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Sample records for mudflat beach contaminated

  1. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Degradation during a Field-Scale Evaluation of Bioremediation on a Mudflat Beach Contaminated with Buried Oil

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Fratepietro, Francesco; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Daniel, Fabien; Head, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of buried oil on a shoreline over a period of almost 1 year. The following four treatments were examined in three replicate blocks: two levels of fertilizer treatment of oil-treated plots, one receiving a weekly application of liquid fertilizer and the other treated with a slow-release fertilizer; and two controls, one not treated with oil and the other treated with oil but not with fertilizer. Oil degradation was monitored by measuring carbon dioxide evolution and by chemical analysis of the oil. Buried oil was degraded to a significantly greater extent in fertilized plots, but no differences in oil chemistry were observed between the two different fertilizer treatments, although carbon dioxide production was significantly higher in the oil-treated plots that were treated with slow-release fertilizer during the first 14 days of the experiment. Bacterial communities present in the beach sediments were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and 16S rRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Similarities between the DGGE profiles were calculated, and similarity matrices were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyses showed that although significant hydrocarbon degradation occurred both in plots treated with oil alone and in the plots treated with oil and liquid fertilizer, the bacterial community structure in these plots was, in general, not significantly different from that in the control plots that were not treated with oil and did not change over time. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the plots treated with oil and slow-release fertilizer changed rapidly, and there were significant differences over time, as well as between blocks and even within plots. The differences were probably related to the higher concentrations of nutrients measured in interstitial water from the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Bacteria with 16S rRNA sequences closely related (>99.7% identity) to Alcanivorax borkumensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri sequences dominated during the initial phase of oil degradation in the plots treated with slow-release fertilizer. Field data were compared to the results of previous laboratory microcosm experiments, which revealed significant differences. PMID:15128509

  2. Effects of demolition and beach clean-up operations on birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna

    1988-07-01

    Coastal lands are increasingly exposed to disturbances from demolition, beach clean-up, and construction for development. Although data exist concerning the effects of investigators on breeding populations, little information is available for migrant populations. I investigated the effects of demolition and beach clean-up on resident and migrant birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey. A year's censusing before work initiation was used to determine when demolition and clean-up would affect the least number of birds. Work activity on and along the beach was from 15 October to 15 November 1985. The overall population size was lower in 1985 compared to the same period in 1984, although the drop in numbers was not due solely to human disturbance. Human work activity influenced avian distribution along the mudflat: birds moved farther along the beach and out onto the mudflat when activity began, and moved back onto the mudflat when activity ceased. For gulls, foraging efficiency was lowered when work began and did not return to previous levels until 60-90 min after work began. Gulls that moved farther out on the mudflat had significantly lower foraging efficiencies than did those that remained close to the beach. Efforts to mitigate the adverse effects on birds by restricting human activity to a 100 m stretch of beach at any one time succeeded in significantly reducing adverse effects and in allowing birds some space to rest and feed.

  3. Sediment toxicity and benthic communities in mildly contaminated mudflats

    SciTech Connect

    Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Williams, E.K.; Martin, M.L.; Van Dam, L.F.; Mills, G.N.

    1998-03-01

    Sediment physicochemical characteristics, benthic community structure, and toxicity were measured at reference and contaminated intertidal mudflats around the North Island of New Zealand. Chronic whole-sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine amphipod, Chaetocorophium lucasi and the marine bivalve, Macomona lilana, and pore-water toxicity tests were conducted with embryos of the echinoid, Fellaster zelandiae. Although concentrations of organic chemicals and heavy metals were up to several orders of magnitude higher at the sites considered to be contaminated, levels of contamination were relatively low compared to internationally based sediment quality guidelines. Although no pronounced difference was found in benthic community structure between reference and contaminated sites, multivariate analysis indicated that natural sediment characteristics and factors related to contamination may have been affecting community structure. Although benthic effects caused by present levels of contamination are not yet dramatic, subtle changes in community structure related to pollution may be occurring. The two whole-sediment and the pore-water toxicity tests presented different response patterns. Growth of C. lucasi and M. liliana was a less sensitive endpoint than survival. None of the three toxicity tests responded more strongly to the contaminated than to the reference sites, that is, neither natural-sediment and pore-water characteristics nor unmeasured contaminants affected the test organisms. It is possible that sediment collection and handling may have induced chemical changes, confounding interpretation of toxicity tests.

  4. Analyze of waves dynamic over an intertidal mudflat of a sandy-gravely estuarine beach - Field survey and preliminary modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morio, Olivier; Sedrati, Mouncef; Goubert, Evelyne

    2014-05-01

    As well as marine submersion or erosive phenomena, clay-silted sediment in-filling on estuarial and bay beaches are a main issue in these human-attractive areas. Coupled sandy/gravely and clay/silty intertidal areas can be observed in these particular coastal areas, depending of rivers characteristic (discharge of particle, water flow), ocean dynamics (wave exposure, current) and sediments sources. All around the world, sandy/gravely beaches are exposed to punctual or continuous input clay sediments. Vilaine estuary, Bay of Arcachon and Bay of Seine in France, Plymouth Bay in UK and also Wadden Sea in Deutschland are few examples of muddy/sandy coupled or mixed system. The beach of Bétahon (Ambon town, Brittany - France) is located on the external Vilaine estuary and is an example of this issue. This meso-macrotidal intermediate (low tide terrace) beach presents heterogeneous sediments. The upper intertidal zone is composed by sand and gravel and characterized by a steep slope. A very gentle slope characterized the lower part of the beach and is constituted by silt and clay. Clay/sand limit is characterized by a decimetric erosion cliff of mudflat along the beach. In order to understand bed variations and sediment transport of this complex heterogeneous beach, a well understanding of wave dynamic across the beach is necessary. This study focus on wave dynamics over the beach, using field observations and MIKE 21 3D wave numerical model. This paper is a preliminary approach of an upcoming global understanding of this estuarial beach behavior. Swell from deep-sea to near-shore area is modeled over a 100 km² area and real wind, deep sea wave characteristic, river water flow and tidal level are defined as open boundary conditions for the regional model. This last one is based on multiple bathymetric surveys over the last 50 years. Local model, triangular mesh gridded to 5 meters, covering Bétahon beach , is based on topographic and photographic survey of the mudflat since 2005 (an amplitude above 1.4 meters has been observed over a start reference state). Modeling significant wave height, wave direction and period are compared to a cross-shore wave dynamics survey over the beach, during one week. Surf zone positions over the beach, wave characteristics at local and regional scales, impacts of mudflat altitude on waves are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Use of dispersant in mudflat oil-contaminated sediment: behavior and effects of dispersed oil on micro- and macrobenthos.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Philippe; Gilbert, Franck; Militon, Cécile; Stora, Georges; Bonin, Patricia; Michotey, Valérie; Guasco, Sophie; Duboscq, Karine; Cagnon, Christine; Jézéquel, Ronan; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether the use of dispersant would be suitable for favoring the hydrocarbon degradation in coastal marine sediments without impacting negatively micro- and macrobenthic organisms. Mudflat sediments, maintained during 286 days in mesocosms designed to simulate natural conditions, were contaminated or not with Ural blend crude oil (REBCO) and treated or not with third-generation dispersant (Finasol OSR52). While the dispersant did not lead to an increase of hydrocarbon biodegradation, its use enables an attenuation of more than 55 % of the sediment concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) correlating T-RFLP patterns with the hydrocarbon content and bacterial abundance indicated weak differences between the different treatments except for the mesocosm treated with oil and dispersant for which a higher bacterial biomass was observed. The use of the dispersant did not significantly decrease the macrobenthic species richness or macroorganisms' densities in uncontaminated or contaminated conditions. However, even if the structure of the macrobenthic communities was not affected, when used in combination with oil, biological sediment reworking coefficient was negatively impacted. Although the use of the dispersant may be worth considering in order to accelerate the attenuation of hydrocarbon-contaminated mudflat sediments, long-term effects on functional aspects of the benthic system such as bioturbation and bacterial activity should be carefully studied before. PMID:26062462

  6. Effects of metal contamination in situ on osmoregulation and oxygen consumption in the mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax (Ocypodidae, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Capparelli, Mariana V; Abessa, Denis M; McNamara, John C

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of estuaries by metals can impose additional stresses on estuarine species, which may exhibit a limited capability to adjust their regulatory processes and maintain physiological homeostasis. The mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax is a typical estuarine crab, abundant in both pristine and contaminated areas along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This study evaluates osmotic and ionic regulatory ability and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in different salinities (<0.5, 25 and 60‰ S) and oxygen consumption rates at different temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) in U. rapax collected from localities along the coast of São Paulo State showing different histories of metal contamination (most contaminated Ilha Diana, Santos>Rio Itapanhaú, Bertioga>Picinguaba, Ubatuba [pristine reference site]). Our findings show that the contamination of U. rapax by metals in situ leads to bioaccumulation and induces biochemical and physiological changes compared to crabs from the pristine locality. U. rapax from the contaminated sites exhibit stronger hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities and show greater gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities than crabs from the pristine site, revealing that the underlying biochemical machinery can maintain systemic physiological processes functioning well. However, oxygen consumption, particularly at elevated temperatures, decreases in crabs showing high bioaccumulation titers but increases in crabs with low/moderate bioaccumulation levels. These data show that U. rapax chronically contaminated in situ exhibits compensatory biochemical and physiological adjustments, and reveal the importance of studies on organisms exposed to metals in situ, particularly estuarine invertebrates subject to frequent changes in natural environmental parameters like salinity and temperature. PMID:26992327

  7. Dynamics and distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities in oil-contaminated temperate coastal mudflat mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Sanni, Gbemisola O; Coulon, Frédéric; McGenity, Terry J

    2015-10-01

    Mudflats are ecologically important habitats that are susceptible to oil pollution, but intervention is difficult in these fine-grained sediments, and so clean-up usually relies on natural attenuation. Therefore, we investigated the impact of crude oil on the bacterial, diatom and archaeal communities within the upper parts of the diatom-dominated sediment and the biofilm that detached from the surface at high tide. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was rapid, with a 50 % decrease in concentration in the 0-2-mm section of sediment by 3 days, indicating the presence of a primed hydrocarbon-degrading community. The biggest oil-induced change was in the biofilm that detached from the sediment, with increased relative abundance of several types of diatom and of the obligately hydrocarbonoclastic Oleibacter sp., which constituted 5 % of the pyrosequences in the oiled floating biofilm on day 3 compared to 0.6 % in the non-oiled biofilm. Differences in bacterial community composition between oiled and non-oiled samples from the 0-2-mm section of sediment were only significant at days 12 to 28, and the 2-4-mm-sediment bacterial communities were not significantly affected by oil. However, specific members of the Chromatiales were detected (1 % of sequences in the 2-4-mm section) only in the oiled sediment, supporting other work that implicates them in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Unlike the Bacteria, the archaeal communities were not significantly affected by oil. In fact, changes in community composition over time, perhaps caused by decreased nutrient concentration and changes in grazing pressure, overshadowed the effect of oil for both Bacteria and Archaea. Many obligate hydrocarbonoclastic and generalist oil-degrading bacteria were isolated, and there was little correspondence between the isolates and the main taxa detected by pyrosequencing of sediment-extracted DNA, except for Alcanivorax, Thalassolituus, Cycloclasticus and Roseobacter spp., which were detected by both methods. PMID:25869427

  8. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R.; Freas, K.E.; Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  9. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring methods for microbial indicators of fecal contamination are an integral component for protecting the health of swimmers exposed to potentially contaminated bathing beach waters. The design of monitoring systems which will accurately characterize the quality of water is...

  10. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  11. Can QMRA be used to Discount Pathogen Risk to Swimmers from Animal Fecal Contamination? Doheny Beach, CA Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimated health risks to swimmers from seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at Doheny Beach, California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) with a view to aiding beach closure decisions. Surfzone pathogens from seagulls were thought to...

  12. Bacterial contamination at Huntington Beach, California - is it from a local offshore wastewater outfall?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Noble, Marlene; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    During the summers of 1999 and 2000, beaches at Huntington Beach, California, were repeatedly closed to swimming because of high bacteria levels in the surf zone. The city’s beaches are a major recreational and commercial resource, normally attracting millions of visitors each summer. One possible source of the bacterial contamination was the Orange County Sanitation District’s sewage outfall, which discharges treated wastewater 4.5 miles offshore at a depth of 200 feet. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating organizations have been investigating whether ocean currents and waves transport the wastewater to the beaches. These studies indicate that bacteria from the outfall are not a significant source of the beach contamination.

  13. Vulnerability of Selected Beaches to Petroleum Contamination, Placentia Bay, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, M.; Catto, N.

    2009-04-01

    Placentia Bay currently hosts the highest volume of ship traffic in along the Atlantic Canadian coastline, and is additionally exposed to accidental and deliberate discharges of petroleum products by Trans-Atlantic ship traffic. Placentia Bay has been identified as the region in Canada that is most likely to suffer a petroleum contamination event within the next 10 years. The morphological, sedimentological, energy regime, and marine debris characteristics of 4 beaches at the head of Placentia Bay were investigated in detail. Differing morphological, sedimentological and energy regime conditions alter the sensitivity of each system to oil spill contamination. Differences in the type and amount of marine debris between each system alter the potential risk of exposure to oil spill contamination. Based on differences in sensitivity and exposure, a vulnerability assessment was created for each system. This system was applied to additional beaches and rocky coastlines to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight the actual vulnerability of each study beach relative to the spectrum of beaches actually present throughout eastern Newfoundland. Typical of the majority of beaches throughout Placentia Bay, the 4 study beaches are characterized by gravel dominated, reflective, moderate to high energy systems. Observations of sediment re-working and accretionary features along the beaches of Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance indicate that self-cleaning would not be an effective agent of oil removal in the case of a spill. The absence of sediment re-working and protected nature of Goose Cove beach suggest that oil would persist in this environment for an extended period of time. Evidence of high wave energies at Hollett's Cove indicates that this beach would self-clean effectively. Differing types and quantities of marine debris indicate that each beach, with the exception of Goose Cove, would likely be exposed to oil originating from a Placentia Bay spill. The heaviest quantities would be expected at Hollett's Cove and Arnold's Cove. Based on these factors, Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance are considered the most vulnerable beaches to oil contamination. Hollett's Cove and Goose Cove are considered the least vulnerable respectively. Applying the vulnerability assessment to the additional coastlines revealed that the 4 study beaches rank as moderately to highly vulnerable to oil spill contamination. This ranking, combined with the frequency of vessel traffic, indicates that a significant risk exists.

  14. Huntington beach shoreline contamination investigation, phase III: coastal circulation and transport patterns : the likelihood of OCSD's plume impacting Huntington beach shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene; Xu, Jingping; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Robertson, George

    2003-01-01

    A consortium of agencies have conducted an extensive investigation of the coastal ocean circulation and transport pathways off Huntington Beach, with the aim of identifying any causal links that may exist between the offshore discharge of wastewater by OCSD and the significant bacterial contamination observed along the Huntington Beach shoreline. This is the third study supported by OCSD to determine possible land-based and coa Although the study identifies several possible coastal ocean pathways by which diluted wastewater may be transported to the beach, including internal tide, sea-breeze and subtidal flow features, there were no direct observations of either the high bacteria concentrations seen in the OCSD plume at the shelf break reaching the shoreline in significant levels or of an association between the existence of a coastal ocean process and beach contamination at or above AB411 levels. It is concluded that the OCSD plume is not a major cause of beach contamination; no causal links could be demonstrated. This conclusion is based on the absence of direct observation of plume-beach links, on analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline contamination and coastal ocean processes, and on the observation of higher levels of contamination at the beach than in the plume.

  15. Contamination of New Jersey beach sand with magnetite spherules from industrial air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hassinan, W.T.; Puffer, J.H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Spherical particles composed of magnetite, typically 120 [mu]m to 2,450 [mu]m in diameter, are accumulating in the beach sands of New Jersey. Most magnetite spherule surfaces are highly polished but some are corroded or abraded. Their interiors are typically vesicular. Magnetite spherules from 213 New Jersey beach sand samples collected during May 1991 are chemically and morphologically the same as those filtered from industrial smokestacks and the air supplied of Newark, New Jersey and Philadelphia. The average concentration of spherules in New Jersey beach sand is 35 per kg throughout the northern 43 km of beach south of Newark (from Sandy Hook to Belmar Beach). They are rare to absent in the central 86 km stretch of beach but average 34 per kg of sand throughout the southern 91 km of beach east of Philadelphia (from Ventnor City to Villas Beach). The distribution of magnetite spherules in New Jersey beach sand is consistent with a transport pathway model that involves: (1) Prevailing wind dispersal from industrial sources, (2) erosion of spherules that have settled out of the air into the surface drainage system that flows toward the New Jersey coast and (3) longshore transport of spherule contaminated sand away from inlets identified as locations where most of the spherules enter the beach system. The spherules, therefore, are useful tracers indicating how industrial airborne fallout is transported to and along shorelines. The distribution pattern is consistent with generally northward longshore currents north of the Manasquan inlet and generally southward longshore currents south of the Abescon inlet.

  16. Bioremediation of oil contaminated beach material in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, P.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The Office of Research and Development within the Environmental Protection Agency has been evaluating bioremediation to help clean up beaches in Alaska's Prince William Sound following the March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bioremediation techniques have been used elsewhere to accelerate the natural biological degradation of environmental contaminants. The purpose of EPA's project was to determine the best bioremediation approach for the oil contaminated shoreline of Prince William Sound. The major portion of the EPA study, therefore, has been a field demonstration to determine if nutrient (fertilizer) addition to contaminated beaches will effectively stimulate hydrocarbon breakdown by indigenous bacteria. Concurrently, a monitoring program has been instituted to check for any possible adverse environmental effects from nutrient addition. Techniques of applying nutrient mixtures to the beaches have been investigated.

  17. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago's 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

  18. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the transport and fate of Escherichia coli were conducted at Chicago’s 63rd Street Beach, an embayed beach that had the highest mean E. coli concentration among 23 similar Lake Michigan beaches during summer months of 2000-2005, in order to find the cause for the high bacterial contamination. The numerical model was based on the transport of E. coli by current circulation patterns in the embayment driven by longshore main currents and the loss of E. coli in the water column, taking settling as well as bacterial dark- and solar-related decay into account. Two E. coli loading scenarios were considered: one from the open boundary north of the embayment and the other from the shallow water near the beachfront. Simulations showed that the embayed beach behaves as a sink for E. coli in that it generally receives E. coli more efficiently than it releases them. This is a result of the significantly different hydrodynamic forcing factors between the inside of the embayment and the main coastal flow outside. The settled E. coli inside the embayment can be a potential source of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition-resuspension cycles of E. coli have resulted in excessive bacterial contamination of beach water. A further hypothetical case with a breakwater shortened to half its original length, which was anticipated to enhance the current circulation in the embayment, showed a reduction in E. coli concentrations of nearly 20%.

  19. Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

  20. NUTRIENT TRANSPORT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED BEACHES: EVALUATION WITH LITHIUM AS A CONSERVATIVE TRACER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches typically involves fertilization with nutrients that are thought to limit the growth rate of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Much of the available technology involves application of fertilizers that release nutrients in a water-soluble ...

  1. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of indigenous microorganisms, as well as the removal of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH) over a 45-day study period. PMID:24229785

  2. Preliminary study on responses of marine nematode community to crude oil contamination in intertidal zone of Bathing Beach, Dalian.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ying; Zhang, Weidong; Gao, Yan; Ning, Shuxiang; Yang, Bo

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the responses of marine nematodes to crude oil contamination in polluted and relatively uncontaminated sites in Dalian Xingang, China, 40 days after an oil spill. Samples were taken at different tide levels on the beach and at different positions along the beach. We present the results of a comparison of nematode assemblages from undisturbed sediment from the Xiajiahezi Bathing Beach with those from sediment from the Xinghai Bathing Beach contaminated with crude oil. A total of 1666 nematodes from 26 genera were found in this study. Results showed significant differences in nematode assemblages between samples from undisturbed controls and those from the polluted area. Nematode abundance, number of species, diversity and species richness decreased significantly with increasing levels of crude oil contamination. Fifteen genera were eliminated and seemed to be composed of species intolerant to crude oil contamination; only the abundance of Marylynnia sp. increased slightly. PMID:21986540

  3. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W.; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  4. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-09-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  5. Accessing Hurricane-Produced Mudflat BSC

    Mudflats (open water in background) derived via erosion and habitat conversion from former mangrove forests often have a band of mangroves adjacent to the creek bank.  Here a researcher accesses a mudflat at high tide to make measurements....

  6. High Levels of Sediment Contamination Have Little Influence on Estuarine Beach Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Andrew C.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    While contaminants are predicted to have measurable impacts on fish assemblages, studies have rarely assessed this potential in the context of natural variability in physico-chemical conditions within and between estuaries. We investigated links between the distribution of sediment contamination (metals and PAHs), physico-chemical variables (pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity) and beach fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Fish communities were sampled using a beach seine within the inner and outer zones of six estuaries that were either heavily modified or relatively unmodified by urbanization and industrial activity. All sampling was replicated over two years with two periods sampled each year. Shannon diversity, biomass and abundance were all significantly higher in the inner zone of estuaries while fish were larger on average in the outer zone. Strong differences in community composition were also detected between the inner and outer zones. Few differences were detected between fish assemblages in heavily modified versus relatively unmodified estuaries despite high concentrations of sediment contaminants in the inner zones of modified estuaries that exceeded recognized sediment quality guidelines. Trends in species distributions, community composition, abundance, Shannon diversity, and average fish weight were strongly correlated to physico-chemical variables and showed a weaker relationship to sediment metal contamination. Sediment PAH concentrations were not significantly related to the fish assemblage. These findings suggest that variation in some physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH) or variables that co-vary with these factors (e.g., wave activity or grain size) have a much greater influence on this fish assemblage than anthropogenic stressors such as contamination. PMID:22039470

  7. Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and associated shallow ground water will be analyzed for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (including optical properties to characterize the composition of the organic carbon), fecal sterols, DNA (using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Poylmorphism), and phospholipid fatty acids.

  8. Arcobacter in Lake Erie Beach Waters: an Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Linked with Human-Associated Fecal Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that most of the identified Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches. PMID:22660704

  9. Assessment of ground water contaminant transport parameters in Lake Erie old beach ridge formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, R.T.; Eckstein, Y. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Beach ridges on the Lake Plain of Lake Erie in northeastern Ohio are belts of highly permeable deposits of coarse sand and gravel. They were deposited on top of glacio-lacustrine clays and tills at ancient shorelines of the regressing Lake Erie, as the terrain rebounded isostatic ally in the wake of the last episode of the Wisconsinan glaciation. The formation is highly heterogeneous and permeable, with hydraulic conductivity values ranging widely from 0.3 to almost 1.0 m/d. It serves as the source of ground water to a large number of domestic water wells. The aquifer is recharged by local precipitation, with the seasonal ground water elevations oscillating as much as 1.2 m. Aquifer contamination by oil brines was detected in five domestic water wells located at distances from 148 to 214 m from the point source of the contamination. Assuming instantaneous injection of the contaminants, the computed range for the longitudinal and transversal dispersion coefficients is 60--105 m and 5--17.5 m, respectively.

  10. Application of enterococci antibiotic resistance patterns for contamination source identification at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samuel; Chu, Weiping; Brown, Jennifer; Becker, Sarah J; Harwood, Valerie J; Jiang, Sunny C

    2003-06-01

    Huntington Beach, California, one of the most popular surfing spots in the world, is plagued by sporadic, elevated levels of fecal bacteria. To assist with pollution source identification, we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns (ARPs) of enterococci from four known sources (bird feces, urban runoff, coastal marsh sediment and sewage effluent from local sanitation district) and one unknown source (seawater) using seven antibiotics at four concentrations each. Of 2491 enterococci tested, all were resistant to at least one antibiotic at some level. Discriminant analysis indicated that the average correct classification rates for bird feces and urban runoff sources were above 80%. Sewage effluent contained mixed fecal sources. Sixty-four percent of the sewage isolates classified with the sewage category, while the other 35% of isolates were assigned evenly across the other three categories. When enterococci isolated from the seawater were classified using the known ARP database, it was evident that bird feces were the source of surf zone contamination on some days while the coastal salt marsh and sewage plume may have impacted the surf zone water quality to various degrees during other times. PMID:12787583

  11. Sandy beaches contamination by arsenic, a result of nearshore sediment diagenesis and transport (Brazilian coastline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlean, N.; Garcia, F.; Baisch, P.; Quintana, G. C.; Agnes, F.

    2013-12-01

    We studied the distribution of As, Fe, Ca and Al in beach sands and near-shore surface sediments along the Brazilian coast from the equatorial zone to Rio de Janeiro state. High concentrations of As (up to 120 mg kg-1) exceeding the environmentally acceptable thresholds were found in the beach sands and near-shore surface sediment in several segments of the studied coast. That increased from north to south. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.58) between As and calcium carbonate in the beach sands corroborated the hypothesis that calcareous bioclasts participate in metalloid retention and its accumulation in beach sediments. Most likely, enrichment of As occurs in the oxic horizon of sediments caused by the diagenetic redistribution of various elements. Enrichment of As in beach sands occurs in the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo states. That is facilitated by clastic material of calcareous algae.

  12. Regional Public Health Cost Estimates of Contaminated Coastal Waters: A Case Study of Gastroenteritis at Southern California Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, S.; Pendleton, L.; Boehm, A.

    2007-05-01

    We present estimates of annual public health impacts, both illnesses and cost of illness,attributable to excess gastrointestinal illnesses caused by swimming in contaminated coastal waters at beaches in southern California, USA. Beach-specific enterococci densities are used as inputs to two epidemiological dose-response models to predict the risk of gastrointestinal illness at 28 beaches spanning 160 km of coastline in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. We use attendance data along with the health cost of gastrointestinal illness to estimate the number of illnesses among swimmers . We estimate that between 627,800 and 1,479,200 excess gastrointestinal illnesses occur at beaches in Los Angeles and Orange Counties each year. Using a conservative health cost of gastroenteritis, this corresponds to an annual economic loss of 21 or 51 million depending upon the underlying epidemiological model used (in year 2000 dollars). Results demonstrate that improving coastal water quality could result in a reduction of gastrointestinal illnesses locally and a concurrent savings in expenditures on related health care costs.

  13. Efficacy of commercial inocula in enhancing biodegradation of weathered crude oil contaminating a Prince William sound beach

    SciTech Connect

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    In a laboratory study evaluating the effectiveness of 10 commercial products in stimulating enhanced biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil, two of the products provided significantly greater alkane degradation in closed flasks than indigenous Alaskan bacterial populations supplied only with excess nutrients. These two products, which were microbial in nature, were then taken to a Prince William Sound beach to determine if similar enhancements were achievable in the field. A randomized complete block experiment was designed in which four small plots consisting of a no-nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products were laid out in random order on a beach in Prince William Sound that had been contaminated 16 months earlier from the Exxon Valdez spill. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, each block being replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes. The results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day time period of the experiment.

  14. Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2. Further inspections demonstrate that the occurrence and the amplitude of erosion are also governed by consolidation state of the surface sediment and water level on the mudflat.

  15. Where Has All the Oil Gone? The use of trace metals as potential indicators of oil contamination in marine sediments and beach sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, T. K.; Hastings, D. W.; Holzinger, C.; Playle, E.; Brooks, G.; Huettel, M. H.; Kostka, J. E.; Larson, R. A.; Flower, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    We report initial results to determine if select trace metals are effective indicators for the magnitude and spatial extent of Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil contamination in Gulf of Mexico marine sediments and beach sands. Since crude oil is known to have elevated concentrations of nickel and vanadium, contamination can be detected even after the degradation of oil by measuring enrichment of these metals within marine sediments and beach sands. A sample of crude oil from the Macondo Prospect, source of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, was fully digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. Results indicate the crude oil is enriched in nickel, vanadium, and cobalt, with concentrations of 0.86 ppm, 2.76 ppm, and 84 ppb, respectively. With this known trace metal enrichment in DWH oil, Gulf of Mexico marine sediments from 400 and 1100m water depth near DeSoto Canyon and beach sands from Pensacola, FL were examined for enrichment of V, Ni, and Co. Both marine sediment and beach sand samples were partially digested with HNO3 before analysis via ICP-MS. With marine sediments, the visually contaminated layer at or near the surface typically exhibited an enrichment in Ni, V, and Co compared to the pristine control sediments. Vanadium and nickel enrichment in marine sediments varied from 10 to 32% and 0 to 22%, respectively. Visible contamination in beach sands was found between 20-60cm beneath the surface and, likewise, showed Ni, V, and Co enrichment up to 33%, 45%, and 100%. This data shows that enrichment of V, Ni, and Co in marine sediments and beach sands may be an effective proxy for contamination even after the degradation of oil. Marine sediments and beach sands will continue to be monitored for trace metal enrichment in an effort to assess the continuing impacts of the DWH spill on the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...

  17. Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Trace Contamination of Streams and Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in urban streams and ocean beaches in and around Santa Barbara occasionally can exceed public-health standards for recreation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), working with the City of Santa Barbara, has used multi-disciplinary science to trace the sources of the bacteria. This research is helping local agencies take steps to improve recreational water quality. The USGS used an approach that combined traditional hydrologic and microbiological data, with state-of-the-art genetic, molecular, and chemical tracer analysis. This research integrated physical data on streamflow, ground water, and near-shore oceanography, and made extensive use of modern geophysical and isotopic techniques. Using those techniques, the USGS was able to evaluate the movement of water and the exchange of ground water with near-shore ocean water. The USGS has found that most fecal bacteria in the urban streams came from storm-drain discharges, with the highest concentrations occurring during storm flow. During low streamflow, the concentrations varied as much as three-fold, owing to variable contribution of non-point sources such as outdoor water use and urban runoff to streamflow. Fecal indicator bacteria along ocean beaches were from both stream discharge to the ocean and from non-point sources such as bird fecal material that accumulates in kelp and sand at the high-tide line. Low levels of human-specific Bacteroides, suggesting fecal material from a human source, were consistently detected on area beaches. One potential source, a local sewer line buried beneath the beach, was found not to be responsible for the fecal bacteria.

  18. Bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in the liver and blubber of pilot whales (Globicephala melaena) beached on Cape Cod, MA

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    Populations of many marine organisms in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay have been declining for decades. Overfishing, habitat loss, disease, and exposure to toxic contaminants have been implicated as causative factors for reductions in both commercially important species and endangered marine mammal populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to organic contaminants could be a factor in the pilot whale population decline and to develop a simple bioaccumulation model to assess the relative importance of the route of uptake and the significance of total elimination. Liver and blubber samples from ten individuals beached in 1991 on Cape Cod, MA were analyzed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and linear alkyl benzenes (LABs). PCBs, DDT, DDE, DDD, and other chlorinated pesticides were identified and found to be high (ppm range) in several individuals. PAHs and LABs were typically below one ppb. Concentrations of these contaminants in the water and food that pilot whales consume were used in a bioaccumulation model. The model predicted lower concentrations in the whale than the authors observed. For all but the least hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., naphthalene) they predict that food (biomagnification) is the dominant route of uptake into the whales.

  19. Simulating hydrodynamics on tidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Lippmann, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycling in estuaries is governed by fluxes from both riverine sources and through estuarine sediment deposits. Although estimates from river sources are relatively common and easily sampled, estimates of nutrient fluxes through the fluid-sediment interface are less common and limited to deeper portions of the bays away from intertidal areas. Lack of quantifiable shear stress estimates over intertidal areas limits our overall understanding of nutrient budgets in estuaries. Unfortunately, observation of intertidal hydrodynamics and nutrient fluxes over tidal flats and near the water's edge is difficult owing to the temporally varying and spatially extensive region where the tides inundate, and thus numerical modeling is often employed. In this work, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a three dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model was used to investigate the shear stresses over intertidal mudflats in the Great Bay, a tidally-dominated New England estuary cut by several tidal channels and with over 50% of the estuary exposed at low tide. The ROMS wetting and drying scheme was used to simulate the rising and falling tide on the flats, a successful approach adapted in other regions of the world but not always inclusive of tidal channels. Bathymetric data obtained in 2009 and 2013 was used to define the model grid. Predicted tides are forced at Adam's Pt., a natural constriction in the estuary about 20 km upstream of the mouth and at the entrance to the Great Bay. Of particular interest are fluxes of material on-to and off-of the tidal flats which contribute to water quality conditions in the estuary, and are largely governed by shear stresses that drive nutrient fluxes at the fluid-sediment interface. Basin wide estimates of near-bottom shear stresses can be used to estimate first order nutrient fluxes over a tidal cycle and hence describe general biogeochemical dynamics of the estuary. Future work will include enhanced forcing of currents by winds and wave processes at the shallow edges of the estuary. This research was supported by UNH College of Engineering and Physical Sciences fellowship and ONR.

