AET) values. When the sum of the average bioavailable fractions in sediments was considered, Co values exceeded the AET in core S3 (Swarna estuary). When the variations are viewed with depth, bioavailability of Mn, Ni, Cu and Co in Gurpur estuary indicated anthropogenic addition in recent years whereas in Swarna estuary most of the studied metals showed diagenetic remobilization and diffusion to the water column from surface

  10. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. J.; Lanuru, M.; van Bernem, C.; Pejrup, M.; Riethmueller, R.

    2010-04-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and

  11. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  12. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality. PMID:16854516

  13. Velocity and sediment surge: What do we see at times of very shallow water on intertidal mudflats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Gong, Zheng; Zhang, Changkuan; Townend, Ian; Jin, Chuang; Li, Huan

    2016-02-01

    A self-designed "bottom boundary layer hydrodynamic and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measuring system" was built to observe the hydrodynamic and the SSC processes over the intertidal mudflats at the middle part of the Jiangsu coast during August 8-10, 2013. Velocity profiles within 10 cm of the mudflat surface were obtained with a vertical resolution as fine as 1 mm. An ADCP was used to extend the profile over the full water depth with a resolution of 10 cm and the vertical SSC profile was measured at intervals using Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS). At the same time, water levels and wave conditions were measured with a Tide and Wave Recorder. Measured data suggested that the vertical structure of velocity profiles within 10 cm above the bed maintains a logarithmic distribution during the whole tidal cycle except the slack-water periods. Shallow flows during both the early-flood period and the later-ebb period are characterized by a relatively large vertical velocity gradient and a "surge" feature. We conclude that the very shallow water stages are transient and may not contribute much to the whole water and sediment transport, while they can play a significant role in the formation and evolution of micro-topographies on tidal flats.

  14. A Universal Nutrient Application Strategy For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Polluted Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation by nutrient application is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. Maximizing the nutrient residence time is key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup. We considered the nutrient injection strategy through a perforated pipe at the high ti...

  15. Simulation of oil bioremediation in a tidally influenced beach: Spatiotemporal evolution of nutrient and dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Pan, Zhong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Lee, Kenneth; Zhao, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Numerical experiments of oil bioremediation of tidally influenced beach were simulated using the model BIOMARUN. Nutrient and dissolved oxygen were assumed present in a solution applied on the exposed beach face, and the concentration of these amendments was tracked throughout the beach for up to 6 months. It was found that, in comparison to natural attenuation, bioremediation increased the removal efficiency by 76% and 65% for alkanes and aromatics, respectively. Increasing the nutrient concentration in the applied solution did not always enhance biodegradation as oxygen became limiting even when the beach was originally oxygen-rich. Therefore, replenishment of oxygen to oil-contaminated zone was also essential. Stimulation of oil biodegradation was more evident in the upper and midintertidal zone of the beach, and less in the lower intertidal zone. This was due to reduced nutrient and oxygen replenishment, as very little of the amendment solution reached that zone. It was found that under continual application, most of the oil biodegraded within 2 months, while it persisted for 6 months under natural conditions. While the difference in duration suggests minimal long-term effects, there are situations where the beach would need to be cleaned for major ecological functions, such as temporary nesting or feeding for migratory birds. Biochemical retention time map (BRTM) showed that the duration of solution application was dependent upon the stimulated oil biodegradation rate. By contrast, the application rate of the amendment solution was dependent upon the subsurface extent of the oil-contaminated zone. Delivery of nutrient and oxygen into coastal beach involved complex interaction among amendment solution, groundwater, and seawater. Therefore, approaches that ignore the hydrodynamics due to tide are unlikely to provide the optimal solutions for shoreline bioremediation.