  20. Life on the Tidal Mudflats: Elkhorn Slough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Ruth

    Life in an estuarine environment is studied in this set of audio-visual materials prepared for grades 6-12. A 71-frame colored filmstrip, cassette tape narration, and teacher's guide focus upon Elkhorn Slough, a tidal mudflat in the Monterey Bay area, California. Topics examined range from river drainage and the effects of pollution on living…

  1. Life on the Tidal Mudflats: Elkhorn Slough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Ruth

    Life in an estuarine environment is studied in this set of audio-visual materials prepared for grades 6-12. A 71-frame colored filmstrip, cassette tape narration, and teacher's guide focus upon Elkhorn Slough, a tidal mudflat in the Monterey Bay area, California. Topics examined range from river drainage and the effects of pollution on living

  2. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  3. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  4. Great Lakes Beach Health

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  5. Simple and Effective Undisturbed Core sampling in Mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilangovan, D.; Fernandes, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mudflats of creek and estuarine system posses fine sediments which preserve historical record of various changes in the associated environment due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Undisturbed core sediment sampling from the undisturbed mud flat ecosystem is a difficult task due to following factors. Navigation by ship or boats to mudflats is restricted due to less water depth or no water conditions in the intertidal regions. Manual entry is the only available simpler option to reach undisturbed mudflats. Manual sampling in mudflats involve difficult long walks over soft slushy sediments prevailing in the various ecological zones of creek and estuarine system. Hence, undisturbed sediment coring necessitates simple light weight corer without any heavy operative machinery and associated accessories. This manuscript details a simple undisturbed core sediment sampler and operations involved in successfully collecting 22 undisturbed short cores in mudflat environment. The used corer is manual push-sampler type with piston. 1.5 meter long corer is of transparent acrylic body with cylindrical cross section and 2mm thickness. In spite of the sampler being thin walled type, core recovery length could not be much longer due to available limited manual force to push-in and pull-out operations of the corer in the mud and very sticky and stiff nature of the sediment at the termination depth of the core. Though this corer is not the ultimate, this manuscript will definitely pave way for developing best corer and operational practices for such sampling in such difficult environments.

  6. Health effects of swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational water: Results from studies at nine coastal beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated water has long been known to transmit infectious disease. In 2003, EPA and the CDC initiated studies to better describe the health effects associated with exposure to fecal contamination in recreational waters and to test faster ways of measuring ...

  7. Biomonitoring and hazard assessment evaluation of contaminated groundwater at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area Beach Point Penincula. Annual report, 31 July 1993-30 July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Herriott, R.S.; Turley, S.D.

    1994-08-30

    Contaminated groundwater, which contained multiple heavy metals and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, from the surficial aquifer (well CC-33B) at Beach Point located in the Canal Creek Area of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, Aberdeen, Maryland, was evaluated for toxicity and environmental hazard. Toxicity was detected at various groundwater concentrations by 7 of 9 biomonitoring systems. when estimated maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATC) were established, the data for algae, invertebrates and fish suggested that the groundwater would not be harmful at a concentration of 10% groundwater by volume. Likewise, no genotoxicity (Ames and SEC assays), develop- mental toxicity (FETAX), or chronic histopathology (9-month fish test) occurred at 10% groundwater by volume. The groundwater was considered to be a potentially excessive hazardous material to the benthic biota of the Bush River when a number of conservative assumptions (contaminant distribution and discharge rate of the aquifer) were used in the hazard assessment. However, the potential water quality impacts were judged to be minimal if a mixing zone were to be granted by the State of Maryland which allows for local exceedences of water quality standards.

  8. Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with non-point source of fecal contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Wang, John D.; Elmir, Samir M.; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C.; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C.; Fleming, Lora E.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g. chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (< 2 to 3,320 CFU/100mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r=0.58, p<0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r?0.36, p<0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to for environmental parameters to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF). PMID:20925349

  9. Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with nonpoint source of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Gidley, Maribeth L; Plano, Lisa R W; Fleisher, Jay M; Wang, John D; Elmir, Samir M; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g., chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (<2 to 3320 CFU/100 mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r ≤ 0.36, p < 0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF) for environmental parameters. PMID:20925349

  10. Quality of ground water in the Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, Florida, 1996-1998, with emphasis on contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, Anne; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Kish, George; Bernard, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The high permeability of the sand and limestone sediments and shallow water table of the Biscayne aquifer make ground water vulnerable to contamination by human activities. To assess potential contamination in the aquifer, untreated ground water was sampled from 30 public-supply wells (40-165 feet deep) in Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach Counties, 32 shallow wells (10-50 feet deep) in a recently urbanized (residential and light commercial) part of Broward County, and 3 shallow reference wells in Broward County. Results from sample analyses indicate that major ions, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were generally within the range indicative of background concentrations, except for: (1) substantially higher bromide concentrations in water from public-supply wells in southern Miami-Dade County; (2) a few relatively high (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) concentrations of nitrate in water from public-supply wells near agricultural lands in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties; and (3) a few relatively high concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) in water from some shallow urban wells near golf courses. Pesticides were detected in every public-supply well, in most of the shallow, urban monitoring wells (78 percent), and in one reference well; however, no pesticide concentration exceeded any drinking-water standard. Fifteen different pesticides or their degradation products were detected. The most frequently detected pesticides were atrazine and tebuthiuron; less frequently detected were the herbicides diuron, fenuron, prometon, metolachlor, simazine, and 2,6-diethylaniline. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in most of the public-supply wells (77 percent) and shallow, urban wells (91 percent) and in two of the three reference wells. Thirty-two different VOCs were detected in ground water in the Biscayne aquifer, with cis-1,2-dichloroethene the most frequently detected VOC in the public-supply wells, followed by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and chloroform. Toluene, p-isopropyltoluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were the most frequently detected VOCs in the shallow, urban wells. Concentrations of all VOCs were less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public drinking water, except in two samples from public-supply wells near industrialized areas that had vinyl chloride concentrations (3 and 5 micrograms per liter) above the MCL of 1 microgram per liter.

  11. Structure and seasonality in a Malaysian mudflat community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom, M. J.

    1982-08-01

    An assessment of community composition and the functional roles of the dominant species has been carried out in two intertidal areas of Malaysian mudflat dominated by natural populations of the arcid bivalve mollusc Anadara granosa. In addition to A. granosa, organisms of numerical importance are the venerid bivalve Pelecyora trigona, the neogastropod Plicarcularia leptospira, the mesogastropods Stenothyra glabrata and Cerithidea cingulata and the hermit crab Diogenes sp. The mesogastropod Natica maculosa and the neogastropod Thais carinifera may be of some importance to community organization but they are not numerically dominant. Annelids are conspicuous by their absence. The following trophic roles are ascribed to specific members of the community: A. granosa—facultative surface deposit feeder; P. trigona—suspension feeder; P. leptospira—scavenger; C. cingulata—deposit feeder/grazer; S. glabrata—deposit feeder/grazer; N. maculosa—predator; T. carinifera—predator; Diogenes sp.—scavenger/predator. S. glabrata is of particular interest because it appears to fill the niche occupied by mud snails of the genus Hydrobia in temperate mudflat systems. There is evidence of seasonality on the mudflats which points to a spawning of certain forms triggered by the major annual salinity depression at the time of the onset of the north-east monsoon in October/November. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a show no obvious signs of a seasonal fluctuation and the seasonality of the primary consumers is not thought to be related to food abundance. However there is some evidence of seasonality of reproduction in N. maculosa which preys on the seasonally reproducing bivalves.

  12. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  13. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  14. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  15. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  16. Faecal-indicator bacteria and sedimentary processes in estuarine mudflats (Seine, France).

    PubMed

    Berthe, Thierry; Touron, Aurélie; Leloup, Julie; Deloffre, Julien; Petit, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Over a three-year period, quantification of faecal indicators and the molecular detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella were monitored in sediments from three contrasting mudflats of the Seine estuary (France). The elevation of the mudflat surface was monitored concurrently using a high-resolution altimeter. During the period of the study, estuarine mudflats were areas of deposition for faecal-indicator bacteria and were mainly controlled by sedimentary processes. In the intertidal freshwater and subtidal mudflats, the highest abundances of faecal-indicator bacteria were counted during a depositional period. Maximum levels were observed in the freshwater mudflats during periods of high flow: thermotolerant coliforms: 3.9 x 10(4) cfu cm(-2), enterococci: 1.2 x 10(4) cfu cm(-2), Clostridium perfringens spores: 9.8 x 10(5) spores cm(-2). Loss of culturability of enteric bacteria in sediment microcosms demonstrated the remediatory capacity of the mudflats, even if they might be a secondary source of bacteria-forming spores to the water column through erosion and resuspension events. PMID:18036620

  17. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  18. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  19. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  20. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  1. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Beach Safety Topics Beach Related Illnesses A water quality warning sign advising swimmers to avoid contact with ... a source of longer-term data about beach water quality. EPA created BEACON to provide the Agency's requirement ...

  3. The effect of wave-induced turbulence on intertidal mudflats: Impact of boat traffic and wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney, R.; Deloffre, J.; Brun-Cottan, J.-C.; Lafite, R.

    2007-03-01

    Semi-diurnal and fortnightly surveys were carried out to quantify the effects of wind- and navigation-induced high-energy events on bed sediments above intertidal mudflats. The mudflats are located in the upper fluvial part (Oissel mudflat) and at the mouth (Vasière Nord mudflat) of the macrotidal Seine estuary. Instantaneous flow velocities and mudflat bed elevation were measured at a high frequency and high resolution with an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) and an ALTUS altimeter, respectively. Suspended particulate matter concentrations were estimated by calibrating the ADV acoustic backscattered intensity with bed sediments collected at the study sites. Turbulent bed shear stress values were estimated by the turbulent kinetic energy method, using velocity variances filtered from the wave contribution. Wave shear stress and maximum wave-current shear stress values were calculated with the wave-current interaction (WCI) model, which is based on the bed roughness length, wave orbital velocities and the wave period ( TS). In the fluvial part of the estuary, boat passages occurred unevenly during the surveys and were characterized by long waves ( TS>50 s) induced by the drawdown effect and by short boat-waves ( TS<10 s). Boat waves generated large bottom shear stress values of 0.5 N m -2 for 2-5 min periods and, in burst of several seconds, larger bottom shear stress values up to 1 N m -2. At the mouth of the estuary, west south-west wind events generated short waves ( TS<10 s) of HS values ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 m. In shallow-water environment (water depth <1.5 m), these waves produced bottom shear stress values between 1 and 2 N m -2. Wave-current shear stress values are one order of magnitude larger than the current-induced shear stress and indicate that navigation and wind are the dominant hydrodynamic forcing parameters above the two mudflats. Bed elevation and SPM concentration time series showed that these high energy events induced erosion processes of up to several centimetres. Critical erosion shear stress ( τce) values were determined from the SPM concentration and bed elevation measurements. Rough τce values were found above 0.2 N m -2 for the Oissel mudflat and about 1 N m -2 for the Vasière Nord mudflat. These results demonstrate the advantages of combining the measurement of instantaneous velocity and bed elevation to determine in situ the erosion and deposition processes as a function of bottom shear stress variations.

  4. Morphodynamic evolution of an intertidal mudflat under the influence of Amazon sediment supply - Kourou mud bank, French Guiana, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensac, Erwan; Gardel, Antoine; Lesourd, Sandric; Brutier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The coastal environment between the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers is characterised by the migration of large mud banks formed by accretion of the muddy discharge from the Amazon. The migration of mud in the shallow coastal waters is associated with the creation of mudflats that form a surface for the development of coastal mangroves after consolidation. This study focuses on the fine-scale sedimentary processes involved in the morphodynamic evolution of a consolidated mudflat and its erosion. Mudflats can be divided into two areas: the seafront and the inner part between the seafront and the land. This study highlights a link between tidal mud supply, biofilm migration and increasing elevation in the latter area. The migration of a biofilm through each cycle of tidal supply prevents erosion and permits the continuous accretion of the entire mudflat over several years. This increase in topography is also modulated by fortnightly tidal cycles. Desiccation greatly impacts the mudflat's structure at a yearly scale. This process plays an important role in the erosion of the seafront area under wave action by allowing the formation of mud pebbles, which are progressively abraded into fluid mud supplied to the inner part of the mudflat by over-wash processes. This study provides a better understanding of the behaviour of mudflats on the wave-exposed coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon by describing: (1) the processes involved in sediment exchanges between mudflats and mud banks, (2) the mechanisms associated with the persistence of mudflats along the French Guiana coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon, and (3) the processes involved in the erosion and recycling of these mudflats.

  5. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  6. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  7. Morphodynamic development of intertidal mudflats: consequences for the extension of the pioneer zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houwing, Erik-Jan

    2000-09-01

    During the last two decades erosion of salt marshes has occurred in the Dutch Wadden Sea, mostly starting with a retreat of the pioneer vegetation in front of the marsh. Spatial variations in erosion of the pioneer zone was likely to the wash away processes of seeds and seedlings. During the winter a dramatic loss in seed numbers was found at shore normal transects. This loss increased from the pioneer zone to the intertidal mudflat. On the intertidal mudflat and in the pioneer zone the erodability of the soil was measured with an in situ erosion flume. Erosion of the bed was high at stations located on the intertidal mudflat, where the soil had a relative low mud content. Hydrodynamic measurements carried out at the border of the pioneer zone/intertidal mudflat showed erosion of the bed surface to take place predominantly during a sequence of storm conditions. In these situations bed load transport is expected to be the most important process which determined erosion of the bed. The optimalization of technical measures to prevent increased erosion of the area should be based on reduction of wind-induced waves and the increase of sedimentation of mud. Together these may result in a decrease of the mobility of the bed and facilitate the settlement and survival of the pioneer vegetation.

  8. The effect of evaporation and nutrient enrichment on the erodability of mudflats in a mesotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Viggato, T.; Vieillard, A. M.; Fulweiler, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Large areas of mesotidal estuaries become subaerial during low tide. Here we study the effect of nutrient enrichment and several meteorological and hydrodynamic parameters on the erodability of mudflat substrates when they are emergent. We tested the impact of nutrient fertilization on tidal flat sediments over a two week period in September 2011 in Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts (USA). High resolution measurements from our experiment indicate that daily nutrient enrichment does not change the erosion threshold of the muddy substrate, nor affect the concentration of chlorophyll a at the surface. Sediment erodability is instead directly related to the potential evaporation rate and to the duration of the subaerial period. Chlorophyll a concentration decreases when evaporation is high, possibly due to the downward migration of diatoms. Sediment concentrations in the water column during submergence strongly depend on bottom shear stresses triggered by tidal currents. Surprisingly, they are also related to the total evaporation that occurred in the previous emergence period. We conclude that subaerial desiccation at low tide decreases the erodability of mudflat sediments. This strengthening effect is not lost during the following submerged period, thus limiting the erosive effect of tidal currents. For the first time we show that not only subaqueous but also subaerial processes control the erodability of mudflats. Global warming and other climatic variations regulating long-term evaporation rates can therefore directly affect the stability of mudflats in mesotidal environments.

  9. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  10. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  11. Asymmetric fluxes of water and sediments in a mesotidal mudflat channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a small tributary channel and its adjacent mudflat is studied in Willapa Bay, Washington State, USA. Velocity profiles and water levels are simultaneously measured at different locations in the channel and on the mudflat for two weeks. The above tidal flat and channel hydrodynamics differ remarkably during the tidal cycle. When the water surface level is above the tidal flat elevation, the channel is inactive. At this stage, the above tidal flat flow is predominantly aligned along the Bay axis, oscillating with the tide as a standing wave with peak velocities up to 0.3 m/s. When the mudflat becomes emergent, the flow concentrates in the channel. During this stage, current velocities up to 1 m/s are measured during ebb; and up to 0.6 m/s during flood. Standard equations for open-channel flow are utilized to study the channel hydrodynamics. From the continuity equation, a lateral inflow is predicted during ebb, which likely originates from the drainage of the mudflat through the lateral runnels. Both advective acceleration and lateral discharge terms, estimated directly from the velocity profiles, play a significant role in the momentum equation. The computed drag coefficient for bottom friction is small, due to an absence of vegetation and bottom bedforms in the channel. Sediment fluxes are calculated by combining flow and suspended sediment concentration estimated using the acoustic backscatter signal of the instruments. A net export of the sediment from the channel is found during ebb, which is not balanced by the sediment import during flood. When the mudflat is submerged, ebb-flood asymmetries in suspended sediment concentration are present, leading to a net sediment flux toward the inner part of the Willapa Bay. Finally, a residual flow is detected inside the channel at high slack water, probably associated with the thermohaline circulation.

  12. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Smith, R.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; Herre, Elisabeth; Sturm, Manfred

    2008-03-01

    Where, since the 1980s, patchy and variable green algal mats are prevailing, distinct belts of an amphipod ( Corophium volutator) and seagrass ( Zostera spp.) had dominated in the 1930s. The zonation between tide marks has been mapped in a sheltered sedimentary bay in the Wadden Sea near the island of Sylt (coastal eastern North Sea). Maps on vegetation from 1924 and on selected macrobenthos from 1932 and 1934 are compared with biannual surveys conducted from 1988 to 2006. Rising high water levels and eutrophication are suggested to be major causes of the observed long-term changes. In front of a saltmarsh, a sandy beach developed and partly displaced former cyanobacterial mats. Advancing sandiness may have inhibited C. volutator and facilitated lugworms, Arenicola marina, in the upper tidal zone. A variable occurrence of green algal mats arising in the 1980s affected infauna and seagrass by smothering the biota underneath. This dissolved a coherent belt of Zostera noltii. In the lower tidal zone, natural disturbances had lasting effects on the occurrence of mussels with attached fucoid algae. The spectrum of species became enriched by alien species (13% of macrobenthic taxa). A reversal to habitat structure and biotic zonation of the 1920-1930s does not seem possible. Aliens, in combination with climate change, are expected to further divert the ecological pattern to new configurations.

  14. Health assessment for Times Beach Site, Times Beach, St. Louis County, Missouri, Region 7. CERCLIS No. MOD980685226. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-19

    The Times Beach National Priorities List site is situated on the banks of the Meramec River in St. Louis County, about 30 miles southwest of St. Louis, Missouri. The roads within the City of Times Beach have been contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). After the 1982 flood, the City of Times Beach was evacuated and access has been restricted to only authorized personnel. Potential exposure pathways that could result from the site include ingestion of contaminated soil and fish or game animals that have bioconcentrated TCDD, dermal absorption upon contact with tainted soil, and inhalation of TCDD-entrained fugitive dusts. Flooding of Times Beach in 1982, 1983, and 1985 may have resulted in the migration of some TCDD off-site into the Meramec River. The levels of TCDD at the site are of concern and warrant continued site-access control, prevention of sediment runoff, and eventual removal of the TCDD.

  15. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third, rising sea level leads to a natural landward migration of the shoreline. Dramatic examples of coastal erosion, such as houses and roads falling into the sea, are rare in Hawaii, but the impact of erosion is still very serious. The signs of erosion are much more subtle and typically start as a "temporary" hardening structure designed to mitigate an immediate problem which, eventually, results in a proliferation of structures along a stretch of coast. The natural ability of the sandy shoreline to respond to changes in wave climate is lost. The overall goals of this study are to document the coastal erosion history in Hawaii, determine the causal factors of that erosion, provide high-quality data for other "end-users" in applied studies (i.e. coastal engineers, planners, and managers), and increase our general understanding of low-latitude coastal geologic development. This project involves close cooperation between the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the University of Hawaii.

  16. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  17. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action. PMID:27188067

  18. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  19. Vertical dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes in marsh and mudflat areas of the yangtze estuary.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Dongqi; Chen, Zhenlou; Liu, Jie; Xu, Shiyuan; White, John R

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a dominant macronutrient in many river-dominated coastal systems, and excess concentrations can drive eutrophication, the effects of which can include hypoxia and algal blooms. The Yangtze River in China transports a large amount of dissolved inorganic N. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of the marsh and mudflat areas within the estuary on processing this exogenous N load. In situ dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) fluxes across the sediment-water interface were determined monthly at Chongming Island at two sites (a vegetated marsh and an unvegetated mudflat) and were compared with rates from a previously published laboratory incubation study by our research group. Results from the in situ study showed that NO flux rates comprised the major component of total DIN flux, ranging from 55 to 97%. No significant difference was observed in the N flux rates between the marsh and mudflat sites. Overall, sediment at both sites served as a sink of DIN from surface water with mean flux rates of -178 μmol m h and -165 μmol m h for the marsh and mudflat, respectively. In general, DIN flux rates were not significantly correlated with DIN concentrations and other measured parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and pH) of surface water. The in situ measured fluxes of NO and NO in this study were not significantly different from those of our previous laboratory incubation ( > 0.05), whereas NH fluxes in situ were significantly lower than those from the laboratory core incubations ( < 0.05). This result suggests that caution should be used when extrapolating rates from laboratory incubation methods to the field because the rates might not be equivalent. PMID:25602675

  20. Comparison of the Visual Capabilities of an Amphibious and an Aquatic Goby That Inhabit Tidal Mudflats.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Tomo; Hamasaki, Sawako; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus and the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus are gobiid teleosts that both inhabit the intertidal mudflats in estuaries. While P. modestus has an amphibious lifestyle and forages on the exposed mudflat during low tide, the aquatic A. flavimanus can be found at the same mudflat at high tide. This study primarily aimed to elucidate the differential adaptations of these organisms to their respective habitats by comparing visual capacities and motor control in orienting behavior during prey capture. Analyses of retinal ganglion cell topography demonstrated that both species possess an area in the dorsotemporal region of the retina, indicating high acuity in the lower frontal visual field. Additionally, P. modestus has a minor area in the nasal portion of the retina near the optic disc. The horizontally extended specialized area in P. modestus possibly reflects the need for optimized horizontal sight on the exposed mudflat. Behavioral experiments to determine postural and eye direction control when orienting toward the object of interest revealed that these species direct their visual axes to the target situated below eye level just before a rapid approach toward it. A characteristic feature of the orienting behavior of P. modestus was that they aimed at the target by using the specialized retinal area by rotating the eye and lifting the head before jumping to attack the target located above eye level. This behavior could be an adaptation to a terrestrial feeding habitat in which buoyancy is irrelevant. This study provides insights into the adaptive mechanisms of gobiid species and the evolutionary changes enabling them to forage on land. PMID:26967712

  1. On the ecology of meiofauna in an organically polluted estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, Lucas A.; Romeijn, Karin; Admiraal, Wim

    1984-12-01

    The structure, distribution and seasonal changes of the benthic meiofauna in an organically polluted, tidal, brackish-water mudflat in the Ems-Dollart estuary were analysed. Towards the outfall of polluted fresh water, macrofauna disappeared, numbers of meiofauna increased but the diversity of the meiofauna decreased. In the area surrounding the outfall the numbers and biomass of nematodes and oligochaetes increased rapidly in spring and remained high until autumn ( c. 13 × 10 6 individuals m -2; c. 2gCm -2). The benthic fauna comprised small numbers of species, dominated by a few fast-growing diatom-feeding nematodes ( Eudiplogaster pararmatus and Dichromadora geophila) and oligochaetes ( Amphichaeta sannio and Paranais litoralis). Eudiplogaster pararmatus exhibits brood care and it tolerates low salinities. Dichromadora geophila which is oviparous, behaved similarly regarding tolerances, life cycle and feeding but this species was less successful than Eudiplogaster in colonizing the mudflats near the outfall. The success of the two naidid oligochaete species results from their method of reproduction by means of binary fission. Most organisms fed on benthic diatoms. In spite of intensive mineralization in the mudflat, only one bacteria-feeding organism was found in abundance (the nematode Leptolaimus papilliger). The absence of macrofaunal organisms, e.g. Nereis diversicolor, is probably also responsible for the development of high densities of meiofauna in the upper sediment layers of the mudflats in the vicinity of the outfall. The heavy load of organic waste entering the Dollart reduced the diversity within the benthic ecosystem, but nevertheless a simple system remained, based on the recurrent reoxidation of the sediment surface.

  2. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Nio event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Nia event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study period. In this paper we will exploit regional variability in physical (e.g. sediment supply) and ecological variables (e.g. % cover of exotic beach grass species and density) thought responsible for the varying rates and form of coastal advance in the region. These gradients allow us to test hypotheses regarding the relative role of the various controls on interannual- to decadal-scale coastal evolution.

  3. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  4. Quantification of toxic metals derived from macroplastic litter on Ookushi Beach, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin

    2012-09-18

    The potential risk of toxic metals that could leach into a beach environment from plastic litter washed ashore on Ookushi Beach, Goto Islands, Japan was estimated by balloon aerial photography, in situ beach surveys, and leaching experiments in conjunction with a Fickian diffusion model analysis. Chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), and lead (Pb) were detected in plastic litter collected during the beach surveys. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fishing floats contained the highest quantity of Pb. Balloon aerial photography in conjunction with a beach survey gave an estimated mass of Pb derived from plastic litter of 313 ± 247 g. Lead leaching experiments on collected PVC floats showed that Pb in the plastic litter could leach into surrounding water on the actual beach, and that plastic litter may act as a "transport vector" of toxic metals to the beach environment. Using the experimental data, the total mass of Pb that could leach from PVC plastic litter over a year onto Ookushi Beach was estimated as 0.6 ± 0.6 g/year, suggesting that toxic metals derived from plastic beach litter are a potential "pathway" to contamination of the beach environment due to their accumulation in beach soil over time. PMID:22916725

  5. River flow control on intertidal mudflat sedimentation in the mouth of a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvilliez, Antoine; Lafite, Robert; Deloffre, Julien; Lemoine, Maxence; Langlois, Estelle; Sakho, Issa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of hydrological variability influenced by climatic phenomena upon the sedimentary exchange between the turbidity maximum (TM) and a river mouth intertidal mudflat. This study, carried out over a period of 10 years (1997-2006) in the Seine Estuary (France), is specifically focused on two extreme periods: a wet one from 2001 to 2002 and a drier one from 2005 to 2006. This study is based on an original approach combining data gathered via low-altitude remote sensing with altimeter readings and ground-level measurements. During this 10 year period, we observed a link between climate change and the sedimentary processes on the mudflat surface. The modifications of sedimentary processes are mainly connected to the multiannual variability of hydrological flow rates that control the positioning of the turbidity maximum, the source of the sedimentary material deposited in this intertidal zone. The TM at the mouth of the Seine estuary is well developed; its maximum mass is estimated to be between 300,000 tons and 500,000 tons (Avoine et al., 1981) with maximum concentrations in the surface waters ranging from 1 to 2 g • l- 1 (Le Hir et al., 2001). Most of the fine particles stored within the TM have been found to originate from within the catchment area (Dupont et al., 1994). In the Seine estuary, the dynamics of the estuarine TM, in response to hydrodynamic forcings, have been previously described (Avoine et al., 1981) and modeled (e.g. Brenon and Le Hir, 1999; Le Hir et al., 2001). The TM is upstream of the northern mudflat when the river flow is low (< 450 m • s- 1) and nearby the study area when the river flow is higher. Thus during wet periods, the sedimentation rates increase by + 17 cm • y- 1, while during the drier one (when the turbidity maximum is located upstream of the estuary) we observed an erosion rate of 7.6 cm • y- 1. Sedimentation events in the mudflat resulting from spring tides are less frequent during dry periods, and they deposit a smaller quantity of sediment (- 23% of total deposition mass per event). Because of the lower flow rates coupled with the impacts of local development, the flood tides have become dominant. This contributes to the addition of sandy or silty sediments on the mudflat, of which the slope has increased 450% over 8 years caused by erosion.

  6. Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, chemical, 210Pb dating, and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Blaha, U; Basavaiah, N; Deenadayalan, K; Borole, D V; Mohite, R D

    2011-01-15

    The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminated mudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data, metal contents, and the (210)Pb dating technique. The 1.8 m vertical section at Airoli (Navi Mumbai) reveals an increase of magnetic susceptibility (χ) from background values of (20-50) to (75-100) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] in the anthropogenically affected zone above ∼93 cm. A sharp rise of χ from (75-100) to (130-215) × 10(-8) [m(3) kg(-1)] subdivides the anthropogenically affected zone at a depth of ∼63 cm. Characterization with rock magnetic parameters (SIRM, Soft IRM, and S-ratio) reveals a significant contribution of ferri(o)magnetic phases in the upper zone. Based on the magnetic classification sampling intervals for cost-intensive PAH and metal analyses were determined. Steadily increasing contents of PAH and metals of anthropogenic origin are observed above the boundary depth at ∼93 cm. A sediment accumulation rate of 1.2 ± 0.3 cm/yr provided by (210)Pb dating dates the ∼63 cm boundary to 1951. Increasing industrial activity, including the establishment of a coal-fired power plant in 1956, and refineries between 1955 and 1960, correlates well with the substantial increase of χ, PAH, and metal contents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation on magnetic extracts from the contaminated zone reveals the presence of magnetic spherules derived from industrial high-temperature processes. PMID:21138292

  7. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  8. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  9. INFLUENCE OF TIDE AND WAVES ON WASHOUT OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE BIOREMEDIATION ZONE OF A COARSE-SAND BEACH: APPLICATION IN OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach materials. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the...

  10. Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  11. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  12. Deposition and mixing depths on some European intertidal mudflats based on 210Pb and 137Cs activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Thorbjrn J.; Mikkelsen, Ole A.; Mller, Annette L.; Pejrup, Morten

    2000-09-01

    Vertical profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs have been collected at micro-, meso- and macrotidal mudflats in order to calculate present accumulation rates. Sediment cores were taken at the mudflat at Kongsmark in the microtidal Lister Dyb tidal area (Denmark), at the BOA bridge in the mesotidal Dollard estuary (Netherlands), and at the Skeffling mudflat in the macrotidal Humber estuary (UK). Except for the Kongsmark site and site A in the Humber estuary, no accurate calculation of accumulation rates was possible for the investigated sites. The accumulation rate obtained for the Kongsmark site is confirmed by other independent data and shows that the accumulation is not supply limited at this site at present. For site A in the Humber estuary a modified CIC method was applied to the 210Pb-profile and the result agrees with results from the nearby Welwick Marsh. The salt marsh at Skeffling is advancing out onto the fringing mudflat with accumulation at the innermost part of the mudflat but with erosion taking place further offshore. The reasons for the generally poor dating results seems to be either erosion (two Humber sites) or postdepositional reworking of the deposited material (bioturbation and continued resuspension) and the data set suggests that the mixing depth may increase with tidal range and thereby hydrodynamic forcing.

  13. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  14. Field experiments on the role of epibenthic predators in determining prey densities in an estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. M.; Warwick, R. M.; Davey, J. T.; George, C. L.

    1985-09-01

    A series of caging experiments was performed on an estuarine mudflat at three seasons of the year, in which Carcinus maenas L. and Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer) were either excluded from, or allowed to prey upon, the benthos in order to determine to what extent infaunal abundance and mortality was a result of predation by epibenthic predators. The difficulties of conducting and interpreting the results of such experiments are recognized. The benthic macrofauna of this mudflat is dominated numerically by small annelids and there is evidence that adult C. maenas can cause significant increases in the oligochaete component of this assemblage, probably as a result of disturbance caused by its burrowing activity. Juvenile C. maenas on the other hand significantly reduced the abundance of small annelids, particularly the dominant polychaete Manayunkia aestuarina (Bourne) and could be responsible for year-to-year variations in abundance of this species. The role of fish predators (in this case P. microps) is more problematical but it is suggested that in the densities at which they occur naturally on the mudflat they have little direct effect on the abundance of prey species. There is no evidence that seasonal mortality of small annelids is reduced in the absence of predation and this is taken to indicate that not all mortality is due to epibenthic predation. Certain changes in relative abundance of the component species of the harpacticoid copepod community were discerned but it is suggested that the plasticity of their reproductive potential is such that the effect of predation on the group as a whole is usually masked.