  16. Potential of the microbial community present in an unimpacted beach sediment to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Reis, Izabela; Couto, M Nazaré; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2013-05-01

    The potential of the microbial communities present in the intertidal zone of an unimpacted beach (a beach that did not suffer any significant oil spill) to degrade hydrocarbons was investigated. For that, laboratory-based microcosms (50-ml flasks) were set up with sandy beach sediment spiked with crude oil and incubated with local seawater for 15 days in the dark. Three bioremediation treatments were tested (biostimulation (BS), autochthonous bioaugmentation (AB), and combined treatment of biostimulation + bioaugmentation (BS + AB)) and the results were compared with natural attenuation (NA). Visual inspection showed clearly an oil solubility increase (confirmed by a higher hydrocarbons concentration in supernatant solutions) for all tested treatments when compared to NA. Significant degradation of the oil, shown by different profiles of petroleum hydrocarbons, was also observed for the different treatments particularly for BS + AB. Therefore, the microbial community of this unimpacted beach sediment could respond to an oil spill, degrading hydrocarbons. But to increase the natural attenuation pace, obtained results indicated that BS + AB is an appropriate approach for the bioremediation of beaches recently impacted by an oil spill. The autochthonous microbial cultures can be obtained "before" or "after" the contamination of the target site, being inoculated into the site right after it contamination. PMID:23054799

  17. Long-term persistence of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in two-layer beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2010-02-01

    Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.

  18. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  19. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  20. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  1. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  2. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. Factors Influencing the Accumulation and Subsurface Transport of Fecal Indicator Bacteria near the Shoreline at Freshwater Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. Z.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Vogel, L. J.; Robinson, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Beach sand near the shoreline acts as a reservoir for fecal contaminants with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) often orders of magnitude higher than in adjacent surface waters. This reservoir poses a human health risk and can also act as an important non-point contamination source for surface waters. Beach water quality advisories or closures can be issued when FIB (Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci (ENT)) concentrations are elevated in the surface water. The factors controlling the transport and accumulation of FIB in the foreshore sand are not well understood, though this is required to manage and mitigate this source. Multiple sources may contribute to the accumulation of FIB in sand, with recent studies suggesting that the continuous influx of surface water across the sediment-water interface may be a dominant source at many beaches.The study objective was to develop understanding of the physical processes controlling the accumulation and transport of FIB in beach sand. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling to evaluate the role of low-energy lapping waves in delivering FIB to the saturated foreshore sand at freshwater beaches. E. coli and ENT were measured at two beaches in Ontario, Canada at depths of up to 1 and 2 m, respectively, below the water table. A numerical model simulating wave-induced groundwater recirculations coupled with microbial transport (using colloid filtration theory) showed that the different FIB distributions measured at the two beaches was due mainly to the different beach slope and terrestrial groundwater flow. The model was applied to assess the impact of beach, wave and bacterial parameters on FIB accumulation. The infiltration zone width, average infiltration velocity and infiltration rate were shown to ultimately control the amount and spatial distribution of FIB in the sand. The study findings are important in understanding factors controlling the transport of FIB at the sediment-water interface of

  2. Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Process Parameters on Pathogen Transport and Fate in a Recreational Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.

    2010-12-01

    The US has very long shorelines (95,471 miles) contributing remarkable yearly revenue to the country by providing numerous recreational beaches. The beaches of both inland lakes and marine regions must be closed when the level of waterborne pathogens indicated by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform (TC), fecal coli form (FC, or Escherichia coli, E. coli) and Enterococcus exceed microbial water quality standards. Beach closures are of mounting concern to beach managers and the public due to the increasing risk to human health from waterborne pathogens. Monitoring FIB with laboratory analysis usually takes at least 18 hours during which beach goers may have been unintentionally exposed to the contaminated water. Therefore a water quality model to quickly and precisely forecast FIB has been a very effective tool for beach management to help beach managers in making decisions if beaches are safe enough to open to the public. The fate and transport of pathogens in the surf-zone of a beach area is a complex process involving various factors of hydrodynamics, hydrology, chemistry, microbiology. These factors including dispersion coefficient, wind velocity, particle settling velocity, fraction of bacteria attached, solar insolation, discharges to the beach, geometry of the beach, etc, are the essential components for a mechanistic model to describe the inactivation of FIB. To better understand the importance of these factors and their roles in impacting inactivation, transport and removal of FIB is extremely important to enhance the effectiveness and preciseness of a predictive model. The aim of this paper is to report the sensitivity analysis results of these factors in the surf zone of a creational beach using a verified water quality model system. The relative importance of these parameters is being ranked. For instance, the current sensitivity analysis shows that sunlight insolation has greater impact on pathogen inactivation than water temperature

  3. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  4. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  5. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  6. Earthquakes and beach ridges on Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Ortuno, M.; Thibault, C.; Higman, B.; Pinegina, T.

    2003-04-01

    There are several proposed origins for beach ridges, or berms, with the majority of studies focused on Atlantic-type margins. Primary factors invoked for beach-ridge formation include changes in sea-level, in wave climate, and in sediment supply. On subduction-zone margins, co-seismic deformation can force any of these three factors. For example, subsidence of the shoreline (local sea level rise) will generally lead to coastal erosion, whereas shoreline uplift (subduing local wave climate) will strand beach ridges. Earthquake-triggered landslides may significantly increase sediment supply. Some authors working on Pacific margins have correlated either beach ridges (e.g., A. Kurbatov on Kamchatka; P. Saltonstall and G. Carver on Kodiak), or buried erosional scarps (e.g. R.A. Meyers et al., Washington State) with subduction-zone earthquakes and the seismic cycle. Our work on Kamchatka provides examples where buried scarps and beach ridges are superimposed, each pair of which we interpret to be the result of a single seismic cycle, apparently consistent with some other data and interpretations (Kodiak, particularly). That is, in a setting where the shoreline subsides during an earthquake and recovers thereafter, beach ridges overlie buried scarps. In one case on Kamchatka, in southern Vestnik Bay, there is a spectacular outcrop illustrating this relationship. This model by no means explains all beach ridges, so identifying earthquake-forced beach ridges remains a challenge.

  7. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  8. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  9. Escherichia coli and enterococci at beaches in the Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan: Sources, characteristics, and environmental pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.; Wright, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified Escherichia coli(EC) and enterococci (ENT) in beach waters and dominant source materials, correlated these with ambient conditions, and determined selected EC genotypes and ENT phenotypes. Bathing-water ENT criteria were exceeded more frequently than EC criteria, providing conflicting interpretations of water quality. Dominant sources of EC and ENT were bird feces (108/d/bird), storm drains (107/d), and river water (1011/d); beach sands, shallow groundwater and detritus were additional sources. Beach-water EC genotypes and ENT phenotypes formed clusters with those from all source types, reflecting diffuse inputs. Some ENT isolates had phenotypes similar to those of human pathogens and/or exhibited high-level resistance to human-use antibiotics. EC and ENT concentrations were influenced by collection time and wind direction. There was a 48-72-h lag between rainfall and elevated EC concentrations at three southern shoreline beaches, but no such lag at western and eastern shoreline beaches, reflecting the influence of beach orientation with respect to cyclic (3-5 d) summer weather patterns. In addition to local contamination sources and processes, conceptual or predictive models of Great Lakes beach water quality should consider regional weather patterns, lake hydrodynamics, and the influence of monitoring method variables (time of day, frequency).

  10. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  11. Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples

  12. Methane emission through ebullition from a non-vegetated estuarine mudflat: The mechanics of tide-driven water level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. D.; Chen, X.; Schafer, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ebullition is an important pathway for methane (CH4) to the atmosphere in wetlands. Water level changes have been suggested to trigger ebullition, especially in tidally flooding areas. Bubble transport in submerged sediments results from a multi-phase, dynamic interaction between gaseous and solid phases under the modulation of a liquid phase. To improve understanding of how cyclic ebbing and flooding tides trigger ebullition events, a continuous dynamic dual-chamber system was designed and installed in a non-vegetated mudflat site of an estuarine temperate marsh. Episodic sharp increases in methane concentration signaling ebullition events were primarily observed during ebbing tides (15 events of total 19 events) and occasionally during flooding tides (four events). Laboratory chamber measurements on a mud monolith from the site confirmed that the flooding tide could trigger ebullition releases of gas bubbles. We developed a conceptual sediment fracturing model associated with bubble expansion to unify these observations, arguing that decreases in water level lower the effective stress surrounding isolated gas bubbles and enable trapped bubbles to move upwards via bubble expansion and fracturing of overlying sediments. Increases in relative permittivity measured on the monolith with ground penetrating radar suggest that more water may invade macropores during the initial stage of flooding; subsequent matrix expansion under lowered effective stress then leads to fracture propagation and bubble release. Melting of the surface frozen layer during the spring thaw resulted in increases of methane concentration, comparable in strength to the ebullition fluxes which were associated with large fluctuations in water level around spring tides. Our findings demonstrate the importance of water level changes in triggering ebullition from non-vegetated mudflat areas in tidal wetlands, modulated by the mechanical properties of shallow, soft sediments.

  13. To swim or not to swim? A disagreement between microbial indicators on beach water quality assessment in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Yuen, Ka Lai; Li, Ping Fai; Lau, Wai Hing; Chiu, Chung Man; Yuen, Suet Wai; Baker, David M

    2015-12-15

    The USEPA and the WHO now advocate the use of enterococci as indicators for marine water quality. This study investigated the outcomes for Hong Kong beach water quality assessment by comparing enterococcus measures with data from the HKEPD's monitoring programme. Six beaches were tested once every 2-3 months from November 2013 to June 2014 in order to identify the most contaminated sites, followed by intensive water sampling in sites found to have the highest enterococci densities (Clear Water Bay Second and Golden) every five to six days for six sampling events over a 30-day period in 2014. The geometric means of enterococci were found to be 124 and 41 cfu/100 mL at Clear Water Bay Second and Golden respectively, indicating that there may be higher risks of illness associated with swimming at both beaches than previously known. Moreover, beach sediments contained higher concentrations of enterococci than water, and warrant further study. PMID:26608502

  14. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  15. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  16. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  17. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  18. Metal Enrichment and Toxicity Levels in Sediments from the Tourist Beaches of Southern Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chari, S. V.; Vetrimurugan, E.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Durban city in South Africa is developing in a fast pace in the field of tourism and thereby needs to be reviewed for the enrichment of metals in tourist beaches. Geochemical studies have been done on nearly 65 beach sediments collected from inter-tidal regions of Amanzi Toti, Isipingo, Bluff, Cutting and southern part of Durban beaches. The study was done in order to unravel the anthropogenic and natural geochemical signals. Total (TTMs) and partially extracted trace metals (PETMs) (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn) in sediments were evaluated along with organic carbon and carbonates. Evaluation of enrichment of geochemical elements were done using contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), ecological risk index (RI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) to understand the pollution status of the study area and it indicates that As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn are enriched by two to three folds from the natural background values. Uncontrolled tourism activities have led to increase of certain elements in the Durban beaches. Textural analysis provides the information regarding the dominance of sediments either in sand fraction, mud fraction or gravel. The results indicated that they are dominantly coarse grained except in regions where local river input is observed. Industrial development as well as the mining activities in few locations near the coast has led to increase in the elemental concentrations. Regular monitoring of enrichment levels of trace metals in the sediments is mandatory to assess the beach quality in order to restore them from further enrichment so that the biological system in this region is also preserved. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Trace metals, contamination indices.

  19. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Juying; Wang, Jing; Ma, Deyi

    2015-10-15

    Microplastics provide a mechanism for the long-range transport of hydrophobic chemical contaminants to remote coastal and marine locations. In this study, plastic resin pellets were collected from Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach in China. The collected pellets were analyzed for PAHs, PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 34.7-213.7 ng g(-1) and from 21.5-323.2 ng g(-1) in plastic resin pellets for Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach respectively. The highest concentrations of PCBs were observed for congeners 44, 110, 138, 155 and 200. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 136.3-1586.9 ng g(-1) and from 397.6-2384.2 ng g(-1) in the plastic pellets, whereas DDTs concentration ranged from 1.2-101.5 ng g(-1) and from 1.5-127.0 ng g(-1) for the two beaches. The elevated concentrations of pollutants appear to be related to extensive industrial development, agricultural activity and the use of coal in the area. PMID:26298177