  15. Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Englebert, Erik T; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2008-10-01

    Recreational beaches constitute a large part of the 12 billion dollar per year tourism industry in Wisconsin. Beach closures due to microbial contamination are costly in terms of lost tourism revenue and adverse publicity for an area. Escherichia coli (E. coli), is used as an indicator of microbial contamination, as high concentrations of this organism should indicate a recent fecal contamination event that may contain other, more pathogenic, bacteria. An additional problem at many beaches in the state is the nuisance algae, Cladophora. It has been hypothesized that mats of Cladophora may harbor high concentrations of E. coli. Three beaches in Door County, WI were selected for study, based on tourist activity and amounts of algae present. Concentrations of E. coli were higher within Cladophora mats than in surrounding water. Beaches displayed an E. coli concentration gradient in water extending away from the Cladophora mats, although this was not statistically significant. Likewise, the amount of Cladophora observed on a beach did not correlate with E. coli concentrations found in routine beach monitoring samples. More work is needed to determine the impact of mats of Cladophora on beach water quality, as well as likely sources of E. coli found within the mats. PMID:18639919

  16. Anithiactins A-C, modified 2-phenylthiazoles from a mudflat-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hiyoung; Yang, Inho; Patil, Rahul S; Kang, Sinwoo; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Min-Sun; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

    2014-12-26

    Intensive investigation of the chemical components of a Streptomyces sp. isolated from mudflat sediments collected on the southern coast of the Korean peninsula led to the isolation of three new compounds, anithiactins A-C (1-3). The chemical structures of anithiactins A and C were determined by interpretation of NMR data analyses, while the chemical structure of anithiactin B was established from a combination of NMR spectroscopic and crystallographic data analyses. The structure of anithiactin A was also confirmed by total synthesis. These three anithiactins displayed moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with no significant cytotoxicity. PMID:25455147

  17. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  18. Sand patties provide evidence for the presence of Deepwater Horizon oil on the beaches of the West Florida Shelf.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, L D; Basso, J; Pulster, E; Paul, J H

    2015-08-15

    The ecological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill are both long-term and pervasive. The distribution of toxicity and mutagenicity in the Gulf of Mexico suggests oil from the DWH spill could have contaminated the West Florida Shelf (WFS). We utilized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis to determine presence and potential origin of oil contaminants in beach sand patty samples. PAH profiles from WFS beaches were statistically significantly similar to DWH contaminated samples from the Northeast Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Shores, AL; Ft. Pickens, FL). Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a major component of Corexit 9500 dispersant was also detected in the sediments. DOSS concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 5.5ngg(-1) dry weight. Additionally, two samples from DWH oil contaminated beaches were acutely toxic and one WFS beach sediment sample was mutagenic. These observations provide support for the theory that DWH oil made its way onto beaches of the WFS. PMID:26104828

  19. Ecological risk assessment: Seal Beach, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, K.J.; Kuo, J.

    1999-07-01

    Ecological risk assessment offers a means of quantifying the probability and degree of hazard posed toward the well-being of ecological resources by a myriad of physical, chemical and biological agents generated from human activity. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of a screening-level ecological risk assessment conducted in a unique coastal setting-the Seal beach National Wildlife Refuge, which is located within the US Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. Evaluation of activities formerly conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration indicated the presence of various organic and inorganic chemical contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater resources located beneath the weapons station, as well as potential pathways for introduction of those contaminants to the ecological resources of the wildlife refuge. Completion of the screening-level assessment identified inorganic contaminants-antimony, arsenic, beryllium, and manganese-as the primary risk drivers, leading to a recommendation for definitive characterization of the extent of chemical degradation of the subsurface environs and concurrent performance of a full-scale ecological risk assessment. It is the author's understanding that both of the recommended studies were initiated and were nearing completion at the time of the submittal of this paper.

  20. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  1. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  2. Modeling the effect of wind-waves on the evolution of marshplains and mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Brennan, M.; Crooks, S.; Orr, M.; Koseff, J.; Monismith, S.

    2008-12-01

    A one-dimensional sediment and bed model was constructed to assess the long-term evolution of shallow intertidal zones. Observations indicate that shallow intertidal basins tend to be characterized by a bimodal distribution of water depths into higher marshplain and lower mudflats. The model is used to investigate the mechanisms and factors affecting the transition of a shallow coastal region into either a marshplain accreting to mean high-high water level, or eroding into mudflat. Wind waves and tidal currents both affect the deposition and erosion of sediments. For two weeks, field data was collected at a tidal wetlands restoration site in San Francisco Bay, California to provide a comparison with model results. Two locations within the field site with different wind climates are compared to show the impact of wind on the accretion rate. Model sensitivity is tested for parameters, such as the fetch length, initial marsh elevation, and mass flux of sediment, to study their relative importance to accretion. The model provides a tool in engineering and design applications in developing strategies for restoring or protecting existing tidal marshes.

  3. Tidal and meteorological forcing of sediment transport in tributary mudflat channels.

    PubMed

    Ralston, David K; Stacey, Mark T

    2007-06-01

    Field observations of flow and sediment transport in a tributary channel through intertidal mudflats indicate that suspended sediment was closely linked to advection and dispersion of a tidal salinity front. During calm weather when tidal forcing was dominant, high concentrations of suspended sediment advected up the mudflat channel in the narrow region between salty water from San Francisco Bay and much fresher runoff from the small local watershed. Salinity and suspended sediment dispersed at similar rates through each tidal inundation, such that during receding ebbs the sediment pulse had spread spatially and maximum concentrations had decreased. Net sediment transport was moderately onshore during the calm weather, as asymmetries in stratification due to tidal straining of the salinity front enhanced deposition, particularly during weaker neap tidal forcing. Sediment transport by tidal forcing was periodically altered by winter storms. During storms, strong winds from the south generated wind waves and temporarily increased suspended sediment concentrations. Increased discharge down the tributary channels due to precipitation had more lasting impact on sediment transport, supplying both buoyancy and fine sediment to the system. Net sediment transport depended on the balance between calm weather tidal forcing and perturbations by episodic storms. Net transport in the tributary channel was generally off-shore during storms and during calm weather spring tides, and on-shore during calm weather neap tides. PMID:21499572

  4. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  5. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  6. Sunny with a chance of gastroenteritis: predicting swimmer risk at California beaches.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2015-01-01

    Traditional beach management that uses concentrations of cultivatable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) may lead to delayed notification of unsafe swimming conditions. Predictive, nowcast models of beach water quality may help reduce beach management errors and enhance protection of public health. This study compares performances of five different types of statistical, data-driven predictive models: multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least-squares regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, in predicting advisories due to FIB contamination at 25 beaches along the California coastline. Classification tree and the binary logistic regression model with threshold tuning are consistently the best performing model types for California beaches. Beaches with good performing models usually have a rainfall/flow related dominating factor affecting beach water quality, while beaches having a deteriorating water quality trend or low FIB exceedance rates are less likely to have a good performing model. This study identifies circumstances when predictive models are the most effective, and suggests that using predictive models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions may improve public health protection at California beaches relative to current practices. PMID:25489920

  7. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  8. Importance of different carbon sources for macroinvertebrates and fishes of an interlinked mangrove-mudflat ecosystem (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruitwagen, G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Lugendo, B. R.; Mgaya, Y. D.; Bonga, S. E. Wendelaar

    2010-08-01

    Mangroves function as important shelter and feeding habitats for marine fauna, but the degree to which mangrove-derived carbon contributes to local food webs has long been debated. In this study, stable isotope analysis was used as a technique to elucidate the role of mangrove carbon in the diets of the macroinvertebrate and fish fauna of an intertidal fringing mangrove forest and adjacent intertidal/subtidal mudflats in a macrotidal Tanzanian estuary. The expectation was that sessile species and those with low motility depend to a larger extent on local carbon sources than highly motile species. A clear distinction in δ 13C was present between primary producers from mangrove and mudflat habitats. Macroinvertebrates revealed a gradient in their δ 13C where Sesarma crabs were the only species that directly utilised mangrove carbon by feeding on mangrove leaves/detritus. Uca crabs and the gastropod Littoraria scabra showed a higher dependence on microphytobenthos from the mangrove substratum. Among the fish fauna, the amphibious mudskipper was the only species to which the mangroves were accessible during low tide. Consequently this was the only fish species for which it was clear that it fed in the mangrove habitat, most commonly on mangrove-associated Uca crabs. All other species of sessile as well as motile macroinvertebrates and fish from the mangrove and mudflat habitat showed a high degree of utilisation of mudflat carbon. Overall, mangrove carbon thus contributed little to the mangrove and mudflat food webs, despite the high tidal amplitude and the resulting potential for exchange of carbon and fauna in the estuary studied here. Utilisation of mangrove carbon appears to depend more on the ecology of the species in consideration (e.g., species-specific use of zones within the mangrove habitat) than on their potential motility or tolerance to exposure during low tide.

  9. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamin...

  10. Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

    2014-02-01

    Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is the major determinant of shell use. The hermit crab must however fit well into the shell so that compatibility between crab size and shell size becomes crucial. Although shell availability possibly influenced shell use and hermit crab distribution, this is not critical in a tropical setting of high gastropod diversity and abundance.

  11. Now an empty mudflat: past and present benthic abundances in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraan, Casper; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-03-01

    The benthic fauna of two areas in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, Posthuiswad and Staart van Schieringhals, was described in 1930-1960 and again between 1996 and 2005. Here, we document the changes. Whereas both areas formerly had high densities of species that biogenically structured the intertidal mudflats such as mussels Mytilus edulis and cockles Cerastoderma edule, by 1996 they had shown a tenfold decrease in the densities of molluscs, with no recovery till 2005. Although the number of species of polychaetes and crustaceans may not have changed much, their relative abundance did. Nowadays, more polychaete species are common than before. We briefly discuss whether the changes in benthic community composition could be due to industrial fishery practices or eutrophication effects.

  12. Cristazine, a New Cytotoxic Dioxopiperazine Alkaloid from the Mudflat-Sediment-Derived Fungus Chaetomium cristatum.

    PubMed

    Yun, Keumja; Khong, Trung Thang; Leutou, Alain Simplice; Kim, Gun-Do; Hong, Jongki; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Son, Byeng Wha

    2016-01-01

    Cristazine (1), a new class of dioxopiperazine alkaloid, along with previously isolated chetomin (2), neoechinulin A (3), and golmaenone (4), were isolated from the mudflat-sediment-derived fungus Chaetomium cristatum. The structure and absolute stereochemistry of 1 was assigned on the basis of NMR, electron impact (EI)-MS, tandem FAB-MS/MS, and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. Compounds 1-4 displayed potent radical-scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), with IC50 values of 19, 15, 24, and 20 µM, respectively, which were similar to that of the positive control, ascorbic acid (IC50, 20 µM). Compound 1 also displayed cytotoxic activity against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells, with an IC50 value of 0.5 µM. PMID:26726745

  13. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  14. Effects of shorebird predation and snail abundance on an intertidal mudflat community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheverie, Anne V.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Coffin, Michael R. S.; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2014-09-01

    Top-down effects of predation are well documented in a variety of ecological communities, including marine soft-sediment systems. It has been proposed that intertidal mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, which host a large population of foraging shorebirds each summer, may exhibit this community dynamic. Biofilm (consisting mainly of diatoms) forms the base of the mudflat community food web, which is dominated by the amphipod Corophium volutator. To assess the potential for a trophic cascade, we conducted a manipulative field experiment examining individual and combined effects of the shorebird Calidris pusilla, a primary predator of C. volutator, and the eastern mudsnail (Nassarius obsoletus), an intraguild predator, on community structure (including macrofauna and large meiofauna retained by a 250-μm screen). Snails exhibited density-dependent top-down effects, primarily from strong negative interactions with juvenile and adult C. volutator, likely due to interference, consumption and emigration. Medium and high densities of snails reduced chlorophyll a concentration (a measure of diatom abundance), likely through consumption and disturbance of the sediment. When present at higher densities, snails also increased variability in community structure. Shorebirds were less influential in determining community structure. They reduced C. volutator biomass through consumption, but there was no resulting effect on primary production. Top-down effects of snails and birds were cumulative on C. volutator, but did not generate a trophic cascade. We suggest that a combination of omnivory and intraguild predation by shorebirds and snails, coupled with relatively low grazing pressure by C. volutator, prevented transmission of top-down effects.

  15. Diagenesis of the sandflat and mudflat facies of the upper Queen Formation, Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mckone, C.J.; Malicse, A.; Mazzullo, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The upper Queen Formation (Permian, Guadalupian) of the Midland basin, Texas, consists of cyclically interbedded clastics and evaporites that were deposited in a fluvial-dominated continental sabkha environment. Fluvial sandflat deposits, consisting of thin units (0.2-5.0 m) of very fine grained arkosic sandstones constitute reservoir horizons, whereas 0.1-1.3 m thick units of coarse siltstones and evaporites of playa-mudflat deposits are nonproductive. This study addresses the diagenetic histories of the reservoir and nonreservoir clastics. The primary porosity of the clastics was first reduced by pore-filling hematitic smectite clay, anhydrite, and dolomite during an early diagenetic phase. Subsequent dissolution of the anhydrite and dolomite by acidic pore-waters created high porosities (mean = 15%) and permeabilities (mean = 70 md) in the sandflat deposits, porosities which were only slightly occluded by later dissolution and reprecipitation of grain-lining smectite. Pore-water movement and subsequent hydrocarbon migration were both controlled by the coarser grain size and lower clay-matrix and silt content of these sandflat deposits. In contrast, the finer grain size and higher clay-matrix and silt content prevented similar dissolution of cements within the mudflat facies, which have significantly lower porosities (mean{lt}10%) and permeabilities (mean{lt}0.1 md). Fluids and gases used in enhanced recovery techniques will follow pathways created by dissolution of anhydrite and dolomite cements within the sandflat facies. However, caution must be used with fluids that can cause swelling of the grain-lining smectite.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Gunsan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Hwa-Su; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Iron, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were measured in livers of three shorebird species from Okgu Mudflat, Korea in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways. Iron concentrations in red-necked stints (Calidris ruficollis) (geomean = 1,322 microg/g dw) were higher than in terek sandpipers (Xenus cinereus) (467 microg/g dw), and great knots (Calidris tenuirostris) (158 microg/g dw). Copper concentrations in great knots (85.8 microg/g dw) were significantly higher than in red-necked stints (15.9 microg/g dw) and terek sandpipers (10.4 microg/g dw). However, significant differences in zinc concentrations were not found in livers among shorebird species. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations from this study were within the range of other shorebird studies. We suggest that essential elements such as iron, zinc, and copper are within normal range and are maintained there by normal homeostatic mechanism. Lead and cadmium concentrations differed among shorebird species; red-necked stints (geomeans 27.8 microg/g dw and 4.69 microg/g dw, respectively) were higher than in terek sandpipers (12.9 and 0.44 microg/g dw, respectively), and great knots (5.43 and 0.29 microg/g dw, respectively). Some red-necked stints exceeded toxic levels of lead and cadmium for wild birds. In livers of red-necked stints from Okgu Mudflat, lead and cadmium concentrations were higher than previously reported in other shorebirds. PMID:18763038

  17. Actinian dominated intertidal mudflats: A new case of an extraordinary rare phenomenon from Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schories, Dirk; Reise, Karsten; Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya; Clasing, Elena; Reise, Anneken

    2011-02-01

    Generally, estuarine intertidal mudflats constitute important nurseries for fish and foraging grounds for coastal birds by providing a plenitude of mollusks, worms, and crustaceans as prey, which in turn mostly feed on suspended and benthic microalgae, bacteria, and detritus. Despite the high productivity of such habitats, pronounced variability in both salinity and temperature results typically in low diversity. The only sea anemone reported from estuarine mud is the edwardsiid Nematostella vectensisStephenson, 1935. It occurs widely in the northern hemisphere, and occasionally in extremely high density. Here we document another sea anemone from estuarine mud and muddy sand found in Southern Chile which has similar ecological attributes. Taxonomic confusion has impeded the reporting on this small but prominent member in a macrozoobenthic assemblage, the brooding Anthopleura hermaphroditica (Carlgren, 1899; Anthozoa: Actiniidae). It differs from N. vectensis by the presence of symbiotic algae. Average density under poly- to euhaline conditions in mud and muddy sand at around mid tide level was about 3 actinians per cm 2. An average abundance of 11,000 m - 2 , a biovolume of 487 cm 3 m - 2 , and a biomass of 35.5 g dry organic weight m - 2 were found in mud and muddy sand in two surveys 20 years apart. The mean fishing area of fully expanded individuals covers 42 ± 25 mm 2, corresponding to a circular area with a diameter of 7.3 ± 5.7 mm. Preliminary experiments indicate that associated benthos may be relegated to life below surface by the net of tentacles above the sediment. As no predators on A. hermaphroditica could be found on the mudflat, the success of this mixotrophic sea anemone may entail a trophic dead end.

  18. Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in mudflats along the salinity gradient of an acidified tropical Bornean estuary (South East Asia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brunei River and Bay estuarine system (BES) in the northwest of Borneo is acidic and highly turbid. The system supports extensive intertidal mudflats and presents a potentially steep salinity and pH gradient along its length (45 km). Temporal variation in physical parameters is observed diurnally due to seawater flux during tidal forcing, and stochastically due to elevated freshwater inflow after rains, resulting in a salinity range between 0 and 34 psu. High velocity freshwater run-off from acid sulphate formations during monsoon seasons results in highly variable and acidic conditions (pH 4) at the upper reaches of the BES, whereas the pH is relatively stable (pH 8) at the seaward extremes, due to mixing with seawater from the South China Sea. At their surfaces, the BES mudflats present microbial ecosystems driven by oxygenic phototrophs. To study the effect of various physical parameters on the bacterial diversity of the BES mudflats, surface samples were collected from six sites stretching over 40 km for molecular and phylogentic analysis. Results The bacterial diversity at these sites was compared by community fingerprinting analysis using 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Results revealed functionally conserved, diatom-driven microbial mudflat communities composed of mainly novel, uncultured species. Species composition was evaluated as 50-70% unique for each site along the BES. Clustering of the sequences commonly occurred and revealed that proteobacterial diversity was related to the salinity gradient. When considering all phyla, the diversity varied consistently with physical parameters (including anthropogenic) that are expected to influence microbial composition. Conclusion The BES mudflats were found to comprise the typical functional groups of microorganisms associated with photosynthetic carbon flux, sulfur cycling (Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria), and decomposition (Bacteroidetes). From a structural perspective, however, the mudflats constituted discretely distributed communities along the physical gradient of the BES, composed of largely novel species of Bacteria. This study provides first insights into patterns of bacterial community structure in tropical South East Asian coastal ecosystems that are potentially threatened by increasing variability in pH and salinity, in line with predicted future environmental change. PMID:25392733

  19. Groundwater dynamics in a coastal aquifer: combined effects of tides and beach morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, L.; Erler, D.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between fresh groundwater and seawater, driven by oceanic oscillations and the inland hydraulic head gradient, has been shown to affect the pore water characteristics, which in turn influence the fate of contaminants in coastal aquifers. We show here that beach morphology interacting with the tidal force can also modulate nearshore groundwater flow and solute transport. Detailed field investigations were combined with numerical simulations to examine the groundwater dynamics in a carbonate-sandy intertidal aquifer on the tropical island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Groundwater salinity values revealed different salinity distributions under conditions of different beach profiles, inland heads and tidal signals. Fresh groundwater was also found to discharge around an intertidal beach slope break (located in the middle region of intertidal zone). This suggests that the interplay of beach morphology and tidal forcing may play an important role in groundwater flow and solute transport near the shore. The numerical models enabled quantitatively analysis of the effects of beach morphology on groundwater circulations and solute pathway. We found that (1) the groundwater discharge location is largely controlled by beach morphology in connection with the tidal force; (2) under particular conditions, the groundwater flow pattern is very sensitive to the beach slope breaks. In particular, the beach slope break combined with the tidal oscillation can induce local circulation cells. These results further demonstrate the complexity of nearshore groundwater systems and have implications for future studies of nutrients transport and transformations associated with SGD.

  20. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch and Early Coverage of Times Beach: Watchdog or Muted Trumpet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pierre, Yvette

    Times Beach, Missouri, a small town close to the Meramec River and about 25 miles from St. Louis, is now deserted due to contamination from dioxin, a contaminant generated during the production of some cleansers, herbicides, and pesticides. From November 30, 1982, until the end of January 1983, the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" ran 55 articles about…

  1. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. PMID:26092255

  2. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  3. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach.

    PubMed

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro Filho, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  4. Population structure of resident, immigrant, and swimming Corophium volutator (Amphipoda) on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2012-05-01

    Spatial variation in biotic and abiotic conditions, and differences in dispersive behavior of different life history stages can result in the formation of zones with different demography for infaunal and epifaunal species within vast intertidal flats. In this study, we evaluated within-mudflat homogeneity of the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator found in the mud (residents), colonizing artificially disturbed areas (immigrants), and caught in the water column (swimmers) on a large mudflat in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. Densities of residents, immigrants, and swimmers were well structured in space (both along and across shore). Occasionally, significant differences in size structure, sex ratio, and proportion of ovigerous females were found at different intertidal levels, but these were short-lived. Comparisons of size and sex structure of residents, immigrants, and swimmers revealed occasional marked differences, with small juveniles and large adult males moving most. However, this size-bias in movement did not translate into zones with different population dynamics, suggesting that ample dispersal, through swimming and drifting in the water column, homogenized the population and masked potential effects of variation in environmental conditions. We therefore conclude that the mudflat represents one homogeneous population.

  5. Diel and semi-lunar patterns in the use of an intertidal mudflat by juveniles of Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; França, S.; Cabral, H. N.

    2006-08-01

    Intertidal mudflats are a dominant feature in many estuarine systems and may comprise a significant component of the feeding grounds available to fish. The Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858, is one of the most important flatfishes in the Tagus estuary (Portugal) and its juveniles feed in the large intertidal flats. Many aspects of the ecology and lifecycle of this species are unknown, including its behavioural adaptations to environmental variations like day-night and semi-lunar cycles. Such activity patterns may strongly influence its use of mudflat habitats. Two encircling nets were deployed on an intertidal flat, one in the lower and the other in the upper mudflat. Nets were placed during high tide and organisms collected when the ebbing tide left the flats dry. Sampling took place in June-July 2004, covering all possible combinations of the diel and semi-lunar cycles with six replicates. Monthly beam trawls were carried out to determine density and average length of the predators of S. senegalensis in the intertidal and subtidal areas, and sediment samples were also taken, to determine prey density in the intertidal and subtidal areas. Solea senegalensis captured were mostly 0-group juveniles. The density and average length of Crangon crangon, one of the main predators, was higher in the subtidal than in the intertidal. Prey density decreased from the upper intertidal to the subtidal area. The highest average density of S. senegalensis occurred during full moon at dawn/dusk. A semi-lunar activity pattern was detected. At spring tides abundance peaked at dusk/dawn, whilst at neap tides abundance peaked during the day. Predators' densities over these periods were analysed and predator avoidance is discussed. During quarter and full-moon nights S. senegalensis extended its distribution over the lower and upper mudflat, but during the new moon colonisation was restricted to the lower mudflat. It was concluded that, while diel patterns of activity are well studied and are probably associated with feeding rhythms, the influence of the moon cycle, despite its importance, is a more complex phenomena that needs further investigation.

  6. Coupling Between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in the Salinas De San Pedro Mudflat, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Diaz, S.; Torres, V.; Lazzaretto, T.; Dehyn, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 [ppm], which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001-0.005 (Cd); 0.04-0.02 (Cr); 0.13-0.38 (Cu); 0.11-0.38 (Pb); 0.0009-0.020 (Se); and 0.188-0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved O2 [ppm] in the pore water sediment indicates suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 [ppm] and loss on ignition (LOI) [%] correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI; that is to say the excess CO2 may caused higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower soil organic matter (LOI) [%] on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of reduced components. The heavy metal concentrations in sediment samples were slightly higher in suboxic layer, yet it appears that salt marsh sediment in Salinas de San Pedro act like a sink for nutrient and carbon by maximizing carbon sequestration.

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  9. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  10. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mudflat snails (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Amphiboloidea) supports an Australasian centre of origin.

    PubMed

    Golding, Rosemary E

    2012-04-01

    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata. PMID:22210412

  12. Sediment trace metal concentrations from the mudflats of Kuala Juru and Kuala Muda of Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Mat, I.; Maah, M.J. )

    1994-11-01

    About 4-5000 ha of the mudflats along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia are currently utilized for the semi-culture of the economically important marine bivalve, Anadara granosa. Therefore, information on the status of the trace metal pollution in the culture areas is of considerable value in the interest of public health when shellfish from this area are available for consumption. As an initial assessment of the degree of trace metal pollution in the sediments, an approach to analyze the non-residual (non-lattice held) trace metal concentrations should be of prime consideration rather than the total metal content in the sediments. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to restrict the comparison of the non- residual metal fraction to sediments having similar textural composition. For the above reasons, assorted acids are used to partially extract the non-residual trace metal fraction. The partial extraction of sediment-bound trace metals is not only providing information on the strength of association between metals and sediment compositions but also the potential availability of these metals to aquatic organisms. It has been shown that the bioavailability of trace metals to the aquatic biota is best related to the easily leachable, non-residual fraction rather than the total sediment bound trace metals. Therefore, it makes very little sense to consider the total metal content in the sediment to be bioavailable to cause damage to aquatic organisms or to the aquatic ecosystems. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tab.

  13. Estuarine macrofauna responses to continuous in situ nutrient addition on a tropical mudflat.

    PubMed

    Botter-Carvalho, Mônica L; Carvalho, Paulo V V C; Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

    2014-06-15

    A field experiment to assess the effects of continuous nutrient addition on the macrobenthic community was carried out on an estuarine mudflat on the northeast coast of Brazil. The experiment began on 5 October 2005 and ended on 8 February 2006. Macrofauna was compared at approximately four-week intervals in triplicate plots with three levels (Control - C, Low Dose - LD and High Dose - HD) of weekly fertilizer additions for 17 weeks. Inorganic fertilizer (N-P-K) was applied on nine randomly defined quadrangular plots (4m(2) each). All measurements were calculated from species abundances. Multivariate analyses as well as the univariate indices (richness, abundance and Shannon-Wiener index) showed statistically significant differences between the enriched and control areas during the period of the experiment. The expected gradual response based on the succession model of Pearson and Rosenberg was not observed. The nutrient doses used were high enough to cause severe decreases in abundance, richness and evenness, and an increase in dominance. PMID:24835372

  14. [Characterization of microbial activities in marine mudflat sediment using FDA hydrolase analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zou, Li; Liu, Lu; Gao, Dong-Mei

    2013-10-01

    A method based on fluorescence spectrometry was developed to detect the microbial activities in marine mudflat sediment, where is characterized by high salinity, complex organic compounds and low microbial biomass. This paper optimized the sample extracts, the detection equipment for reaction products, the pretreatment methods, and the experimental conditions. The optimal procedure is described as following. Fresh sediment was first extracted with sterilized and aged seawater, followed by the addition of Tween-80 solution, then uniformly dispersed by thorough oscillating, and kept steady for precipitation. After filtration through a sterilized membrane (1. 2 microm, sterilized in boiling water repeatedly) , the supernatant was supplemented with an appropriate amount of FDA solution and allowed to react in dark for 180 min at temperature ranged 25-30 degrees C . The reaction was terminated by the addition of acetone, and the fluorescence intensity of the reaction mixture was measured within 25 min using a molecular fluorescence photometer at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm and an emission wavelength of 530 nm, and the detection range of this method (dry weight) was 3.0 x10(3)-1. 1 x 10(5) ind.g-1. The microbial activity was reported as fluorescence content in per unit sediment mass (microg.g-1, dry weight). PMID:24364298

  15. Response of archaeal communities to oil spill in bioturbated mudflat sediments.

    PubMed

    Stauffert, Magalie; Duran, Robert; Gassie, Claire; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2014-01-01

    The response of archaeal community to oil spill with the combined effect of the bioturbation activity of the polychaetes Hediste diversicolor was determined in mudflat sediments from the Aber-Benoît basin (Brittany, French Atlantic coast), maintained in microcosms. The dynamics of the archaeal community was monitored by combining comparative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprints and sequence library analyses based on 16S rRNA genes and 16S cDNA. Methanogens were also followed by targeting the mcrA gene. Crenarchaeota were always detected in all communities irrespective of the addition of H. diversicolor and/or oil. In the presence of oil, modifications of archaeal community structures were observed. These modifications were more pronounced when H. diversicolor was added resulting in a more diverse community especially for the Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. The analysis of mcrA transcripts showed a specific structure for each condition since the beginning of the experiment. Overall, oiled microcosms showed different communities irrespective of H. diversicolor addition, while similar hydrocarbon removal capacities were observed. PMID:24057322

  16. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  17. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach

  18. Quality of Tourist Beaches in Huatulco, SW of Mexico: Multiproxy Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retama, I.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    40 beach water and sediment samples were collected from the inter-tidal zones of tourist beaches of Huatulco in the State of Oaxaca, South Western part of Mexico. The samples were collected in an aim to know the concentration pattern of metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Hg) in sediments and microplastics. Physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids, salinity and redox potential. Collection of samples was done during the peak season in April 2013. Our results from water samples indicate that the physico-chemical conditions of the beach water have been altered due to human activities in large numbers. The bioavailable metal concentrations indicate that enrichment of Pb, Cd, Cr and As and it is also supported by the higher values observed from the calculation of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. The higher values in the sediments is either due to natural sources like chemical weathering of rocks and external sources, which points to high tourism, agricultural activities in the region. Identification of micro-plastics was done through SEM photographs, indicating the type of plastic wastes deposited into the beach regions which can indicate the density, durability and the persistence level in the sediments. Eventhough the enrichment of metals and modification of beach water quality is observed, care need to be taken to avoid further damage to the coastal ecosystem. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Beach water, Micro plastics, Trace metals, Contamination indices, Huatulco, Mexico.

  19. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches. None of the concentrations of wastewater indicators of fecal contamination, including 3b-coprostanol and cholesterol, were significantly correlated (a=0.05) to concentrations of E. coli. Concentrations of the two compounds that were significantly correlated to E. coli were components of coal tar and asphalt, which are not necessarily indicative of fecal contamination. Data were collected to build on an earlier 1997 study to develop and test multiple-linear-regression models to predict E. coli concentrations using water-quality and environmental variables as explanatory variables. The probability of exceeding the single-sample bathing-water standard for E. coli (235 colonies per 100 milliliters) was used as the model output variable. Threshold probabilities for each model were established. Computed probabilities that are less than a threshold probability indicate that bacterial water quality is most likely acceptable. Computed probabilities equal to or above the threshold probability indicate that the water quality is most likely not acceptable and that a water-quality advisory may be needed. Models were developed at each beach, whenever possible, using combinations of 1997, 2000, and (or) 2001 data. The models developed and tested in this study were shown to be beach specific; that is, different explanatory variables were used to predict the probability of exceeding the standard at each beach. At Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor, models were not developed because water quality was generally good. At the three Lake Erie urban beaches, models were developed with variable lists that included the number of birds on the beach at the time of sampling, lake-current direction, wave height, turbidity, streamflow of a nearby river, and rainfall. The models for Huntington explained a larger percentage of the variability in E. coli concentrations than the models for Edgewater and Villa Angela. At Mosquito Lake, a model based on 2000 and 2001 data contained the

  20. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  1. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  2. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  3. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts

  4. Virginia Beach City Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Stephena

    1989-01-01

    Looks at the planning and implementation of the art curriculum in Virginia Beach City (VA) Public Schools. Lists the goals of the art education program and the components that serve as the organizational framework. Provides a brief description of elementary and secondary curricula. Discusses problems and solutions involved with the implementation…

  5. Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

    2007-09-01

    The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

  6. Trophic resource partitioning within a shorebird community feeding on intertidal mudflat habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, Pierrick; Robin, Frédéric; Kojadinovic, Jessica; Delaporte, Philippe; Rousseau, Pierre; Dupuy, Christine; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    In ecological systems, it is necessary to describe the trophic niches of species and their segregation or overlap to understand the distribution of species in the community. In oceanic systems, the community structure of top predators such as seabird communities has been well documented with many studies in several biogeographical areas. But for coastal habitats, very few investigations on the trophic structure have been carried out in avian communities. In this study, the trophic resource partitioning was investigated on eight of the most abundant species of a shorebird community on the central Atlantic coast of France. Our work comprised a comprehensive sample of birds with different ecomorphogical patterns and data on their main prey to encompass potential sources of overlap and segregation in this community. We examined the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of blood to investigate the trophic structure (1) on a temporal scale by comparing migration and wintering periods; (2) on a spatial scale through inter-site comparisons; and (3) on the community level within groups of phylogenetically related species. Diets appeared different in several cases between periods, between sites and between juveniles and adults for the same sites. A clear trophic partitioning was established with four functional groups of predators in winter inside the community. The Grey Plover, the Bar-tailed Godwit, the Curlew and a majority of the dunlins were worm-eaters mainly feeding on Nereis diversicolor or Nephtys hombergii. Two species were predominantly deposit-suspensivorous mollusc-eaters, including the Red Knot and the Black-tailed Godwit feeding mainly on Macoma balthica. The Oystercatcher fed mainly on suspensivorous molluscs like Cerastodrema edule and two species including the Redshank and some dunlins adopted opportunistic behaviours feeding on mudflat and/or in marshes.

  7. Effects of antagonistic ecosystem engineers on macrofauna communities in a patchy, intertidal mudflat landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklöf, J. S.; Donadi, S.; van der Heide, T.; van der Zee, E. M.; Eriksson, B. K.

    2015-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that strongly modify abiotic conditions and in the process alter associated communities. Different types of benthic ecosystem engineers have been suggested to facilitate different communities in otherwise similar marine environments, partly because they alter sediment conditions in contrasting ways. However, most studies testing this hypothesis have either not manipulated the presence of engineers, or have transplanted engineers into areas already dominated by other engineers, which limits the ability to assess the relative engineering effects. Here we combined a field survey and a field experiment to investigate if two contrasting ecosystem engineers - the sediment-stabilizing seagrass Zostera noltei and the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina - facilitate different macrofauna communities. The study was performed in a sheltered mudflat area of the eastern Dutch Wadden Sea, where seagrasses and lugworms form a mosaic of spatially alternating seagrass-dominated elevations (hummocks) and lugworm-dominated depressions (hollows). Results showed that seagrasses facilitated some organisms (mainly attached epifauna) while lugworms facilitated others (primarily burrowing infauna), generating distinctly different macrofauna communities in hummocks and hollows. However, seagrasses had a much stronger effect on the macrofauna communities than lugworms, and competitively excluded lugworms. This contrasts with results from similar studies in hydrodynamically more exposed sand flats, where lugworms instead dominate communities and exclude seagrass. We therefore propose that effects of ecosystem engineering (acting primarily on a local scale) and variation in abiotic conditions (acting on larger scales, e.g., hydrodynamic gradients along the Dutch coastline) strongly interact to dictate the distribution and fitness of engineering species, and indirectly, the diversity and structure of associated benthic communities.

  8. Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacVean, Lissa J.; Lacy, Jessica R.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements were collected on a shallow estuarine mudflat in northern San Francisco Bay to examine the physical processes controlling waves, turbulence, sediment resuspension, and their interactions. Tides alone forced weak to moderate currents of 10-30 cm s-1 in depths of 0-3 m, and maintained a background suspension of 30-50 mg L-1 of fine sediment. In the presence of wind waves, bottom orbital velocities spanned 20-30 cm s-1, suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) at 15 and 30 cm above the bed (cmab) increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and vertical gradients in SSC were strong enough to produce turbulence-limiting stratification, with gradient Richardson numbers exceeding 0.25. Simultaneously, turbulent stresses (decomposed from wave motions) increased by an order of magnitude. The apparent contradiction of energetic turbulence in the presence of strong stratification was reconciled by considering the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget: in general, dissipation and buoyancy flux were balanced by local shear production, and each of these terms increased during wave events. The classic wave-current boundary layer model represented the observations qualitatively, but not quantitatively since the velocity profile could not be approximated as logarithmic. Rather, the mean shear was elevated by the Stokes drift return flow and wind-generated surface stress, which diffused sediment upward and limited stratification. Our findings highlight a pathway for waves to supply energy to both the production and destruction of turbulence, and demonstrate that in such shallow depths, TKE and SSC can be elevated over more of the water column than predicted by traditional models.

  9. Photo-regulation in microphytobenthos from intertidal mudflats and non-tidal coastal shallows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pniewski, Filip F.; Biskup, Paulina; Bubak, Iwona; Richard, Pierre; Latała, Adam; Blanchard, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated seasonal changes in the photo-regulatory mechanisms of microphytobenthos found in intertidal mudflats (Aiguillon Bay, the Atlantic, France) and non-tidal sandy coastal shallows (Puck Bay, the Baltic, Poland) based on photosynthetic pigment characteristics and the estimates of photosynthetic parameters obtained through oxygen evolution measurements. The intertidal communities consisted of motile diatom species typical of epipelon. The non-tidal microphytobenthos was composed of epipsammic species mostly belonging to four taxonomic groups chiefly contributing to the assemblage biomass, namely cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, green algae and diatoms (comprising mainly small-sized species). The epipelon was low light acclimated as shown by the lower values of photoprotective/photosynthetic (PPC/PSC) carotenoids and diatoxanthin/diadinoxanthin (Dt/Dd) ratios. In contrast, the epipsammon exhibited features of high light acclimation (high PPC/PSC and Dt/Dd ratios). In both microphytobenthos types, the photosynthetic capacity (Pm) showed the same seasonal variation pattern and there were no statistically significant differences between the investigated sites in corresponding seasons (P > 0.05). In both assemblage types, the photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance (α) decreased over time. The epipelon had higher α compared to the epipsammon. Seasonal changes of the photoacclimation index (Ek) estimated for the epipelic communities reflected variations observed in Pm, whereas in the epipsammon an increasing trend in Ek values was observed. Ek was always higher for the epipsammon when comparing analogous seasons, which further corroborated low and high light acclimation in the epipelic and epipsammic communities, respectively. The presence of the photoinhibition parameter (β) in the epipelon and the lack of it in the epipsammon suggested that the latter was resistant to high irradiance and the physiological mechanisms were sufficient to protect it from photoinhibition. In the epipelon, a downturn in photosynthetic rates showed that it was susceptible to high light intensities, suggesting that physiological photoprotective mechanisms must be supported by behavioural photoacclimation in order to avoid damaging light influence.

  10. Seasonal distribution of metals in vertical and horizontal profiles of sheltered and exposed beaches on Polish coast.

    PubMed

    Bigus, Katarzyna; Astel, Aleksander; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2016-05-15

    The distribution of alkali and heavy metals in coastal sediments of three Polish beaches was assessed. In all locations there are sandy beaches of different characteristics according to the anthropogenic impact and degree of sheltering. Core sediments collected in Czołpino and Ustka were characterized by the highest concentration of Cd, Ag, Ba, and Al, Cu, Cr, Bi, Na, respectively. Among the alkaline metals core sediments were the most abundant with Ca, Bi, Mg and Na, presenting almost stable decreasing order in all beaches. The majority of dredge material collected can be classified as light or trace contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Hg. An abundance of mineralogical components in core sediments in Ustka increases in Summer and Autumn, while in Puck is stable throughout the year. The content of studied metals in core sediments collected in three Polish beaches changes both in the vertical and horizontal profiles of the beach. PMID:26975611

  11. Fatty acid profiles indicate the habitat of mud snails Hydrobia ulvae within the same estuary: Mudflats vs. seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Helena; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Reis, Alberto; Queiroga, Henrique; Serôdio, João; Calado, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.

  12. Microorganism dynamics during a rising tide: Disentangling effects of resuspension and mixing with offshore waters above an intertidal mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guizien, Katell; Dupuy, Christine; Ory, Pascaline; Montanié, Hélène; Hartmann, Hans; Chatelain, Mathieu; Karpytchev, Mikhaïl

    2014-01-01

    Resuspension of microphytobenthic biomass that builds up during low tide has been acknowledged as a major driver of the highly productive food web of intertidal mudflats. Yet, little is known about the contribution to pelagic food web of the resuspension of other microorganisms such as viruses, picoeukaryotes, cyanobacteria, bacteria, nanoflagellates, and ciliates, living in biofilms associated with microphytobenthos and surficial sediment. In the present study, a novel approach that involves simultaneous Lagrangian and Eulerian surveys enabled to disentangle the effects of resuspension and mixing with offshore waters on the dynamics of water column microorganisms during a rising tide in the presence of waves. Temporal changes in the concentration of microorganisms present in the water column were recorded along a 3 km cross-shore transect and at a fixed subtidal location. In both surveys, physical and biological processes were separated by comparing the time-evolution of sedimentary particles and microorganism concentrations. During a rising tide, sediment erosion under wave action occurred over the lower and upper parts of the mudflat, where erodibility was highest. Although erosion was expected to enrich the water column with the most abundant benthic microorganisms, such as diatoms, bacteria and viruses, enrichment was only observed for nanoflagellates and ciliates. Grazing probably overwhelmed erosion transfer for diatoms and bacteria, while adsorption on clayed particles may have masked the expected water column enrichment in free viruses due to resuspension. Ciliate enrichment could not be attributed to resuspension as those organisms were absent from the sediment. Wave agitation during the water flow on the mudflat likely dispersed gregarious ciliates over the entire water column. During the rising tide, offshore waters imported more autotrophic, mainly cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus sp. than heterotrophic microorganisms, but this import was also heavily grazed. Finally, the water column became a less heterotrophic structure in the subtidal part of the semi-enclosed bay, where mixing with offshore waters occurs (50% decrease), compared to the intertidal mudflat, when resuspension occurs. The present study suggests that this differential evolution resulted predominantly from dilution with offshore waters less rich in heterotrophic microorganisms. Indeed, any input of microorganisms accompanying physical transfers due to bed erosion or offshore water mixing was immediately buffered, probably to the benefit of grazers.

  13. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p <0.0001), and there was no significant difference between control and raking treatments (p<0.01). This study demonstrates the beach management implications related to grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  14. Interaction and influence of two creeks on Escherichia coli concentrations of nearby beaches: Exploration of predictability and mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Frick, W.E.; Ge, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of river outfalls on beach water quality depends on numerous interacting factors. The delivery of contaminants by multiple creeks greatly complicates understanding of the source contributions, especially when pollution might originate up- or down-coast of beaches. We studied two beaches along Lake Michigan that are located between two creek outfalls to determine the hydrometeorologic factors influencing near-shore microbiologic water quality and the relative impact of the creeks. The creeks continuously delivered water with high concentrations of Escherichia coli to Lake Michigan, and the direction of transport of these bacteria was affected by current direction. Current direction reversals were associated with elevated E. coli concentrations at Central Avenue beach. Rainfall, barometric pressure, wave height, wave period, and creek specific conductance were significantly related to E. coli concentration at the beaches and were the parameters used in predictive models that best described E. coli variation at the two beaches. Multiple inputs to numerous beaches complicates the analysis and understanding of the relative relationship of sources but affords opportunities for showing how these complex creek inputs might interact to yield collective or individual effects on beach water quality.

  15. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  16. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens and contribute to the dissemination of bacterial resistance. PMID:25963763

  17. Speciation of metals and their distribution in tropical estuarine mudflat sediments, southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria C; Nayak, G N

    2015-12-01

    Two sediment cores collected from a mudflat sedimentary environment of Swarna estuary (S3) and Gurpur estuary (MF6), representing the middle estuarine region, Karnataka, India, were investigated to understand bioavailability of metals and their toxicity. The subsamples were analyzed for sand, silt, clay, organic carbon and total metal concentration of Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) and Chromium (Cr) at 2 cm intervals. Sediments (average) are relatively coarser in Gurpur estuary whereas silt, clay, organic carbon along with the studied metals (except Mn and Cu) is noted to be higher in the Swarna estuary. Significant correlations were observed of Al, Fe with finer sediments and most of the trace metals in both the cores indicating a mainly lithogenic source. Further, metal speciation analysis carried out for Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co and Cr on selected samples of both the cores indicated that Fe was largely associated with the residual fraction with 93 ± 0.5% in Gurpur and 84 ± 6% in Swarna estuary. The concentration of studied metals in the residual fraction in the sediments of Gurpur estuary was in the order Mn(90 ± 5%)>Cr(85 ± 1%)>Ni(72 ± 5%)>Zn(69 ± 3%)>Cu(57 ± 5%)>Co(55 ± 2%) and; Cr(80 ± 7%)>Mn(77 ± 10%)>Ni(76 ± 7%)>Zn(67 ± 10%)>Cu(67 ± 10%)>Co(50 ± 7%) in Swarna estuary. When the total (bulk) metals were compared with the Sediment Quality Values (SQV) following Screening Quick Reference Table (SQUIRT), Co values of both the cores fell above Apparent Effect Threshold (AET) values. When the sum of the average bioavailable fractions in sediments was considered, Co values exceeded the AET in core S3 (Swarna estuary). When the variations are viewed with depth, bioavailability of Mn, Ni, Cu and Co in Gurpur estuary indicated anthropogenic addition in recent years whereas in Swarna estuary most of the studied metals showed diagenetic remobilization and diffusion to the water column from surface sediments. Metal speciation study indicated no harm to the aquatic life, except of Co, in Swarna estuary wherein it posed a high risk of toxicity to organisms associated with the sediments. PMID:26210609

  18. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. J.; Lanuru, M.; van Bernem, C.; Pejrup, M.; Riethmueller, R.

    2010-04-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and deposit-feeding species (e.g., the bivalve Macoma balthica, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae or the amphipod Corophium volutator) may completely hide its effect on sediment erodibility if these species are present in high numbers.

  19. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality. PMID:16854516

  20. Velocity and sediment surge: What do we see at times of very shallow water on intertidal mudflats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Gong, Zheng; Zhang, Changkuan; Townend, Ian; Jin, Chuang; Li, Huan

    2016-02-01

    A self-designed "bottom boundary layer hydrodynamic and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measuring system" was built to observe the hydrodynamic and the SSC processes over the intertidal mudflats at the middle part of the Jiangsu coast during August 8-10, 2013. Velocity profiles within 10 cm of the mudflat surface were obtained with a vertical resolution as fine as 1 mm. An ADCP was used to extend the profile over the full water depth with a resolution of 10 cm and the vertical SSC profile was measured at intervals using Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS). At the same time, water levels and wave conditions were measured with a Tide and Wave Recorder. Measured data suggested that the vertical structure of velocity profiles within 10 cm above the bed maintains a logarithmic distribution during the whole tidal cycle except the slack-water periods. Shallow flows during both the early-flood period and the later-ebb period are characterized by a relatively large vertical velocity gradient and a "surge" feature. We conclude that the very shallow water stages are transient and may not contribute much to the whole water and sediment transport, while they can play a significant role in the formation and evolution of micro-topographies on tidal flats.

  1. A Universal Nutrient Application Strategy For The Bioremediation Of Oil-Polluted Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation by nutrient application is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. Maximizing the nutrient residence time is key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup. We considered the nutrient injection strategy through a perforated pipe at the high ti...

  2. Simulation of oil bioremediation in a tidally influenced beach: Spatiotemporal evolution of nutrient and dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Pan, Zhong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Lee, Kenneth; Zhao, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Numerical experiments of oil bioremediation of tidally influenced beach were simulated using the model BIOMARUN. Nutrient and dissolved oxygen were assumed present in a solution applied on the exposed beach face, and the concentration of these amendments was tracked throughout the beach for up to 6 months. It was found that, in comparison to natural attenuation, bioremediation increased the removal efficiency by 76% and 65% for alkanes and aromatics, respectively. Increasing the nutrient concentration in the applied solution did not always enhance biodegradation as oxygen became limiting even when the beach was originally oxygen-rich. Therefore, replenishment of oxygen to oil-contaminated zone was also essential. Stimulation of oil biodegradation was more evident in the upper and midintertidal zone of the beach, and less in the lower intertidal zone. This was due to reduced nutrient and oxygen replenishment, as very little of the amendment solution reached that zone. It was found that under continual application, most of the oil biodegraded within 2 months, while it persisted for 6 months under natural conditions. While the difference in duration suggests minimal long-term effects, there are situations where the beach would need to be cleaned for major ecological functions, such as temporary nesting or feeding for migratory birds. Biochemical retention time map (BRTM) showed that the duration of solution application was dependent upon the stimulated oil biodegradation rate. By contrast, the application rate of the amendment solution was dependent upon the subsurface extent of the oil-contaminated zone. Delivery of nutrient and oxygen into coastal beach involved complex interaction among amendment solution, groundwater, and seawater. Therefore, approaches that ignore the hydrodynamics due to tide are unlikely to provide the optimal solutions for shoreline bioremediation.

  3. Potential of the microbial community present in an unimpacted beach sediment to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Reis, Izabela; Couto, M Nazaré; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2013-05-01

    The potential of the microbial communities present in the intertidal zone of an unimpacted beach (a beach that did not suffer any significant oil spill) to degrade hydrocarbons was investigated. For that, laboratory-based microcosms (50-ml flasks) were set up with sandy beach sediment spiked with crude oil and incubated with local seawater for 15 days in the dark. Three bioremediation treatments were tested (biostimulation (BS), autochthonous bioaugmentation (AB), and combined treatment of biostimulation + bioaugmentation (BS + AB)) and the results were compared with natural attenuation (NA). Visual inspection showed clearly an oil solubility increase (confirmed by a higher hydrocarbons concentration in supernatant solutions) for all tested treatments when compared to NA. Significant degradation of the oil, shown by different profiles of petroleum hydrocarbons, was also observed for the different treatments particularly for BS + AB. Therefore, the microbial community of this unimpacted beach sediment could respond to an oil spill, degrading hydrocarbons. But to increase the natural attenuation pace, obtained results indicated that BS + AB is an appropriate approach for the bioremediation of beaches recently impacted by an oil spill. The autochthonous microbial cultures can be obtained "before" or "after" the contamination of the target site, being inoculated into the site right after it contamination. PMID:23054799

  4. Long-term persistence of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in two-layer beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2010-02-01

    Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.

  5. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  6. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... past to apply for BEACH Act grants to implement effective and comprehensive coastal recreation water... recreation water monitoring and public notification programs (``development grants''). This notice...

  7. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  8. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  9. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. Diurnal and Tidal Variation in the Abundance of the Fish Fauna of a Temperate Tidal Mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Francis, M. P.; Hartill, B. W.; Parkinson, D. M.

    2002-05-01

    Mud and sand intertidal flats are a dominant feature of many estuaries and harbours, and may comprize a significant component of the total estuarine habitat available to fish. Information on what fish utilize such habitats, and when, is sparse. Small fish usage of a medium sized tidal flat (∼1 by 1 km) in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand has been quantified. Fish assemblages were sampled with respect to tide (high, low) and diurnal (night, day) phases, using beach seine and outrigger trawl (a form of push net). Catches were dominated by fish smaller than 100 mm, and included juveniles of larger species, and adults of smaller species. For beach seine, low tide samples had substantially higher species diversity and abundance than high tide samples. In addition, low tide night samples had greater species diversity and abundance than low tide day samples. High tide samples varied little between day and night. Data from the outrigger trawl, a novel method able to sample across the full tidal flats, showed that most fish species occurred across the full extent of the tidal flat at high tide. This indicates that fish move 1000 m or more per tidal cycle between the deep, low tide channels and the shoreward margin of the tidal flat. The fish assemblage was not concentrated along the tideline. Species that were expected to be less mobile (a goby and a triplefin), declined in abundance with increasing distance from the low tide channel. Overall, no particular tidal zone was more important than any other. Most species were present over both day and night periods, although catch rates were higher at night for many species. The degree to which gear avoidance may have contributed to this is not known.

  9. Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Process Parameters on Pathogen Transport and Fate in a Recreational Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.

    2010-12-01

    The US has very long shorelines (95,471 miles) contributing remarkable yearly revenue to the country by providing numerous recreational beaches. The beaches of both inland lakes and marine regions must be closed when the level of waterborne pathogens indicated by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform (TC), fecal coli form (FC, or Escherichia coli, E. coli) and Enterococcus exceed microbial water quality standards. Beach closures are of mounting concern to beach managers and the public due to the increasing risk to human health from waterborne pathogens. Monitoring FIB with laboratory analysis usually takes at least 18 hours during which beach goers may have been unintentionally exposed to the contaminated water. Therefore a water quality model to quickly and precisely forecast FIB has been a very effective tool for beach management to help beach managers in making decisions if beaches are safe enough to open to the public. The fate and transport of pathogens in the surf-zone of a beach area is a complex process involving various factors of hydrodynamics, hydrology, chemistry, microbiology. These factors including dispersion coefficient, wind velocity, particle settling velocity, fraction of bacteria attached, solar insolation, discharges to the beach, geometry of the beach, etc, are the essential components for a mechanistic model to describe the inactivation of FIB. To better understand the importance of these factors and their roles in impacting inactivation, transport and removal of FIB is extremely important to enhance the effectiveness and preciseness of a predictive model. The aim of this paper is to report the sensitivity analysis results of these factors in the surf zone of a creational beach using a verified water quality model system. The relative importance of these parameters is being ranked. For instance, the current sensitivity analysis shows that sunlight insolation has greater impact on pathogen inactivation than water temperature and settling velocity (figure 1). The analysis results and conclusion may provide indication for general beach management and further inactivation investigation of pathogens. Figure 1: Relative contributions of settling and solar insolation to the overall inactivation of E. coli at the Mt. Baldy Beach (Liu et al. 2006)

  10. "Beach-Ball" Robotic Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic vehicles resembling large beach balls proposed for carrying scientific instruments. Conceived for use in exploring planet Mars, also useful on Earth to carry meteorological or pollution-monitoring equipment to remote locations across rough terrain and even across water. Each vehicle features approximately spherical balloonlike outer shell inflated to suitable pressure. Three diametral tethers approximately perpendicular to each other attached to shell. Control box moves itself along tethers to shift center of gravity, causing vehicle to roll. Alternatively, instead of shell, structure of approximately spherical outline made of twisted rods; of course, not suitable for traversing water or thick vegetation.

  11. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  12. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  13. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  14. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  15. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  16. Escherichia coli and enterococci at beaches in the Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan: Sources, characteristics, and environmental pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.; Wright, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified Escherichia coli(EC) and enterococci (ENT) in beach waters and dominant source materials, correlated these with ambient conditions, and determined selected EC genotypes and ENT phenotypes. Bathing-water ENT criteria were exceeded more frequently than EC criteria, providing conflicting interpretations of water quality. Dominant sources of EC and ENT were bird feces (108/d/bird), storm drains (107/d), and river water (1011/d); beach sands, shallow groundwater and detritus were additional sources. Beach-water EC genotypes and ENT phenotypes formed clusters with those from all source types, reflecting diffuse inputs. Some ENT isolates had phenotypes similar to those of human pathogens and/or exhibited high-level resistance to human-use antibiotics. EC and ENT concentrations were influenced by collection time and wind direction. There was a 48-72-h lag between rainfall and elevated EC concentrations at three southern shoreline beaches, but no such lag at western and eastern shoreline beaches, reflecting the influence of beach orientation with respect to cyclic (3-5 d) summer weather patterns. In addition to local contamination sources and processes, conceptual or predictive models of Great Lakes beach water quality should consider regional weather patterns, lake hydrodynamics, and the influence of monitoring method variables (time of day, frequency).

  17. Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples (samples collected above the shoreline) than in samples collected in ankle-deep water below the shoreline, significantly larger in the left and middle areas of the beach than the right area, and substantially larger than similar studies at E. coli- contaminated beaches on Lake Erie in Ohio. Concentrations of E. coli in the water column also were significantly larger after resuspension of sediments. Results of MST indicate a predominance of waterfowl-associated markers in nearshore sediments at Grand Glaize Beach consistent with frequent observations of goose and vulture fecal matter in sediment, especially on the left and middle areas of the beach. The combination of spatial and temporal sampling and MST indicate that an important source of E. coli contamination at Grand Glaize Beach during 2012 was E. coli released into the water column by bathers resuspending E. coli-contaminated sediments, especially during high-use days early in the recreational season.

  18. To swim or not to swim? A disagreement between microbial indicators on beach water quality assessment in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Yuen, Ka Lai; Li, Ping Fai; Lau, Wai Hing; Chiu, Chung Man; Yuen, Suet Wai; Baker, David M

    2015-12-15

    The USEPA and the WHO now advocate the use of enterococci as indicators for marine water quality. This study investigated the outcomes for Hong Kong beach water quality assessment by comparing enterococcus measures with data from the HKEPD's monitoring programme. Six beaches were tested once every 2-3months from November 2013 to June 2014 in order to identify the most contaminated sites, followed by intensive water sampling in sites found to have the highest enterococci densities (Clear Water Bay Second and Golden) every five to six days for six sampling events over a 30-day period in 2014. The geometric means of enterococci were found to be 124 and 41cfu/100mL at Clear Water Bay Second and Golden respectively, indicating that there may be higher risks of illness associated with swimming at both beaches than previously known. Moreover, beach sediments contained higher concentrations of enterococci than water, and warrant further study. PMID:26608502

  19. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  20. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  1. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

  2. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will need to assess the persistence and impact of the newly formed microbial communities to the overall sandy beach ecosystems. PMID:25036744

  3. Metal Enrichment and Toxicity Levels in Sediments from the Tourist Beaches of Southern Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chari, S. V.; Vetrimurugan, E.; Jonathan, M. P.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Durban city in South Africa is developing in a fast pace in the field of tourism and thereby needs to be reviewed for the enrichment of metals in tourist beaches. Geochemical studies have been done on nearly 65 beach sediments collected from inter-tidal regions of Amanzi Toti, Isipingo, Bluff, Cutting and southern part of Durban beaches. The study was done in order to unravel the anthropogenic and natural geochemical signals. Total (TTMs) and partially extracted trace metals (PETMs) (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Zn) in sediments were evaluated along with organic carbon and carbonates. Evaluation of enrichment of geochemical elements were done using contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), ecological risk index (RI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) to understand the pollution status of the study area and it indicates that As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn are enriched by two to three folds from the natural background values. Uncontrolled tourism activities have led to increase of certain elements in the Durban beaches. Textural analysis provides the information regarding the dominance of sediments either in sand fraction, mud fraction or gravel. The results indicated that they are dominantly coarse grained except in regions where local river input is observed. Industrial development as well as the mining activities in few locations near the coast has led to increase in the elemental concentrations. Regular monitoring of enrichment levels of trace metals in the sediments is mandatory to assess the beach quality in order to restore them from further enrichment so that the biological system in this region is also preserved. Keywords: Tourism, Beach sediments, Trace metals, contamination indices.

  4. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  5. Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments.

    PubMed

    Carson, Henry S; Colbert, Steven L; Kaylor, Matthew J; McDermid, Karla J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the physical properties of beaches contaminated with plastic fragments. We compared sediment cores from Hawai'i Island's Kamilo Beach, notable for plastic accumulation, to cores from a nearby beach. Compared to the nearby beach, Kamilo sediments contained more plastics (up to 30.2% by weight), were coarser-grained, and were more permeable (t-test, p<0.0001). 85% of the fragments were polyethylene, and 95% were concentrated in the top 15 cm of the cores. We constructed artificial cores of standardized grain size and varying plastic-to-sediment ratios. Adding plastic significantly increased the permeability (ANOVA, p=0.002), which was partially attributed to the fragments increasing the mean grain size. Sediments with plastic warmed more slowly (16% maximum decrease in thermal diffusivity), and reached lower maximum temperatures (21% maximum increase in heat capacity). These changes have a variety of potential effects on beach organisms, including those with temperature-dependent sex-determination such as sea turtle eggs. PMID:21700298

  6. Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Juying; Wang, Jing; Ma, Deyi

    2015-10-15

    Microplastics provide a mechanism for the long-range transport of hydrophobic chemical contaminants to remote coastal and marine locations. In this study, plastic resin pellets were collected from Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach in China. The collected pellets were analyzed for PAHs, PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 34.7-213.7 ng g(-1) and from 21.5-323.2 ng g(-1) in plastic resin pellets for Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach respectively. The highest concentrations of PCBs were observed for congeners 44, 110, 138, 155 and 200. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 136.3-1586.9 ng g(-1) and from 397.6-2384.2 ng g(-1) in the plastic pellets, whereas DDTs concentration ranged from 1.2-101.5 ng g(-1) and from 1.5-127.0 ng g(-1) for the two beaches. The elevated concentrations of pollutants appear to be related to extensive industrial development, agricultural activity and the use of coal in the area. PMID:26298177

  7. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.; Mandell, W.A.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  8. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  9. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology and geomorphology in different time scales.

  10. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  11. Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Jong Su; Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Su Yeon; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Kang, Daeseok; Hong, Sunwook

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of the distribution of plastic marine debris were determined on 12 beaches in South Korea in 2013 and 2014. The abundances of large micro- (1-5 mm), meso- (5-25 mm), and macroplastics (>25 mm) were 880.4, 37.7, and 1.0 particles/m(2), respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant debris type for large microplastics and mesoplastics (99.1 and 90.9 %, respectively). Fiber (including fabric) was the most abundant of the macroplastics (54.7 %). There were no statistical differences in the mean numbers and weights of plastic debris among three beach groups from west, south, and east coasts. No significant differences were detected between the abundances of beached plastics in high strandline and backshore for all three size groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationships between the three debris size classes. The abundance of large microplastics was strongly correlated with that of mesoplastics for most material types, which suggests that the contamination level of large microplastics can be estimated from that of mesoplastics. As surveying of smaller particles is more labor intensive, the surveying of mesoplastics with a 5-mm sieve is an efficient and useful way to determine "hot-spots" on beaches contaminated with large microplastics. PMID:26285904

  12. Development of predictive models for determining enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A

    2012-02-01

    The US EPA BEACH Act requires beach managers to issue swimming advisories when water quality standards are exceeded. While a number of methods/models have been proposed to meet the BEACH Act requirement, no systematic comparisons of different methods against the same data series are available in terms of relative performance of existing methods. This study presents and compares three models for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels at Gulf Coast beaches in Louisiana, USA. One was developed using the artificial neural network (ANN) in MATLAB Toolbox and the other two were based on the US EPA Virtual Beach (VB) Program. A total of 944 sets of environmental and bacteriological data were utilized. The data were collected and analyzed weekly during the swimming season (May-October) at six sites of the Holly Beach by Louisiana Beach Monitoring Program in the six year period of May 2005-October 2010. The ANN model includes 15 readily available environmental variables such as salinity, water temperature, wind speed and direction, tide level and type, weather type, and various combinations of antecedent rainfalls. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 308, 103, and 103 data sets (collected in 2007, 2008, and 2009) with an average linear correlation coefficient (LCC) of 0.857 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.336. The two VB models, including a linear transformation-based model and a nonlinear transformation-based model, were constructed using the same data sets. The linear VB model with 6 input variables achieved an LCC of 0.230 and an RMSE of 1.302 while the nonlinear VB model with 5 input variables produced an LCC of 0.337 and an RMSE of 1.205. In order to assess the predictive performance of the ANN and VB models, hindcasting was conducted using a total of 430 sets of independent environmental and bacteriological data collected at six Holly Beach sites in 2005, 2006, and 2010. The hindcasting results show that the ANN model is capable of predicting enterococci levels at the Holly Beach sites with an adjusted RMSE of 0.803 and LCC of 0.320 while the adjusted RMSE and LCC values are 1.815 and 0.354 for the linear VB model and 1.961 and 0.521 for the nonlinear VB model. The results indicate that the ANN model with 15 parameters performs better than the VB models with 6 or 5 parameters in terms of RMSE while VB models perform better than the ANN model in terms of LCC. The predictive models (especially the ANN and the nonlinear VB models) developed in this study in combination with readily available real-time environmental and weather forecast data can be utilized to nowcast and forecast beach water quality, greatly reducing the potential risk of contaminated beach waters to human health and improving beach management. While the models were developed specifically for the Holly Beach, Louisiana, the methods used in this paper are generally applicable to other coastal beaches. PMID:22130001

  13. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  15. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  16. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  17. Juba: Science on an African Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Walter F.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents a description of the teaching methods of Hawa Kamara who teaches sixth-grade science on a beach in Africa. His methods stress the elements of discovery and student questions. (JA)

  18. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  19. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  20. Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

  1. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

  2. Marsh, mudflat and tidal creek assessment Cumberland Island National Seashore. Kings Bay Environmental Monitoring Program cumberland island national seashore. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The project was designed to determine whether backbarrier dredging for the Kings Bay Naval Base is affecting marsh habitat sustainability on Cumberland Island. Research was predicated on the hypothesis that if the operation is indeed exerting an influence on Cumberland Island, it will most likely be first perceived in the effect it has on the rates of supply and delivery of sediments to the marshes and mudflats. The authors located three comparable sites, which experience a different level of exposure to the effects of dredging. Second, we initiated a time-series of marsh/mudflat sedimentation measurements, which are expected to be continued in future years. Finally, we compared six different methods for monitoring sedimentation, all of which are currently in practice.

  3. Water quality prediction of marine recreational beaches receiving watershed baseflow and stormwater runoff in southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Ming Lee; He, Zhen-Li

    2008-05-01

    Beach advisories are issued to the public in California when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform, fecal coliform (or Escherichia coli), and Enterococcus, exceed their recreational water health standards, or when the amount of a rainfall event is above the pre-determined threshold. However, it is not fully understood about how and to what degree stormwater runoff or baseflow exerts impacts on beach water quality. Furthermore, current laboratory methods used to determine the FIB levels take 18-96 h, which is too slow to keep pace with changes in FIB levels in water. Thus, a beach may not be posted when it is contaminated, and may be posted under advisory when bacterial levels have already decreased to within water quality standards. The study was designed to address the above critical issues. There were large temporal and spatial variations in FIB concentrations along two popular State Beaches in San Diego, CA, USA. The rainstorm-induced runoff from the watersheds exerts significant impacts on the marine recreational water quality of the beaches adjacent to lagoons during the first 24-48 h after a rain event. The large volume of stormwater runoff discharging to beaches caused high FIB concentrations in beach water not only at the lagoon outlet channel and the mixing zone, but also at the locations 90 m away from the channel northward or southward along the shoreline. The geomorphology of beach shoreline, distance from the outlet channel, wind strength, wind direction, tide height, wave height, rainfall, time lapse after a rainstorm, or channel flow rate played a role in affecting the distribution of FIB concentrations in beach water. Despite the great temporal and spatial variability of FIB concentrations along a shoreline, the artificial neural network-based models developed in this study are capable of successfully predicting FIB concentrations at different beaches, different locations, and different times under baseflow or rainstorm conditions. The models are based on readily measurable variables including temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity, channel water flow, rainfall, and/or time lapse after a rainstorm. The established models will help fill the current gap between beach posting and actual water quality and make more meaningful and effective decisions on beach closures and advisories. PMID:18242661

  4. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  5. How do how internal and external processes affect the behaviors of coupled marsh mudflat systems; infill, stabilize, retreat, or drown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. A.; Mariotti, G.; Wiberg, P.; Fagherazzi, S.; McGlathery, K.

    2013-12-01

    Intertidal coastal environments are prone to changes induced by sea level rise, increases in storminess, and anthropogenic disturbances. It is unclear how changes in external drivers may affect the dynamics of low energy coastal environments because their response is non-linear, and characterized by many thresholds and discontinuities. As such, process-based modeling of the ecogeomorphic processes underlying the dynamics of these ecosystems is useful, not only to predict their change through time, but also to generate new hypotheses and research questions. Here, a three-point dynamic model was developed to investigate how internal and external processes affect the behavior of coupled marsh mudflat systems. The model directly incorporates ecogeomorphological feedbacks between wind waves, salt marsh vegetation, allochthonous sediment loading, tidal flat vegetation and sea level rise. The model was applied to examine potential trajectories of salt marshes on the Eastern seaboard of the United States, including those in the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE), Virginia Coast Reserve (VCR) and Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) long term ecological research (LTER) sites. While these sites are undergoing similar rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR), they have distinct differences in site specific environmental drivers including tides, wind waves, allochthonous sediment supply and the presence or absence of seagrass. These differences lead to the emergence of altered behaviors in the coupled salt marsh-tidal flat system. For marsh systems without seagrass or significant riverine sediment supply, conditions similar to those at PIE, results indicated that horizontal and vertical marsh evolution respond in opposing ways to wave induced processes. Marsh horizontal retreat is triggered by large mudflats and strong winds, whereas small mudflats and weak winds reduce the sediment supply to the salt marsh, decreasing its capability to keep pace with sea level rise. Marsh expansion and an eventual lateral equilibrium are possible only with large allochthonous sediment supply. Once marshes expanded, marsh retreat can be prevented by a sediment supply smaller than the one that filled the basin. At the GCE, the Altamaha River allows for enhanced allochthonous supply directly to the salt marsh platform, reducing the importance of waves on the tidal flat. As a result, infilling or retreat become the prevalent behaviors. For the VCR, the presence of seagrass decreases near bed shear stresses and sediment flux to the salt marsh platform, however, seagrass also reduces the wave energy acting on the boundary of the marsh reducing boundary erosion. Results indicate that the reduction in wave power allows for seagrass to provide a strong stabilizing affect on the coupled salt marsh tidal flat system, but as external sediment supply increases and light conditions decline the system reverts to that of a bare tidal flat. Across all systems and with current rates of sea level rise, retreat is a more likely marsh loss modality than drowning.

  6. On the dynamics and morphology of extensive tidal mudflats: Integrating remote sensing data with an inundation model of Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, Tal; Liu, Hua

    2010-10-01

    A new method of integrating satellite remote sensing data and inundation models allows the mapping of extensive tidal mudflats in a sub-Arctic estuary, Cook Inlet (CI), Alaska. The rapid movement of the shorelines in CI due to the large tides (~10 m range) is detected from a series of Landsat imagery taken at different tidal stages, whereas GIS tools are used to identify the water coverage in each satellite image and to extract the coordinates of the shoreline. Then, water level along the shoreline for each satellite image is calculated from the observed water level at Anchorage and the statistics of an inundation model. Several applications of the analysis are demonstrated: 1. studying the dynamics of a tidal bore and the flood/ebb processes, 2. identifying climatic changes in mudflats morphology, and 3. mapping previously unobserved mudflat topographies in order to improve inundation models. The method can be used in other regions to evaluate models and improve predictions of catastrophic floods such as those associated with hurricane storm surges and tsunamis.

  7. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε.

    2014-08-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  8. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  9. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5) important assemblages were set at 50%, following other studies. 6) Finally, a target for an outstanding feature (the Alexandria dunefield) was set at 80% because of its national, international and ecological importance. The greatest shortfall in the current target-setting process is in the lack of empirical models describing the key beach processes, from which robust ecological thresholds can be derived. As for many other studies, our results illustrate that the conservation target of 10% for coastal and marine systems proposed by the Convention on Biological Diversity is too low to conserve sandy beaches and their biota.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences for Oil-Degrading Bacterial Strains from Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Marks, Kala P.; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from beach sands contaminated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. PMID:24356826

  11. Draft genome sequences for oil-degrading bacterial strains from beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Marks, Kala P; Venkatraman, Raghavee; Prakash, Om; Kostka, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of 10 proteobacterial strains isolated from beach sands contaminated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon spill, which were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with crude oil as the sole carbon source. All strains contain multiple putative genes belonging to hydrocarbon degradation pathways. PMID:24356826

  12. Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

  13. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  14. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  15. Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

    This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is…

  16. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization

  17. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  18. Groundwater contamination field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

  19. Beach changes from sediment delivered by streams to pocket beaches during a major flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzini, Enzo; Rosas, Valentina; Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2013-10-01

    The significance of sediment delivered via storm-associated stream discharge in altering sediment characteristics, beach form, and volume is evaluated on pocket beaches with different basin characteristics and wave exposures. The focus is on changes on three beaches on Elba Island, Italy caused by a flood event in September 2002 that had an estimated recurrence interval of 200 years. Beach profiles and foreshore sediment samples were gathered in 1999 and 2000 to identify pre-storm characteristics, in September 2002 to reveal the immediate effects of the storm, and in 2003 and 2004 to reveal post-storm recovery. Foreshore sediments were finer and better sorted and contained no pebbles prior to the flood. Coarsening of the sand and granule fraction was evident after the flood, along with pebble accumulations, especially near major streams. Mean size, sorting values and percent pebbles one and two years after the flood were generally greater than pre-flood conditions but less than immediately after the flood. Beach profiles reveal conspicuous erosion immediately after the flood, when sediment delivered by streams is transported to subaqueous deltas. Thereafter, sediment moves onshore and alongshore to adjacent beaches to restore subaerial volumes. The location of streams within a compartment, relative to the location of capes and headlands, is important in determining the movement of sediment added to the beach by streams. The sites are all sheltered from the highest-energy waves from the west, facilitating longshore transport to the west. Where the largest stream is located at the east end of a compartment, sediment discharged from it is source material for the downdrift beaches to the west. Where the largest stream is at the west end of the compartment, the ability to supply sediment to the beaches to the east is restricted. Hence, broad-scale geologic controls (headlands and capes) enhance or diminish the ability of streams to influence beach change throughout the pocket. The inability of beaches on two of the sites to migrate landward, due to human development of uplands, will be an issue in the future. Lack of sediment to replenish beaches through erosion of the upland, places increased emphasis on the role of coastal streams in the beach sediment budget. Changing watershed attributes to allow more sediment discharge during high-energy, low-frequency events (e.g. devoting more land to agriculture) would be a way of helping to restore beach sediment.

  20. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where beach state changes gradually alongshore, while the post-storm embayment exhibits an extreme alongshore morphological gradient, from low-energy intermediate to a "complex multi-bar and mega-rip" state at the exposed end of the beach. Further observations are required to determine the prevalence of this high-energy state and to provide inputs to future numerical models designed to examine the dominant forcing controls involved in its formation.

  1. Spatio-temporal structure of the epipelic diatom assemblage from an intertidal mudflat in Marennes-Olron Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubois, A.-G.; Sylvestre, F.; Guarini, J.-M.; Richard, P.; Blanchard, G. F.

    2005-08-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in taxonomic composition and structure of an epipelic diatom assemblage from an intertidal mudflat on the French Atlantic coast was studied over an annual cycle along a cross-shore transect. The assemblage structure was described by estimating both relative abundance and contribution to biovolume of each species. Results showed that the assemblage was numerically dominated by small-sized species (mean relative abundance of 91%). Large species, however, significantly contributed to the total biovolume (mean contribution to biovolume of 49%). A factorial correspondence analysis indicated that the epipelic assemblage was relatively homogeneous along the cross-shore transect but emphasized the seasonal succession of diatom species. In relative abundance, the assemblage structure was characterized by the dominance of the small species Navicula phyllepta throughout the year with a seasonal succession of secondary species, including only one large diatom ( Gyrosigma peisonis). In biovolume, small ( N. phyllepta and Navicula gregaria) and large species ( Pleurosigma angulatum and G. peisonis) alternatively dominated the assemblage. Describing the epipelic assemblage using cell volume emphasized the contribution of large species and revealed that the assemblage contained two diatom fractions, characterized by different biological and physiological behaviours, which may alternatively represent a large proportion of the biomass.

  2. Viral Impact on Prokaryotic and Microalgal Activities in the Microphytobenthic Biofilm of an Intertidal Mudflat (French Atlantic Coast)

    PubMed Central

    Montanié, Hélène; De Crignis, Margot G.; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report on viriobenthos activity within the microbial biofilm located at the top-surface of the intertidal mudflat during emersion in Marennes-Oléron Bay (France). By combining in situ and ex situ approaches, the viral production (VP) was linked to the dynamics of prokaryotes and microphytobenthos (MPB). VP averaged 2–4 × 108 viruses ml−1 h−1. VP correlated positively with the Virus to Prokaryote Ratio, and both were correlated negatively with the water content. The virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes was lower in winter than in summer (6.8 vs. 39.7% of the production) and the C-shunting may supply 2–12% of their Carbon Demand, respectively. VP accounted for 79% of loss in Prokaryotes but the response was delayed compared to the increase in VP suggesting a simultaneous release of viruses of MPB origin. This hypothesis is supported by capsid-sizing of virions by transmission electronic microscopy and bioassays. Harvesting and ex situ maintenance of top-surface sediments was carried out to monitor the dynamics of viruses, prokaryotes and MPB after inoculation with benthic or planktonic viruses. Benthic viruses modified the prokaryotic and MPB dynamics and decreased the photosynthesis efficiency in contrast to planktonic viruses that impacted MPB but not the prokaryotes. PMID:26617575

  3. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    PubMed Central

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p < 0.05), bill size and prey size (R = −0.052, p < 0.05), bill size and probing depth (R = 0.42, p = 0.003), and leg length and water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging. PMID:26345324

  4. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  5. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further highlights the need to include biological interactions, the degree of human disturbance and other variables such as environmental heterogeneity and the connectivity of the individual beaches when assessing inter-beach differences in macrofaunal assemblages.

  6. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  7. A multi-beach study of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and enterococci in seawater and beach sand.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Kelly D; McNay, Melody; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy; Madison, Melissa; Griffith, John F

    2012-09-01

    Incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have risen worldwide prompting a need to better understand routes of human exposure and whether standard bacterial water quality monitoring practices adequately account for this potential threat. Beach water and sand samples were analyzed during summer months for S. aureus, enterococci, and MRSA at three southern California beaches (Avalon, Doheny, Malibu Surfrider). S. aureus frequently was detected in samples of seawater (59%, n = 328) and beach sand (53%, n = 358). MRSA sometimes was detected in seawater (1.6%, n = 366) and sand (2.7%, n = 366) at relatively low concentrations. Site specific differences were observed, with Avalon Beach presenting the highest concentrations of S. aureus and Malibu Surfrider the lowest in both seawater and sand. S. aureus concentrations in seawater and sand were correlated to each other and to a variety of other parameters. Multiple linear regression on the combined beach data indicated that significant explanatory variables for S. aureus in seawater were S. aureus in sand, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and the number of swimmers. In sand, S. aureus concentrations were related to S. aureus in seawater, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and inversely to surf height classification. Only the correlation to water temperature held for individually analyzed beaches and for S. aureus concentrations in both seawater and sand. To provide context for these results, the prevalence of S. aureus in sand was compared to published fomite studies, and results suggested that beach prevalence was similar to that in homes. PMID:22652414

  8. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  9. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  10. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  11. Depositional settings of sand beaches along whitewater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, K.R.; Andrews, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    The numbers and sizes of sand beaches suitable for recreation along selected whitewater rivers in the western United States depend on sand concentrations, range of discharge and the size, frequency and type of depositional settings. River-width expansions downstream from constrictions are the predominant depositional setting for sand beaches in the upper Grand Canyon and along five Wild and Scenic Rivers in Idaho, but not along other rivers. Beaches located upstream from constrictions are rare, in general, except in the Grand Canyon. Beaches found in expansions without constrictions dominate depositional sites along the Yampa and Green Rivers, are fairly common along the rivers in Idaho, but are relatively rare in the Grand Canyon. The magnitude of flow expansion is a reliable predictor of beach size. Beaches located on the inside of curves are uncommon, in general, but can be important recreation sites. The mid-channel bar setting is the least important from a recreation standpoint because that setting is rare and beaches there are typically small, and emergent only at low flow. The frequency of beaches is highly variable among rivers and the concentration of sand in transport is only partially responsible. Of the rivers studied, the unregulated Yampa River carries the highest concentrations of suspended sand and has among the most beaches (1.2 beaches km-1). Emergent sand beaches are essentially nonexistent along the Deschutes River and are rare along other Oregon rivers, yet these rivers transport some sand. Sand beaches are fairly common (0.8-1.1 beaches km-1) along the regulated Colorado River, but are comparatively rare (0.6 beaches km-1) along the unregulated Middle Fork Salmon River. The suspended sand concentrations in study reaches of these two rivers are similar, and the difference in the frequency of beaches may be largely because the processes that create beach-deposition settings are less active along the Middle Fork Salmon.

  12. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress recruitment and survival at all intertidal zones. Our results suggest use of incompatible fine fill sediments from dredging projects creates unsuitable intertidal habitat that excludes burrowing macroinvertebrates and could delay beach ecosystem recovery. Through effects on beach invertebrates that are prey for shorebirds and fish, the ecological impacts of filling with mismatched fine sediments could influence higher trophic levels and extend beyond the beach itself.

  13. Persistence and microbial source tracking of Escherichia coli at a swimming beach at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) has closed or posted advisories at public beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Missouri because of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceedances in recent years. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coliconcentrations, microbial source tracking, novel sampling techniques, and beach-use patterns were studied during the 2012 recreational season to identify possible sources, origins, and occurrence of E. coli contamination at Grand Glaize Beach (GGB). Results indicate an important source of E. coli contamination at GGB was E. coli released into the water column by bathers resuspending avian-contaminated sediments, especially during high-use days early in the recreational season. Escherichia coli concentrations in water, sediment, and resuspended sediment samples all decreased throughout the recreational season likely because of decreasing lake levels resulting in sampling locations receding away from the initial spring shoreline as well as natural decay and physical transport out of the cove. Weekly MDNR beach monitoring, based solely on E. coli concentrations, at GGB during this study inaccurately predicted E. coli exceedances, especially on weekends and holidays. Interestingly, E. coli of human origin were measured at concentrations indicative of raw sewage in runoff from an excavation of a nearby abandoned septic tank that had not been used for nearly two years.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urban Rivers and Beach Water

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive element anchored PCR was used to evaluate the genetic profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from surface water contaminated with urban stormwater, sanitary sewage, and gull feces to determine if strains found in environmental samples reflect the strain composition of E. coli obtained from host sources. Overall, there was less diversity in isolates collected from river and beach sites than with isolates obtained from human and nonhuman sources. Unique strain types comprised 28.8, 29.2, and 15.0% of the isolate data sets recovered from stormwater, river water, and beach water, respectively. In contrast, 50.4% of gull isolates and 41.2% of sewage isolates were unique strain types. River water, which is expected to contain E. coli strains from many diffuse sources of nonpoint source pollution, contained strains most closely associated with other river water isolates that were collected at different sites or on different days. However, river sites impacted by sewage discharge had approximately 20% more strains similar to sewage isolates than did sites impacted by stormwater alone. Beach sites with known gull fecal contamination contained E. coli most similar to other beach isolates rather than gull isolates collected at these same sites, indicating underrepresentation of possible gull strains. These results suggest large numbers of strains are needed to represent contributing host sources within a geographical location. Additionally, environmental survival may influence the composition of strains that can be recovered from contaminated waters. Understanding the ecology of indicator bacteria is important when interpreting fecal pollution assessments and developing source detection methodology. PMID:15294799

  15. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  16. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  17. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  19. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities

  1. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  2. Two-dimensional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in anoxic sediment layers of an estuarine mudflat (Loire Estuary, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault de Chanvalon, A.; Metzger, E.; Mouret, A.; Cesbron, F.; Knoery, J.; Rozuel, E.; Launeau, P.; Nardelli, M. P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Geslin, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new rapid and accurate protocol to simultaneously sample benthic living foraminifera in two dimensions in a centimeter scale vertical grid and dissolved iron in high resolution (200 μm). Such an approach appears crucial to study foraminiferal ecology in heterogeneous environments. The foraminiferal faunas of the main intertidal mudflat of the Loire estuary are dominated by Ammonia tepida, which accounts for 92 % of the living assemblage (CTG-labeled). Its vertical distribution shows a first density maximum at the surface, a sharp decrease in the next two centimeter followed by a well defined second maximum between 3 and 8 cm depth. The heterogeneity of A. tepida in this 3-8 cm depth layer was calculated by the Moran's Index and reveals lateral patches with a characteristic length of 1 to 2 cm. We investigate mechanisms potentially responsible for this distribution by observation of burrow structures and two-dimensional high-resolution imaging of dissolved iron. The surface maximum corresponded to the area of maximum oxygen availability. Observable burrows have no clear relation with the distribution of A. tepida but were closely related to dissolved iron distribution. Consequently, no evident relation between A. tepida and dissolved iron was observed. Nevertheless, two one cm-wide structures, enriched in dissolved iron produced by anaerobic degradation of labile organic matter, corresponded to increased A. tepida densities. This observation suggests that within strongly oxygen-depleted sediments, A. tepida could still be favoured by labile organic carbon. The main characteristics of the vertical distribution of A. tepida are interpreted in the present study as a combination of passive downward transport by biomixing into deeper suboxic (without both oxygen and sulfide) sediment layers and a subsequent mobility driven by a sensitivity to geochemical gradients. We hypothesize that the survival of A. tepida in oxygen depleted environments is explained its ability to lower its metabolism between periods of oxygen renewal by bioirrigation.

  3. The salt that wasn't there: Mudflat facies equivalents to halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.W.; Holt, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four halite beds of the Permian Restler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over horst lateral distances to correlative classic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. The authors interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccials are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Restler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional)halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin, It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion.

  4. Microbial interactions in marine water amended by eroded benthic biofilm: A case study from an intertidal mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanié, Hélène; Ory, Pascaline; Orvain, Francis; Delmas, Daniel; Dupuy, Christine; Hartmann, Hans J.

    2014-09-01

    In shallow macrotidal ecosystems with large intertidal mudflats, the sediment-water coupling plays a crucial role in structuring the pelagic microbial food web functioning, since inorganic and organic matter and microbial components (viruses and microbes) of the microphytobenthic biofilm can be suspended toward the water column. Two experimental bioassays were conducted in March and July 2008 to investigate the importance of biofilm input for the pelagic microbial and viral loops. Pelagic inocula (< 0.6 μ- and < 10 μ filtrates) were diluted either with < 30 kDa-ultrafiltered seawater or with this ultrafiltrate enriched with the respective size-fractionated benthic biofilm or with < 30 kDa-benthic compounds (BC). The kinetics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), bacteria and viruses were assessed together with bacterial and viral genomic fingerprints, bacterial enzymatic activities and viral life strategies. The experimental design allowed us to evaluate the effect of BC modulated by those of benthic size-fractionated microorganisms (virus + bacteria, + HNF). BC presented (1) in March, a positive effect on viruses and bacteria weakened by pelagic HNF. Benthic microorganisms consolidated this negative effect and sustained the viral production together with a relatively diverse and uneven bacterial assemblage structure; (2) in July, no direct impact on viruses but a positive effect on bacteria modulated by HNF, which indirectly enhanced viral multiplication. Both effects were intensified by benthic microorganisms and bacterial assemblage structure became more even. HNF indirectly profited from BC more in March than in July. The microbial loop would be stimulated by biofilm during periods of high resources (March) and the viral loop during periods of depleted resources (July).

  5. Two-dimensional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in anoxic sediment layers of an estuarine mudflat (Loire estuary, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault de Chanvalon, A.; Metzger, E.; Mouret, A.; Cesbron, F.; Knoery, J.; Rozuel, E.; Launeau, P.; Nardelli, M. P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Geslin, E.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new rapid and accurate protocol to simultaneously sample benthic living foraminifera in two dimensions in a centimetre-scale vertical grid and dissolved iron and phosphorus in two dimensions at high resolution (200 μm). Such an approach appears crucial for the study of foraminiferal ecology in highly dynamic and heterogeneous sedimentary systems, where dissolved iron shows a strong variability at the centimetre scale. On the studied intertidal mudflat of the Loire estuary, foraminiferal faunas are dominated by Ammonia tepida, which accounts for 92 % of the living (CellTracker Green(CTG)-labelled) assemblage. The vertical distribution shows a maximum density in the oxygenated 0-0.4 cm surface layer. A sharp decrease is observed in the next 2 cm, followed by a second, well-defined maximum in the suboxic sediment layer (3-8 cm depth). The presented method yields new information concerning the 2-D distribution of living A. tepida in suboxic layers. First, the identification of recent burrows by visual observation of the sediment cross section and the burrowing activity as deduced from the dissolved iron spatial distribution show no direct relation to the distribution of A. tepida at the centimetre scale. This lack of relation appears contradictory to previous studies (Aller and Aller, 1986; Berkeley et al., 2007). Next, the heterogeneity of A. tepida in the 3-8 cm depth layer was quantified by means of Moran's index to identify the scale of parameters controlling the A. tepida distribution. The results reveal horizontal patches with a characteristic length of 1-2 cm. These patches correspond to areas enriched in dissolved iron likely generated by anaerobic degradation of labile organic matter. These results suggest that the routine application of our new sampling strategy could yield important new insights about foraminiferal life strategies, improving our understanding of the role of these organisms in coastal marine ecosystems.

  6. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize...

  7. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was the influence of the water level. Waves acting at higher water levels are able to produce the less dynamic upper layer of cusps. During 31 consecutive days from 8 July 2011 to 8 August of the same year these features show four periods with the presence of cusps on the upper and lower portion of the foreshore with three periods with cups only on the upper portion of the foreshore. The analyzed dataset shows the highly dynamic behavior of cusps, with rapid generation and destruction, related directly to its forcing hydrodynamic conditions.

  9. Walruses Spill Over Beach Banks onto Tundra

    Thousands of walruses gathered to rest on the shore near the Alaskan coastal community of Point Lay during September of 2013 after sea ice disappeared from their offshore foraging grounds in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Walruses clamber up on to the grassy tundra of the barrier island, once the beach b...

  10. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  11. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  12. Raising Environmental Awareness in Virginia Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Andrew T.; Davis, Barbara S.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the Individual Concern for the Environment (ICE) Project utilized in the Virginia Beach City Public Schools. The major goals of ICE are to train a corps of environmental educators and to develop a strong instructional program which involves the community as well as the students. (Author/DS)

  13. Agriculture-Horticulture Programs in Virginia Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, Elgia L.

    1975-01-01

    In the Virginia Beach, Virginia, city schools, the vocational agriculture program is centralized in one school, the Vocational-Technical Education Center. Students are bused from their home schools for a three-hour class daily. The vocational agriculture program consists of general vocational agriculture shop and ornamental horticulture. (AJ)

  14. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  15. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  16. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  17. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  18. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  19. Beach Erosion and Sea Turtle Nest

    This image depicts a cliff-like escarpment in the sand of a Florida beach. Notice the marked turtle nest (background) and the unusual single exposed egg (right foreground). The protective stakes mark a nest from an earlier week as part of a county research program that marks and records every eighth...

  20. PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

    2014-06-15

    The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines. PMID:24775069

  1. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. PMID:26198261

  2. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vasconcelos, Sílvia; Calado, Graça; Brandão, João; Prada, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. PMID:23747562

  3. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  4. The biogeochemistry, stable isotope geochemistry, and microbial community structure of a temperate intertidal mudflat: an integrated study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bttcher, Michael E.; Hespenheide, Britta; Llobet-Brossa, Enrique; Beardsley, Christine; Larsen, Ole; Schramm, Andreas; Wieland, Andrea; Bttcher, Gerd; Berninger, Ulrike-G.; Amann, Rudolf

    2000-09-01

    An integrated study, combining biogeochemical, stable isotope, micro-sensor, sedimentological, phase-analytical, and molecular ecological methods, was carried out in April 1998 in a temperate intertidal mudflat (Site Dangast; German Wadden Sea of the southern North Sea). The biogeochemical zonation was investigated in relation to the vertical abundance of total and sulfate-reducing bacteria, crustaceans, nematodes, flagellates, and ciliates. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the sediments ranged between 1.0 and 3.3% dry weight and were related to the abundance of clay minerals, indicating sorption processes on mineral surfaces to control organic matter burial. The sediments above 9 cm below sea floor contained an excess of TOC compared to the relationship between TOC and pyrite sulfur proposed for normal marine sediments. The downcore variation of the carbon isotopic composition of organic matter reflected the preferential microbial degradation of labile (marine) organic matter relative to a more resistent (terrestrial) organic matter fraction. The oxygen penetration depth was 4.6 mm in the light and 1.2 mm in the dark, and coincided with the maximum abundance of ciliates, crustaceans and heterotrophic flagellates. Although sub-oxic conditions were indicated by the presence of dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) to about 15 cm depth, bacterial sulfate reduction rates between 14 and 225 nmol cm -3 d -1 were measured using radio-tracers with a first maximum at around 2 cm depth. Up to 80% of the total cells as detected by DAPI-staining hybridized with a rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for the domain bacteria (EUB338). Sulfate-reducing bacteria as detected by probe SRB385 showed high abundance (up to 7% of total cells) in the upper 5 cm of the sediment. Total and cell numbers of sulfate reducers were highest at about 2 cm and decreased with depth. Cellular sulfate reduction rates were estimated from the SRB counts by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the measured sulfate reduction rates and ranged between 0.06 and 0.55 fmol SO 42- cell -1 day -1 which is at the lower end determined for pure cultures. From a comparison of cellular SRR and stable sulfur isotope ( 34S/ 32S) fractionation between coexisting dissolved pore water sulfate and sedimentary reduced sulfur species with laboratory studies a significant contribution of bacterial disproportionation reactions within the oxidative part of the sedimentary sulfur cycle is indicated.

  5. Morphological responses of an estuarine intertidal mudflat to constructions since 1978 to 2005: The Seine estuary (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvilliez, Antoine; Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert; Bessineton, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    Since 1834 the Seine estuary (France) has been the site of numerous construction projects with the aim to accommodate and secure boat traffic. Since 1978, the increasing of the activities of Le Havre port, located at the mouth of the estuary, has accelerated the construction work rate. Several dykes, a bridge, and new port facilities have been constructed in rapid succession, modifying considerably the hydrodynamic conditions which sustain a partially vegetated sandy-muddy tidal flat located in the North bank of the estuary between the new port of Le Havre and the Normandy bridge achieved in 1995. The present study deals with the morphological evolution of this zone from 1978 to 2005. The use of a low altitude remote sensing technique combined with traditional methods of ground survey and probes allow to demonstrate the impact of human activities on sedimentary and vegetation dynamics. The Northern mudflat of the estuary is the most affected by these human activities, which surface have reduced of 62% during the last 27 years with an intensified local erosion during the last 27 months corresponding to a loss 1 250 000 m 3 of fine-grained sediment. At the same time, the general sanding up in the channel of the zone has caused a loss of more than 31% of the tidal prism, more than three quarters of which occurred during the last three years. Results also establish that the response times of the sedimentary or topographic readjustment to an installation depend on the extent and the nature of the construction. In fact, the sedimentary readjustments to an installation can be delayed by up to 10 years in the case of the Seine estuary. This delay is explained by a rapid succession of construction works which may occult the effect of a single installation. Except in the case of a dyke built perpendicular to ebb and flood currents, the impacts of these installations reach a hydro-sedimentary equilibrium on the level between 1 and 7 years after their completion.

  6. The effect of Hydrobia ulvae and microphytobenthos on cohesive sediment dynamics on an intertidal mudflat described by means of numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumborg, Ulrik; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Pejrup, Morten

    2006-06-01

    Previous investigations have documented spatial and temporal variations in the erosion threshold, erosion rate, and suspended sediment settling characteristics on an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal coastal plain estuary in the Danish Wadden Sea. The differences seem to be very much controlled by the effects of benthic biology rather than by physical parameters. In order to test to what extend biology may interact with the dynamics of fine-grained sediment in an entire estuarine system, these results have been transformed into four different sets of erodibility and settling characteristics which have been used as input to the 2D hydrodynamic numerical model MIKE 21 MT. The model was used to investigate the effect that differences in the benthic communities may have on the net deposition. The model included computation of hydrodynamics, wave fields and cohesive sediment dynamics. Based on the modelling results presented it is suggested that the benthic biological activity affects the net sedimentation pattern at the investigated site. The modelling results suggest that the presence of large numbers of the destabilising mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae results in higher net accumulation on the intertidal mudflat investigated. In contrast, biofilms may change net deposition by decreasing erosion, suspended sediment concentration and consequently the resulting settling flux of the suspended material. This study suggests that a numerical hydrodynamic model in combination with a fieldwork-based set-up of a cohesive sediment transport model may be used to describe and explain net sediment dynamics in a shallow coastal plain estuary.

  7. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Floridas beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  8. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  9. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the beach will be reduced and part of the beach can be replaced, and providing aesthetic and economic value to the beach in order to maintain the coastal protection programme. Acknowledgements This work was performed in the framework of the PEFYKA project within the KRIPIS Αction of the GSRT. The project is funded by Greece and the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union under the NSRF and the O.P. Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship. It has also been supported by the "Estimation of the vunlerability of coastal areas to climatic change and sea level rise. Pilot study in Crete isl. Programme for the promotion of the exchange and scientific cooperation between Greece and Germany" programme IKYDA2013.

  10. Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1). PMID:18325933

  11. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  12. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  13. Internal wave turbulence near a Texel beach.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Hans; Gostiaux, Louis; Laan, Martin; van Haren, Martijn; van Haren, Eva; Gerringa, Loes J A

    2012-01-01

    A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different'), but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'). On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL) beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature). Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4)-10(-3) m(2) s(-1), which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography. PMID:22403671

  14. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  15. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  16. Independent risk factors for beach-related injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Petronis, Kelli A; Welch, J Camille; Pruitt, Charles W

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted in a resort area during the summer tourist season to identify independent risk factors for injuries to children in a beach environment. Surveys including demographics, environmental and beach conditions, group characteristics, and hypothesized risk factors were administered to 28 cases and 105 controls. The most common injuries were lacerations and puncture wounds, followed by musculoskeletal injuries. The following environmental factors were found to significantly increase the risk for pediatric beach-related injury: rough/choppy water, cloudy weather, greater than 3 children in the group, participation by the child in water safety classes, and use of beach equipment (including boogie boards, skim boards, and kayaks). Providers who care for children can use this information to educate parents about beach safety. Targeted interventions that address these risk factors may reduce injuries sustained by children in a beach environment. PMID:19164132

  17. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  18. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  20. Evaluating spatial-temporal variations and correlation between fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in marine bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfeng; Ming, Hongxia; Li, Lili; Su, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The horizontal distribution and temporal variation of bacterial indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), enterococcus (EC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli)) were investigated to identify the proper bacterial indicators for a marine bathing beach in China. Two different sampling efforts were conducted during dry weather and two large rain events at Xinghai Bathing Beach in Dalian, China. Samples were collected from three different water depths and analyzed for the four indicator bacteria. The results indicated that all four bacterial indicators exceeded the single sample standards at different levels. Specifically, the water quality exceeded the standard for TC, FC, EC and E. coli in 7%, 28%, 38% and 10% of the samples, respectively. Comparison of the rate of the indicators before and after rainfall revealed a significant increasing post-rainfall. The concentrations of bacteria differed significantly with distance from the shoreline, with knee-depth near the shore exceeding the standard most frequently. This was primarily due to contamination by excessive sewage discharge and rainfall. Based upon the concentration of indicators and exceedance rates, as well as the correlation between indicators, both EC and FC should be evaluated at the same time as fecal pollution bacterial indicators in marine bathing beaches in China. PMID:26608764

  1. Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Impacts on beach water quality and human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verhougstraete, M.P.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.

  2. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge on bacterial indicators and swimmer health at Avalon Beach, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Yau, Vincent M; Schiff, Kenneth C; Arnold, Benjamin F; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2014-08-01

    Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring beach water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship that can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Avalon Beach, California (USA), where the indicator relationship is potentially affected by the discharge of sewage-contaminated groundwater and by solar radiation levels at this shallow, relatively quiescent beach. The goals of this study were to determine: 1) if swimmers exposed to marine water were at higher risk of illness than non-swimmers; 2) if FIB measured in marine water were associated with swimmer illness, and; 3) if the associations between FIB and swimmer health were modified by either submarine groundwater discharge or solar radiation levels. There were 7317 individuals recruited during the summers of 2007-08, 6165 (84%) of whom completed follow-up within two weeks of the beach visit. A total of 703 water quality samples were collected across multiple sites and time periods during recruitment days and analyzed for FIB using both culture-based and molecular methods. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated that swimmers who swallowed water were more likely to experience Gastrointestinal Illness (GI Illness) within three days of their beach visit than non-swimmers, and that this risk was significantly elevated when either submarine groundwater discharge was high (AOR [95% CI]:2.18 [1.22-3.89]) or solar radiation was low (2.45 [1.25-4.79]). The risk of GI Illness was not significantly elevated for swimmers who swallowed water when groundwater discharge was low or solar radiation was high. Associations between GI Illness incidence and FIB levels (Enterococcus EPA Method 1600) among swimmers who swallowed water were not significant when we did not account for groundwater discharge, but were strongly associated when groundwater discharge was high (1.85 [1.06, 3.23]) compared to when it was low (0.77 [0.42, 1.42]; test of interaction: P = 0.03). These results demonstrate the need to account for local environmental conditions when monitoring for, and making decisions about, public health at recreational beaches. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24776951

  3. Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore mudflat profile and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sbastien

    2012-08-01

    The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal mudflat under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal mudflats. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the mudflat over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further refinements at the upper shore where S. plana dominates the species assemblage, whereas there is still a need to include further formulations of biota effects to simulate the erosion experimental results at the lower shores where other molluscs and Annelids significantly contribute to the species assemblage.

  4. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  5. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL) that incorporate wave setup and runup, may be particularly applicable to upper intertidal biota whose distributions closely followed the high tide strand line (HTS), a feature which tracks total water level (TWL). Developing a TWL approach may also provide new insights on habitat availability for beach nesting wildlife and coastal strand vegetation. Conservation of beach ecosystems could be enhanced by incorporating sufficient beach habitat to accommodate the dynamic ecological envelopes used by mobile intertidal invertebrates and wildlife.

  6. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg−1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ∼10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g−1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g−1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

  7. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

    2011-11-01

    A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C₈ to C₄₀) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg⁻¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ∼10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10⁷ to 10.2 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10⁷ to 1.4 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

  8. Metrics to assess ecological condition, change, and impacts in sandy beach ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Jones, Alan R; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Defeo, Omar; Peterson, Charles H; Weston, Michael A; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D; Scapini, Felicita; Nel, Ronel; Harris, Linda R; Lucrezi, Serena; Lastra, Mariano; Huijbers, Chantal M; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-11-01

    Complexity is increasingly the hallmark in environmental management practices of sandy shorelines. This arises primarily from meeting growing public demands (e.g., real estate, recreation) whilst reconciling economic demands with expectations of coastal users who have modern conservation ethics. Ideally, shoreline management is underpinned by empirical data, but selecting ecologically-meaningful metrics to accurately measure the condition of systems, and the ecological effects of human activities, is a complex task. Here we construct a framework for metric selection, considering six categories of issues that authorities commonly address: erosion; habitat loss; recreation; fishing; pollution (litter and chemical contaminants); and wildlife conservation. Possible metrics were scored in terms of their ability to reflect environmental change, and against criteria that are widely used for judging the performance of ecological indicators (i.e., sensitivity, practicability, costs, and public appeal). From this analysis, four types of broadly applicable metrics that also performed very well against the indicator criteria emerged: 1.) traits of bird populations and assemblages (e.g., abundance, diversity, distributions, habitat use); 2.) breeding/reproductive performance sensu lato (especially relevant for birds and turtles nesting on beaches and in dunes, but equally applicable to invertebrates and plants); 3.) population parameters and distributions of vertebrates associated primarily with dunes and the supralittoral beach zone (traditionally focused on birds and turtles, but expandable to mammals); 4.) compound measurements of the abundance/cover/biomass of biota (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates) at both the population and assemblage level. Local constraints (i.e., the absence of birds in highly degraded urban settings or lack of dunes on bluff-backed beaches) and particular issues may require alternatives. Metrics - if selected and applied correctly - provide empirical evidence of environmental condition and change, but often do not reflect deeper environmental values per se. Yet, values remain poorly articulated for many beach systems; this calls for a comprehensive identification of environmental values and the development of targeted programs to conserve these values on sandy shorelines globally. PMID:25014753

  9. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  10. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  11. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  12. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received..., October 9, 2011. This temporary safety zone is necessary for the safety of race participants, participant... Security Delegation No. 0170.1. The purpose of the rule is to ensure the safety of race...

  13. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... good cause exists for making this rule effective less than 30 days after publication in the Federal... injury or death to mariners observing the air shows. Due to the need to protect mariners and the...

  14. Response of microbial communities to bioturbation by artificially introducing macrobenthos to mudflat sediments for in situ bioremediation in a typical semi-enclosed bay, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Hu, Anyi; Yu, Chang-Ping; Yan, Qingpi; Yan, Xizhu; Wang, Yongzhong; Deng, Fei; Xiong, Hejian

    2015-05-15

    Although microbes play important roles during the bioremediation process using macrobenthos in degraded environments, their response to macrobenthos bioturbation remains poorly understood. This study used 16S rRNA gene-Illumina Miseq sequencing to investigate the microbial communities and their response to bioturbation by artificially introducing macrobenthos to the mudflat of Sansha Bay, southeast China. A total of 56 phyla were identified, dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, with a total percentage of over 50%. Others, such as Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Alphaproteobacteria occupied 4-7% respectively. Eighteen genera indicating the microbial communities response to bioturbation and seasonal change were identified. Bioturbated samples contained more ecologically important genera, and untreated samples contained more genera ubiquitous in marine environments. The physicochemical characteristics did not change significantly probably due to the short time of bioremediation and low survival rate of macrobenthos, confirming that microbial communities are more sensitive and can serve as sentinels for environmental changes. PMID:25783451

  15. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  16. Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal Mudflats

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Frédéric; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Païssé, Sandrine; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuña Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Duran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mudflats and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate mudflat. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity. PMID:22407688

  17. Central role of dynamic tidal biofilms dominated by aerobic hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and diatoms in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in coastal mudflats.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Fahy, Anne; Païssé, Sandrine; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; Acuña Alvarez, Laura; McKew, Boyd A; Brussaard, Corina P D; Underwood, Graham J C; Timmis, Kenneth N; Duran, Robert; McGenity, Terry J

    2012-05-01

    Mudflats and salt marshes are habitats at the interface of aquatic and terrestrial systems that provide valuable services to ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to determine how catastrophic incidents, such as oil spills, influence the microbial communities in sediment that are pivotal to the function of the ecosystem and to identify the oil-degrading microbes that mitigate damage to the ecosystem. In this study, an oil spill was simulated by use of a tidal chamber containing intact diatom-dominated sediment cores from a temperate mudflat. Changes in the composition of bacteria and diatoms from both the sediment and tidal biofilms that had detached from the sediment surface were monitored as a function of hydrocarbon removal. The hydrocarbon concentration in the upper 1.5 cm of sediments decreased by 78% over 21 days, with at least 60% being attributed to biodegradation. Most phylotypes were minimally perturbed by the addition of oil, but at day 21, there was a 10-fold increase in the amount of cyanobacteria in the oiled sediment. Throughout the experiment, phylotypes associated with the aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Cycloclasticus) and alkanes (Alcanivorax, Oleibacter, and Oceanospirillales strain ME113), substantively increased in oiled mesocosms, collectively representing 2% of the pyrosequences in the oiled sediments at day 21. Tidal biofilms from oiled cores at day 22, however, consisted mostly of phylotypes related to Alcanivorax borkumensis (49% of clones), Oceanospirillales strain ME113 (11% of clones), and diatoms (14% of clones). Thus, aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation is most likely to be the main mechanism of attenuation of crude oil in the early weeks of an oil spill, with tidal biofilms representing zones of high hydrocarbon-degrading activity. PMID:22407688

  18. Methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene-based investigation of methanogens in the mudflat sediments of Yangtze River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Zeleke, Jemaneh; Lu, Shui-Long; Wang, Jian-Gong; Huang, Jing-Xin; Li, Bo; Ogram, Andrew V; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-08-01

    Methanogen populations of an intertidal mudflat in the Yangtze River estuary of China were investigated based on the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) gene using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Samples were collected at six depths from three locations. In the qPCR analyses, a mean depth-wise change of mcrA gene abundance was observed from (1.23 ± 0.13) × 10(7) to (1.16 ± 0.29) × 10(8) per g dried soil, which was inversely correlated with the depletion of sulfate (R(2) = 0.74; α = 0.05) and salinity (R (2) = 0.66; α = 0.05). The copy numbers of mcrA was at least 1 order of magnitude higher than dissimilatory sulfate reductase B (dsrB) genes, likely indicating the importance of methanogenesis at the mudflat. Sequences related to the orders Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales and the uncultured methanogens; Rice Cluster I (RC-I), Zoige cluster I (ZC-I) and anaerobic methane oxidizing archaeal lineage-1 (ANME-1) were detected. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales dominated the entire sediment layers, but detectable changes of proportions were observed with depth. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanomicrobiales slightly increased with depth while Methanosarcinales showed the reverse. Chao1 and ACE richness estimators revealed higher diversity of methanogens near the surface (0-10 cm) when compared with the bottom sediments. The near-surface sediments were mainly dominated by the family Methanosarcinaceae (45 %), which has members that can utilize substrates that cannot be used by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Overall, current data indicate that Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales are the most dominant methanogens within the entire depth profile down to 100 cm, with higher abundance and diversity of methanogens in the deeper and upper sediment layers, respectively. PMID:23306392

  19. Estimate of oil persisting on the beaches of Prince William Sound 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Short, Jeffrey W; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Harris, Patricia M; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Rice, Stanley D

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the amount of oil remaining in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 12 yr after the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill to assess its importance as a long-term reservoir of toxic hydrocarbons. We found oil on 78 of 91 beaches randomly selected according to their oiling history. Surface oiling was recorded for randomly placed quadrats, which were then excavated and examined for subsurface oil. The cumulative area of beach contaminated by surface or subsurface oil was estimated at 11.3 ha. Surface oil varied little with tide height, but subsurface oil was more prevalent at the middle tide heights. The mass of remaining subsurface oil is conservatively estimated at 55 600 kg. Analysis of terpanes indicated that over 90% of the surface oil and all of the subsurface oil was from the Exxon Valdez and that Monterey Formation oil deposited after the 1964 Alaska earthquake accounted for the remaining surface oil. These results indicate that oil from the Exxon Valdez remains by far the largest reservoir of biologically available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on beaches impacted by the spill and that biota dependent on these beaches risk continued exposure. PMID:14740712

  20. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  1. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10(-5), 7 × 10(-9), and 3 × 10(-7) for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens. PMID:26720156

  2. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and cross-shore sediment exchange is unknown and the dynamics of surface drainage and freshwater seeps in close proximity to the outlet of Freshwater Swamp remain a priority for understanding the morphologic evolution of the beach-dune system. Ongoing research is currently in progress to address relationships between grain-size grading alongshore and foredune height to determine a sediment budget from the nearshore extending through the parabolic dunefield.

  3. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value 0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

  4. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  5. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  6. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  7. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  8. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  9. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  10. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  11. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  12. 17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May 1956 photograph of the turntable at Beach and Hyde Streets. View to the north. Note position of the tracks atop the turntable and details of the steel members that support the wooden decking. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins

  14. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  15. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual weakening tendency from west to east, which is opposite to the trend of the wave conditions outside the breaking region. The presence of submerged shoal (Dengzhou Shoal), deep trough (Dengzhou Channel), islands and irregular topography influnces the wave climate, beach types, wave-induced current features, littoral sediment transport trends and coastline evolution patterns in the southern Bohai Strait. Human activities, such as the sand exploitation of Dengzhou Shoal and other coastal engineering projects, also influence the beach morphology and coastline evolution.

  16. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  17. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. PMID:25577475

  18. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  19. Assessment of exposures to fecally-contaminated recreational water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated recreational waters can pose a health risk to swimmers and other recreators. Since 2003, we have interviewed nearly 27,000 respondents at seven beaches impacted by treated sewage discharge. Information was collected about the duration and exposure...

  20. Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches.

    PubMed

    de Arajo, Maria Christina B; Santos, Paulo J P; Costa, Monica F

    2006-08-01

    Although there is a consensus on the necessity of monitoring solid wastes pollution on beaches, the methods applied vary widely. Therefore, creating, testing and recommending a method that not only allows comparisons of places and periods, but also the detection of source signals, will be important to reach the objectives of the source-prevention principle. This will also allow the optimisation of time, resources, and processing of samples and data. A classification of the items found into specific categories was made according to their most probable source/use (fisheries, food packaging, hazardous, sewage/personal hygiene, beach user, general home). This study tested different widths of sampling transects to be used in the detection of plastics contamination on beaches, until all the categories were significantly represented. Each transect had its total width (50m) sub-divided into eight intervals of 0-2.5m; 2.5-5m; 5-10m; 10-15m; 15-20m; 20-30m; 30-40m; and 40-50m. The accumulated number of categories in the 50m (up to 2.5m; up to 5m and so on) was used to determine the minimal width necessary to qualitatively characterize the area regarding plastics contamination. The diversity of the categories was directly related to the area of the sampling transect. These results indicate that a significant increase in the number of categories in the first intervals tend to stabilize from 15-20m onwards. PMID:16797600

  1. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The barline extraction was accomplished through an automated alongshore tracking of the intensity maxima across each beach section (Van Enckevort and Ruessink, 2001). The mean Hs during the study period was 0.71 m and the averaged peak period was 5.7 s. The wave height time series shows a cyclic behaviour, with storm periods (October-April) separated by periods of low storm activity (May-October). The two most energetic periods affecting the beaches were from October 2001 to May 2002 and from October 2003 to April 2004 (wave data were obtained from a WANA node [virtual buoy] and direct measurements of the Barcelona-Coastal buoy). Approximately 25 storm events have been identified during the study period (following Ojeda and Guillén [2008], significant storms were defined as those with Hs higher than 2.5 m during the peak of the storm and a minimum duration of 12 h with Hs greater than 1.5 m). The morphological responses of the beach to the storm action determine the morphodynamic state. These responses were grouped into five categories: shoreline advance or retreat, beach rotation, sandbar migration, formation of megacusps, and changes in the sandbar configuration (linear or crescentic shape). The intensity and frequency of these modifications were different in both beaches. Regarding the changes in the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the bar at Bogatell switched more frequently among the four intermediate morphodynamic states during the study period than the bar at La Barceloneta. The bar at La Barceloneta only underwent the complete "reset" of the nearshore morphology (i.e., abrupt change of the plan-view shape of the beach towards a Longshore Bar and Trough state) once, associated with the high-energy wave event occurring on November 2001. At this beach, the strongest storm events produced the offshore migration of the bar and a certain decrease in the bar sinuosity, but did not generate an alongshore parallel bar. Similar storms caused different effects on the two adjacent beaches and, furthermore, the effect of storms of similar characteristics at the same beach, were also different. In the final paper, we will focus on these differential behaviours in an attempt to attain a certain predictability of the beach behaviour after a storm depending on the wave characteristics and the morphodynamic configuration of the beach prior to the storm. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology within the project SEDMET (CTM2006-06919). The work of E. Ojeda and F. Ribas was partially supported by the Spanish government through the FPU and Juan de la Cierva programs, correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Dr. Gerben Ruessink for providing the BLIM software and Puertos del Estado for the wave data. REFERENCES Holman, R.A., Stanley, J., 2007. The history and technical capabilities of Argus. Coast. Eng. 54, 447-491. Ojeda, E., Guillén, J., 2008. Shoreline dynamics and beach rotation of artificial embayed beaches. Mar. Geol. 253, 51-62. Short, A.D., Masselink, G., 1999 Embayed and structurally controlled beaches, in: Short, A.D. (Ed.), Handbook of beach and shoreface morphodynamics. John Wiley & Son, Chichester, pp. 230-250. Van Enckevort, I.M.J., Ruessink, B.G., 2001. Effect of hydrodynamics and bathymetry on video estimates of nearshore sandbar position. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16969-16979. Wright, L.D., Short, A.D., 1984. Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis. Mar. Geol. 56, 93-118.

  2. Recreational water quality response to a filtering barrier at a Great Lakes beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Nevers, Meredith; Breitenbach, Cathy; Whitman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has sought to determine the off- or onshore origin of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in order to improve local recreational water quality. In an effort to reduce offshore contamination, a filtering barrier (FB) was installed at Calumet Beach, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL. A horseshoe-shaped curtain (146 m long, 0.18 mm apparent opening size, 1.5–1.6 m deepest point) was designed to exclude FIB containing or promoting debris and thus reduce the number of swimming advisories during the examination period of July through September 2012. Mean water Escherichia coli concentrations were significantly lower at southern transects (S; outside FB) than at transects within the FB (WN) and at northern transects (N; outside FB) (1.45 log (MPN)/100 ml vs. 1.74 and 1.72, respectively, p < 0.05, n = 234). Turbidity was significantly higher at the WN transects (p < 0.001, n = 233), but it tended to increase throughout the sampling season within and outside the FB. E. coli in adjacent foreshore sand was significantly lower at the WN transects. A combination of factors might explain higher E. coli and turbidity within the FB including increased sediment resuspension, trapped algae, shallowing within the FB, and large lake hydrodynamic processes. This remediation approach may find better use in a different hydrodynamic setting, but the results of this experiment provide insight on sources of contamination and nearshore dynamics that may direct future beach management strategies.

  3. Microbial community successional patterns in beach sands impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Overholt, Will A; Hagan, Christopher; Huettel, Markus; Kostka, Joel E; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2015-09-01

    Although petroleum hydrocarbons discharged from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout were shown to have a pronounced impact on indigenous microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico, effects on nearshore or coastal ecosystems remain understudied. This study investigated the successional patterns of functional and taxonomic diversity for over 1 year after the DWH oil was deposited on Pensacola Beach sands (FL, USA), using metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene amplicon techniques. Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria were enriched in oiled sediments, in corroboration of previous studies. In contrast to previous studies, we observed an increase in the functional diversity of the community in response to oil contamination and a functional transition from generalist populations within 4 months after oil came ashore to specialists a year later, when oil was undetectable. At the latter time point, a typical beach community had reestablished that showed little to no evidence of oil hydrocarbon degradation potential, was enriched in archaeal taxa known to be sensitive to xenobiotics, but differed significantly from the community before the oil spill. Further, a clear succession pattern was observed, where early responders to oil contamination, likely degrading aliphatic hydrocarbons, were replaced after 3 months by populations capable of aromatic hydrocarbon decomposition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of how natural benthic microbial communities respond to crude oil perturbation, supporting the specialization-disturbance hypothesis; that is, the expectation that disturbance favors generalists, while providing (microbial) indicator species and genes for the chemical evolution of oil hydrocarbons during degradation and weathering. PMID:25689026

  4. Sources of Vibrio mimicus contamination of turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Acuña, M T; Díaz, G; Bolaños, H; Barquero, C; Sánchez, O; Sánchez, L M; Mora, G; Chaves, A; Campos, E

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus contamination of sand increased significantly during the arrival of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Ostional anidation beach, Costa Rica. Statistical analysis supports that eggs are contaminated with V. mimicus by contact with the sand nest. V. mimicus was isolated from eggs of all nests tested, and ctxA+ strains were found in 31% of the nests, all of which were near the estuary. PMID:9872804

  5. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. PMID:16524600

  6. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the occurrence and survival of fecal indicator bacteria in recreational sand between urban beach, playground and sandbox settings in Toronto, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Robinson, Clare; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-01-15

    While beach sands are increasingly being studied as a reservoir of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in other recreational sands (i.e., sandboxes and playgrounds). In this study, different culture-based FIB enumeration techniques were compared and microbial source tracking assays were conducted on recreational sand samples from beaches, playgrounds and sandboxes around Toronto, ON. FIB were detected in every sand sample (n=104) with concentrations not changing significantly over the five month sampling period. Concentrations of FIB and a gull-specific DNA marker were significantly higher in foreshore beach sands, and indicated these were a more significant reservoir of FIB contamination than sandbox or playground sands. Human- and dog-specific contamination markers were not detected. All culture-based FIB enumeration techniques were consistent in identifying the elevated FIB concentrations associated with foreshore beach sands. However, significant differences between differential agar media, IDEXX and Aquagenx Compartment Bag Test were observed, with DC media and Enterolert being the most sensitive methods to detect Escherichia coli and enterococci, respectively. To better understand the elevated occurrence of E. coli in foreshore sands, microcosm survival experiments were conducted at two different temperatures (15 °C and 28 °C) using non-sterile saturated foreshore beach sands collected from two urban freshwater beaches with different sand type (fine grain and sand-cobble). Microcosms were inoculated with a mixture of eight sand-derived E. coli strains and sampled over a 28-day period. E. coli levels were found to decline in all microcosms, although survival was significantly greater in the finer sand and at the cooler temperature (15 °C). These results indicate that FIB can be widespread in any type of recreational sand and, while E. coli can survive for many weeks, it is most likely to accumulate in cooler fine-grain sand as occurs below the foreshore sand surface. PMID:26432162

  8. Swash-Induced Infiltration in a Sandy Beach Aquifer, Cape Henlopen, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, J.; Ullman, W. J.; Michael, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge has been shown to be an important source of nutrients, heavy metals, and organic compounds to the coastal ocean. Physical flow and mixing dynamics in the intertidal zone may influence these contaminant fluxes; however the mechanisms that contribute to mixing of saltwater and through-flowing freshwater are not well understood. A study of wave swash-induced infiltration at two sites on Cape Henlopen, Delaware, was performed to quantify effects of swash zone width and tidal elevation on the flux of seawater into the beach aquifer. Porewater salinity measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined intertidal freshwater-seawater mixing zone. High-frequency pressure and soil moisture measurements from shore-perpendicular arrays across the beachface were used to infer influx rates. Measurements were conducted at two sites, one with larger waves and a wide swash zone, and the other with smaller waves and a narrow swash zone. Infiltration occurred during the rising tide at the leading edge of the swash zone and increased in magnitude from low tide to high tide. Infiltration rates were on average 2.2 times greater near mean high water than near mean low water. Measurements revealed that swash zone width influences infiltration: influx rates associated with the beach with a wider swash zone were 2.7 times higher than those of a beach with a narrower swash zone. The field observations are roughly consistent with estimates from analytical models, which are highly sensitive to uncertain model parameters. Pressure measurements during rising tide also indicate changes in hydraulic gradients due to infiltrated seawater. Flow beneath the sensor array was initially seaward and as the swash zone tracked up the beachface, a groundwater mound formed that resulted in net landward flow in the vicinity of the sensor array. The results demonstrate the role of wave swash in driving beach seawater infiltration, indicate spatial trends in flux across the beachface, and suggest changes in groundwater flow direction resulting from tidal fluctuations. These insights into beach groundwater dynamics have implications for estimating fluid and chemical fluxes to coastal waters.

  9. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  10. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  11. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  12. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

  13. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  14. Test of self-organization in beach cusp formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, T. K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2003-03-01

    Field observations of swash flow patterns and morphology change are consistent with the hypothesis that beach cusps form by self-organization, wherein positive feedback between swash flow and developing morphology causes initial development of the pattern and negative feedback owing to circulation of flow within beach cusp bays causes pattern stabilization. The self-organization hypothesis is tested using measurements from three experiments on a barrier island beach in North Carolina. Beach cusps developed after the beach was smoothed by a storm and after existing beach cusps were smoothed by a bulldozer. Swash front motions were recorded on video during daylight hours, and morphology was measured by surveying at 3-4 hour intervals. Three signatures of self-organization were observed in all experiments. First, time lags between swash front motions in beach cusp bays and horns increase with increasing relief, representing the effect of morphology on flow. Second, differential erosion between bays and horns initially increases with increasing time lag, representing the effect of flow on morphology change because positive feedback causes growth of beach cusps. Third, after initial growth, differential erosion decreases with increasing time lag, representing the onset of negative feedback that stabilizes beach cusps. A numerical model based on self-organization, initialized with measured morphology and alongshore-uniform distributions of initial velocities and positions of the swash front at the beginning of a swash cycle, reproduces the measurements, except for parts of one experiment, where limited surveys and a significant low-frequency component to swash motions might have caused errors in model initialization.

  15. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  16. A First Survey on the Abundance of Plastics Fragments and Particles on Two Sandy Beaches in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noik, V. James; Mohd Tuah, P.

    2015-04-01

    Plastic fragments and particles as an emerging environmental contaminant and pollutant are gaining scientific attention in the recent decades due to the potential threats on biota. This study aims to elucidate the presence, abundance and temporal change of plastic fragments and particles from two selected beaches, namely Santubong and Trombol in Kuching on two sampling times. Morphological and polymer identification assessment on the recovered plastics was also conducted. Overall comparison statistical analysis revealed that the abundance of plastic fragments/debris on both of sampling stations were insignificantly different (p>0.05). Likewise, statistical analysis on the temporal changes on the abundance yielded no significant difference for most of the sampling sites on each respective station, except STB-S2. Morphological studies revealed physical features of plastic fragments and debris were diverse in shapes, sizes, colors and surface fatigues. FTIR fingerprinting analysis shows that polypropylene and polyethylene were the dominant plastic polymers debris on both beaches.

  17. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in surface sediments of a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Guillaume; Zhao, Jean-Michel; Orvain, Francis; Dupuy, Christine; Klein, Géraldine L.; Graber, Marianne; Maugard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Numerous field-based investigations have highlighted that the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is physico-chemically and ecologically important for intertidal mudflats. EPS are largely secreted by marine benthic diatoms and their quantity and quality are environmental-dependant. This paper focused on the dynamic pathways, concentration rates and monosaccharides composition of colloidal, bound and residual carbohydrates extracted by using a cationic exchange resin from a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France) during two different sampling periods: winter (February 2008) and summer (July 2008). A wide range of biotic and abiotic parameters were also studied to better understand the effect of environmental parameters, e.g., chlorophyll a, salinity, pore water amount, emersion time, luminosity, C:N ratio and tidal coefficient. Multiple colorimetric assays coupled to gas chromatographic analyses were carried out to perform the biochemical characterizations. Firstly, the quantity of carbohydrates produced during winter (5.28 μg·μg chl a- 1) was more important than during summer (2.04 μg·μg chl a- 1). Yet, more proteins were found during summer for the colloidal and bound fractions (0.73 and 1.04 μg·μg chl a- 1). Further investigations showed that the dynamic pathways were equivalent between winter and summer: bound carbohydrates (BC) quantities increased during the sediment emersion periods on the contrary to colloidal carbohydrates (CC) which tended to drop throughout the emersion time. The quality in monosaccharides was fraction-dependant, whatever the season. CC were always glucose-rich confirming their role of carbon source. BC were mainly composed of rhamnose whose the ratio increased during the emersion period, thus conferring adhesive properties to the extracellular matrix bounding diatoms cells. Residual carbohydrates (RC) were composed of various monosaccharides and a major increase of glucose content was found at the end of emersion, corresponding to intracellular C-storage in prevention to immersion times. Summer-RC were composed of fucose, a monosaccharide specific to these fractions and which was non-present during the winter campaign. Environmental parameters, such as salinity, pore water amount, and tidal coefficient could have a significant impact on the concentration rates and pathways of carbohydrates.

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1854 Rephoto of 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION WITH OTHER BUILDINGS - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  6. General view looking to intersection of Beach Drive and Hume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view looking to intersection of Beach Drive and Hume Drive - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future, be widely used in beach surveying.

  8. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

  9. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in this vastly under-studied area. PMID:25383070

  10. Can the gold coast beaches withstand extreme events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, Bruno; Le Corre, Yann; Tomlinson, Rodger

    2008-02-01

    The Gold Coast sandy beaches of Queensland (Australia) are exposed to energetic wave conditions. Storms, particularly tropical cyclones, have a high potential of destruction. The Gold Coast has not experienced excessive erosive events over the past 30 years. However, some climate indicators suggest that cyclone frequency is likely to increase in response to global climate change within the near future. Over a 2-month period in early 2006, beach surveys were undertaken with a theodolite total station at four different sites. Offshore wave conditions were provided by SWAN regional wave modelling. During this study, the Gold Coast was exposed to three major storms, the first one being the second most energetic over the past 30 years. Results show a substantial variability of the beach response to these events along the Gold Coast, and that engineering structures do not have marked effects. Easterly swells have the greatest impact on the Gold Coast sub-aerial beach morphology. When low wave-energy conditions prevail, the southern Gold Coast beaches recover more quickly than the northern ones, as they are sheltered from high SE waves and draw advantage from the artificial sand bypassing system. Nevertheless, the data show that the Gold Coast beaches are exceedingly fragile. For instance, the early March decadal event considerably weakened the beaches, which resulted in surprisingly high erosion rates all along the Gold Coast during the two following annual wave events. This study suggests that the Gold Coast beaches would not be able to withstand the impact of an increased frequency of extreme events similar in scale to those of 1967.

  11. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  12. Physical modeling of three-dimensional intermediate beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallet, H.; Castelle, B.; BarthéLemy, E.; Berni, C.; Bonneton, P.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments have been performed in a large wave tank in order to study the morphodynamics of rip current systems. Both accretive and erosive shore-normal wave conditions were applied, the beach evolving through all the states within the intermediate beach classification, under the so-called down-state (accretive) and up-state (erosive) morphological transitions. Results show that any prescribed change in the wave conditions drastically increases the rate at which the morphology changes. The surf zone morphology tends toward a steady state when running a given wave climate for a long duration. We quantitatively describe a full down-state sequence characterized by the progressive evolution of an alongshore-uniform bar successively into a crescentic plan shape, a bar and rip channel morphology, and a terrace. From the analysis of a large data set of dense Eulerian measurements and bathymetric surveys, we depict several feedback mechanisms associated with wave-driven rip current circulation, wave nonlinearities and the seabed evolution. At first, a positive feedback mechanism drives a rapid increase in the rate of morphological change, beach three-dimensionality, and rip intensity. By the time the sandbar evolves into a bar and rip morphology, a negative feedback mechanism, characterized by a decaying beach change rate and an increasing beach alongshore uniformity, overwhelms the former mechanism. An erosive sequence characterized by both an overall offshore bar migration and an increase in beach three-dimensionality is also described.

  13. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  14. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  15. An introduction to the Hele-Shaw beach experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Anthony; van der Horn, Bram; van der Meer, Devaraj; Zweers, Wout; Bokhove, Onno

    2012-11-01

    The sea, as well as being a destructive force can also be constructive and can move great quantities of sand often forming a beach. Waves can move material both up and down the beach, leading to the construction of sloping beaches. Wave-sand dynamics are studied via experiments. The tank is narrow, just over one-particle diameter wide, creating a quasi-2D set-up also geared towards mathematical modelling. There is strong two-way feedback between the free-surface waves and the beach morphology. The waves transport the particles, changing the basal topography, causing the waves to transform from rolling to breaking. ``All'' classical breaker types (plunging, collapsing, spilling and surging) are observed on a time-scale of about a second. Finally, on longer time-scales many steady beach morphologies are observed, including dry and wet beaches, dry berms/dunes, and bars. The highlight being dry dunes which have dynamic waves crashing on the seaward-side and quiescent water on the far side.

  16. Monoaromatic hydrocarbon transformation under anaerobic conditions at Seal Beach, California: Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.

    1996-02-01

    Anaerobic biotransformation of several aromatic hydrocarbons found in gasoline including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) was studied in batch anaerobic laboratory microcosms. Aquifer sediment and ground water were obtained from the site of a historic gasoline spill at Seal Beach, California. Sulfate is present in the site ground water at 80 mg/L, and sulfate-reducing activity appears to be the dominant intrinsic BTEX bioremediation process where nitrate is absent. In the laboratory, the microcosms were set up with different electron acceptors (sulfate and nitrate) in site ground water and various defined anaerobic media to estimate intrinsic biodegradation rates and to suggest conditions under which anaerobic bioremediation could be enhanced. In unamended microcosms, anaerobic biotransformation of toluene and m + p-xylene occurred at a rate of 7.2 and 4.1 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively, with sulfate as the apparent electron acceptor. Addition of nitrate stimulated nitrate-reducing conditions and increased rates of toluene and m + p-xylene biotransformation to 30.1 and 5.4 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively. The catabolic substrate range was altered to include ethylbenzene in the nitrate-amended microcosms, suggesting an apparent preferential use of different BTEX compounds depending on the electron acceptor available. Under all the conditions studied, more than twice the amount of nitrate or sulfate was used than could be accounted for by the observed BTEX degradation. The results of these experiments indicate that indigenous microorganisms from the Seal Beach aquifer have significant capability to degrade BTEX hydrocarbons and that intrinsic processes in the Seal Beach aquifer may remediate a portion of the hydrocarbon contamination in situ without intervention. However, the data also suggest that intervention by nitrate addition would enhance the rate and extent of anaerobic BTEX biotransformation.

  17. Investigation of medium-term barred beach behavior using 28-year beach profile data and Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Yanagishima, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    A 28-year beach profile dataset for a stretch of the Hasaki coast in Japan was examined using Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) analysis to investigate the cross-shore variation in the characteristics of beach profile change. The data were obtained weekly, on a micro-tidal wave-dominated intermediate beach, along a survey line extending from the backshore to a water depth of approximately 5 m. REOF analysis using the first eight empirical orthogonal functions led to the study area being divided into five unique zones based on beach profile change patterns, namely the backshore, the foreshore, the inner and outer transition zones and the bar-trough zone. Although these zones were notably distinct from one another, the profiles in foreshore and the shoreward part of the inner transition zone changed in the same way over periods of 6 and 12 months.

  18. Geochemistry and bioavailability of mudflats and mangrove sediments and their effect on bioaccumulation in selected organisms within a tropical (Zuari) estuary, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Dias, Heidy Q; Nayak, G N

    2016-04-15

    Metals are non-degradable in the aquatic environment and play a vital role in estuarine biogeochemistry but could also be detrimental to associated biota. A comparative evaluation of the trace metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) was carried out in the Zuari estuary, Goa during the post-monsoon season of 2013 at six locations, each representing three mangrove and three mudflat regions. In addition, fractionation of trace metals in sediments was performed to provide information on the mobility, distribution, bioavailability and toxicity. Special attention was paid to the marine mollusks viz. bivalves and gastropods that are extensively used as bio-indicators in coastal pollution. Considering the percentage of metals in the sequentially extracted fractions, the order of mobility from most to least bioavailable forms was Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Fe. Mn maintained high bioavailability (average around 60%) in Fe-Mn oxide and carbonate bound forms indicating that Mn is readily available for biota uptake. The bioavailability of Fe was on an average of around 6% whereas other metals like Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were around 19% to 34%. When the bioavailable values were compared with standard Screening Quick Reference Table (SQUIRT), Zn showed higher toxicity level and bioavailability in the lower estuary. On the basis of calculated Bio Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAF's), overall trend in bioaccumulation was in the order of Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Fe. Metal Pollution Index (MPI) computed was higher for gastropods than bivalves. PMID:26920425

  19. Oil contamination of sedimentary shores of the Galápagos Islands following the wreck of the Jessica.

    PubMed

    Kingston, P F; Runciman, D; McDougall, J

    2003-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from sandy beaches at a variety of sites in the southern Galápagos Archipelago to assess levels of hydrocarbon contamination following the wreck of the oil tanker Jessica. Hydrocarbon levels in sediments were generally very low by international standards ranging between 0.4 and 48.9 ppm, with contamination attributable to the Jessica only detected at three sites Santa Fe, Playa Estación (Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz) and Long Beach (Isabela). There was evidence of residual hydrocarbon contamination from sources other than the wreck of the Jessica. PMID:12810094

  20. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  1. Users' Perception as a Tool to Improve Urban Beach Planning and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.

  2. What is on those Titan Beaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, P.; Cable, M.; Hodyss, R.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T.; Malaska, M.

    2014-04-01

    Benzene is found on Titan and is a likely constituent of the putative evaporite deposits formed around the hydrocarbon lakes. We have recently demonstrated the formation of a benzene-ethane co-crystal under Titan-like surface condition as a function of temperature. We show that the formation process would reach completion under Titan surface conditions in ~18 hours, and that benzene precipitates from liquid ethane as the co-crystal. This suggests that evaporite basins rich in benzene may not contain just pure crystalline materials, but instead the beaches or basins may be replete with co-crystals of various forms. These new structures may influence evaporite characteristics, such as particle size and infrared spectral properties. This co-crystalline form of benzene with ethane represents a new class of materials for Titan's surface, analogous to hydrated minerals on Earth. This work is being extended to explore the interaction of benzene with methane and propane at Titan temperatures. We are also investigating other molecules such as acetylene and pyridine to determine if co-crystal formation can occur in these systems as well.

  3. Seasonal variations in the risk of gastrointestinal illness on a tropical recreational beach

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Lyzbeth; Norat, Jose; Mattei, Hernando; Nazario, Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the seasonal changes in the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness of beachgoers in the tropics, to compare the association between GI illness and water quality using various indicator organisms, and to study other beach health hazards. A prospective cohort study during two seasonal periods (summer and autumn) was conducted in a beach surrounded by intensive residential development. Analyses demonstrated that although densities of indicators were well below water quality standards throughout the study, they were significantly higher during the autumn season. The incidence of GI illness among beachgoers was also higher during the rainy season. A higher incidence of GI illness was observed for bathers during the autumn season when compared to non-bathers, while a somewhat lower incidence was observed during the summer. This study showed that rainfall contributes to higher levels of microbial contaminants and GI risk to beachgoers. The association between GI illness and Enterococcus using culture counts showed the highest odds ratio among all indicator parameters including those using molecular methods. A much higher risk of GI illness among children under 5 years was observed among all beachgoers. PMID:23165715

  4. Medium timescale beach rotation; gale climate and offshore island influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Phillips, M. R.; Williams, A. T.; Jenkins, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Beach profile surveys, gale climate and atmospheric variations were utilized to assess medium timescale morphological change at South Sands, Tenby, West Wales. Due to beach aspect in relation to offshore islands, gale wave height decreased as wave direction rotated eastwards (r = 0.83) and westwards (r = 0.88). Similarly, wave heights were in attuned to variations in positive (r = 0.68) and negative (r = - 0.72) NAO Index, showing a wave height reduction occurred during weakly negative/positive or transitory phases; morphological change was attuned to atmospheric variation at a 2-year timelag. Shelter from offshore islands is given to waves from the predominant southwesterly direction and was confirmed by negligible correlation with South Sands morphology. However, outside the shelter of these offshore islands, correlation was found between south-eastward rotating wave directions (135°-180°) and morphological change, which resulted in southern and central beach erosion and accretion to the north. With a southwesterly rotation (243°-256°) the opposite was true. Beach rotation expressed by volume change within the sub-aerial zone had a negative phased relationship between beach extremities (r = - 0.94) and a timelagged association within the intertidal zone (r = 0.55). Analyses resulted in the development of two medium timescale rotation models based on incident wave direction and climatic variability. Results have global implications for headland bays in the lee of offshore islands, as well as macro-tidal beach areas; and consequently similar models could inform local, regional and national beach management strategies

  5. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  6. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  7. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the results obtained. One factor that may explain why certain species are missing could be lack of recruitment, due to Malta's geographical isolation from the European and African mainlands.

  8. Macrofaunal sediment selectivity considerations for beach nourishment programmes.

    PubMed

    Van Tomme, J; Vanden Eede, S; Speybroeck, J; Degraer, S; Vincx, M

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative compared to the construction of hard structures to protect a sandy coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological and an engineering perspective. The rare studies conducted on the ecological impact of beach nourishment are short-term, post hoc monitoring investigations of the benthic macrofauna. Little is known of the biological processes during and after nourishment. To allow swift recolonization after nourishment, the characteristics of the nourished beach have to match the habitat demands of the benthic macrofauna. The sediment preference of the key intertidal species Scolelepis squamata, Eurydice pulchra, Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia sarsi, which dominate many West European sandy beaches, was investigated through laboratory experiments, both in single-species as well as combined-species treatments. While the former aimed at developing guidelines for impact mitigation of beach nourishment, the latter aimed at elucidating the role of biotic interactions in sediment preference. Results of the experiments indicated that B.pilosa and E.pulchra prefer the finest sediment, while B.sarsi had a broader preference and also occurred in medium-coarse sediments. However, the sediment preference of E.pulchra for fine sediments was not confirmed by other field and experimental studies. The polychaete S.squamata had the broadest preference and even showed a high occurrence in coarse sediments that are not naturally occurring on the sandy beaches where the animals were caught for this experiment. However, this polychaete is a cosmopolitan species, not only occurring on fine-grained beaches, but also on coarse-grained beaches worldwide. The preferences imply that beach nourishment with coarse sediment will have a major effect on B.pilosa while effects of coarse sediments on S.squamata will be minor. Finally, interspecific competition with the sympatrically occurring amphipod B.sarsi was found to change the sediment selection of the amphipod B.pilosa towards the coarser sediments where B.sarsi occurred in lower frequencies. PMID:23182894

  9. Swash Zone Sediment Dynamics on Steep and Shallow Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, J. R.; Butt, T.; Russell, P. E.; Masselink, G.; Evans, D.; Ganderton, P.; Huntley, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    In the swash zone, high sediment concentrations and large flow velocities mean that the potential for sediment transport and beach profile change is considerable. However, our understanding of the contribution of different suspension mechanisms (e.g. velocity, acceleration, turbulence, in/exfiltration) on beaches of different slopes is limited. Furthermore, the cross-shore structure of sediment transport in the swash zone is poorly understood. Field measurements of swash hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics and profile change have therefore been made at a dissipative, fine grained beach in North Cornwall, UK (Perranporth), and at a steeper, coarser grained beach in West Cornwall (Sennen). Velocities were measured at high frequency close to the bed using a vertical array of two electromagnetic current meters and 2-D and 3-D acoustic döppler velocimeters. Suspended sediment concentrations were measured using a vertical array of miniature optical backscatter sensors. Further to this, run-up data were collected using video, pressure sensors were used to measure wave heights and pressure gradients in the bed, and surveys were taken at each low tide to establish profile change. On both beaches, large suspended sediment concentrations (200kg/m3) were measured in the initial (turbulent) part of the uprush. On the dissipative beach, secondary waves behind the initial uprush suspended an order of magnitude less sediment than the initial front. On the steep beach, the high uprush concentrations in the inner swash were well correlated with downward pressure gradients in the bed, suggesting a dominance of boundary layer thinning over sediment stabilisation. During the backwash, a second peak in concentration occurred, although backwash velocities were not as efficient at suspending sediment than uprush velocities. The net cross-shore transport from uprush and backwash was examined in relation to cross-shore position in the swash. Data from high-energy conditions showed that on both beaches, onshore transport dominated in the inner swash zone on both flood and ebb tides. A zero crossing in the cross-shore transport occurred at the mid swash zone on the flood tide on both beaches. Offshore transport occurred seaward of this point. The transport divergence point shifted landward in both cases during the ebb tide, possibly due to differences in the water table. Further detailed analysis of data is being carried out in order to examine the role of the various mechanisms of suspension, and their contribution at different cross-shore positions in the swash.

  10. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of predatory fauna such as decapods and fish, and restrict their abundance.

  11. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  12. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  13. Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S; Mahiques, Michel M; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pellets are worldwide contaminants that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy beaches, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0 m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols. PMID:24670631

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B.; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T.

    2014-03-01

    Plastic pellets are worldwide contaminants that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy beaches, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0 m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols.

  15. Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Turra, Alexander; Manzano, Aruanã B.; Dias, Rodolfo Jasão S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Barbosa, Lucas; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Moreira, Fabiana T.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pellets are worldwide contaminants that accumulate in the ocean, especially in sandy beaches, where their historic standing-stock quantification relies on surface sediment samples. We demonstrated these particles present a three-dimensional instead of a simple along-across shore distribution, being found as deep as 2.0 m, with surface layers accounting for <10% of the total abundance in the sediment column. This gradient seemed to be more related to oceanographic rather than anthropic processes, suggesting a general pattern whose applicability to microplastics and sedimentary environments as a whole should be investigated. This poses criticism in the exactness of standing-stock records and demands urgent discussion of sampling protocols. PMID:24670631

  16. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  17. Beach groin acts as barrier to longshore transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The Bergen Avenue Groin in Harvey Cedars, N.J., a storm protection structure that confines alongshore-moving sediment to create wider beaches, has been found to act as a barrier to longshore sediment transport according to Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. Using a wave transformation-shoreline evolution model, Bruno examined the effectiveness of an existing stone groin on a commercially and historically valuable beach. His findings were summarized at the 21st Union of Panamerican Engineers meeting hosted by the American Association of Engineering Societies held in Washington, D.C., August 19-24.Groins are low, narrow jetties made of timber, stone, concrete, or steel that extend roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. They are designed to protect the shore from erosion by currents, tides or waves, or to trap sand and littoral drift to build up or make a beach. The advantage of a groin is that it is a permanent solution to beach erosion, as opposed to the continuing process of beach replenishment required in nonstructural processes such as beachfills. This same permanence, however, is often the downfall of structural solutions because of the long-term deleterious consequences associated with such devices.

  18. Natural Reworking of Tsunami Evidence in Chandipur Beach, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, T.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2010-12-01

    In a particular tide- or wave- dominated environment the flow energy is best understood by the size of the sand grains deposited at the respective bar or beach or the depositional platform. Though the flow energy is generally fluctuating in this kind of dynamic environment, the overall set up can represent a particular domain of energy regime. A particular range of grain size is supposed to be deposited laterally and vertically as well. A specific trend of variation in grain size is also expected and can be estimated from both the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic interplay or in combination. Hence, whenever any stratum with an extra ordinary grain size is observed, that usually stimulates to think about some sudden and extraordinary energy regime, indicate a catastrophic event. In the year 2005, on Chandipur beach (Orissa, India) such a stratum found with an unusual grain size, which was much coarser than the usual grains¬ extended along the beach and outer flank of the main bar, exhibited many unusual features in its morphology and mineralogy indicated a possible deposit due to the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. In the contrary, the same deposit is exhibiting the definite reworking due to the normal beach process in 2008. It’s a definite signature of gap of information in a dynamic environment and a challenge for the palaeo-tsunami researchers. Key words: Tsunami deposit; Beach dynamics; Natural reworking

  19. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  20. Circulation, mixing, and transport in nearshore Lake Erie in the vicinity of Villa Angela Beach and Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio, September 11-12, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Villa Angela Beach, on the Lake Erie lakeshore near Cleveland, Ohio, is adjacent to the mouth of Euclid Creek, a small, flashy stream draining approximately 23 square miles and susceptible to periodic contamination from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) (97 and 163 CSO events in 2010 and 2011, respectively). Concerns over high concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples taken along this beach and frequent beach closures led to the collection of synoptic data in the nearshore area in an attempt to gain insights into mixing processes, circulation, and the potential for transport of bacteria and other CSO-related pollutants from various sources in Euclid Creek and along the lakefront. An integrated synoptic survey was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 11–12, 2012, during low-flow conditions on Euclid Creek, which followed rain-induced high flows in the creek on September 8–9, 2012. Data-collection methods included deployment of an autonomous underwater vehicle and use of a manned boat equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Spatial distributions of water-quality measures and nearshore currents indicated that the mixing zone encompassing the mouth of Euclid Creek and Villa Angela Beach is dynamic and highly variable in extent, but can exhibit a large zone of recirculation that can, at times, be decoupled from local wind forcing. Observed circulation patterns during September 2012 indicated that pollutants from CSOs in Euclid Creek and water discharged from three shoreline CSO points within 2,000 feet of the beach could be trapped along Villa Angela Beach by interaction of nearshore currents and shoreline structures. In spite of observed coastal downwelling, denser water from Euclid Creek is shown to mix to the surface via offshore turbulent structures that span the full depth of flow. While the southwesterly longshore currents driving the recirculation pattern along the beach front were observed during the 2011–12 synoptic surveys, longshore currents with a southwesterly component capable of establishing the recirculation only occurred about 30 percent of the time from June 7 to October 6, 2012, based on continuous velocity data collected near Villa Angela Beach.

  1. Hydrodynamic influences of tidal fluctuations and beach slopes on benzene transport in unconfined, sandy costal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, C.-F.; Wei, Y.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills in oceans have led to severe environment and ecosystem problems due to high toxicity substances, large spatial extents, and long temporal durations. The BTEX compounds are key indexes generally used for identifications of such contamination events and also for quantifications of residual substances after remediations. Benzene is one of the BTEX compounds, which is recognized to be high toxicity and may threat near-shore ecosystem and human safety. Therefore, the understanding of benzene transport in costal aquifers is critical for predictions of contaminated zones and managements and organizations of remediation plans. In this study a numerical investigation was conducted to quantify the influence of tidal fluctuations and beach slopes on benzene transport in an unconfined coastal aquifer. More specifically, three different tidal amplitudes and three beach slopes were considered in the two-dimensional HYDROGEOCHEM model to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of the benzene transport. Simulation results show that tidal fluctuations will lead to shallow seawater circulations near the ground surface where the high tides can reach periodically. Such local circulation flows will trap benzene plume and the plume may migrate to the deeper aquifer, depending on the amplitudes of tides and the surface slopes of the coastal lines. The sine curve tides with 0.5 m amplitudes will create circulation plume sizes of about 50m in length and 20m in depth, while the circulation plume sizes for tides with 1.0 m amplitudes will significantly increase to approximately 150 m in length and 60 m in depth. Additionally, double the beach slopes and keep the same tidal amplitude will lead to 40 m plume movement toward the land. The amplitude of tidal fluctuation is the key factor to decide when and where a benzene plume reaches a largest depth. In general, the plume with tidal amplitude of 0.5 m requires 50 days to reach 90% of the largest depth. However, the plume with tidal amplitude of 1.0 m requires 300 days to reach 90% of the largest depth. Same conclusions can be applied to evaluate the duration times for a benzene plume self-clean, when the benzene source on ground surface is removed.

  2. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms from a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reis, Izabela; Almeida, C Marisa R; Magalhães, Catarina M; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Guedes, Paula; Basto, M Clara P; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioremediation potential of microorganisms from intertidal sediments of a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill 7 years before and subject to chronic petroleum contamination since then. For that, the response of microorganisms to a new oil contamination was assessed in terms of community structure, abundance, and capacity to degrade hydrocarbons. Experiments were carried out under laboratory-controlled conditions by mixing sediment with crude oil with three different nitrogen supplementations in 50 ml serum bottles under constant shake for 15 days. Autochthonous microorganisms were able to respond to the new oil contamination by increasing their abundance (quantified by DAPI) and changing the community structure (evaluated by DGGE). This response was particularly clear for some specific bacterial groups such as Pseudomonas, Actinomycetales, and Betaproteobacteria. These communities presented an important potential for hydrocarbon degradation (up to 85 % for TPHs and 70 % for total PAHs), being the biodegradation stimulated by addition of an appropriate amount of nitrogen. PMID:24271736

  3. Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, J. C.; Frias, J. G. L.; Micaelo, A. C.; Sobral, P.

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of stranded plastic marine debris along the Portuguese coastline was investigated. Number of items m-2 and size range of resin pellets were recorded, corresponding to 53% of total marine debris collected items. In addition, concentrations of adsorbed persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTC) were determined, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCB - polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Matosinhos (Mt) and Vieira de Leiria (VL) presented the highest number of items m-2 (362 and 332, respectively). Resin pellets with 4 mm diameter were the most abundant (50%). Contaminants concentration was variable. PAH concentrations recorded values between 53 and 44800 ng g-1, PCB ranged from 2 to 223 ng g-1 and DDT between 0.42 and 41 ng g-1. In general, aged and black pellets recorded higher concentrations for all contaminants. Matosinhos (Mt), Vieira de Leiria (VL) and Sines (Si), near industrial areas and port facilities, were the most contaminated beaches. Research efforts are needed to assess the points of entry of industrial plastic pellets in order to take action and minimize impacts on the ecosystems, in particular, points of transfer during transportation from plastic manufacturers to plastic converters should be identified and controlled so that virgin pellets are contained and will not enter rivers and be carried to the oceans where they can remain for a long time and travel great distances.

  4. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  5. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  6. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquern Beach, Puerto Rico...

  7. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  8. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  9. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  10. Industrial plastic on the southern beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the western beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Khordagui, H K; Abu-Hilal, A H

    1994-01-01

    The increasing production and use of plastic in the Arabian Gulf combined with shipping and waste disposal practices, have increased the concentration of plastic particles on the sea's surface and beaches. The objective of this investigation was to provide an assessment of the abundance, distribution, potential sources and significance of industrial plastic on the western beaches of the United Arab Emirates on the Arabian Gulf and on the eastern beaches on the Gulf of Oman. The abundance of stranded plastic pellets was highly uneven. By early 1992 alarming levels of fresh plastic pellets were noticed on the Arabian Gulf beaches of the UAE. Large numbers of 25 kg sacks of white plastic spherules manufactured by (SABIC) in Jubail, Saudi Arabia were washed ashore. When compared to the west coast on the Arabian Gulf, the east coast on the Gulf of Oman exhibited much lower levels of plastic pellets. When compared to other parts of the world, the beaches of the UAE on the Arabian Gulf are considered to be heavily polluted with industrial plastic. PMID:15091703

  11. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. PMID:25460060

  12. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  13. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a morphodynamical continuum of macrotidal, low tide bar/rip and ultra-dissipative sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.

    2003-03-01

    The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy beaches are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the beaches. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian beach sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( Ω) and the relative tidal range, the beach sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative beach type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip beach type (LTBR). The resulting beach state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the beach profiles were related with the beaches' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per beach site. The species composition was quite similar among beach sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all beach sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the beach morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD beaches, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper beach, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR beaches, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the beach. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD beaches, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower beach zone at LTBR beaches. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper beach of both UD and LTBR beaches. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR beach zone.

  14. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  16. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  17. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  18. Longshore currents over barred beach with mild slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Zhi-li

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.

  19. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  20. 75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Beach, NC in the Federal Register (75 FR 56024). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon,'' to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... 13, 2010, the Wilmington YMCA will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron...

  1. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  2. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  3. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  4. 75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E surface airspace, and airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed for......

  5. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  6. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  7. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  8. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  9. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  10. 76 FR 28025 - Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Mission Holding Beach, LLC (EMHB) filed a petition for declaratory order requesting that the Federal...), that it will acquire from, and then lease back to their current owner, AES Huntington Beach, LLC....

  11. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  12. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  13. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  14. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  15. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  16. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  17. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Palm Beach, FL. 110.185 Section 110.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... of Palm Beach, FL. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage A. The waters lying within an area... Palm Beach, shall only anchor within the anchorage areas hereby defined and established, except...

  18. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  19. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  20. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  1. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC and Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice..., mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC, and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear... 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear...

  2. Long-term effects of dredging operations program. Collation and interpretation of data for Times Beach confined disposal facility, Buffalo, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Brown, C.P.

    1991-06-01

    This interim report, collates all data gathered for the Times Beach confined disposal facility (CDF), Buffalo, New York. This purpose of the studies at the CDF was to determine the mobility and potential hazard of contaminants known to be in the dredged material placed at Times Beach by sampling and analyzing various components of the developing ecosystems. Upland, wetland, and aquatic areas are represented within the CDF and, for each area, inventories of colonizing biota were made and samples collected for measurement of heavy metals and organic compound contaminants. Samples of dredged material, vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates, and vertebrates have been collected and heavy metal concentrations measured. Results suggest that the persistent contaminants, particularly cadmium, are concentrating in the leaf litter zone and moving into the detritivorous invertebrates. Highest concentrations of heavy metals were noted in earthworms. Earth worms, millipedes, woodlice, and spiders appeared to be target organisms for accumulation of heavy metals, and these groups contained higher concentrations of copper and cadmium than the other groups. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in the dredged material were below machine detection limits in the vertebrate top-predators. Contaminant concentrations in water from ground water wells were below guidance limits.

  3. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  4. Integrating Bacterial and Viral Water Quality Assessment to Predict Swimming-Associated Illness at a Freshwater Beach: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Jason W.; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Chang Soo; Wang, Qiuhong; Lemeshow, Stanley; Buckley, Timothy J.; Saif, Linda J.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective Recreational waters impacted by fecal contamination have been linked to gastrointestinal illness in swimmer populations. To date, few epidemiologic studies examine the risk for swimming-related illnesses based upon simultaneous exposure to more than one microbial surrogate (e.g. culturable E. coli densities, genetic markers). We addressed this research gap by investigating the association between swimming-related illness frequency and water quality determined from multiple bacterial and viral genetic markers. Methods Viral and bacterial genetic marker densities were determined from beach water samples collected over 23 weekend days and were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These genetic marker data were paired with previously determined human exposure data gathered as part of a cohort study carried out among beach users at East Fork Lake in Ohio, USA in 2009. Using previously unavailable genetic marker data in logistic regression models, single- and multi-marker/multi-water quality indicator approaches for predicting swimming-related illness were evaluated for associations with swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness. Results Data pertaining to genetic marker exposure and 8- or 9-day health outcomes were available for a total of 600 healthy susceptible swimmers, and with this population we observed a significant positive association between human adenovirus (HAdV) exposure and diarrhea (odds ratio  = 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.3) as well as gastrointestinal illness (OR  = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.2) upon adjusting for culturable E. coli densities in multivariable models. No significant associations between bacterial genetic markers and swimming-associated illness were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence that a combined measure of recreational water quality that simultaneously considers both bacterial and viral densities, particularly HAdV, may improve prediction of disease risk than a measure of a single agent in a beach environment likely influenced by nonpoint source human fecal contamination. PMID:25409012

  5. North beach (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazaré bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through 600 m downdrift of the injection point. Tracer was injected at a rate of 16 kg each 30 sec and collected at a frequency of 10 min at each site. Complementary sampling was performed at the inner shelf and at the beach southern of the headland. In order to follow tracer downdrift movement and headland sediment bypassing low resolution sampling was extended through three more days. Oceanographic forcing throughout the experiment was measured by an offshore wave buoy and an ADCP specifically deployed for the experiment. During the first tidal cycle, data from field observations using a hand held UV light showed a southward tracer displacement of more than 600 m. After the second tidal cycle, sediment tracer was detected in the Nazaré bay beach showing headland bypassing. Further insights on the sediment transport at the Nazaré canyon head system will be supported by the analysis of sediment samples collected at the beach and inner shelf using an automated image analysis system. This work was done in the framework of the PTDC/MAR/114674/2009 program, financed by FCT which the authors acknowledge gratefully.

  6. Contamination and distribution of heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative halogenated flame retardants in a pristine mangrove.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Peng, Yisheng; Guo, Pengran; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Geng, Xinhua; Miao, Shenyu

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the expanding metal and electronics industries, pollution in the Pearl River Estuary needs special concern. Given the hydrodynamic effect, the pristine mangrove in Qi'ao Island would be contaminated by tidal flushing. Thus, we examined (1) the contamination of pollutants in this mangrove, including heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs), and (2) how habitat characteristics and sediment properties affect their distribution. Results showed that the sediment in Qi'ao mangrove had higher concentrations of heavy metals, PBDEs and AHFRs than that in other pristine mangroves, and similar concentrations to those mangroves impacted by point sources. Heavy metal concentrations were lower in the vegetated areas than mudflat, while the opposite was found for PBDEs and AHFRs. The findings imply that tidal flushing was an important pollution source, while mangrove plants have the capacity to minimize the impact of heavy metals, but not PBDEs and AHFRs. PMID:26759186

  7. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. CONTAMINANT REDISTRIBUTION CAN CONFOUND INTERPRETATION OF OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical redistribution of oil between the inside and outside of experimental plots can affect the results of bioremediation field studies that are conducted on shorelines contaminated by real oil spills. Because untreated oil from the surrounding beach will enter the plot, ...

  9. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P C C; Alvarez, C; Schetini, C A F; Souza, R O; Vieira, R H S F

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (a state capital in Northeastern Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources of contamination (local rivers, storm drains and submarine outfall) was analyzed. The models took into account variations in bacterial decay due to solar radiation and other environmental factors. Fecal pollution discharged from rivers and storm drains is transported westward by coastal currents, contaminating strips of beach water to the left of each storm drain or river. Exception to this condition only occurs on beaches protected by the breakwater of the harbor, where counterclockwise vortexes reverse this behavior. The results of the models were consistent with field measurements taken during the dry and the rainy season. Our results show that the submarine outfall plume was over 2 km from the nearest beach. The storm drains and the Maceió stream are the main factors responsible for the poor water quality on the waterfront of Fortaleza. The depollution of these sources would generate considerable social, health and economic gains for the region. PMID:26360752

  10. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    PubMed

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  11. Palm Beach Community College Strategic Plan, 1999-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Seymour

    This report addresses strategies and action plans for Palm Beach Community College (PBCC) (Florida) between 1999-2004. As part of a commitment to achieve specific, measurable end results, the college has set various objectives, including: (1) develop, implement and institutionalize a mission driven strategic budget for the 1999-2000 fiscal year;…

  12. 25. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural REsources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown SUTTER'S MAP OF FORT WITH SUPERIMPOSED OUTLINE OF FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 20. 8" PIPELINE ON BEACH AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 8" PIPELINE ON BEACH AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST TOWARD KALAWAO. NOTE GATE VALVE (LARGER) AND BLOW-OFF VALVE (SMALLER). PIPELINE GENERALLY AT 20' ABOVE SEA LEVEL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  14. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  15. Empirical Modeling of Microbial Indicators at a South Carolina Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concerns about water quality at beaches have prompted the development of multiple linear regression and other models that can be used to "nowcast" levels of bacterial indicators. Hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from summer, 2009 were used to develop empirical m...

  16. 2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH AVENUE, (NOS. 17, 15, 13, 11, 7 AND 5), GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH - Town of Ocean Grove, East terminus of State Route 33, south of Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Monmouth County, NJ

  17. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... formula introduced with the fiscal year 2010 grants (see 75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How does EPA... announcing the availability of the fiscal year 2010 grants (75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How will the... FR 15446, 15449 (March 31, 2003)). For the 2011 beach season, the deadline for states to...

  18. The Palm Beach County Family Study Second Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lyons, Sandra; Gouvea, Marcia; Haywood, Thomas; Winje, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County commissioned Chapin Hall Center for Children to conduct a longitudinal study to examine the effects of this service system on children and families. The goal of the longitudinal study is to describe the characteristics and needs of families the service system is intended to serve, how they…

  19. USGS Sampling Site at Henderson Beach State Park

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples in coastal areas affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  Samples of water, sediments, benthic invertebrates, and microorganisms were collected by the USGS at beach, barrier island,...

  20. USGS Sediment Sampling at Henderson Beach State Park

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples in coastal areas affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  Samples of water, sediments, benthic invertebrates, and microorganisms were collected by the USGS at beach, barrier island,...

  1. Excerpts from Daytona Beach Community College Institutional Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytona Beach Community Coll., FL. Mid-Florida Research and Business Center.

    A study was conducted by Daytona Beach Community College's (DBCC's) Mid-Florida Research and Business Center to determine the market for the educational services which fall within the mission of DBCC, to identify target populations within that market, to explore educational needs and perceived desires, and to examine community opinions of DBCC and…

  2. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  3. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players’ experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27–42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual’s inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players’ self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  4. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  5. Parents as Valued Customers: The Virginia Beach Parent Perception Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faucette, Sidney L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, the teachers in Virginia Beach City (Virginia) Public Schools surveyed parents' views concerning classroom practices as part of a client satisfaction project. Intended to increase parent involvement, gauge customer satisfaction, and guarantee continuous improvement, the survey found that comments about teacher efforts were overwhelmingly…

  6. Preliminary Model Results of Beach Profile Dynamics with Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; Koktas, M.; Gallagher, E. L.; Wadman, H. M.; Brodie, K. L.; Johnson, B. D.; McNinch, J.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of spatial variation in grain size within the surf and swash zone is often ignored in numerical modeling whereas Upon closer inspection, a broad range of grain sizes is visible on a beach. This could potentially lead to a significant mismatch between predictions and observations of profile evolution given the strong sensitivity of sediment transport formulae to the grain size. To explore this in more detail, numerical simulations with XBeach have been performed to simulate the observations of changes in beach profile and stratigraphy within the swash zone at Duck, NC, under a range of wave and tidal conditions (see presentations by Wadman et al., and Gallagher et al. for complementary information on the observations at this conference). The research focus is to establish the morphodynamic response to the sediment dynamics at short and longer time scales in the presence of stratigraphy. A better understanding of the mechanisms and subsequently improved modeling will provide more accurate predictions of the morphodynamic response of the beach during moderate and extreme conditions. It will also help in the interpretation of sediment layering of the beach to relate to past extreme storms on geological time scales.

  7. USGS Collects Sediment Samples at Grand Isle Beach

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  8. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  9. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  10. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers were not included in the model because they were shown to be statistically unrelated to E. coli concentrations. From the several models developed, one model was chosen that accounted for 58 percent of the variability in E. coli concentrations. The chosen MLR model contained weighted categorical rainfall, beach-specific turbidity, wave height, and terms to correct for the different magnitudes of E. coli concentrations among the three beaches. For 1997, the MLR model predicted the recreational water quality as well as, and in some cases better than, antecedent E. coli concentrations (the current method). The MLR model improved the sensitivity of the prediction and the percentage of correct predictions over the current method; however, the MLR model predictions still erred to a similar degree as the current method with regard to false negatives. A false negative would allow swimming when, in fact, the bathing water standard was exceeded. More work needs to be done to validate the MLR model with data collected during other recreational seasons, especially during a season with a greater frequency and intensity of summer rains. Studies could focus on adding to the MLR model other environmental and water-quality variables that improve the predictive ability of the model. These variables might include concentrations of E. coli in deeper sediments outside the bathing area, the direction of lake currents, site-specific-rainfall amounts, time-of-day information on overflows and metered outfalls, concentrations of E. coli in treated wastewater-treatment plant effluents, and occurrences of sewage-line breaks. Rapid biological or chemical methods for determination of recreational water quality could also be used as variables in model refinements. Possible methods include the use of experimental rapid assay methods for determination of E. coli concentrations or other fecal indicators and the use of chemical tracers for fecal contamination, such as coprostanol (a degradation

  11. A new modelling concept for aeolian sediment transport on beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, S.; Arens, S. M.; Stive, M. J. F.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new modelling concept for aeolian transport on beaches. Many research is invested in describing aeolian sediment transport for desert situations. Some of the principles of aeolian sediment transport in deserts are valid for application at the coastal zone but, where in deserts abundant sand is available for transport, in coastal situations sediment availability is limited. Sediment availability (or supply) is limited due to supply limiting factors such as moisture content of the bed, fetch effects and armouring of the surface. We propose a new sediment transport concept where we quantify aeolian sediment transport while quantifying the sediment availability rather than the more conventional (Bagnold, 1954) wind driven transport capacity. The concept is illustrated using field data. The field data is collected during a measurement campaign which has been designed to measure aeolian transport with special focus on sediment availability. Wind and sediment transport rates are measured on a beach for a period of 1 week. During this week onshore wind occurred allowing the analysis of aeolian transport across the beach towards the dunes. A total of 5 sediment transport gauges are dynamically placed over the cross section of the beach from locations in the intertidal zone (at low tide) until the dunefoot. The observations show that the amount of aeolian transport is very much dependent on the tidal phase. Low tides correspond to large aeolian transport and high tides to significantly lower aeolian transport across the beach. Wind conditions during the experiment were relatively constant implying that the specific variability in time of the measured aeolian transport is caused by variability with respect to the source rather than variability in wind conditions. Additional to this specific case, existing data of similar experiments (Arens, 1996) are analysed. Re-analysing this data, from experiments covering larger timespans, more evidence is found for source (or availability) related variability in measured aeolian transport rates. The measurements support the concept of allowing a dominant role for sediment availability over wind driven transport capacity in sediment transport formulations. Moreover, these measurements allow for an initial formulation of a new sediment transport relation suitable for quantifying aeolian sediment transport on beaches. The new sediment transport formulation is fundamentally different from existing Bagnold type formulations but, shows large generic potential to quantify and predict aeolian sediment transport on beaches and other situations with limited sand supply.

  12. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore volumetric changes within the domain are significantly larger than the alongshore losses. As a consequence of the adaptation process the high waterline has retreated approximately 50 m over the last 2 years. The observed changes are correlated with nearby wave data to investigate the impact of storm events. It is observed that in autumn when wave forcing is strong, the profile adaptation is accelerated. The impact of storm events is visible most clearly in the active marine zone (+1 to -4m). Higher up the profile the volume changes are much more gradual. The findings of this study show the impact of the cross shore location of a nourishment in the profile. If the man-made profile consists of steep unnatural slopes in the active marine zone, a fast cross shore adaptation can be expected.

  13. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate beach evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the beaches in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the beaches. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the beaches comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.

  14. Seasonal Variation of Surface Sediments in the Gochang Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol Ip

    2014-05-01

    The Gochang Beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations of surface sediment and sedimentary environment. The Gochang Beach consists of the Dongho, Kwangseungri, Myeongsasipri beaches from north to south. During the four seasons of spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November), and winter (February), surface sediments of 135 sites were sampled across nine survey lines (15 sites in each survey line), respectively. The pocket-type Dongho Beach is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the summer. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during three seasons of spring, fall, and winter, whereas medium sands dominated in the northern part of the study area during the summer. These results suggest that a tide is more effective than a wave in the surface sediments of the Dongho Beach during the summer. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri Beach are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Mud facies partly exists in summer, whereas it is nearly absent in winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during spring, fall, and winter. In the northern part, the study area is dominated by fine sands during summer, whereas by coarse sands during winter. These results are interpreted that tide is more effective than wave on the surface sediment distribution of the Kwangseungri Beach during summer season. The open-coast Myeongsasipri Beach is mainly composed of fine to medium sand, the distribution of which shows a coast-parallel trend. Grain-size distribution shows a bi-modal trend in the summer and winter and a uni-mode in the spring and fall. Grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was dominated by medium sand, while the lower tidal flat was dominated by find sand. Such a feature is attributed to wave-dominated sedimentation in the winter. The dominant finer-grain size of the summer rather than that of the winter is interpreted that tidal energy played an important role in the tidal flat sedimentation during the summer. Sedimentary environments of the Myeongsasipri Beach are suggestive of a seasonal change from wave-dominated conditions in the winter to tide-dominated conditions in the summer as a result of seasonal variations of the intensity of onshore-directed winds and waves. Keywords: seasonal variation, surface sediment, macro-tide, beach, Gochang Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) through the project grant of Tracking and Prediction on Impacts of Ancient Extreme Climatic Events in the West and South Coastal Zone of Korea.

  15. Sequential resuspension of biofilm components (viruses, prokaryotes and protists) as measured by erodimetry experiments in the Brouage mudflat (French Atlantic coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Christine; Mallet, Clarisse; Guizien, Katell; Montanié, Hélène; Bréret, Martine; Mornet, Françoise; Fontaine, Camille; Nérot, Caroline; Orvain, Francis

    2014-09-01

    Resuspension thresholds in terms of friction velocity were experimentally quantified for the prokaryotes, protists and for the first time, viruses of intertidal mudflat biofilms. Differences in resuspension thresholds could be related to the type, behaviour and size of microorganisms and their association with particles. Free microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and some nanoflagellates) were resuspended by weak flow at friction velocities lower than 2 cm s- 1. Chlorophyll a, some nanoflagellates and attached bacteria were resuspended together with the bed's muddy sediment, which required friction velocities larger than 3 cm s- 1. Diatoms smaller than 60 μm were resuspended at velocities between 3 and 5 cm s- 1, while those larger than 60 μm were resuspended at higher friction velocities (5.5 to 6.5 cm s- 1). The thresholds of resuspension also depended on the micro-scale position of microorganisms in the sediment (horizontal and vertical distributions). In the field, the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a (a proxy of microphytobenthos) was skewed, with a maximum in the first 2 mm of sediment. Along the neap-spring tidal cycle, chlorophyll a revealed an increase in MPB biomass in the first 2 mm of the sediment, in relation to light increases with exposure durations. The horizontal distribution of chlorophyll a could be inferred from erosion experiments. During the initial phase of biofilm growth, the distribution of chlorophyll a seemed horizontally homogeneous, and was uniformly eroded at the beginning of the increase in chlorophyll a. From these results, we can make a hypothesis: in the subsequent phase of biofilm growth until the maximum of emersion duration, the eroded quantity of chlorophyll a was larger than expected based from chlorophyll a vertical distribution, suggesting that biofilm horizontal distribution became patchy and enriched chlorophyll a was preferentially eroded. When emersion duration and biofilm growth decreased, the trend was reversed, and eroded quantity of chlorophyll a was lower than expected from chlorophyll a vertical distribution, suggesting that areas with low chlorophyll a were preferentially eroded. Such erosion patterns when biofilm growth decreased probably resulted from the bulldozing activity of a surficial sediment bioturbator, the gastropod Peringia ulvae. Our study did not directly prove this horizontal distribution but it should be further discussed. This distribution needs to be studied to acquire real evidence of patchy distributions.

  16. Competitive interactions in macroinfaunal animals of exposed sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Jenifer E; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Hubbard, David M; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian

    2004-05-01

    The influence of biotic interactions in structuring macroinfaunal communities of exposed sandy beaches, an unstable habitat characterized by strong physical forces, is generally considered negligible. We investigated the hypothesis that competitive interactions during burrowing could potentially affect the intertidal distribution and abundance of macroinfaunal animals of sandy beaches using two species of invertebrates, a hippid crab, Emerita analoga, and a bivalve, Mesodesma donacium, common along the coast of Chile. Spatial overlap in the intertidal distributions of these species was dynamic, varying with abundance, location, time of year and tide. Highest density zones of each species were often distinctly separated at low tide and spatial overlap in their distributions decreased significantly with increasing density, suggesting density dependence of the interactions. Negative relationships between densities of the two species at the smallest spatial scale examined also suggested active interactions among individuals. Over a tidal cycle, peak densities of the two species overlapped suggesting that interactions could occur frequently. Burrowing performance of E. analoga varied between size classes in three experimental densities of clams (5, 10 and 15 clams 0.008 m(-2)) and in controls with no clams. Burrowing times of large crabs were significantly longer (approximately twofold) in all densities of clams than in controls, while those of small crabs did not differ significantly among treatments and controls. Large crabs also displaced clams from the sand while burrowing suggesting that two mechanisms of direct interference can occur, both of which could increase exposure of individuals involved to active swash and transport across or along the beach with potentially negative consequences. Our results suggest that competitive interactions capable of affecting zonation and population and community biology on a number of scales can occur among burrowing macroinfauna on exposed sandy beaches. Those interactions could be more ecologically significant than previously appreciated and may contribute to patterns observed in community structure and zonation on sandy beaches. Our results illustrate the potential importance of negative biological interactions in a physically stressful environment. PMID:15067539

  17. Beach Profile Behaviour in Tidal Environments: A Morphological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, A. M.; Medina, R.; Vidal, C.

    2004-05-01

    Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (Ω ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of Ω . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.

  18. Beach Soccer Injuries During the Japanese National Championships

    PubMed Central

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player was recorded through video review to examine individual risk factors. Results: A total of 58 injuries were recorded during 54 matches. The overall injury rate was 179.0 (95% CI, 138.4-231.6), and the time-loss injury rate was 28.2 (95% CI, 14.7-54.1) per 1000 player-hours. The foot/toe (34.9%) was the most frequently injured area, followed by the lower leg (22.2%) and thigh (11.1%). There was only 1 ankle injury (1.6%). The most frequent injury type was contusions (60.3%), followed by lacerations/abrasions (14.3%) and sprains/ligament injuries (6.3%). Only 4 injuries resulted in ≥30 days of time-loss (7.4%). After adjusting for age, a previous history of severe injury and longer experience of beach soccer were significantly associated with injury risk. Conclusion: The time-loss injury rate in this study was comparable to the rates reported during the matches of soccer or futsal tournaments. However, a greater incidence of foot/toe injury and lacerations/abrasions as well as a lower incidence of ankle injury distinguished beach soccer from soccer and futsal, possibly related to the specific playing conditions of being barefoot on a sand surface. PMID:26862537

  19. Field evidence of beach profile evolution toward equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Yates, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    An equilibrium framework is used to describe the evolution of the cross-shore profile of five beaches (medium grain size sand) in southern California. Elevations were observed quarterly on cross-shore transects extending from the back beach to 8 m depth, for 3-10 years. Transects spaced 100 m in the alongshore direction are alongshore averaged into nineteen 700-900 m long sections. Consistent with previous observations, changes about the time average profile in many sections are captured by the first mode empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The first EOF poorly describes sections with hard substrate (less than roughly 80% sandy bottom) and also fails near the head of a submarine canyon and adjacent to an inlet. At the 12 well-described sections, the time-varying amplitude of the first EOF, the beach state A, describes the well-known seasonal sand exchange between the shoreline and offshore (roughly between 4 and 7 m depth). We show that the beach state change rate dA/dt depends on the disequilibrium between the present state A and wave conditions, consistent with the equilibrium concepts of Wright and Short (1984) and Wright et al. (1985). Empirically determined, optimal model coefficients using the framework of Yates et al. (2009a, 2011) vary between sections, but a single set of globally optimized values performs almost as well. The model implements equilibrium concepts using ad hoc assumptions and empirical parameter values. The similarity with observed profile change at five southern California beaches supports the underlying model equilibrium hypotheses, but for unknown reasons the model fails at Duck, NC.

  20. One dimensional modeling of anthropogenic beach berm erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) are in use internationally to guard against beach overtopping and consequent coastal flooding. Berms can be constructed on a seasonal basis or in anticipation of a hazardous event, e.g., when a storm is expected to arrive coincident with an astronomical high tide. In either case, a common approach is to scrape sand from the foreshore with heavy equipment and deposit it on the crest of the natural beach dune, thus providing added protection from the possibility of wave overtopping. Given the potential for higher sea levels globally and more extreme storm events, anthropogenic berms will surely be tested to their limits and will ultimately fail, causing flooding. A better understanding of the conditions under which these berms fail is therefore needed to support coastal flood risk management. An experimental campaign in Newport Beach, California was conducted to document the dynamic erosion of prototype beach berms under a rising tide and mild to moderate wave conditions. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) of the berm produced a digital model of how the berm shape evolved over time. Here, a numerical model of swash zone hydromorphodynamics based on shallow-water flow physics is presented to evaluate whether and to what extent the timing and degree of berm erosion and overtopping can be predicted from first principles. The model tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver, and thus is of the Godunov-type variety of finite volume schemes. Additionally, the model includes an avalanching scheme to account for non-hydrodynamic slumping down the angle of repose. Results indicate that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then successfully predict erosion for another event, but due to parameter sensitivities, it is unlikely that the model can be applied at a site without calibration (true prediction).

  1. Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Anthropogenic Beach Berm Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping and thus guard against coastal flooding. However, the combination of a rising tide, storm surge, and/or waves may erode anthropogenic berms in a matter of hours or less and cause flooding [1]. Accurate forecasts of coastal flooding therefore demand the ability to predict where and when berms fail and the volume of water that overtops into defended coastal lowlands. Here, a two-dimensional numerical model of swash zone waves and erosion is examined as a tool for predicting the erosion of anthropogenic beach berms. The 2D model is known as a Debris Flow Model (DFM) because it tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver and is able to resolve shocks in fluid/sediment interface [2]. The DFM also includes a two dimensional avalanching scheme to account for gravity-driven slumping of steep slopes. The performance of the DFM is examined with field-scale anthropogenic berm erosion data collected at Newport Beach, California. Results show that the DFM can be applied in the swash zone to resolve wave-by-wave flow and sediment transport. Results also show that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then predict erosion for another event, but predictions are sensitive to model parameters, such as erosion and avalanching. References: [1] Jochen E. Schubert, Timu W. Gallien, Morteza Shakeri Majd, and Brett F. Sanders. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berm erosion and overtopping. Journal of Coastal Research In-Press, 2014. [2] Morteza Shakeri Majd and Brett F. Sanders. The LHLLC scheme for Two-Layer and Two-Phase transcritical flows over a mobile bed with avalanching, wetting and drying. Advances in Water Resources, 64, 16-31, 2014.

  2. Disentangling Diversity Patterns in Sandy Beaches along Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Francisco R.; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative importance that salinity and morphodynamic gradients have on macroscale diversity patterns in sandy beaches. PMID:22792340

  3. Modeling system for predicting enterococci levels at Holly Beach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A; Walker, Nan D

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new modeling system for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels in coastal recreation waters at any time during the day. The modeling system consists of (1) an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the enterococci level at sunrise time, (2) a clear-sky solar radiation and turbidity correction to the ANN model, (3) remote sensing algorithms for turbidity, and (4) nowcasting/forecasting data. The first three components are also unique features of the new modeling system. While the component (1) is useful to beach monitoring programs requiring enterococci levels in early morning, the component (2) in combination with the component (1) makes it possible to predict the bacterial level in beach waters at any time during the day if the data from the components (3) and (4) are available. Therefore, predictions from the component (2) are of primary interest to beachgoers. The modeling system was developed using three years of swimming season data and validated using additional four years of independent data. Testing results showed that (1) the sunrise-time model correctly reproduced 82.63% of the advisories issued in seven years with a false positive rate of 2.65% and a false negative rate of 14.72%, and (2) the new modeling system was capable of predicting the temporal variability in enterococci levels in beach waters, ranging from hourly changes to daily cycles. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the new modeling system in predicting enterococci levels in coastal beach waters. Applications of the modeling system will improve the management of recreational beaches and protection of public health. PMID:26186681

  4. Proposal for an Integral Quality Index for Urban and Urbanized Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A.; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

    2010-05-01

    A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes.

  5. Survival trends of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium perfringens in a sandy South Florida beach.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R L; Echeverry, A; Stinson, C M; Green, M; Bonilla, T D; Hartz, A; McCorquodale, D S; Rogerson, A; Esiobu, N

    2012-06-01

    The search for alternative indicators of disease-risk from non-enteric pathogens at the beach revealed high densities of targeted bacteria. To explain the high numbers of potential non-enteric pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in beach sand, we investigated factors affecting their survival and distribution, as well as those of a potential fecal indicator, Clostridium perfringens. Results indicated greater S. aureus and P. aeruginosa survival and proliferation in sterile beach sand, than seawater, with diminished numbers upon exposure to natural micro-predators. C. perfringens remained relatively consistent with initial numbers. Intermediate sand particles (850 ?m-2 mm) constituted the major micro-niche; creating implications for beach classification programs. Colonization of sterile sand boxes at the beach by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa confirmed the filtering action (>100) of beach sand. The use of these potential pathogens in periodic sanitary evaluation of beach sand quality is indicated, regardless of the factors influencing their abundance. PMID:22516512

  6. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought. PMID:26970686

  7. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. PMID:22704152

  8. An empirical approach for quantifying modern surface sediment contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. E.; Hunt, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine bottom sediments frequently remain impacted by anthropogenic activities over decade time scales and longer. Many known contaminants, such as metals, stick to particles that are rapidly removed from the water column by deposition. Within depositional zones of estuaries, the sediments contain a record of particle-associated contaminants from the overlying water column. These records are accessible through sediment core profiling. An empirical space-time model was developed based on sediment core analyses to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of metal fluxes to the sediment surface. High density sediment coring investigations were carried out at two dissimilar sites in the San Francisco Bay region: the geometrically and hydrodynamically well-defined Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station, and the inter-tidal mudflat at the mouth of Walker Creek in Tomales Bay. The geochronology and mixing effects within individual cores were established by Cs-137 and Pb-210 activity profiles. Mercury profiles for Walker Creek cores were established by traditional techniques and Copper and Zinc profiles were obtained by synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence for cores from the Seaplane Lagoon. Trace metal profiling at a synchrotron allowed for high resolution corresponding to sub-annual time scales and fast sample throughput. The 2-D spatial variability was estimated by kriging between sample locations. These results were integrated into the model that reconstructs trace metal concentrations in the surface sediment over the last 50+ years for each site.

  9. Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

  10. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  11. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...; and a buffer zone around the race area, where all persons and vessels, except those enforcing...

  12. Pro-environmental beach driving is uncommon and ineffective in reducing disturbance to beach-dwelling birds.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michael A; Schlacher, Thomas A; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended (P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches. PMID:24599507

  13. ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic pollutants may constitute the most widespread waste loadings into the waters of Lake Superior. There are essentially three categories of organic contaminants. The first grouping consists of those organic compounds that readily degrade biologically or chemically. The secon...

  14. Source discrimination of fine-grained deposits occurring on marine beaches: The Calvados beaches (eastern Bay of the Seine, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrulle, C.; Lesueur, P.; Boust, D.; Dugu, O.; Poupinet, N.; Lafite, R.

    2007-03-01

    In tide-dominated systems, fine-grained deposits occur in intertidal areas of inner estuaries as loci of convergence of fluvial and marine material. Even in the vicinity of estuaries, mud deposits are rare on open sandy beaches. This study focuses on temporary occurrences of muddy sediments on marine beaches along the Calvados coastline in Normandy, adjacent to the macrotidal Seine estuary (France). Clay mineralogy, major-minor-trace elements and radionuclides were used as particulate markers to determine the provenance of the mud deposits. The fine fraction, defined here as particles <50 ?m, was analysed, in surficial muddy sediments on seven beaches between the Seine estuary and the Orne river mouth, sampled between February 2002 and June 2003. The deposits were compared to earlier Holocene relict deposits, which crop out on some beaches and on the shoreface, and to Mesozoic marls and limestones, which have detached from the coastal cliffs. The use of the three types of particulate markers revealed no significant seasonal or geographical variations between the beaches. The muddy deposits were made up of the same sedimentary pool of particles. The clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of these mud deposits enabled modern (i.e. present-day and earlier Holocene fine silts and clays) to be distinguished from ancient (i.e. Mesozoic) sediments. The use of radionuclides ( 60Co and 137Cs) confirmed the marine influence in the modern deposits, with a decreasing gradient along the Calvados beaches towards the east. The presence of several specific major-minor-trace elements (e.g. Ti, P) revealed that some of the fine material originated in the Seine estuary. Despite the occurrence of easily erodable rocks (i.e. clays, marls and limestones) in the coastal cliffs, this source represented a limited supply, which is only of local significance. Small rivers, such as the Orne, Dives and Touques which discharge in the study area act as secondary suppliers of fine-grained material to this system. In spite of the exposed coastal setting where strong tidal currents and waves occur, the beaches have become a distal part of the Seine estuarine system and form a temporary sink for strongly mixed fine material mainly of riverine (Seine River) and open marine (Bay of the Seine and the Central English Channel) origins. This is consistent with the infilling of the estuary, the reduction in accommodation space in its inner part, and the offshore shifting of the depocentre of the mud.

  15. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  16. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run-up levels) and erosion potentials (i.e. volume budget and beach planimetric dynamics).

  17. Storm recovery on two Italian coarse-grained beaches: a comparison between a mixed sand and gravel and a pebble beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Grottoli, Edoardo; Ciavola, Paolo; Sarti, Giovanni; Pozzebon, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    High energy events emphasize beach erosion processes, sometimes leading to huge volume deficits not balanced by recovery under fair-weather conditions. In this scenario, artificial replenishments are frequently used as a form of coastal protection with large volumes of sediments re-injected in the system without strongly altering the environment as it happens with hard structures. Since climate change is expected to accentuate in the near future erosion effects, the need to artificially feed beaches is likely to increase. Gravel and pebbles are more and more often used as beach fill, on some occasions replacing sandy sediments. That was the case for two beaches located at either sides of the Italian Peninsula (Portonovo, Adriatic Sea; Marina di Pisa, Ligurian Sea), which constitute the study area of the present research. Portonovo is a 500 m-long mixed sand and gravel beach with a significant pebble-sized content (about 40%), unloaded on the beach during multiple replenishments. Marina di Pisa is an artificial, 180 m-long beach, mainly composed of 40-to-90 mm pebbles; it was built in 2008 as a part of a larger protection scheme. Groins or headlands that prevent any sediment exchange with adjacent areas bound both beaches. Periodic topographic surveys were carried out to evaluate the response of these human-altered beaches to high-energy events. The topographic surveys, undertaken with a DGPS-RTK instrument along cross-shore transects (from the landward end of the backshore to about 1.5 m depth seaward), were done following intense storm events occurred during the time period of the research. Transects were done out every 10 m along the entire length of the beaches. Prior to the first topographic survey, a sediment tracing experiment was set up as a form of control of the results provided by the geomorphologic analysis. Pebbles directly sampled from the beaches were marked by means of the RFID technology and injected back all along the beachface. As expected, considerable beach profile changes after the storms were identified, in particular at Portonovo (mixed beach), where huge sediment volumes were displaced longshore according to the incident wave direction as opposed to Marina di Pisa (gravel dominated), where the main beach changes developed along the cross-shore direction. In terms of resilience, results showed a better response of the Portonovo beach rather than the Marina di Pisa beach. The different response might be ascribed to the grain-size that constitutes the beaches: no physical process can rework the pebbles at Marina di Pisa once they are moved during the storms towards the back-end of the backshore or seaward of the step, thus preventing any beach recovery process to take place. Since the awareness on storm impacts is more critical than in the past, the understanding of beach recovery to extreme events needs new insights to combine the preservation of natural beach evolution as well as maintenance for end-users. That is particularly pressing on coarse-grained beaches, where the need to predict storm impact and recovery is much more vital considering that finding suitable sediment to refill the beach is never an easy task.

  18. Beach dune sand hydrophobicity due to the presence of beach vitex ( Vitex rotundifolia L. f.).

    PubMed

    Cousins, Matthew M; Gresham, Charles A; Riley, Melissa B; Whitwell, Ted

    2009-01-28

    Conservation and preservation concerns have led to efforts to understand mechanisms of invasiveness and the effects these mechanisms have on the environment. Vitex rotundifolia L. f. [beach vitex (BV)] was introduced as a salt-tolerant woody ground cover, but it has since become invasive on primary and secondary dunes in coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Much of its invasive potential may be the result of intense substrate hydrophobicity underneath established stands, which is believed to prohibit seedling establishment by other plants including native plant species. This research was conducted to better understand BV-induced sand hydrophobicity by carrying out dune surveys of BV-infested areas of the South Carolina coast, identifying the compounds responsible for this activity via chemical analysis, and quantifying hydrophobicity persistence by resampling sites following removal of above-ground BV. The findings indicated that sand under BV cover was significantly hydrophobic, that cuticular alkanes from leaves and fruits were responsible for this hydrophobicity, and that extreme substrate hydrophobicity persisted for >3 years following BV removal. PMID:19090757

  19. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, M.A.K.; Shimy, T.M.; Mostafa, Y.M.

    1996-10-01

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal.

  20. Comparison of bacterial communities in sands and water at beaches with bacterial water quality violations.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Elizabeth; McLellan, Sandra L; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L; Gast, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Recreational water quality, as measured by culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), may be influenced by persistent populations of these bacteria in local sands or wrack, in addition to varied fecal inputs from human and/or animal sources. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to generate short sequence tags of the 16S hypervariable region ribosomal DNA from shallow water samples and from sand samples collected at the high tide line and at the intertidal water line at sites with and without FIB exceedance events. These data were used to examine the sand and water bacterial communities to assess the similarity between samples, and to determine the impact of water quality exceedance events on the community composition. Sequences belonging to a group of bacteria previously identified as alternative fecal indicators were also analyzed in relationship to water quality violation events. We found that sand and water samples hosted distinctly different overall bacterial communities, and there was greater similarity in the community composition between coastal water samples from two distant sites. The dissimilarity between high tide and intertidal sand bacterial communities, although more similar to each other than to water, corresponded to greater tidal range between the samples. Within the group of alternative fecal indicators greater similarity was observed within sand and water from the same site, likely reflecting the anthropogenic contribution at each beach. This study supports the growing evidence that community-based molecular tools can be leveraged to identify the sources and potential impact of fecal pollution in the environment, and furthermore suggests that a more diverse bacterial community in beach sand and water may reflect a less contaminated site and better water quality. PMID:24599478