  1. Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry S; Colbert, Steven L; Kaylor, Matthew J; McDermid, Karla J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the physical properties of beaches contaminated with plastic fragments. We compared sediment cores from Hawai'i Island's Kamilo Beach, notable for plastic accumulation, to cores from a nearby beach. Compared to the nearby beach, Kamilo sediments contained more plastics (up to 30.2% by weight), were coarser-grained, and were more permeable (t-test, p<0.0001). 85% of the fragments were polyethylene, and 95% were concentrated in the top 15 cm of the cores. We constructed artificial cores of standardized grain size and varying plastic-to-sediment ratios. Adding plastic significantly increased the permeability (ANOVA, p=0.002), which was partially attributed to the fragments increasing the mean grain size. Sediments with plastic warmed more slowly (16% maximum decrease in thermal diffusivity), and reached lower maximum temperatures (21% maximum increase in heat capacity). These changes have a variety of potential effects on beach organisms, including those with temperature-dependent sex-determination such as sea turtle eggs. PMID:21700298

  2. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.; Mandell, W.A.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  3. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  4. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  5. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  6. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  7. Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Jong Su; Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Su Yeon; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Kang, Daeseok; Hong, Sunwook

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of the distribution of plastic marine debris were determined on 12 beaches in South Korea in 2013 and 2014. The abundances of large micro- (1-5 mm), meso- (5-25 mm), and macroplastics (>25 mm) were 880.4, 37.7, and 1.0 particles/m(2), respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant debris type for large microplastics and mesoplastics (99.1 and 90.9 %, respectively). Fiber (including fabric) was the most abundant of the macroplastics (54.7 %). There were no statistical differences in the mean numbers and weights of plastic debris among three beach groups from west, south, and east coasts. No significant differences were detected between the abundances of beached plastics in high strandline and backshore for all three size groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationships between the three debris size classes. The abundance of large microplastics was strongly correlated with that of mesoplastics for most material types, which suggests that the contamination level of large microplastics can be estimated from that of mesoplastics. As surveying of smaller particles is more labor intensive, the surveying of mesoplastics with a 5-mm sieve is an efficient and useful way to determine "hot-spots" on beaches contaminated with large microplastics. PMID:26285904

  8. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  9. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of predictive models for determining enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A

    2012-02-01

    predicting enterococci levels at the Holly Beach sites with an adjusted RMSE of 0.803 and LCC of 0.320 while the adjusted RMSE and LCC values are 1.815 and 0.354 for the linear VB model and 1.961 and 0.521 for the nonlinear VB model. The results indicate that the ANN model with 15 parameters performs better than the VB models with 6 or 5 parameters in terms of RMSE while VB models perform better than the ANN model in terms of LCC. The predictive models (especially the ANN and the nonlinear VB models) developed in this study in combination with readily available real-time environmental and weather forecast data can be utilized to nowcast and forecast beach water quality, greatly reducing the potential risk of contaminated beach waters to human health and improving beach management. While the models were developed specifically for the Holly Beach, Louisiana, the methods used in this paper are generally applicable to other coastal beaches. PMID:22130001

  11. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  12. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  13. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  14. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  15. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  16. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

  17. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh mudflat systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large mudflats and strong winds, whereas small mudflats and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and

  18. Marsh, mudflat and tidal creek assessment Cumberland Island National Seashore. Kings Bay Environmental Monitoring Program cumberland island national seashore. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The project was designed to determine whether backbarrier dredging for the Kings Bay Naval Base is affecting marsh habitat sustainability on Cumberland Island. Research was predicated on the hypothesis that if the operation is indeed exerting an influence on Cumberland Island, it will most likely be first perceived in the effect it has on the rates of supply and delivery of sediments to the marshes and mudflats. The authors located three comparable sites, which experience a different level of exposure to the effects of dredging. Second, we initiated a time-series of marsh/mudflat sedimentation measurements, which are expected to be continued in future years. Finally, we compared six different methods for monitoring sedimentation, all of which are currently in practice.

  19. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  20. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  1. Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

  2. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  3. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone'' in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed...

  4. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  5. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking....

  6. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  7. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  8. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in...

  9. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  10. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  11. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  12. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats.

    PubMed

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p < 0.05), bill size and prey size (R = -0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging. PMID:26345324

  13. Transport, deposition and in situ decay of seagrasses in a tropical mudflat area (Banc D'Arguin, Mauritania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemminga, M. A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    Extensive seagrass beds cover large areas of the mudflats and subtidal parts of the Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania, West Africa). The fate of seagrass biomass (mainly Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) was investigated during a 1-month expedition to the area (May 1988). Only minor amounts of leaf material were found to be transported by water currents at that time. Subtidal detritus depositions were not found in the area. Though conspicuous accumulations of leaf material were present on some parts of the shore, the amounts washed ashore per flood tide formed only a minor proportion of the daily seagrass production. Thus, transport of leaf litter away from the seagrass beds of the Banc d'Arguin appears insignificant. The major part of senescent leaves probably remains trapped within the seagrass beds and will decompose in situ. The observation that a large part of the particulate carbon present in the surface sediment of seagrass beds was derived from above-ground biomass (55% and 37% in Zostera and Cymodocea beds, respectively), is in agreement with this conclusion. Using the litterbag technique, the rate of leaf decomposition in a seagrass bed was investigated. The time required for 50% weight loss of Zostera and Cymodocea leaf litter in the intertidal zone of the seagrass bed was 158 and 50 days, respectively. In the subtidal zone these figures were 49 and 37 days.

  14. Viral Impact on Prokaryotic and Microalgal Activities in the Microphytobenthic Biofilm of an Intertidal Mudflat (French Atlantic Coast)

    PubMed Central

    Montanié, Hélène; De Crignis, Margot G.; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report on viriobenthos activity within the microbial biofilm located at the top-surface of the intertidal mudflat during emersion in Marennes-Oléron Bay (France). By combining in situ and ex situ approaches, the viral production (VP) was linked to the dynamics of prokaryotes and microphytobenthos (MPB). VP averaged 2–4 × 108 viruses ml−1 h−1. VP correlated positively with the Virus to Prokaryote Ratio, and both were correlated negatively with the water content. The virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes was lower in winter than in summer (6.8 vs. 39.7% of the production) and the C-shunting may supply 2–12% of their Carbon Demand, respectively. VP accounted for 79% of loss in Prokaryotes but the response was delayed compared to the increase in VP suggesting a simultaneous release of viruses of MPB origin. This hypothesis is supported by capsid-sizing of virions by transmission electronic microscopy and bioassays. Harvesting and ex situ maintenance of top-surface sediments was carried out to monitor the dynamics of viruses, prokaryotes and MPB after inoculation with benthic or planktonic viruses. Benthic viruses modified the prokaryotic and MPB dynamics and decreased the photosynthesis efficiency in contrast to planktonic viruses that impacted MPB but not the prokaryotes. PMID:26617575

  15. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    PubMed Central

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p < 0.05), bill size and prey size (R = −0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging. PMID:26345324

  16. Viral Impact on Prokaryotic and Microalgal Activities in the Microphytobenthic Biofilm of an Intertidal Mudflat (French Atlantic Coast).

    PubMed

    Montanié, Hélène; De Crignis, Margot G; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report on viriobenthos activity within the microbial biofilm located at the top-surface of the intertidal mudflat during emersion in Marennes-Oléron Bay (France). By combining in situ and ex situ approaches, the viral production (VP) was linked to the dynamics of prokaryotes and microphytobenthos (MPB). VP averaged 2-4 × 10(8) viruses ml(-1) h(-1). VP correlated positively with the Virus to Prokaryote Ratio, and both were correlated negatively with the water content. The virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes was lower in winter than in summer (6.8 vs. 39.7% of the production) and the C-shunting may supply 2-12% of their Carbon Demand, respectively. VP accounted for 79% of loss in Prokaryotes but the response was delayed compared to the increase in VP suggesting a simultaneous release of viruses of MPB origin. This hypothesis is supported by capsid-sizing of virions by transmission electronic microscopy and bioassays. Harvesting and ex situ maintenance of top-surface sediments was carried out to monitor the dynamics of viruses, prokaryotes and MPB after inoculation with benthic or planktonic viruses. Benthic viruses modified the prokaryotic and MPB dynamics and decreased the photosynthesis efficiency in contrast to planktonic viruses that impacted MPB but not the prokaryotes. PMID:26617575

  17. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  18. Groundwater contamination field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

  19. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  20. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  1. Internal structure of a barrier beach as revealed by ground penetrating radar (GPR): Chesil beach, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but

  2. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  3. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  4. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  5. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  6. Persistence and microbial source tracking of Escherichia coli at a swimming beach at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) has closed or posted advisories at public beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Missouri because of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceedances in recent years. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coliconcentrations, microbial source tracking, novel sampling techniques, and beach-use patterns were studied during the 2012 recreational season to identify possible sources, origins, and occurrence of E. coli contamination at Grand Glaize Beach (GGB). Results indicate an important source of E. coli contamination at GGB was E. coli released into the water column by bathers resuspending avian-contaminated sediments, especially during high-use days early in the recreational season. Escherichia coli concentrations in water, sediment, and resuspended sediment samples all decreased throughout the recreational season likely because of decreasing lake levels resulting in sampling locations receding away from the initial spring shoreline as well as natural decay and physical transport out of the cove. Weekly MDNR beach monitoring, based solely on E. coli concentrations, at GGB during this study inaccurately predicted E. coli exceedances, especially on weekends and holidays. Interestingly, E. coli of human origin were measured at concentrations indicative of raw sewage in runoff from an excavation of a nearby abandoned septic tank that had not been used for nearly two years.

  7. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  8. Temporal patterns of benthic microalgal migration on a semi-protected beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easley, Jeremiah T.; Hymel, Sabrina N.; Plante, Craig J.

    2005-08-01

    Short-term variability in microphytobenthic biomass and production can be attributed primarily to the migratory rhythms of benthic microalgae (BMA). The majority of BMA vertical migration studies have focused on intertidal mudflats, whereas little is known about the effects of grain size or wave energy on migration patterns. The goals of our study were (1) to describe vertical migration patterns of BMA in beach sediments, (2) to test for seasonal variation in migration patterns, and (3) to identify the dominant taxonomic groups involved in these migrations. Sediment cores were collected approximately monthly from February 2002 until January 2003 from a semi-sheltered, sandy beach. On each date replicate cores were taken at three times, corresponding with changing tidal levels (after aerial exposure at ebb tide, at slack low tide, and after tidal immersion), and were vertically sectioned. Environmental parameters including temperature, salinity, wind speed and direction, and light intensity were also recorded. BMA were dominated by diatoms at all times and at all sediment depths. We found three distinct patterns of temporal shifts in BMA: (1) migration, in which a surface chl a maximum was replaced by a subsurface chl a max after tidal immersion, (2) no shift, wherein vertical profiles from low tide through periods of immersion were unchanged, and (3) removal, in which a loss of surficial chl a occurred after tidal flooding, without a corresponding chl a increase at depth. Logistic regression analysis revealed no relationship between patterns of temporal shifts in BMA and temperature or salinity. The relationship with wind direction was significant, with chl a removal associated with an onshore (i.e., east or northeast) wind. There was no correlation between wind speed and vertical distribution pattern. Wind-induced wave energy, dominated by fetch rather than wind speed, appeared to be a major factor in the resuspension process at our study site. Integrated (top 5

  9. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  10. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA