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1

Ant Colonies for the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by usinginformation accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSPgraph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generatinggood solutions to both symmetric and

Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

1997-01-01

2

Multiple colony ant algorithm for job-shop scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic that takes inspiration from the foraging behaviour of a real ant colony to solve the optimization problem. This paper presents a multiple colony ant algorithm to solve the Job-shop Scheduling Problem with the objective that minimizes the makespan. In a multiple colony ant algorithm, ants cooperate to find good solutions by exchanging information

A. Udomsakdigool; V. Kachitvichyanukul

2008-01-01

3

A General Ant Colony Model to solve Combinatorial Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ants System is an artificial system based on the behavior of real ant colonies, which is used to solve combinatorial problems. This is a distributed algorithm composed by a set of cooperating agents called ants which cooperate among them to find good solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. The cooperation follows the behavior of real ants using an indirect form

Jose Aguilar

2001-01-01

4

Ant Colony Optimization for the Traveling Salesman Problem Based on Ants with Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new model of ant colony optimization (ACO) to solve the traveling salesman problem (TSP) by introducing ants with memory into the ant colony system (ACS). In the new ant system, the ants can remember and make use of the best-so-far solution, so that the algorithm is able to converge into at least a near-optimum solution quickly. We

Bifan Li; Lipo Wang; Wu Song

2008-01-01

5

Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper Ant-P-solver, a generic con- straint solver based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) meta- heuristic. The ACO metaheuristic takes inspiration on the observa- tion of real ants collective foraging behaviour. The idea is to model the problem as the search of a best path in a graph. Artificial ants walk trough this graph, in a

Christine Solnon

2000-01-01

6

An Ant Approach to the Flow Shop Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present an Ant Colony Optimization approach to the Flow Shop Problem. ACO is a new algorithmic approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants, th at can be applied to the solution of combinatorial optimization prob- lems. Artificial ants are used to construct solutions for Flow Shop Problems that subsequently are improved by a local

Thomas Stutzle

1998-01-01

7

ANT SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE N-QUEEN PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computation paradigm - known as Ant System. It is a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. This paper presents a model of the Ant System (AS) that can efficiently be applied to solve the classical n- Queen problem. The main characteristics of the model

Rahman Khan; Nasif Mahmud

2004-01-01

8

Solving the linear ordering problem using ant models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant models are investigated with the purpose of providing a high-quality performing heuristic for solving the linear ordering problem. Extending the Ant Colony System (ACS) model, the proposed Step-Back Sensitive Ant Model (SBSAM) allows agents to take a 'step back' if it reaches a virtual state modulated by various sensitivity levels to the pheromone trails. An effective exploration of the

Camelia Chira; Camelia-mihaela Pintea; Gloria Cerasela Crisan; D. Dumitrescu

2009-01-01

9

Applying the Ant System to the Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use a recently proposed metaheuristic, the Ant System, to solvethe Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) in its basic form, i.e. with capacity anddistance restrictions, one central depot and identical vehicles. A "hybrid" Ant Systemalgorithm is first presented and then improved using problem specific information(savings, capacity utilization). Experiments on various aspects of the algorithm andcomputational results for fourteen

Bernd Bullnheimer; Richard F. Hartl; Christine Strauss

1997-01-01

10

Ant colony optimization techniques for the vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research applies the meta-heuristic method of ant colony optimization (ACO) to an established set of vehicle routing problems (VRP). The procedure simulates the decision-making processes of ant colonies as they forage for food and is similar to other adaptive learning and artificial intelligence techniques such as Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms. Modifications are made to the ACO

John E. Bell; Patrick R. McMullen

11

Ant colony optimization techniques for the vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This research applies the meta-heuristic method of ant colony optimization (ACO) to an established set of vehicle routing problems (VRP). The procedure simulates the decision-making processes of ant colonies as they forage for food and is similar to other adaptive learning and artificial intelligence techniques such as Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms. Modifications are made to the

John E. Bell; Patrick R. Mcmullen

2004-01-01

12

Multiagent Search Strategy for Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Ant Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony system (ACS) is a meta heuristic approach based on biology in order to solve combinatorial optimization problem. It is based on the tracing action of real ants that accumulate pheromone on the passed path and uses as communication medium. In order to search the optimal path, it is necessary to make a search for various edges. In existing

Seok Mi Hong; SeungGwan Lee

2006-01-01

13

Open Problem: Analyzing Ant Robot Coverage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ant robots can repeatedly and robustly cover terrain by always moving away from the trails that they leave in the terrain. This coverage strategy can be modeled with graph traversal strategies similar to real-time search methods (such as Learning Real-Tim...

S. Koenig

2010-01-01

14

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Shop Scheduling Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the application of ant colony optimization to group shop scheduling, which is a general shop scheduling problem that includes, among others, the open shop scheduling problem and the job shop scheduling problem as special cases. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we propose a neighborhood structure for this problem by extending the well-known neighborhood structure

Christian Blum; Michael Sampels

2004-01-01

15

An Improved Ant System Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper an improved ant systemalgorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with one central depot and identical vehicles.Computational results on fourteen benchmark problems from the literatureare reported and a comparison with five other metaheuristic approaches to solvevehicle routing problems is made.

Bernd Bullnheimer; Richard F. Hartl; Christine Strauss

1997-01-01

16

Multiagent Search Strategy for Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Ant Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony System (ACS) is a meta heuristic approach based on biology in order to solve combinatorial optimization problem.\\u000a It is based on the tracing action of real ants that accumulate pheromone on the passed path and uses as communication medium.\\u000a In order to search the optimal path, it is necessary to make a search for various edges. In existing

Seokmi Hong; Seunggwan Lee

2006-01-01

17

Ant Colony based Algorithm for Stable Marriage Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ant colony system (ACS), a distributed algorithm that is applied to the Stable Marriage Problem (SM).\\u000a The stable marriage problem is an extensively-studied combinatorial problem with many practical applications. It is well known\\u000a that at least one stable matching exists for every stable marriage instance. However, the classical Gale-Shapley [2] algorithm\\u000a produces a marriage that greatly favors

Ngo Anh Vien; Nguyen Hoang Viet; Hyun Kim; SeungGwan Lee; TaeChoong Chung

18

Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners investigate ant behavior by testing ant feeding reactions to different types of food. Learners attempt to discover an ant "superfood" and use that food to try and get some ants from a colony to start a new one at a different location. Based on what learners observe, they also consider how ants communicate with each other.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

19

A GP neutral function for the artificial ANT problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a function that increases the amount of neutrality (inactive code in Genetic Programming) for the Artificial Ant Problem. The objective of this approach is to try to smooth the ridged fitness landscape of the Santa Fe trail. Several experiments were carried out with different crossover and mutation rates, in order to identify the better settings to solve

Esteban Ricalde; Katya Rodríguez-vázquez

2007-01-01

20

Evolving a Generalized Behaviour: Artificial Ant Problem Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to demonstrate that a solution for artificial ant problem [4] is very likely to be non-general and relying on the specific characteristics of the Santa Fe trail. It then presents a consistent method which promotes producing general solutions. Using the concepts of training and testing from machine learning research, the method can be useful in producing general

Ibrahim Kuscu

1998-01-01

21

Probabilistic Model of Ant Colony Optimization for Multiple Knapsack Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are being applied successfully to a wide range of problems. ACO algorithms could\\u000a be good alternatives to existing algorithms for hard combinatorial optimization problems (COPs). In this paper we investigate\\u000a the influence of the probabilistic model in model-based search as ACO. We present the effect of four different probabilistic\\u000a models for ACO algorithms to

Stefka Fidanova; G. Bonchev

2007-01-01

22

Study of the Logistics Vehicle Scheduling Problem Based on Improved Ants Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the distribution vehicle routing optimization scheduling problem, and presents a mathematical model. Ant colony system which is a novel simulated evolutionary algorithm, it can good for NP-Hard problem. According to the features of the Vehicle routing problem with time windows and the ant colony algorithm, an improved ant colony system is proposed to solve this problem. An

Yuhua Zhu; Tong Zhen; Qiuwen Zhang

2009-01-01

23

MAX-MIN Ant System and local search for the traveling salesman problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant System is a general purpose algorithm inspired by the study of the behavior of ant colonies. It is based on a cooperative search paradigm that is applicable to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. We introduce MAX-MIN Ant System, an improved version of basic Ant System, and report our results for its application to symmetric and asymmetric instances of

Thomas Stutzle; Holger Hoos

1997-01-01

24

Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n <= 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

2013-04-01

25

Optimization of the quadratic assignment problem using an ant colony algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant algorithm is a multi-agent systems inspired by the behaviors of real ant colonies function to solve optimization problems. In this paper an ant colony optimization algorithm is developed to solve the quadratic assignment problem. The local search process of the algorithm is simulated annealing. In the exploration of the search space, the evaluation of pheromones which are laid on

Nihan Çetin Demirel; M. Duran Toksari

2006-01-01

26

Optimizing ACS for Big TSP Problems Distributing Ant Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithms are a group of heuristic optimization algorithms that have been inspired by ants foraging for food. In these algorithms there are some agents, the ants, that for finding the suitable solution, search the solution space. Ant colony algorithms have some parameters like relative pheromone importance on trail and pheromone decay coefficient that convergence and efficiency of algorithms

Fardin Abdali Mohammadi; Abdol Hossein Fathi; Mohammad Taghi Manzurit

2006-01-01

27

Ant Colony System-Based Algorithm for Constrained Load Flow Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the ant colony system (ACS) method for network-constrained optimization problems. The developed ACS algorithm formulates the constrained load flow (CLF) problem as a combinatorial optimization problem. It is a distributed algorithm composed of a set of cooperating artificial agents, called ants, that cooperate among them to find an optimum solution of the CLF problem. A pheromone matrix

John G. Vlachogiannis; Nikos D. Hatziargyriou; Kwang Y. Lee

2005-01-01

28

Ant colony system: a cooperative learning approach to the traveling salesman problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ant colony system (ACS), a distributed algorithm that is applied to the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In ACS, a set of cooperating agents called ants cooperate to find good solutions to TSPs. Ants cooperate using an indirect form of communication mediated by pheromone they deposit on the edges of the TSP graph while building solutions. We study

Marco Dorigo; Luca Maria Gambardella

1997-01-01

29

A modified Ant Colony Algorithm with local search for capacitated vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ant system is a metaheuristic developed for the solution of hard combinatorial optimization problems. Capacitated vehicle routing problem(CVRP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem which has received considerable attention in the last decades. In this paper, through an analysis of the constructive procedure of the solution in the Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA), a CVRP is examined and a hybrid

Mingping Xia

2009-01-01

30

An empirical test of Muir’s typology of police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977 William K. Muir published a treatise that established a theoretical framework for distinguishing police officers according to the way they deal with citizens. This was an invaluable contribution because the scholarly literature on police up to that time had concentrated on the similarities among police officersespecially the common values and patterns of behavior associated with a police subculture

Jeffrey B. Snipes; Stephen D. Mastrofski

1990-01-01

31

A new ant colony optimization algorithm for the multidimensional Knapsack problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a new ant colony optimization (ACO) approach, called binary ant system (BAS), to multidimensional Knapsack problem (MKP). Different from other ACO-based algorithms applied to MKP, BAS uses a pheromone laying method specially designed for the binary solution structure, and allows the generation of infeasible solutions in the solution construction procedure. A problem specific repair operator is incorporated

Min Kong; Peng Tian; Yucheng Kao

2008-01-01

32

An ant colony optimization approach to addressing a JIT sequencing problem with multiple objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents an application of the relatively new approach of ant colony optimization (ACO) to address a production-sequencing problem when two objectives are present — simulating the artificial intelligence agents of virtual ants to obtain desirable solutions to a manufacturing logistics problem. The two objectives are minimization of setups and optimization of stability of material usage rates. This type

Patrick R. Mcmullen

2001-01-01

33

Ant colony optimization algorithm to the inter-cell layout problem in cellular manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inter-cell layout problem is discussed and a mathematical formulation for material flow between the cells is presented. The problem is modeled as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). An ant algorithm is developed to solve the formulated problem. The performance of the proposed ant algorithm is compared to the facility layout algorithms such as H63, HC63-66, CRAFT and Bubble Search

Maghsud Solimanpur; Prem Vrat; Ravi Shankar

2004-01-01

34

Ant Colony System: A Cooperative Learning Approach to the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ant colony system (ACS), a distributed algorithm that is appliedto the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In ACS, a set of cooperating agents calledants cooperate to find good solutions to TSPs. Ants cooperate using an indirect form ofcommunication mediated by pheromone they deposit on the edges of the TSP graphwhile building solutions. We study ACS by running experiments

Marco Dorigo

1996-01-01

35

CT-ACO - hybridizing ant colony optimization with cyclic transfer search for the vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a meta-heuristic approach to tackle hard combinatorial optimization problems. The basic component of ACO is a solution construction mechanism, which simulates the decision-making processes of ant colonies as they forage for food and find the most efficient routes from their nests to food sources. Due to its constructive nature, we hybridize the solution construction mechanism

Xiaoxia Zhang; Lixin Tang

2005-01-01

36

MACS-VRPTW: A MULTIPLE ANT COLONY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS WITH TIME WINDOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

MACS-VRPTW, an Ant Colony Optimization based approach useful to solve vehicle routing problems with time windows is presented. MACS-VRPTW is organized with a hierarchy of artificial ant colonies designed to successively optimize a multiple objective function: the first colony minimizes the number of vehicles while the second colony minimizes the traveled distances. Cooperation between colonies is performed by exchanging information

Luca Maria Gambardella; E. Taillard; Giovanni Agazzi

1999-01-01

37

An ant colony optimization approach to the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an ant colony optimization (ACO) approach to solve the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem (MMKP). This problem concerns many real life problems, and is hard to solve due to its strong constraints and NP-hard property. The ACO approach given in this paper follows the algorithmic scheme of max-min ant system, but has some new features with

Zhigang Ren; Zuren Feng

2010-01-01

38

Solving 2D HP Protein Folding Problem by Parallel Ant Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict protein structure based on Hydrophobic-Polar model (HP model) in two-dimensional space is called 2D HP protein folding problem. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is inspired by the foraging behavior of ants, is a popular heuristic approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems. This paper presents a method of solving the 2D HP protein folding problem by parallel ACO algorithm.

Haijuan Guo; Qiang Lu; Jinzhen Wu; Xu Huang; Peide Qian

2009-01-01

39

Ant Colony Optimization with Memory and Its Application to Traveling Salesman Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is one of the most recent techniques for solving combinatorial optimization problems, and has been unexpectedly successful. Therefore, many improvements have been proposed to improve the performance of the ACO algorithm. In this paper an ant colony optimization with memory is proposed, which is applied to the classical traveling salesman problem (TSP). In the proposed algorithm, each ant searches the solution not only according to the pheromone and heuristic information but also based on the memory which is from the solution of the last iteration. A large number of simulation runs are performed, and simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the compared algorithms.

Wang, Rong-Long; Zhao, Li-Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Fan

40

Partially and Fully Constrained Ant Algorithms for the Optimal Solution of Large Scale Reservoir Operation Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a constrained formulation of the ant colony optimization algorithm (ACOA) for the optimization of large\\u000a scale reservoir operation problems. ACO algorithms enjoy a unique feature namely incremental solution building capability.\\u000a In ACO algorithms, each ant is required to make a decision at some points of the search space called decision points. If the\\u000a constraints of the problem

M. H. Afshar; R. Moeini

2008-01-01

41

An Island Model Based Ant System with Lookahead for the Shortest Supersequence Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce an Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm for the Shortest Common Supersequence (SCS) problem,\\u000a which has applications in production system planning, mechanical engineering and molecular biology. The ACO algorithm is used\\u000a to find good parameters for a heuristic for the SCS problem. An island model with several populations of ants is used for\\u000a the ACO algorithm.

René Michel; Martin Middendorf

1998-01-01

42

Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

43

Optimization of the keyboard arrangement problem using an Ant Colony algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problem of the arrangement of letters on a computer keyboard, an abstract representation of a keyboard is introduced and an evaluation function taking account of ergonomic criteria is proposed. It results in a new optimization problem that we name the keyboard arrangement problem. Based on the generic framework of Ant Colony optimization, an algorithm is

Jan Eggers; Dominique Feillet; Steffen Kehl; Marc Oliver Wagner; Bernard Yannou

2003-01-01

44

Miner Ants Colony: A New Approach to Solve a Mine Planning Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a simple ant based algorithm for solving a copper mine planning problem. In the last 10 years this real- world problem has been tackled using linear integer programming and constraint programming. However, because it is a large scale problem, the model must be simplied by relaxing many constraints in order to obtain a near-optimal solution

Mar ´ ia-Cristina Riff; Michael Moossen; Xavier Bonnaire

2005-01-01

45

Autonomous Units for Solving the Traveling Salesperson Problem Based on Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communities of autonomous units are rule-based and graph-transformational systems with a well-defined formal semantics. The\\u000a autonomous units of a community act and interact in a common environment while striving for their goals. Ant colony systems\\u000a consist of a set of autonomously behaving ants and are often employed as a metaheuristics for NP-hard logistic problems. In\\u000a this paper, we demonstrate how

Sabine Kuske; Melanie Luderer; Hauke Tönnies

46

An Ant Colony Optimization algorithm to solve a 2-machine bicriteria flowshop scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the 2-machine flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing both the total completion time and the makespan criteria. The latter is assumed to be optimized prior to the former. In view of the NP-hardness of the problem an Ant Colony Optimization approach is proposed to solve it. The heuristic also uses feature of Simulated Annealing search and local

Vincent T'kindt; Nicolas Monmarché; Fabrice Tercinet; Daniel Laügt

2002-01-01

47

Ant Colony Optimization Approaches for the Dynamic Load-Balanced Clustering Problem in Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three ant colony optimization (ACO) approaches for a difficult graph theoretic problem formulated from the task of computing load-balanced clusters in ad hoc networks. These three approaches contain novel strategies for adapting the search process to the new problem structure whenever an environment change occurs. An environment change occurs when nodes in the network move. Dynamic changes

Chin K. Ho; Hong T. Ewe

2007-01-01

48

Solving the artificial ant on the Santa Fe trail problem in 20, 696 fitness evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide an algorithm that systematically considers all small trees in the search space of genetic programming. These small trees are used to generate useful subroutines for genetic programming. This algorithm is tested on the Artificial Ant on the Santa Fe Trail problem, a venerable problem for genetic programming systems. When four levels of iteration are used,

Steffen Christensen; Franz Oppacher

2007-01-01

49

Ant colony system for ?eet routing problem with multi-commodity product distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we solve a ?eet routing problem with multi-commodity product distribution (FRPMPD) in a network using a metaheuristic called ant colony system (ACS). In (4, 5), a Mixed- Binary Linear Mathematical (MILP) model was developed to solve a FRPMPD problem while in (3), the same MILP was used but simple heuristics were incorporated to improve the tours of

Joseph M. Pasi; Cesar G. Tapia

50

Ant colony system based unit commitment problem with Gaussian load distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony system (ACS) is more suitable for hard combinatorial optimization problems. So ACS has been applied to unit commitment problem (UCP). The UCP is solved with power flow constraints. Also to make the system function in a realistic environment, white Gaussian noise (WGN) is added to the network nodes with proportional loads to the demand forecasted at each hourly

S. P. Simon; N. P. Padhy; R. S. Anand

2006-01-01

51

An Elitist-Ant System for Solving the Post-Enrolment Course Timetabling Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant System algorithms are nature-inspired population-based metaheuristics derived from the field of swarm intelligence. Seemingly, the ant system has a lack of search diversity control since it has only a global pheromone update that intensifies the search. Hence, one or more assistant mechanisms are required to strengthen the search of the ant system. Therefore, we propose, in this study, an elitist-ant system to strike a balance between search diversity and intensification while maintaining the quality of solutions. This process is achieved by employing two diversification and intensification mechanisms to assist both pheromone evaporation and elite pheromone updating, in order to gain a good control over the search exploration and exploitation. The diversification mechanism is employed to avoid early convergence, whilst the intensification mechanism is employed to exploore the neighbors of a solution more effectively. In this paper, we test our algorithm on post-enrolment course timetabling problem. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces good quality solutions and outperforms some results reported in the literature (with regards to Socha's instances) including other ant system algorithms. Therefore, we can conclude that our elitist-ant system has performed an efficient problem's specific knowledge exploitation, and an effective guided search exploration to obtain better quality solutions.

Jaradat, Ghaith M.; Ayob, Masri

52

An immunity-based ant colony optimization algorithm for solving weapon-target assignment problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an immunity-based ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for solving weapon–target assignment (WTA) problems is proposed. The WTA problem, known as a NP-complete problem, is to find a proper assignment of weapons to targets with the objective of minimizing the expected damage of own-force assets. The general idea of the proposed algorithm is to combine the advantages of

Zne-jung Lee; Chou-yuan Lee; Shun-feng Su

2002-01-01

53

An Improved Ant Colony Optimisation Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of a protein's structure from its amino-acid sequence is one of the most important problems in computational biology. In the current work, we focus on a widely studied abstraction of this problem, the 2-dimensional hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem. We present an improved version of our recently proposed Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm for this -hard combinatorial

Alena Shmygelska; Holger H. Hoos

2003-01-01

54

Hybrid ant systems for the dynamic facility layout problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's consumer market demands that manufacturers must be competitive. This requires the efficient operation of manufacturing plants and their ability to quickly respond to changes in product mix and demand. In addition, studies show that material-handling cost make up between 20 and 50 percent of the total operating cost. Therefore, this paper considers the problem of arranging and rearranging, when

Alan R. McKendall Jr.; Jin Shang

2006-01-01

55

An ant colony optimization model: The period vehicle routing problem with time windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an improved ant colony optimization (IACO) to solve period vehicle routing problem with time windows (PVRPTW), in which the planning period is extended to several days and each customer must be served within a specified time window. Multi-dimension pheromone matrix is used to accumulate heuristic information on different days. Two-crossover operations are introduced to improve the performance

Bin Yu; Zhong Zhen Yang

2011-01-01

56

Bin-packing multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem and its ant colony optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve bin-packing multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem (BPMDVSP), BPMDVSP model bases on goods is established. A tabu matrix bases on goods is established for ant colony optimization (ACO). Matrix has three rows, first row corresponds to goods start depot visit state, second row corresponds to goods end depot visit state, and third row corresponds to vehicle that ferries

Suxin Wang; Leizhen Wang; Yanying Niu; Meng Ge

2009-01-01

57

THE GREEN LEAF-SUCKER OF SUGARCANE NUMICIA VIRIDIS, MUIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

t, Summary An account is given of an outbreak, in Swaziland, of a leaf-sucking insect, Numicia viridis, Muir, on sugarcane of the variety N :Co.31O. A brief descrip­ tion of the insect is followed by a discussion on symp­ toms and effects on the sugarcane plant. Among control measures, burning and harvesting of millable cane and treatment of the remainder

J. DICK

1963-01-01

58

Muir Glacier in Glacier Bay National Monument 2004  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This August 2004 photo further documents the significant changes that have occurred during the 63 years between photographs A and C, and during the 54 years between photographs B and C. Muir Glacier has retreated out of the field of view and is now nearly 5 miles to the northwest. Riggs Glacier has ...

59

Ant-Based Approach to the Knowledge Fusion Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining involves the automated process of finding patterns in data and has been a research topic for decades. Although\\u000a very powerful data mining techniques exist to extract classification models from data, the techniques often infer counter-intuitive\\u000a patterns or lack patterns that are logical for domain experts. The problem of consolidating the knowledge extracted from the\\u000a data with the knowledge

David Martens; Manu De Backer; Raf Haesen; Bart Baesens; Christophe Mues; Jan Vanthienen

2006-01-01

60

Partially constrained ant colony optimization algorithm for the solution of constrained optimization problems: Application to storm water network design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper exploits the unique feature of the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOA), namely incremental solution building mechanism, to develop partially constraint ACO algorithms for the solution of optimization problems with explicit constraints. The method is based on the provision of a tabu list for each ant at each decision point of the problem so that some constraints of the

M. H. Afshar

2007-01-01

61

An ant colony optimization algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem (RAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses an ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method to solve the redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP is a well known NP-hard problem which has been the subject of much prior work, generally in a restricted form where each subsystem must consist of identical components in parallel to make computations tractable. Meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation, and offer a

Yun-chia Liang; Alice E. Smith

2004-01-01

62

Solution approaches for the capacitated single allocation hub location problem using ant colony optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hub and spoke type networks are often designed to solve problems that require the transfer of large quantities of commodities.\\u000a This can be an extremely difficult problem to solve for constructive approaches such as ant colony optimisation due to the\\u000a multiple optimisation components and the fact that the quadratic nature of the objective function makes it difficult to determine\\u000a the

Marcus Randall

2008-01-01

63

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the Minimum Weight Vertex Cover Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given an undirected graph and a weighting function defined on the vertex set, the minimum weight vertex cover problem is to\\u000a find a vertex subset whose total weight is minimum subject to the premise that the selected vertices cover all edges in the\\u000a graph. In this paper, we introduce a meta-heuristic based upon the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach, to

Shyong Jian Shyu; Peng-yeng Yin; Bertrand M. T. Lin

2004-01-01

64

Solving a Bi-objective Flowshop Scheduling Problem by Pareto-Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the performance of pareto ant colony optimization (PACO) in solving a bi-objective permutation\\u000a flowshop problem. We hybridize this technique by incorporating path relinking (PR) in four different ways. Several test instances\\u000a are used to test the effectiveness of the different approaches. Computational results show that hybridizing PACO with PR improves\\u000a the performance of PACO. The

Joseph M. Pasia; Richard F. Hartl; Karl F. Doerner

2006-01-01

65

Coupling ant colony optimization and the extended great deluge algorithm for the discrete facility layout problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article uses a hybrid optimization approach to solve the discrete facility layout problem (FLP), modelled as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The idea of this approach design is inspired by the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method, combined with the extended great deluge (EGD) local search technique. Comparative computational experiments are carried out on benchmarks taken from the QAP-library and from real life problems. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to construction and improvement heuristics such as H63, HC63-66, CRAFT and Bubble Search, as well as other existing meta-heuristics developed in the literature based on simulated annealing (SA), tabu search and genetic algorithms (GAs). This algorithm is compared also to other ant colony implementations for QAP. The experimental results show that the proposed ant colony optimization/extended great deluge (ACO/EGD) performs significantly better than the existing construction and improvement algorithms. The experimental results indicate also that the ACO/EGD heuristic methodology offers advantages over other algorithms based on meta-heuristics in terms of solution quality.

Nourelfath, M.; Nahas, N.; Montreuil, B.

2007-12-01

66

Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

Yuan, Y.; Liu, C.

2012-11-01

67

An Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for the Shortest Path Problem in Time-Dependent Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research of the shortest path problem in time-dependent networks has important practical value. An improved pheromone update strategy suitable for time-dependent networks was proposed. Under this strategy, the residual pheromone of each road can accurately reflect the change of weighted value of each road. An improved selection strategy between adjacent cities was used to compute the cities' transfer probabilities, as a result, the amount of calculation is greatly reduced. To avoid the algorithm converging to the local optimal solution, the ant colony algorithm was combined with genetic algorithm. In this way, the solutions after each traversal were used as the initial species to carry out single-point crossover. An improved ant colony algorithm for the shortest path problem in time-dependent networks based on these improved strategies was presented. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm has greater probability to get the global optimal solution, and the convergence rate of algorithm is better than traditional ant colony algorithm.

Chang, Qing; Liu, Yongqiang; Xiong, Huagang

68

John Muir, Yosemite, and the sublime response: A study in the rhetoric of preservationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 7890, two essays by John Muir greatly influenced the establishment of Yosemite National Park, and greatly advanced the movement for the preservation of wilderness reserves. Muir used two techniques, the sublime response and the persona of the mountaineer, to secure his readers’ action on behalf of natural scenery.

Christine Oravec

1981-01-01

69

A modify ant colony optimization for the grid jobs scheduling problem with QoS requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Job scheduling with customers' quality of service (QoS) requirement is challenging in grid environment. In this paper, we present a modify Ant colony optimization (MACO) for the Job scheduling problem in grid. Instead of using the conventional construction approach to construct feasible schedules, the proposed algorithm employs a decomposition method to satisfy the customer's deadline and cost requirements. Besides, a new mechanism of service instances state updating is embedded to improve the convergence of MACO. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Pu, Xun; Lu, Xianliang

2011-10-01

70

An ant colony optimisation algorithm for the 2D and 3D hydrophobic polar protein folding problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The protein folding problem is a fundamental problems in computational molecular biology and biochemical physics. Various optimisation methods have been applied to formulations of the ab-initio folding problem that are based on reduced models of protein structure, including Monte Carlo methods, Evolutionary Algorithms, Tabu Search and hybrid approaches. In our work, we have introduced an ant colony optimisation (ACO)

Alena Shmygelska; Holger H. Hoos

2005-01-01

71

Interlaminated ice-proximal glacimarine sediments in Muir Inlet, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Muir Inlet in Glacier Bay, Alaska, is a glacial fjord receiving a tremendous volume of sediment annually. The rate of sediment accumulation is greatest proximal to Muir Glacier (about 9 m yr-1) and decreases away from the glacier. The primary sediment sources are meltwater streams discharging at subglacial and ice-marginal positions to form overflows, interflows, and underflows (continuous turbidity currents). Overflows and interflows interact with diurnal tidal currents and their volume and sediment concentration varies diurnally and annually with meltwater discharge. These effects produce cyclic deposits of a thin fine-grained sand or silt lamina that grades normally to a thicker poorly to very poorly sorted mud lamina. This lamina couplet is termed a cyclopel. Underflows are suggested to occur in this glacimarine environment because of conditions unique to subglacial fluvial systems. Underflow deposits occur only in proximal positions (177 ??m) is ubiquitous, though low (<5% by weight), and occurs as isolated particles, frozen pellets, or as lenses that in cores may have a lamina appearance. Proximally, ice-rafted debris is difficult to identify because proximal sediment is often as coarse-grained. Deposited sediment may be reworked by tidal currents, and sediment gravity flows. Depositional processes operating in Muir Inlet produce interlaminated sand/silt/clay that characterizes sediment proximal to a glacier and fines seaward to mud. Sediment is classified into one of three sediment types: 1. (1) Type I sediment is very fine grained (mean 8.65-7.17 ??), low in sand (0.1-11.2%), and very poorly to poorly sorted. It is the dominant sediment type in Muir Inlet, and is transported by plumes and deposited by suspension settling. 2. (2) Type II sediment is fine- to coarse-grained (mean 6.70-3.12 ??), low to high in sand (5.1-86.6%), and very poorly to moderately sorted. It represents reworked sediment, proximal plume deposits, or coarse-grained laminae of cyclopels. 3. (3) Type III sediment is coarse-grained (mean 3.89-2.38 ??), high in sand (58.0-100.0%), and poorly to well sorted. It is deposited by sediment gravity flows or underflows. ?? 1984.

Mackiewicz, N. E.; Powell, R. D.; Carlson, P. R.; Molnia, B. F.

1984-01-01

72

A New Local Search Based Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Optimization Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are a new branch of swarm intelligence. They have been applied to solve different combinatorial optimization problems successfully. Their performance is very promising when they solve small problem instances. However, the algorithms' time complexity increase and solution quality decrease for large problem instances. So, it is crucial to reduce the time requirement and at the same time to increase the solution quality for solving large combinatorial optimization problems by the ACO algorithms. This paper introduces a Local Search based ACO algorithm (LSACO), a new algorithm to solve large combinatorial optimization problems. The basis of LSACO is to apply an adaptive local search method to improve the solution quality. This local search automatically determines the number of edges to exchange during the execution of the algorithm. LSACO also applies pheromone updating rule and constructs solutions in a new way so as to decrease the convergence time. The performance of LSACO has been evaluated on a number of benchmark combinatorial optimization problems and results are compared with several existing ACO algorithms. Experimental results show that LSACO is able to produce good quality solutions with a higher rate of convergence for most of the problems.

Hassan, Md. Rakib; Islam, Md. Monirul; Murase, Kazuyuki

73

Muir-Torre syndrome-associated pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a previous radiation field.  

PubMed

Muir-Torre syndrome is a variant of Lynch syndrome, characterised by sebaceous neoplasia and/or keratoacanthomas associated with visceral malignancies. Muir-Torre syndrome is caused by germline mutations of one of the mismatch repair genes, frequently MSH2 and less frequently MLH1 and MSH6. Visceral malignancies associated with Muir-Torre syndrome and Lynch syndrome include colorectal, endometrial and other gastrointestinal, urological and gynaecological malignancies. Small numbers of Lynch syndrome-associated soft tissue sarcomas have been reported, but there are no reported cases of soft tissue sarcomas in Muir-Torre syndrome. In this study, we report a 74-year-old man with known Muir-Torre syndrome with confirmed MSH2 germline mutation, diagnosed with pleomorphic liposarcoma of the right buttock in a previous radiation field. The tumour showed loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6 on immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on another pleomorphic liposarcoma in a different patient with no previous history of Muir-Torre syndrome or Lynch syndrome showed no loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins. This is the first report of Muir-Torre syndrome-associated sarcoma and the first case of post-radiation sarcoma in Lynch syndrome. PMID:23299928

Yozu, Masato; Symmans, Pennie; Dray, Michael; Griffin, Jennifer; Han, Catherine; Ng, Daniel; Parry, Susan; Wong, Kp

2013-01-09

74

Leilani Muir versus the philosopher king: eugenics on trial in Alberta.  

PubMed

The Province of Alberta in Canada was the only jurisdiction in the British Empire where a eugenic sterilization law was passed (in 1928) and vigorously implemented. The pace of sterilization orders accelerated during the Nazi era and remained high after World War II, terminating only in 1972 when the Sexual Sterilization Act was repealed. The Alberta Eugenics Board operated away from public and legislative scrutiny, and many things done in the name of eugenics were clearly illegal. Eugenics was put on trial in Alberta in 1995 and a judge of the Court of Queen's Bench ruled in 1996 that the government had wrongly sterilized Leilani Muir. After hearing evidence about the history of the eugenics movement, the origins of Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act, the operation of the Eugenics Board, and details of Muir's life, Madam Justice Joanne B. Veit found that 'the damage inflicted by the operation was catastrophic', the 'wrongful stigmatization of Ms. Muir as a moron ... has humiliated Ms. Muir every day of her life', and 'the circumstances of Ms. Muir's sterilization were so high-handed and so contemptuous of the statutory authority to effect sterilization, and were undertaken in an atmosphere that so little respected Ms. Muir's human dignity that the community's, and the court's, sense of decency is offended'. Veit awarded Muir damages of $740,780 CAD and legal costs of $230,000 CAD. The order for Muir's sterilization was signed by John M. MacEachran, founder of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Alberta and chairman of the Eugenics Board from 1929 to 1965. An exponent of Platonic idealism, MacEachran believed sterilization of children with a low IQ test score was a means of 'raising and safeguarding the purity of the race'. However, the Alberta Sterilization Act was passed and implemented with cavalier disregard for the principles of genetics as well as the rights of children. PMID:9463073

Wahlsten, D

1997-01-01

75

Ant-Q: A Reinforcement Learning Approach to the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce Ant-Q, a family of algorithms which present many similarities with Q-learning (Watkins, 1989), and which we apply to the solution of symmetric and asym- metric instances of the traveling salesman prob- lem (TSP). Ant-Q algorithms were inspired by work on the ant system (AS), a distributed algo- rithm for combinatorial optimization based on the metaphor

Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

1995-01-01

76

Application of the ant colony search algorithm to short-term generation scheduling problem of thermal units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new cooperative agents approach, the ant colony search algorithm (ACSA), for solving a short-term generation scheduling problem of a thermal power system. One of the main goals of this paper is to investigate the applicability of an alternative intelligent search method in power system optimisation. The ACSA is derived from the theoretical biology on the topic

In-Keun Yu; C. S. Chou; Y. H. Song

1998-01-01

77

Improved Dynamic Ant Colony System (DACS) on symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants are a fascinating creature that demonstrates a capability of finding food and bring it back to their nest. Their ability as a colony to find paths or routes to the food sources has inspired the development of an algorithm namely ant colony system (ACS). The principle of cooperation has been the backbone in these algorithmic developments. However, observing the

Zulaiha Ali Othman; Abdul Razak Hamdan

2007-01-01

78

Muir-Torre syndrome: a variant of the cancer family syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Muir-Torre syndrome is characterised by the association of sebaceous tumours of the skin with internal malignancy. In many instances there is a strong family history of cancer and the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, tumour spectrum, and high incidence of synchronous and metachronous tumours show parallels with the cancer family syndrome or Lynch II syndrome. We report a five generation family with at least two persons displaying the Muir-Torre phenotype, while many other family members have had tumours consistent with cancer family syndrome. The majority of tumours are gastrointestinal, gynaecological, and urological, with several persons having multiple primaries. The prognosis appears to be better than would be expected. Sebaceous tumours are a marker for internal malignancy and should prompt a search for occult cancer in the individual person and family members. In documented Muir-Torre families, at risk persons should be entered into screening programmes similar to those used in the Lynch II syndrome.

Hall, N R; Williams, M A; Murday, V A; Newton, J A; Bishop, D T

1994-01-01

79

Turning Points of Wisconsin: Original Manuscript Letters of John Muir, 1861-1914  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From his days as a young man studying at the University of Wisconsin to his time in the wilderness areas of California, John Muir evolved from a "fundamental Christian to tree-hugging Transcendentalist", and these rather glorious letters that he wrote during this long period are now available on this site, provided by the Wisconsin Historical Society. Here visitors can peruse more than 100 pages of original letters written by Muir which deal with a wide range of topics, including his student days in Madison, the birth of his first child, and the publication of his now famous autobiography. Perusing the collection, visitors can view the original handwritten letters side by side with typed versions and their transcriptions. Overall, this is a fine collection, and anyone with an interest in Muir or the history of the American conservation movement will enjoy it.

80

Improved understanding of the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms applied to the water distribution design problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been applied successfully to many water resource problems, such as system design, management decision formulation, and model calibration. The performance of an EA with respect to a particular problem type is dependent on how effectively its internal operators balance the exploitation/exploration trade-off to iteratively find solutions of an increasing quality. For a given problem, different algorithms are observed to produce a variety of different final performances, but there have been surprisingly few investigations into characterizing how the different internal mechanisms alter the algorithm's searching behavior, in both the objective and decision space, to arrive at this final performance. This paper presents metrics for analyzing the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms, a particular type of EA, for the optimal water distribution system design problem, which is a classical NP-hard problem in civil engineering. Using the proposed metrics, behavior is characterized in terms of three different attributes: (1) the effectiveness of the search in improving its solution quality and entering into optimal or near-optimal regions of the search space, (2) the extent to which the algorithm explores as it converges to solutions, and (3) the searching behavior with respect to the feasible and infeasible regions. A range of case studies is considered, where a number of ant colony optimization variants are applied to a selection of water distribution system optimization problems. The results demonstrate the utility of the proposed metrics to give greater insight into how the internal operators affect each algorithm's searching behavior.

Zecchin, A. C.; Simpson, A. R.; Maier, H. R.; Marchi, A.; Nixon, J. B.

2012-09-01

81

Using Commitment Contracts to Further Ex Ante Freedoms: The Twin Problems of Substitution and Ego Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an economist to think about the project of furthering individual freedom, it is natural to think about the unavoidable tension between ex ante freedoms. When should individuals have the right to restrict their future rights? I frequently ask my contracts students whether the spousal notification ruling in Planned Parenthood v. Casey should just be a default rule. By this,

Ian Ayres

2011-01-01

82

Ant Colony Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ant Colony Optimization project uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms.

Dorigo, Marco

2008-01-04

83

Vehicle routing problem based model and ant colony optimization algorithm for group charge problem of ingot casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group charge problem of ingot casting is one of iron & steel production planning and scheduling problems. Compares with the steel-making - continuous casting's group charge problem, the ingot casting's group charge problem has the difference in the process constraint and planning rules. On the basis of analyzing the difference between group charge problem of ingot casting and group charge

Huang Hui; Tu Nai-wei; Ma Tian-mu; Zheng Bing-lin; Chai Tian-you

2009-01-01

84

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of a protein's conformation from its aminoacidsequence is one of the most prominent problems in computationalbiology. Here, we focus on a widely studied abstraction of this problem,the two dimensional hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem.

Alena Shmygelska; Rosalía Aguirre-hernández; Holger H. Hoos

2002-01-01

85

‘‘Second Hit’’ in Sebaceous Tumors from Muir–Torre Patients with Germline Mutations in MSH2: Allele Loss is Not the Preferred Mode of Inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muir–Torre syndrome is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder predisposing to both sebaceous skin tumors and internal neoplasms. In a significant proportion of Muir–Torre syndrome patients skin tumors exhibit microsatellite instability as a hallmark of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Most individuals predisposed to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer harbor a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair genes MSH2 or MLH1. In Muir–Torre

Roland Kruse; Arno Rütten; Hamid R. Hosseiny-Malayeri; Michele Bisceglia; Waltraut Friedl; Peter Propping; Thomas Ruzicka; Elisabeth Mangold

2001-01-01

86

A Hybrid Ant-Based Approach to the Economic Triangulation Problem for Input-Output Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Triangulation Problem for Input-Output Matrices has been intensively studied in order to understand the complex series of interactions among the sectors of an economy. The problem refers to finding a simultaneously permutation of rows and columns of a matrix such as the sum of the entries which are above the main diagonal is maximum. This is a linear ordering

Camelia-mihaela Pintea; Gloria Cerasela Crisan; Camelia Chira; Dumitru Dumitrescu

2009-01-01

87

The Ant-Q algorithm applied to the nuclear reload problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear core fuel reload optimization is a NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem where the aim is to find a pattern of fuel assemblies that maximizes burnup or minimizes the power peak factor. For decades this problem was solved using an expert's knowledge. From the eighties, however, there have been efforts to automate fuel reload. The first relevant effort used simulated

Liana Machado; Roberto Schirru

2002-01-01

88

Why Ants are Hard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of programming an artificial ant to follow the Santa Fe trail is used as an example program search space. Previously reported ge- netic programming, simulated annealing and hill climbing performance is shown not to be much better than random search on the Ant problem. Enumeration of a small fraction of the total search space and random sampling characterise

W. B. Langdon; R. Poli

1998-01-01

89

Ant hill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ants build ant hills as a result of digging underground. They dig several different chambers underground to live in and raise young ants in. As they make these chambers, the ants bring the unneeded soil to the surface, forming what we see as an ant hill.

Peter N/A (None;)

2006-01-10

90

Sebaceous neoplasia and the Muir-Torre syndrome: important connections with clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous neoplasia comprises a spectrum ranging from benign to malignant. Proper histological identification is important for treatment, prognosis and potential association with the Muir–Torre syndrome (MTS). Our increased understanding of the significance and pathogenesis of these tumours has led to improved risk stratification, screening recommendations, and treatment of patients with an initial presentation of a sebaceous tumour. This review focuses on the diagnostic and histological features of sebaceous lesions, the MTS, and recent insights into the molecular pathogenesis of sebaceous tumorigenesis.

Shalin, Sara C; Lyle, Stephen; Calonje, Eduardo; Lazar, Alexander J F

2009-01-01

91

An effective ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) for multi-objective resource allocation problem (MORAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-objective resource allocation problem (MORAP) addresses the important issue which seeks to find the expected objectives by allocating the limited amount of resource to various activates. Resources may be manpower, assets, raw material or anything else in limited supply which can be used to accomplish the goals. The goals may be objectives (i.e., minimizing costs, or maximizing efficiency) usually

S. Kamal Chaharsooghi; Amir Hosein Meimand Kermani

2008-01-01

92

An Ant Algorithm for the Reception-Departure Line Assignment Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling reception-departure line assignment plan (RDLAP) is an important part of daily dispatch work in railway station. RDLAP is similar to, but more complicated than the classical job-shop scheduling problem (JSP). Regarding the railway station tracks and train running routes as machines, all trains in this railway station as jobs, RDLAP is very similar to a three operations, multiple machines

Y. Yue; L. Zhou; Q. Sun; Q. Yue

2006-01-01

93

Sharing in distributed environments: the mutual exclusion problem- the moving ant model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual exclusion algorithm is a well established concept and problem in the field of distributed computing and systems. The application of mutual exclusion for distributed environments which does not involve a shared memory has largely been a point of study. When such algorithms are applied to a distributed environment high over-head communicational costs are normally seen. Communicational costs tend

V. K. Munirajan; Eric Cole

2005-01-01

94

An ant colony algorithm for solving budget constrained and unconstrained dynamic facility layout problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristic of today's manufacturing environments is volatility. Under a volatile environment, demand is not stable. It changes from one production period to another. To operate efficiently under such environments, the facilities must be adaptive to changing production requirements. From a layout point of view, this situation requires the solution of the dynamic layout problem (DLP). DLP is a

Adil Baykasoglu; Turkay Dereli; Ibrahim Sabuncu

2006-01-01

95

Multi-route railroad blocking problem by improved model and ant colony algorithm in real world  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rail freight transportation, general merchandise freight cars may pass through many classification stations on their route from origin to destination. The Railroad Blocking Problem (RBP) is to reclassify inbound traffic from various origins in the classification stations and put them on outbound trains with the same or close destinations, the objective of the RBP is to minimize the total

Yixiang Yue; Leishan Zhou; Qunxing Yue; Zhenping Fan

2011-01-01

96

Ant Colony Optimization Changing the Rate of Dull Ants and its application to QAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous study, we have proposed an Ant Colony Optimization with Intelligent and Dull Ants (IDACO) which contains two kinds of ants. We have applied IDACO to various Traveling Salesman Problems (TSPs) and confirmed its effectiveness. This study proposes an Ant Colony Optimization Changing the Rate of Dull Ants (IDACO-CR) and its Applica- tion to Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs).

Sho Shimomura; Haruna Matsushita; Yoshifumi Nishio

2011-01-01

97

Solving the mesh-partitioning problem with an ant-colony algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real-world engineering problems can be expressed in terms of partial differential equations and solved by using the finite-element method, which is usually parallelised, i.e. the mesh is divided among several processors. To achieve high parallel efficiency it is impor- tant that the mesh is partitioned in such a way that workloads are well balanced and interpro- cessor communication is

Peter Korosec; Borut Robic

2004-01-01

98

A mathematical model and ant colony algorithm for multi-manned assembly line balancing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In real-world assembly lines, that the size of the product is large (e.g., automotive industry), usually there are multi-manned\\u000a workstations where a group of workers simultaneously perform different operations on the same individual product. This paper\\u000a presents a mixed integer programming model to solve the balancing problem of the multi-manned assembly lines optimally. This\\u000a model minimizes the total number of

Parviz Fattahi; Abdolreza Roshani; Abdolhassan Roshani

2011-01-01

99

Improved ant colony algorithm for multi-depot bus scheduling problem with route time constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle or bus scheduling problem (VSP), involving in a given set of time-tabled trips to be assigned to vehicles to minimize capital and operating costs, is one of the most critical issues faced by transit agencies. This paper addresses a multi-depot multi-vehicle-type VSP with route time constraints as well as capacity of depot restrictions, and presents a model with multiple

Ming Wei; Wenzhou Jin; Weiwei Fu; Xiao-ni Hao

2010-01-01

100

Ant colony optimization algorithm with random perturbation behavior to the problem of optimal unit commitment with probabilistic spinning reserve determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel ant colony optimization algorithm with random perturbation behavior (RPACO) based on combination of general ant colony optimization and stochastic mechanism is developed for the solution of optimal unit commitment (UC) with probabilistic spinning reserve determination. In general, the purpose of UC is to enhance the economical efficiency as could as possible while simultaneously satisfying physical

Libao Shi; Jin Hao; Jiaqi Zhou; Guoyu Xu

2004-01-01

101

Harvester ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shows several different views of harvester ants, a major food source of the Texas horned lizard. The video is large and a highspeed connection is recommended. The video shows ants entering their nest and moving on pathways that have been cleared of debris. The nest entrance has guards that are checking each of the returning ants.

0002-11-30

102

The Sense of Estrangement From One's Previous Self in the Autobiographies of Arthur Koestler and Edwin Muir  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In their autobiographies, both Koestler and Muir describe the sense of estrangement they feel toward a particular self in their past. An examination of the two autobiographies suggests that this sense of estrangement may serve as a complex defensive operation for coping with contradictory, affect-laden self-appraisals of change and sameness that touch upon the core of one's identity and reflect

Amos Handel

1986-01-01

103

The Sense of Estrangement From One's Previous Self in the Autobiographies of Arthur Koestler and Edwin Muir  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their autobiographies, both Koestler and Muir describe the sense of estrangement they feel toward a particular self in their past. An examination of the two autobiographies suggests that this sense of estrangement may serve as a complex defensive operation for coping with contradictory, affect-laden self-appraisals of change and sameness that touch upon the core of one's identity and reflect

Amos Handel

1986-01-01

104

Multiple Ant Colony Optimization for Load Balancing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a Multiple Ant Colony Optimization (MACO) approach for load balancing in circuit-switched networks. Based on the problem-solving approach of ants in nature, Ant Colony\\u000a Optimization (ACO) has been applied to solve problems in optimization, network routing and load balancing by modeling ants\\u000a as a society of mobile agents. While traditional ACO approaches employed one ant colony for

Kwang Mong Sim; Weng Hong Sun

2003-01-01

105

The genetic basis of Muir-Torre syndrome includes the hMLH1 locus  

SciTech Connect

Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) (McKusick 158320) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of sebaceous gland tumors and skin cancers, including keratoacanthomas and basal cell carcinomas. Affected family members may manifest a wide spectrum of internal malignancies, which include colorectal, endometrial, urologic, and upper gastrointestinal neoplasms. Sebaceous gland tumors, which are rare in the general population, are considered to be the hallmark of MTS and may arise prior to the development of other visceral cancers. Despite the high incidence of synchronous and metachronous tumors, prognosis is often favorable. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is one of the most common autosomal dominantly inherited colorectal cancer susceptibility syndromes. In some HNPCC families, extracolonic tumors of the endometrium, ovary, small bowel, and renal and biliary tract occur at an increased frequency. On the basis of similarities in clinical symptoms of MTS and HNPCC, it is proposed that these two syndromes may have a common genetic basis. 24 refs., 2 figs.

Bapat, B.; Xia, L.; Mitri, A. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

1996-09-01

106

Understanding and Managing Experiential Aspects of Soundscapes at Muir Woods National Monument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has found that human-caused noise can detract from the quality of the visitor experience in national parks and related areas. Moreover, impacts to the visitor experience can be managed by formulating indicators and standards of quality as suggested in park and outdoor recreation management frameworks, such as Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), as developed by the U.S. National Park Service. The research reported in this article supports the formulation of indicators and standards of quality for human-caused noise at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Phase I identified potential indicators of quality for the soundscape of Muir Woods. A visitor “listening exercise” was conducted, where respondents identified natural and human-caused sounds heard in the park and rated the degree to which each sound was “pleasing” or “annoying.” Certain visitor-caused sounds such as groups talking were heard by most respondents and were rated as annoying, suggesting that these sounds may be a good indicator of quality. Loud groups were heard by few people but were rated as highly annoying, whereas wind and water were heard by most visitors and were rated as highly pleasing. Phase II measured standards of quality for visitor-caused noise. Visitors were presented with a series of 30-second audio clips representing increasing amounts of visitor-caused sound in the park. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of each audio clip on a survey. Findings suggest a threshold at which visitor-caused sound is judged to be unacceptable, and is therefore considered as noise. A parallel program of sound monitoring in the park found that current levels of visitor-caused sound sometimes violate this threshold. Study findings provide an empirical basis to help formulate noise-related indicators and standards of quality in parks and related areas.

Pilcher, Ericka J.; Newman, Peter; Manning, Robert E.

2009-03-01

107

Understanding and managing experiential aspects of soundscapes at Muir woods national monument.  

PubMed

Research has found that human-caused noise can detract from the quality of the visitor experience in national parks and related areas. Moreover, impacts to the visitor experience can be managed by formulating indicators and standards of quality as suggested in park and outdoor recreation management frameworks, such as Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), as developed by the U.S. National Park Service. The research reported in this article supports the formulation of indicators and standards of quality for human-caused noise at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Phase I identified potential indicators of quality for the soundscape of Muir Woods. A visitor "listening exercise" was conducted, where respondents identified natural and human-caused sounds heard in the park and rated the degree to which each sound was "pleasing" or "annoying." Certain visitor-caused sounds such as groups talking were heard by most respondents and were rated as annoying, suggesting that these sounds may be a good indicator of quality. Loud groups were heard by few people but were rated as highly annoying, whereas wind and water were heard by most visitors and were rated as highly pleasing. Phase II measured standards of quality for visitor-caused noise. Visitors were presented with a series of 30-second audio clips representing increasing amounts of visitor-caused sound in the park. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of each audio clip on a survey. Findings suggest a threshold at which visitor-caused sound is judged to be unacceptable, and is therefore considered as noise. A parallel program of sound monitoring in the park found that current levels of visitor-caused sound sometimes violate this threshold. Study findings provide an empirical basis to help formulate noise-related indicators and standards of quality in parks and related areas. PMID:19020928

Pilcher, Ericka J; Newman, Peter; Manning, Robert E

2008-11-20

108

Ant Colony System for JSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper discusses the application of ACS metaheuristics (based on behaviour of real ants: stigmergy and synergetic effect\\u000a among ants) for Job-Shop Scheduling problem (JSP). This algorithm is improved by introducing the concept of critical events,\\u000a in which two new techniques will be applied. Thus, a more flexible heuristic technique is obtained, which improves the performance\\u000a of ant colony system

Urszula Boryczka

2004-01-01

109

Anaphylaxis due to Red fire ant bite.  

PubMed

Ant allergy is a rare problem and most published reports are from outside India. We report a toddler who suffered from severe anaphylaxis reaction due to bite of Red fire ant (Solenopsis geminata). PMID:22484742

Havaldar, Parvat V; Patil, Shailesh S; Phadnis, Chandrashekhar

2012-03-01

110

Measuring activity in ant colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays “swarm intelligence:” the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed

C. Noda; J. Ferna´ndez; C. Pe´rez-Penichet; E. Altshuler

2006-01-01

111

Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

2010-01-01

112

Simultaneous Muir-Torre and Turcot's syndrome: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by neoplasms of the sebaceous gland or keratoacanthomas, in addition to visceral malignancies. Cerebral neoplasms in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or familial adenomatous polyposis suffer from Turcot's syndrome. Genetic mutations in MutS homolog (MSH)-2, MutL homolog (MLH)-1, and MutS homolog (MSH)-6 DNA mismatch repair genes are the most common in MTS with MSH-2 being the most predominant. In HNPCC MLH-1 and MSH-2 mutations are approximately equal in prevalence. Case Description: We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a prior history of being treated for colonic adenocarcinoma and skin lesions leading to a diagnosis of MTS. The patient later developed a World Health Organization (WHO) grade 4 glioma requiring surgical resection. Pathology revealed mutations in MSH-2 and MSH-6 mismatch repair genes. Conclusions: This case represents the first report of Turcot's and MTS with extensive molecular testing on the cerebral neoplasm demonstrating a molecular relationship between Turcot's and MTS and only the second published report of simultaneous Turcot's and MTS.

Grandhi, Ramesh; Deibert, Christopher P.; Pirris, Stephen M.; Lembersky, Barry; Mintz, Arlan H.

2013-01-01

113

A Bidirectional Ant colony algorithm for resource constrained project scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource-constrained project scheduling problem is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. An ant algorithm with dual ant colonies is proposed to improve the effective allocation of project resources. The algorithm adaptively adjusts resource allocation according to the pheromone updated by artificial ants employed to search for feasible schedules. Two separate ant colonies are employed. The forward scheduling technique is applied

Yongyi Shou

2007-01-01

114

Ant colony search algorithm for unit commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) is proposed to solve the thermal unit commitment problem. ACSA is a new cooperative agents approach, which is inspired by the observation of the behaviors of real ant colonies on the topic of ant trial formation and foraging methods. In the ACSA, a set of cooperating agents called \\

T. Sum-im; W. Ongsakul

2003-01-01

115

Economic dispatch by ant colony search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) with transmission losses problem. ACSA is a new cooperative agents approach, which is inspired by the observation of the behaviors of real ant colonies on the topic of ant trail formation and foraging methods. In the ACSA, a set of cooperating agents called \\

Thanathip Sum-im

2004-01-01

116

Graph Partitioning Using Improved Ant Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parallel computing, network partitioning, and VLSI circuit placement are fundamental challenges in computer science. These\\u000a problems can be modeled as graph partitioning problems. A new Similarity carrying Ant Model (SCAM) is used in the ant-based\\u000a clustering algorithm to solve graph partitioning problem. In the proposed model, the ant will be able to collect similar items\\u000a while it moves around. The flexible

M. Sami Soliman; Guanzheng Tan

2010-01-01

117

Pest Ants and Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

0002-11-30

118

Ant Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research entomologist Ted Schultz from the Smithsonian Institution maintains this impressive work in progress. This online database represents the Smithsonian's identified ant collection, including 4,580 valid named species or subspecies. The taxonomy is current with Bolton's 1995 catalog and includes reported holdings through June 1998. The database may be queried by Subfamily, Tribe, Genus, Subgenus, Species, Subspecies, Author, or Types, and typical returns give concise taxonomic information, total specimens (workers, females, and males), author, and year.

Schultz, Ted.

2000-01-01

119

Experimental Study of the Dynamics of Foraging Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the search paths of foraging ants in order to describe their behavior mathematically. Ants have become popular as simple agents in models of artificial life. Here, the ant is presented the problem of finding food when no food cues are present. In this experiment, individual ants (Formicinae lasius flavus) are allowed to forage on a two-dimensional textured surface

J. I. Walker; R. P. Fetzner; G. W. Baxter

2006-01-01

120

Multilevel ant system - a new approach through the new pheromone update for ant colony optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a meta-heuristic approach inspired by the study of the behavior of real ant colonies when finding the shortest path from their nest to food source. ACO has been used for solving approximately NP-hard problems and its elite effects has been proved by the experiments. Currently, two famous ACO algorithms are Ant Colony System (ACS) and

Dinh Quang Huy; Do Duc Dong; Hoang Xuan Huan

2006-01-01

121

Multiple objective ant colony optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Objective Optimisation is a fast growing area of research, and consequently several Ant Colony Optimisation approaches\\u000a have been proposed for a variety of these problems. In this paper, a taxonomy for Multiple Objective Ant Colony Optimisation\\u000a algorithms is proposed and many existing approaches are reviewed and described using the taxonomy. The taxonomy offers guidelines\\u000a for the development and use

Daniel Angus; Clinton Woodward

2009-01-01

122

The Ants Have It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses the GEMS guide, "Ants at Home Underground", to explore the life of ants and teach about them in a classroom setting. The activity applies students' knowledge of ants and students learn about ant colonies, what ants eat, and how they live. (SAH)|

Daugherty, Belinda

2001-01-01

123

Potential hazards from floodflows within the John Muir House National Historic Site, Franklin Creek drainage basin, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The drainage-area-ratio method, adjusted by multiple regression coefficients, was used to determine flood magnitudes of specific recurrence intervals in the Franklin Creek drainage basin, John Muir House National Historic Site in California. Water-surface elevations and inundation areas were determined using hydraulic equations that assume uniform flow and stable channel geometry as surveyed in the 1984 water year. Franklin Creek is expected to overflow its banks during all floods greater than the 25-year flood. Maximum flood discharges within the historic site boundaries are limited by the large culvert that conveys floodwaters into the site. The historically significant structures were constructed above the flood elevation of the 100-year flood; therefore, with the exception of the carriage house, there is little or no danger to the irreplaceable structures at the site. The carriage house could be inundated several feet during the 100-year flood.

Meyer, R. W.

1994-01-01

124

Convergence and rate of convergence of a foraging ant model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó We present an ant model that solves a discrete foraging problem. We describe simulations and provide a complete convergence analysis: we show that the ant population computes the solution of some optimal control problem and converges in some well dened sense. We discuss the rate of convergence with respect to the number of ants: we give experimental and theoretical

Amine M. Boumaza; Bruno Scherrer

2007-01-01

125

Convergence and rate of convergence of a simple ant model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple ant model that solves a discrete for- aging problem. We provide simulations and a convergence analysis. We argue that the ant population computes the solutions of some optimal control problems and converges in some well defined sense. We also discuss the rate of con- vergence with respect to the number of ants: we give ex- perimental

Amine M. Boumaza; Bruno Scherrer

2007-01-01

126

Fire Ants and Thelohania Fire Ant Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excellent summary of how Thelohania fire ant disease works as a biological control measure against fire ants. Unhurried pace with great supporting video and graphics. Good choice for introducing students to the idea of biological control. Video quality is excellent. This video should probably be used in conjunction with the other two fire ant biocontrol videos produced by the same workers.

0002-11-30

127

An adaptive ant colony clustering algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial ant sleeping model (ASM) and adaptive artificial ants clustering algorithm (A 4C) are presented to resolve the clustering problem in data mining by simulating the behaviors of gregarious ant colonies. In the ASM mode, each data is represented by an agent. The agents' environment is a two-dimensional grid. In A 4C, the agents can be formed into high-quality

Ling Chen; Xiao-Hua Xu; Yi-Xin Chen

2004-01-01

128

Prevention of Fire Ant Damage to Signal Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report addresses the problem of imported fire ants infesting traffic signal control cabinets. The study focused on developing and testing treatments for minimizing fire ant infestation of traffic signal cabinets. A treatment program based on annual ma...

W. P. MacKay S. O. Majdi S. B. Vinson C. J. Messer J. P. Irving

1989-01-01

129

Measuring activity in ant colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays ``swarm intelligence:'' the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

2006-12-01

130

A World of Ants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion of interesting aspects of ants that was launched by the author's reading of "The Ants" by Holldobler and Wilson (1990). Describes how the study of the early history of ant taxonomy could be viewed as "entertaining." Their huge numbers and segregation into colonial social systems makes ants good research organisms. (PR)

Flannery, Maura C.

1992-01-01

131

GSP-ANT: An efficient ant colony optimization algorithm with multiple good solutions for pheromone update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic for various optimization problems, especially the hard combinatorial optimization problems. However, existing ACO algorithms suffer from search stagnation and exorbitantly long computation time. To alleviate these shortcomings, an improved ACO algorithm, called GSP-ANT, is presented in this paper. It maintains a good solution pool (GSP) and alternately uses the optimal solution and suboptimal

Zhigang Ren; Zuren Feng; Zhaojun Zhang

2009-01-01

132

Heterogeneous sensitive ant model for combinatorial optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new metaheuristic called Sensitive Ant Model (SAM) for solving combinatorial optimization problems is proposed. SAM improves and extends the Ant Colony System approach by enhancing each agent of the model with properties that induce heterogeneity. SAM agents are endowed with different pheromone sensitivity levels. Highly-sensitive agents are essentially influenced in the decision making process by stigmergic information and thus

Camelia Chira; D. Dumitrescu; Camelia-mihaela Pintea

2008-01-01

133

A multisource solution for a complex problem in biodiversity research: Description of the cryptic ant species Tetramorium alpestre sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants of the myrmicine Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus, 1758)\\/T. impurum (Foerster, 1850) complex have challenged taxonomy for long. Schlick-Steiner et al. (2006) made plausible that there are at least seven instead of two species to the complex in the Western Palearctic. Using an increased sample size for increased robustness of the system, we here delimit the alpine species Tetramorium sp. A

Florian M. Steiner; Bernhard Seifert; Karl Moder; Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner

2010-01-01

134

Value of MLH1 and MSH2 Mutations in the Appearance of Muir–Torre Syndrome Phenotype in HNPCC Patients Presenting Sebaceous Gland Tumors or Keratoacanthomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by predisposition to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, frequent multiple primary tumors in the same patient, and early age of cancer onset. A main clinical variant of Lynch syndrome, Muir–Torre syndrome (MTS) is characterized by the association between one or more visceral malignancies, with at least one sebaceous skin tumor

Giovanni Ponti; Lorena Losi; Monica Pedroni; Emanuela Lucci-Cordisco; Carmela Di Gregorio; Giovanni Pellacani; Stefania Seidenari

2006-01-01

135

Ants, Wasps, and Bees (Hymenoptera)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stinging wasps, bees, and ants are a problem for farm workers, particularly at harvest when these insects are attracted to ripe fruits. Researchers at the USDA-ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, Wapato, WA, together with personnel at Oral Roberts University compiled available information o...

136

Ant colony system algorithm for the planning of primary distribution circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning problem of electrical power distribution networks, stated as a mixed nonlinear integer optimization problem, is solved using the ant colony system algorithm (ACS). The behavior of real ants has inspired the development of the ACS algorithm, an improved version of the ant system (AS) algorithm, which reproduces the technique used by ants to construct their food recollection routes

J. F. Gomez; H. M. Khodr; P. M. De Oliveira; L. Ocque; J. M. Yusta; R. Villasana; A. J. Urdaneta

2004-01-01

137

Literature for 1912 on the behavior of ants and Myrmecophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 35 publications (1912) studying ants and myrmecophiles. The focus of these studies was the behavior of these organisms. Taxonomy, biology and general development, the colony forming habits, food gathering and eating habits, the role of the queen ant and the workers and the problem of orientation of ants are some of the topics focused upon.

William M. Mann

1913-01-01

138

Designing conducting polymers using bioinspired ant algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant algorithms are inspired in real ants and the main idea is to create virtual ants that travel into the space of possible solutions depositing virtual pheromone proportional to how good a specific solution is. This creates an autocatalytic (positive feedback) process that can be used to generate automatic solutions to very difficult problems. In the present work we show that these algorithms can be used coupled to tight-binding Hamiltonians to design conducting polymers with pre-specified properties. The methodology is completely general and can be used for a large number of optimizations problems in materials science.

Martins, B. V. C.; Brunetto, G.; Sato, F.; Coluci, V. R.; Galvão, D. S.

2008-03-01

139

The ant raft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To survive floods, fire ants link their arms together to assemble a raft with their own bodies. Because ants are nearly as dense as water, this cooperative behavior requires that a portion of the ant colony must sacrifice itself by remaining underwater to support the colony's weight. Surprisingly, few ants drown during this process due to a striking metamorphosis of the raft: as we show using time-lapse photography, the raft morphs from a spherical to a pancake shape. This pancake configuration--a monolayer of floating ants supporting their dry counterparts--allows all ants to both breathe and remain united as a colony. Data is presented in the form of the dimensions and the rates of formation of the ant raft. We use the statics of small floating bodies to account for the equilibrium raft size as a function of the initial mass and density of the ants.

Mlot, Nathan; Hu, David; Equabai, Solomon

2009-11-01

140

Fire Ants Photos  

MedlinePLUS

Share | Photos & Graphics: Fire Ants Please attribute all images as follows: Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. ... visit the National Allergy Bureau's Plant and Pollen Photo Gallery . Solenopsis invicta worker ants and queen. Arranged ...

141

Steve Yanoviak's Gliding Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home page of the gliding ant research of Steve Yanoviak including many videos of ants falling and swerving back to the tree, comparison videos of non-gliding ants are given for comparison. This is a fascinating insect behavior that may be an evolutionary step in insect flight.

0002-11-30

142

Fire Ants: Ecological Bullies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio program looks at factors that contribute to Brazilian fire ants' dominance over native ant species in the southeastern United States. An ecologist describes some of these factors, including a lack of control agents, which allow Brazilian fire ants to out compete local ants. The program includes examples of the sounds that Brazilian fire ants use to help coordinate their invasions. The archived program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2007-01-26

143

Experimental Study of the Dynamics of Foraging Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the search paths of foraging ants in order to describe their behavior mathematically. Ants have become popular as simple agents in models of artificial life. Here, the ant is presented the problem of finding food when no food cues are present. In this experiment, individual ants (Formicinae lasius flavus) are allowed to forage on a two-dimensional textured surface in the absence of a food source. The position of the ant as a function of time is determined with a high resolution digital camera. The scaling properties of the resulting foraging paths compare favorably with those of certain types of random walk.

Walker, J. I.; Fetzner, R. P.; Baxter, G. W.

2006-03-01

144

Variable order ante-dependence models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ante-dependence models can be used to model the covariance structure in problems involving repeated measures through time. They are conditional regression models which generalize Gabriel’s constant-order ante-dependence model. Likelihood-based procedures are presented, together with simple expressions for likelihood ratio test statistics in terms of sum of squares from appropriate analysis of covariance. The estimation of the orders is approached as

Raul E. Macchiavelli; Steven F. Arnold

1994-01-01

145

Debugging ants: How ants find the shortest route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective foraging in ant colonies is as remarkable in that ants are solving a distributed control and optimization task that is still not fully untravelled. Ants deposit pheromone as they travel, and paths with more pheromone are preferred by succeeding ants. Without any direct communication amongst themselves, ants quickly abandon other trails to concentrate on the shortest one. If the

Jayadeva; Sameena Shah; R. Kothari; Suresh Chandra

2011-01-01

146

Query Routing with Ants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose SemAnt, a novel ant-based algo- rithm designed for query routing in taxonomy-based peer-to-peer envi- ronments. We introduce the reader to the pheronome trail-laying-and- following behaviour observed from natural ants and show how it can be applied to query routing in peer-to-peer networks. Our proposed algo- rithm accounts for network parameters such as bandwidth and latency

Elke Michlmayr; Sabine Graf; Wolf Siberski; Wolfgang Nejdl

147

On Optimal Parameters for Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a meta- heuristic introduced by Dorigo et al. (9) which uses ideas from nature to find solutions to instances of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) and other combinatorial optimisation problems. In this paper we analyse the parameter settings of the ACO algo- rithm. These determine the behaviour of each ant and are critical for fast

Dorian Gaertner; Keith L. Clark

2005-01-01

148

Convergence and rate of convergence of simple ant models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an original ant model to solve the foraging problem. We describe simulations and provide a convergence analysis. We prove the convergence of the model in the discrete and in the continuous cases. We show that the ant population computes the solution of an optimal control problem and converges in a well dened sense. We discuss the rate of

Amine Boumaza; Bruno Scherrer

2008-01-01

149

Caribbean Crazy Ants and their look-alikes in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Caribbean crazy ant (Nylanderia pubens) continues to grow as a nuisance pest problem in Florida. Homeowners and pest management professionals alike have difficulty in controlling the huge populations that can occur on infested properties. Key to dealing with any pest ant problem is to identify...

150

Enhanced generalized ant programming (EGAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper begins by reviewing different methods of automatic programming while emphasizing the technique of Ant Programming (AP). AP uses an ant foraging metaphor in which ants generate a program by moving through a graph. Generalized Ant Programming (GAP) uses a context-free grammar and an Ant Colony System (ACS) to guide the program generation search process. There are two enhancements

Amirali Salehi-abari; Tony White

2008-01-01

151

Better Trained Ants for Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of programming an artificial ant to follow the Santa Fe trail has been repeatedlyused as a benchmark problem in GP. Recently we have shown performance of several techniques isnot much better than the best performance obtainable using uniform random search. We suggestedthat this could be because the program fitness landscape is difficult for hill climbers and the problemis

W. B. Langdon; R. Poli

1998-01-01

152

Leaf cutter ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is much diversity between ants. Leaf cutter ants use their mandibles to cut leaf fragments and take them back to their home. They don't eat the leaves, but instead use them to grow fungus on. They then eat the fungus.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-12-15

153

The first mesozoic ants.  

PubMed

Two worker ants preserved in amber of Upper Cretaceous age have been found in New Jersey. They are the first undisputed remains of social insects of Mesozoic age, extending the existence of social life in insects back to approximately 100 million years. They are also the earliest known fossils that can be assigned with certainty to aculeate Hymenoptera. The species, Sphecomyrma freyi, is considered to represent a new subfamily (Sphecomyrminae), more primitive than any previously known ant group. It forms a near-perfect link between certain nonsocial tiphiid wasps and the most primitive myrmecioid ants. PMID:17770424

Wilson, E O; Carpenter, F M; Brown, W L

1967-09-01

154

Japanese Ant Image Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2003 revised edition of the Japanese Ant Image Database was developed under the direction of the Japanese Ant Database Group (JADG). The website, which merges taxonomic information and stunning photographs, will no doubt delight myrmecologists and others. Information about different types of ants can be accessed through browseable, hyperlinked lists organized by subfamily, genus, and species. Genus and species profiles include images, references, descriptive information, simple distribution maps, and more. The site includes a Japanese Ant Image Library with hundreds of quality images, and a smaller SEM Image Library as well. The site also offers sections with Type Specimens and Taxonomic Keys. Please note that the site has not been updated since 2003; there are future plans to revisit the project when updates and corrections become necessary.

155

Sick ants become unsociable.  

PubMed

Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results provide evidence for the evolution of unsociability following pathogen infection in a social animal and suggest an important role of inclusive fitness in driving such evolution. PMID:22122288

Bos, N; Lefèvre, T; Jensen, A B; d'Ettorre, P

2011-11-28

156

Ant Colony Optimization for Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication through pheromones. When an ant forages for food,

J. M. Van Ast

2010-01-01

157

Visual Simulation of Ants Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbstract: - We study the behavior of ants moving in random on an environment that contains a randomly distributed source of food. Ants move with some simple rules and sometimes change direction with environmental information. In nature, each ant moves randomly but if we viewed as a whole ants are shown group work to make a path and collect food.

MOHAMED HAMADA; YOSHITAKA NAKAMURA

158

Mandible movements in ants.  

PubMed

Ants use their mandibles for almost any task, including prey-catching, fighting, leaf-cutting, brood care and communication. The key to the versatility of mandible functions is the mandible closer muscle. In ants, this muscle is generally composed of distinct muscle fiber types that differ in morphology and contractile properties. Fast contracting fibers have short sarcomeres (2-3 microm) and attach directly to the closer apodeme, that conveys the muscle power to the mandible joint. Slow but forceful contracting fibers have long sarcomeres (5-6 microm) and attach to the apodeme either directly or via thin thread-like filaments. Volume proportions of the fiber types are species-specific and correlate with feeding habits. Two biomechanical models explain why species that rely on fast mandible strikes, such as predatory ants, have elongated head capsules that accommodate long muscle fibers directly attached to the apodeme at small angles, whereas species that depend on forceful movements, like leaf-cutting ants, have broader heads and many filament-attached fibers. Trap-jaw ants feature highly specialized catapult mechanisms. Their mandible closing is known as one of the fastest movements in the animal kingdom. The relatively large number of motor neurons that control the mandible closer reflects the importance of this muscle for the behavior of ants as well as other insects. PMID:11733162

Paul, J

2001-12-01

159

Bi-Criterion Optimization with Multi Colony Ant Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paper we propose a new approachtosolve bi-criterionoptimization problems with ant algorithms where several colonies of antscooperate innding good solutions. Weintroduce two methods for cooperationbetween the colonies and compare them with a multistart antalgorithm that corresponds to the case of no cooperation. Heterogeneouscolonies are used in the algorithm, i.e. the ants dier in their preferencesbetween the two criteria. Every

Steffen Iredi; Daniel Merkle; Martin Middendorf

2001-01-01

160

An ant colony algorithm aimed at dynamic continuous optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the concept of swarm intelligence into ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms has shown the rich possibilities of self-organization when dealing with difficult optimization. Indeed, the inherent flexibility and efficiency of ACO algorithms proved to be advantageous for difficult dynamic discrete problems, e.g. routing in telecommunication networks. Moreover, we believe that ant colony algorithms can be efficient for

J. Dréo; P. Siarry

2006-01-01

161

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) is a constructive metaheuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. Critically, the phero- mone representation for a particular problem is usually chosen intuitively rather than by following any systematic process. In some representations, distinct solutions appear mul- tiple times, increasing the eective size of the search space

James Montgomery; Marcus Randall; Tim Hendtlass

2005-01-01

162

A Reinforcement Learning Exploration Strategy based on Ant Foraging Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies recent results from theoretical biologyon the topic of ant trail formation and foragingmethods to the problem of exploration in a discreteenvironment with delayed reinforcement. Threemechanisms that have been identified in ant trail formationwere implemented as an exploration strategy inthe adaptive heuristic critic framework, and applied toa well researched robot navigation task. Simulationsindicate that in terms of efficiency

Laurens R. Leerink; Simon R. Schultz

1995-01-01

163

The Random Wander Ant Particle Swarm Optimization and Random Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problem that the swarm was trapped by local optimization in searching process, the random wander ant Particle Swarm Optimization(called RWA-PSO) was pro- posed. The algorithm applied the mechanism of ant randomly wandering to find the food, and introduced it into the velocity updating process of particle. The probability that particle flied out the range of initialization increased.

Jihong Shen; Yan Li

2011-01-01

164

INVESTIGATION OF ANT COLONY ALGORITHM IN MULTIPLE TRAFFIC FLOW ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional approaches to routing and bandwidth allocation, the two major components of traffic engineering, have proved insufficient to address QoS requirements of flows while optimizing utilization for complex communication networks. In this paper we consider ant colony algorithms to address this problem. Our studies show that the ant-based routing models are sensitive to initial parameters settings. Only careful adjustments

Ali Tizghadam; Massoud Hashemi; Alberto Leon-Garcia

2009-01-01

165

From pherographia to color pherographia: Color sketching with artificial ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant algorithms are known to return effective results in those problems that may be reduced to finding paths through a graph. However, this class of bio-inspired heuristics have raised the interest of the artistic community as well, namely of the artists that work on the blurred border between art and science. This paper describes an extension of an ant algorithm

Carlos M. Fernandes; Carlos Isidoro; Fabio Barata; Agostinho C. Rosa; Juan Julian Merelo

2011-01-01

166

Does Trichomes on the Plant Epidermic Surface Disturb Ants Locomotion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: Many morphological characteristics, both physical and chemical, are used in the defense against herbivores on plants. Trichomes are structures used by plants as physics defense and when associated with glands combine physics and chemistry defense. Many species of ants are herbivores and use leaves and seeds, others ants use Extra Floral Nectars as a food resource, and the

Danon Clemes Cardoso; Maykon Passos Cristiano; Lenise Cristina; Moraes Vilela

2009-01-01

167

Chemotaxonomy of some Cataglyphis ants from Morocco and Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomy of Cataglyphis ants has many unsolved problems and chemotaxonomy can provide additional insight for their resolution. We describe here the chemical content of the postpharyngeal and Dufour glands of three Cataglyphis ant species: C. viaticus, C. mauritanicus from Morocco and for the first time a Sub-Saharan Cataglyphis, C. sp. (BF) from Burkina Faso. These three species are very

Abdallah Dahbi; Abraham Hefetz; Alain Lenoir

2008-01-01

168

A New Elimination Ant Colony Algorithm for Process Task Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Task distribution is an important part of process design and affects the cycle of process design. To shorten the design cycle, a distribution method based on part features is prompt by converting task distribution problem to a capacity matrix. For improving algorithm efficiency, an artificial ant model is built with blackboard strategy. This model enhances the communication between ants and

Lu Yuan; Zhai Yinxing; Hu Ying

2010-01-01

169

Muir-Torre Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... in the sebaceous glands. The sebaceous glands are located just under the skin and produce an oily ... common type of skin cancer usually related to sun exposure, has also been reported in people with ...

170

Fungus-growing ants.  

PubMed

Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are in reality unique fungus-culturing insects.There are several hundred species in some dozen genera, of which Acromyrmex and Atta are the conspicuous leaf-cutters. The center of their activities is the fungus garden, which is also the site of the queen and brood. The garden, in most species, is made from fresh green leaves or other vegetal material. The ants forage for this, forming distinct trails to the vegetation that is being harvested. The cut leaves or other substrate are brought into the nest and prepared for the fungus. Fresh leaves and flowers are cut into pieces a millimeter or two in diameter; the ants form them into a pulpy mass by pinching them with the mandibles and adding saliva. Anal droplets are deposited on the pieces, which are then forced into place in the garden. Planting of the fungus is accomplished by an ant's picking up tufts of the adjacent mycelium and dotting the surface of the new substrate with it. The combination of salivary and anal secretions, together with the constant care given by the ants, facilitates the growth of the ant fungus only, despite constant possibilities for contamination. When the ants are removed, alien fungi and other organisms flourish. A mature nest of Atta Sexdens may consist of 2000 chambers, some temporarily empty, some with refuse, and the remainder with fungus gardens. Thousands of kilograms of fresh leaves will have been used. A young laboratory colony of Atta cephalotes will use 1 kilogram of fresh leaves for one garden. The attines are the chief agents for introducing organic matter into the soil in tropical rain forests; this matter becomes the nucleus for a host of other organisms, including nematodes and arthropods, after it is discarded by the ants. One ant species cultures a yeast; all others grow a mycelium. In the higher species the mycelium forms clusters of inflated hyphae. Mycologists accept as valid two names for confirmed fruiting stages: Leucocoprinus ( or Leucoagaricus) gongylophora (Moeller 1893) and Lepiota n. sp. PMID:17757227

Weber, N A

1966-08-01

171

Record dynamics in ants.  

PubMed

The success of social animals (including ourselves) can be attributed to efficiencies that arise from a division of labour. Many animal societies have a communal nest which certain individuals must leave to perform external tasks, for example foraging or patrolling. Staying at home to care for young or leaving to find food is one of the most fundamental divisions of labour. It is also often a choice between safety and danger. Here we explore the regulation of departures from ant nests. We consider the extreme situation in which no one returns and show experimentally that exiting decisions seem to be governed by fluctuating record signals and ant-ant interactions. A record signal is a new 'high water mark' in the history of a system. An ant exiting the nest only when the record signal reaches a level it has never perceived before could be a very effective mechanism to postpone, until the last possible moment, a potentially fatal decision. We also show that record dynamics may be involved in first exits by individually tagged ants even when their nest mates are allowed to re-enter the nest. So record dynamics may play a role in allocating individuals to tasks, both in emergencies and in everyday life. The dynamics of several complex but purely physical systems are also based on record signals but this is the first time they have been experimentally shown in a biological system. PMID:20300174

Richardson, Thomas O; Robinson, Elva J H; Christensen, Kim; Jensen, Henrik J; Franks, Nigel R; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

2010-03-11

172

An effective ant colony optimization-based algorithm for flow shop scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a modified scheme named local search ant colony optimization algorithm on the basis of alternative ant colony optimization algorithm for solving flow shop scheduling problems. The flow shop problem (FSP) is confirmed to be an NP-hard sequencing scheduling problem, which has been studied by many researchers and applied to plenty of applications. Restated, the flow shop problem

Ruey-Maw Chen; Shih-Tang Lo; Chung-Lun Wu; Tsung-Hung Lin

2008-01-01

173

Routing Vehicles with Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

174

Abundance of -1,6-piperideine alkaloids in imported fire ants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Workers of imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of imported f...

175

Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN)/Pyrokinin Family of Peptides and Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an economically important invasive pest ant, causing over 6 billion dollars in control and repair costs each year in the United States. The fire ant is becoming a global problem increasing its importance and the need for the development of biologically-based con...

176

Advances in Research on the Venom Chemistry of Imported Fire Ants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Workers of the imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of import...

177

The Model of Ant Colony Algorithm with Multi Constraints for Data Mailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ant colony algorithm of routing technology in a communication network had a broad of applications. The usage of ant colony algorithm to exchange data for distributed databases had not been studied deeply yet. On the purple of solving the dynamic, real-time data exchange problems, the ant colony algorithm model with multi Constraints for routing a data packet was discussed

Yue Gong; Zhuo Wang; Haoling Li; Hang Wu

2012-01-01

178

A model of ant colony and immune network and its application in path planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by related mechanisms of ant colony and idiotypic network hypothesis, a model of ant colony and immune network is proposed to solve the problem of path planning in a complex environment. The mechanism of stimulation and suppression between antigen and antibody is used to find the path, which solves the complex environment modeling of ant colony algorithm, and improves

Mingxin Yuan; Sunan Wang; Pengkun Li

2008-01-01

179

On how the ants Pachycondyla Apicalis are suggesting a new search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper a new model of artificial ants foraging behavior based on a population of primitive ants (Pachycondyla apicalis) and its application to the general problem of optimization. These ants are characterized by a relatively simple but efficient strategy of prey search where individuals hunt alone and try to cover uniformly a given area around their nest.

Nicolas Monmarché; Gilles Venturini; Mohamed Slimane

1999-01-01

180

Model Checking the Ant Colony Optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a model for the travelling salesman problem (TSP) solved using the ant colony optimisation (ACO), a bio-inspired\\u000a mechanism that helps speed up the search for a solution and that can be applied to many other problems. The natural complexity\\u000a of the TSP combined with the self-organisation and emergent behaviours that result from the application of the ACO make

Lucio Mauro Duarte; Luciana Foss; Flávio Rech Wagner; Tales Heimfarth

2010-01-01

181

Parallelizing Ant Colony Optimization via Area of Expertise Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ant colony optimization algorithms have long been touted as providing an effective and efficient means of generating high quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems. Unfortunately, while the structure of the algorithm is easy to parallelize, the n...

A. A. De Freitas

2007-01-01

182

Ants, Tunnels, and Calculus: An Exercise in Mathematical Modeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an activity which models the building of a tunnel by ants using the definitions of derivative and indefinite integral from calculus. Includes a discussion of reasonableness and interpretation of the problem. (MKR)

Winkel, Brian J.

1994-01-01

183

The Channeler Ant Model: Object segmentation with virtual ant colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-D object segmentation is an important and challenging topic in computer vision that could be tackled with artificial life models. A Channeler Ant Model (CAM), based on the natural ant capabilities of dealing with 3-D environments through self-organization and emergent behaviours, is proposed. Ant colonies, defined in terms of moving, pheromone laying, reproduction, death and deviating behaviours rules, is able

Piergiorgio Cerello; Sorin Christian Cheran; Francesco Bagagli; Stefano Bagnasco; Roberto Bellotti; Lourdes Bolanos; Ezio Catanzariti; Giorgio De Nunzio; Elisa Fiorina; Gianfranco Gargano; Gianluca Gemme; Ernesto Lopez Torres; Gian Luca Masala; Cristiana Peroni; Matteo Santoro

2008-01-01

184

e-DANTE: an ant colony oriented depth search procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The $$\\\\epsilon$$-Depth ANT Explorer ($$\\\\epsilon$$-\\u000a DANTE\\u000a ) algorithm applied to a multiple objective optimization problem is presented in this paper. This method is a hybridization\\u000a of the ant colony optimization algorithm with a depth search procedure, putting together an oriented\\/limited depth search.\\u000a A particular design of the pheromone set of rules is suggested for these kinds of optimization problems, which

Pedro Cardoso; Mário Jesus; Alberto Márquez

2011-01-01

185

Tiny, Powerful, Awesome Ants!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Peering through a thematic science lens--elementary students embarked on a one-week study of ants during a month-long summer school program. This integrated unit addressed reading and writing skills while developing the science-process skills of observation, inferring, and communicating in a motivating and authentic way. Pre- and post-assessments…

Tate, Kathleen

2007-01-01

186

Ants, Rationality, and Recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an explanation of behavior that puzzled entomologists and economists. Ants, faced with two identical food sources, were observed to concentrate more on one of these but, after a period, they would turn their attention to the other. The same phenomenon has been observed in humans choosing between restaurants. After discussing the nature of foraging and recruitment behavior

Alan Kirman

1993-01-01

187

Tiny, Powerful Awesome Ants!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peering through a thematic science lens--elementary students embarked on a one-week study of ants during a month-long summer school program. This integrated unit addressed reading and writing skills while developing the science-process skills of observation, inferring, and communicating in a motivating and authentic way.

Tate, Kathleen

2007-11-01

188

The Fuzzy Ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply fuzzy modeling to transform a verbal description of the foraging behavior of ants into a well-defined mathematical model. The resulting model is simpler, more plausible, and more amenable to analysis than previously suggested models. We believe that fuzzy modeling may be suitable for addressing biomimicry, that is, the development of artificial products or machines that mimic biological phenomena,

Valeri Rozin; Michael Margaliot

2007-01-01

189

Simulation of an Ant Colony Optimization Technique in Continuous Space-Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ant colony optimization system is an algorithm inspired by the ants' foraging behavior. The good results obtained by this system on academic problems has made it appealing for applications in industrial settings, one of the current hot topics of the method is the application in continuous problems. In this work, a modified model is presented which is based on autonomous agents, the ants, which behave like the ants in the ant colony system. These agents communicate by the biological inspired pheromone mechanism in order to find sources of food which located near their nest (optimal solutions).

Vlachos, D. S.

2008-11-01

190

Ants (Hymenoptera: Fonnicidae) of Samoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ants of Samoa have been well studied compared with those of other Pacific island groups. Using Wilson and Taylor's (1967) specimen records and taxonomic analyses and Wilson and Hunt's (1967) list of 61 ant species with reliable records from Samoa as a starting point, we added published, unpublished, and new records of ants collected in Samoa and updated taxonomy.

James K Wetterer; Donald L. Vargo

191

Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Samoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ants of Samoa have been well studied compared with those of other Pacific island groups. Using Wilson and Taylor's (1967) specimen records and taxonomic analyses and Wilson and Hunt's (1967) list of 61 ant species with reliable records from Samoa as a starting point, we added published, unpublished, and new records of ants collected in Samoa and updated taxonomy.

James K. Wetterer; Donald L. Vargo

2003-01-01

192

Mass Recruitment by Army Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single army ant (Ecitoninae) can attract and direct scores of workers to prey by means of a chemical trail and momentary contact between the recruiter and workers on a raid column. Recruited workers, in turn, attract more ants, resulting in a continuous stream of recruits. While the recruitment mechanism is basically similar, the speed and the number of ants

Ruth Chadab; Carl W. Rettenmeyer

1975-01-01

193

An improved ant colony algorithm with diversified solutions based on the immune strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Ant colony algorithm has emerged recently as a new meta-heuristic method, which is inspired from the behaviours of real ants for solving NP-hard problems. However, the classical ant colony algorithm also has its defects of stagnation and premature. This paper aims at remedying these problems. Results In this paper, we propose an adaptive ant colony algorithm that simulates the behaviour of biological immune system. The solutions of the problem are much more diversified than traditional ant colony algorithms. Conclusion The proposed method for improving the performance of traditional ant colony algorithm takes into account the polarization of the colonies, and adaptively adjusts the distribution of the solutions obtained by the ants. This makes the solutions more diverse so as to avoid the stagnation and premature phenomena.

Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Chen, Ling; Chen, Yixin

2006-01-01

194

Ant colony search algorithms for optimal polygonal approximation of plane curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new polygonal approximation method using ant colony search algorithm. The problem is represented by a directed graph such that the objective of the original problem becomes to find the shortest closed circuit on the graph under the problem-specific constraints. A number of artificial ants are distributed on the graph and communicate with one another through the

Peng-yeng Yin

2003-01-01

195

Two ant-colony algorithms for minimizing total flowtime in permutation flowshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of scheduling in flowshops with the objective of minimizing total flowtime is studied. For solving the problem two ant-colony algorithms are proposed and analyzed. The first algorithm refers to some extent to ideas by Stuetzle [Stuetzle, T. (1998). An ant approach for the flow shop problem. In: Proceedings of the sixth European Congress on intelligent techniques and soft

Chandrasekharan Rajendran; Hans Ziegler

2005-01-01

196

The Dynamics of Foraging Ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally study the foraging of small black ants, Formicinae lasius flavus, in order to describe their foraging behavior mathematically. Individual ants are allowed to forage on a two-dimensional surface in the absence of any food sources. The position of the ant as a function of time is determined using a high-resolution digital camera. Analysis of the average square displacements of many ants suggests that the foraging strategy is a non-reversing random walk. Moreover, the ants do not retrace their steps to return home but instead continue the random walk until it brings them back near their starting point.

Baxter, G. William

2009-03-01

197

Ant-Based Cyber Security  

SciTech Connect

We describe a swarming-agent-based, mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem by sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. The system places human administrators at the appropriate level where they provide system guidance while lower-level agents carry out tasks humans are unable to perform quickly enough to mitigate today’s security threats. Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) uses our ant-based approach to enable dialogue between humans and agents to foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, increase human situational awareness and influence using visualization and shared control. We discuss theoretical implementation characteristics along with results from recent proof-of-concept implementations.

Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Templeton, Steven J.; Fulp, Errin W.

2011-07-12

198

Ants in rectangular arenas  

PubMed Central

Although spatial cognition is studied by neuroscientists, psychologists, biologists and computer scientists, it suffers from a lack of integrative studies. The topic of geometry of space for instance, has been studied since twenty years only in vertebrates and only in artificial and visually poor environments. But recently, similar results have been obtained with ants, supporting the recent idea of global matching. Contrary to the other theories about geometry, global matching is parsimonious, testable in natural conditions and makes sense in an ecological context. Here, further investigations into the data obtained in ants describe and support a new concept for the global matching theory: the Mismatch Tolerance Threshold (MTT). This new idea can be tested in other species and we stress the importance of considering the whole paths displayed by the animals in future experiments.

2009-01-01

199

Symbiont fidelity and the origin of species in fungus-growing ants.  

PubMed

A major problem in evolutionary biology is explaining the success of mutualism. Solving this problem requires understanding the level of fidelity between interacting partners. Recent studies have proposed that fungus-growing ants and their fungal cultivars are the products of 'diffuse' coevolution, in which single ant and fungal species are not exclusive to one another. Here we show for ants and associated fungi in the Cyphomyrmex wheeleri species group that each ant species has been exclusively associated with a single fungal cultivar 'species' for millions of years, even though alternative cultivars are readily available, and that rare shifts to new cultivars are associated with ant speciation. Such long-term partner fidelity may have facilitated 'tight' ant-fungus coevolution, and shifts to new fungal cultivars may have had a role in the origin of new ant species. PMID:22588302

Mehdiabadi, Natasha J; Mueller, Ulrich G; Brady, Seán G; Himler, Anna G; Schultz, Ted R

2012-05-15

200

Value of MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in the appearance of Muir-Torre syndrome phenotype in HNPCC patients presenting sebaceous gland tumors or keratoacanthomas.  

PubMed

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by predisposition to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, frequent multiple primary tumors in the same patient, and early age of cancer onset. A main clinical variant of Lynch syndrome, Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is characterized by the association between one or more visceral malignancies, with at least one sebaceous skin tumor or keratoacanthoma. In our study, we have screened a cohort of 538 HNPCC patients, related to 57 HNPCC families, to detect sebaceous skin tumors and keratoacanthomas and the role of mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, in their pathogenesis. Among the 57 HNPCC families, we have identified four MTS families and one suspected MTS family, in which sebaceous carcinoma was found in one HNPCC mutation carrier subject who did not show visceral malignancy. In four of these families, linked to two MLH1 mutations and to two MSH2 mutations, biomolecular characterization showed concordance among immunohistochemistry analysis and gene mutations. The evidences of our investigations show that MLH1 and MSH2 gene mutations have an equivalent etiopathological role both for Lynch syndrome and for MTS; hence, we propose a broadened clinical criteria for definition of Lynch syndrome that will include sebaceous adenoma, carcinoma, and keratoacanthoma. PMID:16826164

Ponti, Giovanni; Losi, Lorena; Pedroni, Monica; Lucci-Cordisco, Emanuela; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Pellacani, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania

2006-07-06

201

An ant colony algorithm for scheduling in flowshops with sequence-dependent setup times of jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of scheduling in flowshops with sequence-dependent setup times of jobs is considered and solved by making use\\u000a of ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms. ACO is an algorithmic approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants,\\u000a that can be applied to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. A new ant colony algorithm has been developed\\u000a in this paper

Yuvraj Gajpal; Chandrasekharan Rajendran; Hans Ziegler

2006-01-01

202

Modeling, analysis and simulation of ant-based network routing protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the metaphor of swarm intelligence, ant-based routing protocols deploy control packets that behave like ants to discover\\u000a and optimize routes between pairs of nodes. These ant-based routing protocols provide an elegant, scalable solution to the\\u000a routing problem for both wired and mobile ad hoc networks. The routing problem is highly nonlinear because the control packets\\u000a alter the local routing

Claudio E. Torres; Louis F. Rossi; Jeremy Keffer; Ke Li; Chien-Chung Shen

2010-01-01

203

Higher Order Pheromone Models in Ant Colony Optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimisation is a constructive metaheuristic that successively builds solutions from problem-specic components. A pa- rameterised model known as pheromone|an analogue of the trail phero- mones used by real ants|is used to learn which components should be combined to produce good solutions. In the majority of the algorithm's applications a single parameter from the model is used to inuence

James Montgomery

2006-01-01

204

Simulation of an Ant Colony Optimization Technique in Continuous Space-Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ant colony optimization system is an algorithm inspired by the ants' foraging behavior. The good results obtained by this system on academic problems has made it appealing for applications in industrial settings, one of the current hot topics of the method is the application in continuous problems. In this work, a modified model is presented which is based on

D. S. Vlachos

2008-01-01

205

Simulation of an Ant Colony Optimization Technique in Continuous Space-Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ant colony optimization system is an algorithm inspired by the ants’ foraging behavior. The good results obtained by this system on academic problems has made it appealing for applications in industrial settings, one of the current hot topics of the method is the application in continuous problems. In this work, a modified model is presented which is based on

D. S. Vlachos

2008-01-01

206

Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Employing Ant Colony Search Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces an ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) to solve the optimal capacitor placement problem. This ACSA is a relatively new meta-heuristic for solving hard combinational optimization problems. It is a population-based approach that uses exploration of positive feedback as well as greedy search. The ACSA was inspired from the natural behavior of the ant colonies on how they

Ching-Tzong Su; Chung-Fu Chang; Ji-Pyng Chiou

2005-01-01

207

A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems.

M. Funaki

2004-01-01

208

Enhancement of hydroelectric generation scheduling using ant colony system based optimization approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an ant colony system (ACS) based optimization approach is proposed for the enhancement of hydroelectric generation scheduling. To apply the method to solve this problem, the search space of multi-stage scheduling is first determined. Through a collection of cooperative agents called ants, the near-optimal solution to the scheduling problem can be effectively achieved. In the algorithm, the

Shyh-Jier Huang

2001-01-01

209

Ant bait attractive to multiple species of ants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An attractant composition has been discovered for the control of multiple species of pest arthropods, particularly multiple species of pest ants. The composition, which includes a sugar and a salt or base, and water, attracts both oil-loving and sweet-loving ants and is especially useful with water soluble or suspendable toxicants.

Vail; Karen M. (Gainsville, FL); Williams; David F. (Gainsville, FL); Oi; David H. (Gainsville, FL)

1999-08-17

210

Dynamic ant colony optimisation for TSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants exhibit collective behaviour in performing tasks that cannot be carried out by an individual ant. When ants are working, they must communicate with each other through a kind of chemical substance—pheromones. Ants look for food and lay the way back to their nest with pheromones, and the other ants can follow the pheromone to find the food efficiently. Using

Yong Li; Shihua Gong

2003-01-01

211

USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

2007-01-12

212

An Ant Colony Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) requires the determination of an optimal set of routes for a set of vehicles to serve a set of customers. We deal here with the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) where there is a maximum weight or volume that each vehicle can load. We developed an Ant Colony algorithm (ACO) for the CVRP based on

Silvia Mazzeo; Irene Loiseau

2004-01-01

213

Effectiveness of Emerged Pheromone Communication in an Ant Foraging Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collective behavior of social insects has been a puzzling problem for scientists for a long time. In par- ticular, it is well known that ants solve difficult prob- lems, for instance selecting the shortest pathway by communicating with each other via pheromone. How is it possible for such simple creatures to coordinate their behaviors and to solve problems as

Yoshiyuki Nakamichi; Takaya Arita

2005-01-01

214

Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the…

Clopton, Joe R.

2007-01-01

215

The metapleural gland of ants.  

PubMed

The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. PMID:21504532

Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

2010-12-24

216

Ant Algorithms: Theory and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the theory and applications of ant algorithms, new methods of discrete optimization based on the simulation of self-organized colony of biologic ants. The colony can be regarded as a multi-agent system where each agent is functioning independently by simple rules. Unlike the nearly primitive behavior of the agents, the behavior of the whole system happens to be

S. D. Shtovba

2005-01-01

217

Multiroute memories in desert ants  

PubMed Central

When offered a permanent food source, central Australian desert ants, Melophorus bagoti, develop individually distinct, view-based foraging routes, which they retrace with amazing accuracy during each foraging trip. Using a particular channel setup connected to an artificial feeder, we trained M. bagoti ants to either two or three inward routes that led through different parts of their maze-like foraging grounds. Here, we show that ants are able to adopt multiple habitual paths in succession and that they preserve initially acquired route memories even after they have been trained to new routes. Individual ants differ in the consistency with which they run along habitual pathways. However, those ants that follow constant paths retain their route-specific memories for at least 5 days of suspended foraging, which suggests that even multiple route memories, once acquired, are preserved over the entire lifetime of a forager.

Sommer, Stefan; von Beeren, Christoph; Wehner, Rudiger

2008-01-01

218

California Academy of Sciences: AntWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AntWeb, an excellent service of the California Academy of Sciences, provides users with "tools for exploring the diversity and identification of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These tools have been developed to facilitate the use of ants in inventory and monitoring programs and provide ant taxonomists with images and types." At present, AntWeb offers information on all ant genera worldwide as well as highlighting ants of Madagascar and California in particular. The site provides a search engine for the comprehensive AntWeb database which contains images of, and information about, ants from all over the world. AntWeb also offers an awesome World Ants Slide Show which includes Head, Profile, and Dorsal Views of many ants.

219

The differential Ant-Stigmergy Algorithm for large-scale global optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant-colony optimization (ACO) is a popular swarm intelligence metaheuristic scheme that can be applied to almost any optimization problem. In this paper, we address a performance evaluation of an ACO-based algorithm for solving large-scale global optimization problems with continuous variables, labeled Differential Ant-Stigmergy Algorithm (DASA). The DASA transforms a real-parameter optimization problem into a graph-search problem. The parameters' differences assigned

Peter Korosec; Katerina Tashkova; Jurij Silc

2010-01-01

220

Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.  

PubMed

In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management. PMID:14994787

Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

2003-04-01

221

MOEA/D-ACO: A Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Using Decomposition and Ant Colony.  

PubMed

Combining ant colony optimization (ACO) and the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (EA) based on decomposition (MOEA/D), this paper proposes a multiobjective EA, i.e., MOEA/D-ACO. Following other MOEA/D-like algorithms, MOEA/D-ACO decomposes a multiobjective optimization problem into a number of single-objective optimization problems. Each ant (i.e., agent) is responsible for solving one subproblem. All the ants are divided into a few groups, and each ant has several neighboring ants. An ant group maintains a pheromone matrix, and an individual ant has a heuristic information matrix. During the search, each ant also records the best solution found so far for its subproblem. To construct a new solution, an ant combines information from its group's pheromone matrix, its own heuristic information matrix, and its current solution. An ant checks the new solutions constructed by itself and its neighbors, and updates its current solution if it has found a better one in terms of its own objective. Extensive experiments have been conducted in this paper to study and compare MOEA/D-ACO with other algorithms on two sets of test problems. On the multiobjective 0-1 knapsack problem, MOEA/D-ACO outperforms the MOEA/D with conventional genetic operators and local search on all the nine test instances. We also demonstrate that the heuristic information matrices in MOEA/D-ACO are crucial to the good performance of MOEA/D-ACO for the knapsack problem. On the biobjective traveling salesman problem, MOEA/D-ACO performs much better than the BicriterionAnt on all the 12 test instances. We also evaluate the effects of grouping, neighborhood, and the location information of current solutions on the performance of MOEA/D-ACO. The work in this paper shows that reactive search optimization scheme, i.e., the "learning while optimizing" principle, is effective in improving multiobjective optimization algorithms. PMID:23757576

Ke, Liangjun; Zhang, Qingfu; Battiti, Roberto

2013-01-30

222

Particle swarm and ant colony algorithms hybridized for improved continuous optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes PSACO (particle swarm ant colony optimization) algorithm for highly non-convex optimization problems. Both particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO) are co-operative, population-based global search swarm intelligence metaheuristics. PSO is inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling, while ACO imitates foraging behavior of real life ants. In this study, we explore a

P. S. Shelokar; Patrick Siarry; Valadi K. Jayaraman; Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

2007-01-01

223

The Research on the Path Optimization of Container Truck Based on Ant Colony Algorithm and MAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies the up-to-date intelligent simulation ant colony algorithm to dynamic container truck scheduling. It proposes to take in real-time traffic information through GPS and to solve the problem on container truck scheduling with consideration of the optimal capability of ant colony in the searching process of food resources. Meanwhile, it puts information entropy into ant colony algorithm to

Li Guang-ru; Zhi Sun

2010-01-01

224

FORMIDABEL: The Belgian Ants Database.  

PubMed

FORMIDABEL is a database of Belgian Ants containing more than 27.000 occurrence records. These records originate from collections, field sampling and literature. The database gives information on 76 native and 9 introduced ant species found in Belgium. The collection records originated mainly from the ants collection in Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), the 'Gaspar' Ants collection in Gembloux and the zoological collection of the University of Liège (ULG). The oldest occurrences date back from May 1866, the most recent refer to August 2012. FORMIDABEL is a work in progress and the database is updated twice a year. THE LATEST VERSION OF THE DATASET IS PUBLICLY AND FREELY ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THIS URL: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource.do?r=formidabel. The dataset is also retrievable via the GBIF data portal through this link: http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14697 A dedicated geo-portal, developed by the Belgian Biodiversity Platform is accessible at: http://www.formicidae-atlas.be Purpose: FORMIDABEL is a joint cooperation of the Flemish ants working group "Polyergus" (http://formicidae.be) and the Wallonian ants working group "FourmisWalBru" (http://fourmiswalbru.be). The original database was created in 2002 in the context of the preliminary red data book of Flemish Ants (Dekoninck et al. 2003). Later, in 2005, data from the Southern part of Belgium; Wallonia and Brussels were added. In 2012 this dataset was again updated for the creation of the first Belgian Ants Atlas (Figure 1) (Dekoninck et al. 2012). The main purpose of this atlas was to generate maps for all outdoor-living ant species in Belgium using an overlay of the standard Belgian ecoregions. By using this overlay for most species, we can discern a clear and often restricted distribution pattern in Belgium, mainly based on vegetation and soil types. PMID:23794918

Brosens, Dimitri; Vankerkhoven, François; Ignace, David; Wegnez, Philippe; Noé, Nicolas; Heughebaert, André; Bortels, Jeannine; Dekoninck, Wouter

2013-06-03

225

My Journey to the Ants  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I review the strange, unplanned and unexpected journey I have had with Solenopsis invicta, the imported fire ant. Through serendipity, good fortune and repeated invenomation, I have come to count as collaborators a number of entomologists, toxicologists, allergists and immunologists who have guided me on this journey to the ants. We now understand the mechanisms for the cutaneous reactions experienced by 50% of the exposed population stung per year, as well as the immunologic and toxicologic properties of the ants unique venom. Allergen immunotherapy to fire ant extracts has been demonstrated to protect patients from repeat anaphylaxis. Methods have been developed to prevent and treat massive sting attacks on frail elders, including those in residential and medical facilities. The potential beneficial effects of venom components are under investigation. And yes, the journey and the stings continue.

deShazo, Richard D.

2009-01-01

226

Classification With Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) can be applied to the data mining field to extract rule-based classifiers. The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, we provide an overview of previous ant-based approaches to the classification task and compare them with state-of-the-art classification techniques, such as C4.5, RIPPER, and support vector machines in a benchmark study. On the

David Martens; Manu De Backer; Raf Haesen; Jan Vanthienen; Monique Snoeck; Bart Baesens

2007-01-01

227

A Combined Ant Colony and Differential Evolution Feature Selection Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature selection is an important step in many pattern recognition systems that aims to overcome the so-called curse of dimensionality\\u000a problem. Although Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) proved to be a powerful technique in different optimization problems, but\\u000a it still needs some improvements when applied to the feature selection problem. This is due to the fact that it builds its\\u000a solutions

Rami N. Khushaba; Ahmed Al-ani; Akram Alsukker; Adel Al-jumaily

2008-01-01

228

THE ANTS OF SMALL BAHAMIAN CAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants are ubiquitous in the Bahamas, and are found even on the smallest cays, Surveys for ants on over 260 small cays in four archipelagos (Exuma Cays, Great Exuma, Andros, and Abaco) over a 14-year period have revealed a number of generalized patterns of ant species distributions: (1) Ants are almost always present on small cays with terrestrial vegetation, but

Lloyd Morrison

2006-01-01

229

Defense of termitaria by termitophilous ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounds of Amitermes laurensis are frequently faided by meat ants Iridomyrmex sanguineus. Of eight ant species which often cohabit with the termites, Camponotus sp. B and C were considerably dependent on the termintaria for their nest sites and effectively protected it from the attacks by meat ants. Many termite colonies cohabiting with those two ant species were vigorous, suggesting that

S. Higashi; F. Ito

1989-01-01

230

Raves & rants about invasive crazy ants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crazy ants” is a name that refers to various species of ants that are characterized by erratic, scurrying, or running, behavior when disturbed. Two of these species, the yellow crazy ant and the Caribbean or Rasberry [sic] crazy ant, are invasive with extremely large populations that inundate lands...

231

New Computational Model from Ant Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational model from life system has become a main intelligent algorithm. Ant colony algorithm is a new computational model from mimic the swarm intelligence of ant colony behavior. And it is a very good combination optimization method. To extend the ant colony algorithm, some continuous ant colony algorithms have been proposed. To improve the searching performance, the principles of

Gao Wei

2007-01-01

232

A proof of convergence for Ant algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proof of convergence for Ant algorithms is developed. Ant algorithms were modeled as branching random processes: the branching random walk and branching Wiener process to derive rates of birth and death of ant paths. Substitution is then carried out in birth-death processes, which proves that a stable distribution is surely reached. This indicates that Ant algorithms converge with probability

Amr Badr; Ahmed Fahmy

2004-01-01

233

An ant-based algorithm for clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new ant based clustering algorithm. The algorithm takes inspiration from the sound communication properties of real ants. Artificial ants communicate directly with each others in order to merge similar group of objects. The proposed algorithm was tested and evaluated. The obtained results are very encouraging in comparison with the famous k-means and some ant

Akil Elkamel; Mariem Gzara; Salma Jamoussi; H. Ben-Abdallah

2009-01-01

234

Implementation of Ant System for DNA Sequence Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In DNA based computation, the design of good DNA sequences has turned out to be a fundamental problem and one of the most practical and important research topics. Although the design of DNA sequences is dependent on the protocol of biological experiments, it is highly required to establish a method for the systematic design of DNA sequences, which could be applied to various design constraints. Much works have focused on designing the DNA sequences to obtain a set of good DNA sequences. In this paper, Ant System (AS) is proposed to solve the DNA sequence optimization problem. AS, which is the first approach proposed in Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), uses some ants to search the solutions based on the pheromone information. A model is adapted, which consists of four nodes representing four DNA bases. The results of the proposed approach are compared with other methods, such as evolutionary algorithm.

Kurniawan, Tri Basuki; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Saaid, Muhammad Faiz Muhammed; Yahya, Azli

2009-06-01

235

Linear array synthesis using an ant-colony-optimization-based algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to show the use of a well-known type of evolutionary computational optimization technique, ant colony optimization (ACO), in a typical electromagnetic problem: linear array synthesis. To this aim, an algorithm based on the fundamentals of ant colony optimization has been developed. The algorithm uses real numbers. Some examples using different optimization criteria are presented.

E. Rajo-lglesias; Oscar Quevedo-Teruel

2007-01-01

236

A New Approach of Ant Colony Algorithm and Its Proof of Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization algorithm, which is based on bionics, has been successfully used in many fields, especially on combinatorial optimization problems. While many parameters need to be adjusted in its application, it is inconvenient for rookies. A novel ant colony optimization algorithm based on real time model is proposed and its proof of convergence is given. It is supposed that

Hong-hao Zuo; Fan-lun Xiong

2006-01-01

237

Zone based ant colony routing in mobile ad-hoc network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems like routing in computer networks. The idea of this optimization is based on the food accumulation methodology of the ant community. Zone based routing algorithms is build on the concept of individual node's position for routing of packets in mobile ad-hoc networks. Here the nodes' position can

Maumita Bandyopadhyay; P. Bhaumik

2010-01-01

238

Application of an ant algorithm for layout optimization of tree networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an application of the ant algorithm to the layout optimization of tree networks. Two different formulations are used to represent the layout optimization problem of tree networks in the proper form required for the application of the ant algorithm. In the first formulation, each link of the base graph, from which the optimum layout is to be

Mohammad H. Afshar; Miguel A. Mariño

2006-01-01

239

SamACO: Variable Sampling Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm offers algorithmic techniques for optimization by simulating the foraging behavior of a group of ants to perform incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. Although ACO is first designed for solving discrete (combinatorial) optimization problems, the ACO procedure is also applicable to continuous optimization. This paper presents a new way of

Xiao-Min Hu; Jun Zhang; Henry Shu-Hung Chung; Yun Li; Ou Liu

2010-01-01

240

Progresses and Challenges of Ant Colony Optimization-Based Evolvable Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolvable hardware(EHW) refers to hardware that can change its architecture and behavior dynamically and autonomously by interacting with its environment, and ant colony optimization is a meta-heuristic algorithm for the approximate solution of combinatorial optimization problems that has been inspired by the foraging behavior of real ant colonies. In this paper, we take a broad view on the progresses of

Haibin Duan; Xiufen Yu

2007-01-01

241

UCAV path planning based on Ant Colony Optimization and satisficing decision algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path planning of uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a complicated global optimum problem. Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm was originally presented under the inspiration during collective behavior study results on real ant system, and it has strong robustness and easy to combine with other methods in optimization. In this paper, we propose a hybrid ACO with satisficing decision algorithm

Haibin Duan; Yaxiang Yu; Rui Zhou

2008-01-01

242

Short-Term Load Prediction Based on Ant Colony Clustering-Elman Neural Network Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the application of neural network model for short term load prediction, main problems are over many training samples, long training time and low convergence speed. For representative training samples, an ant colony clustering model based on Elman neural network was proposed in this paper. First, historical load data were pre-processed by using ant colony clustering method. The clustered data

Dong-xing Duan

2009-01-01

243

Network hierarchy in Kirman's ant model: fund investment can create systemic risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kirman's ant model has been used to characterize the expectation formation of financial investors who are prone to herding. The model's original version suffers from the problem of N-dependence: its ability to replicate the statistical features of financial returns vanishes once the system size N is increased. In a generalized version of the ant model, the network structure connecting agents

Simone Alfarano; Mishael Milakovi?; Matthias Raddant

2009-01-01

244

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FIRE ANTS:AN UPDATE ON NEW TECHNIQUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Imported fire ants (IFA) continue to expand their range and density in the United States causing problems for man and the environment. Medical complications of fire ant stings include allergic and toxic reactions occurring from outdoor contact or building infestation. Pesticides have failed to lim...

245

Binary ant algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

When facing dynamic optimization problems the goal is no longer to find the extrema, but to track their progression through the space as closely as possible. Over these kind of over changing, complex and ubiquitous real-world problems, the explorative-exploitive subtle counterbalance character of our current state-of-the-art search algorithms should be biased towards an increased explorative behavior. While counterproductive in classic

Carlos M. Fernandes; Agostinho C. Rosa; Vitorino Ramos

2007-01-01

246

Ant opsins: Sequences from the Saharan silver ant and the carpenter ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA clones encoding opsins from compound eyes of carpenter ant,Camponotus abdominalis, and Saharan silver ant,Cataglyphis bombycina, were isolated from cDNA libraries. The opsin cDNAs from each species code for deduced proteins with 378 amino acids which are 92% identical. Of the 30 amino acid differences between the two proteins, 13 are non-conservative. Eight of these non-conservative substitutions are within the

Michael P. Popp; Reinhard Grisshammer; Paul A. Hargrave; W. Clay Smith

1996-01-01

247

An ant-colony optimization algorithm for minimizing the completion-time variance of jobs in flowshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of scheduling in permutation flowshops with the objective of minimizing the completion-time variance of jobs is considered and solved by making use of ant-colony optimization (ACO) algorithms. ACO is an algorithmic approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants, which can be applied to solve combinatorial optimization problems. A new ant-colony algorithm (NACO) has been developed in

Yuvraj Gajpal; Chandrasekharan Rajendran

2006-01-01

248

Learning Fuzzy Rules Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Linguistic Modeling Þeld, one of the most important applications of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems, the automatic learning from numerical data of the fuzzy linguistic rules composing these systems is an important task. In this paper we introduce a novel way of addressing the problem making use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms. To do so, the learning task will

Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordon; Francisco Herrera

2000-01-01

249

Runtime Analysis of a Simple Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has become quite popular in recent years. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical founda- tion of this randomized search heuristic is rather weak. Building up such a theory is demanded to understand how these heuristics work as well as to come up with better algorithms for certain problems. Up to now, only convergence results

Frank Neumann; Carsten Witt

2006-01-01

250

Dynamic Optimization of Chemical Processes using Ant Colony Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony framework is illustrated by considering dynamic optimization of six important bench marking examples. This new computational tool is simple to implement and can tackle problems with state as well as terminal constraints in a straightforward fashion. It requires fewer grid points to reach the global optimum at relatively very low computational effort. The examples with varying degree of

J. Rajesh; Kapil Gupta; Hari Shankar Kusumakar; Vaidyanathan K. Jayaraman; Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

2001-01-01

251

Ant colony tracking in the obligate army ant-following antbird Phaenostictus mcleannani  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 species of tropical birds track army ants to feed on arthropods that flee from the ants. Some species are obligate\\u000a ant-followers that obtain most of their food at ant swarms, but the mechanism used to track ant colonies remains poorly understood.\\u000a Ant colonies are nomadic and do not raid every day. It has been hypothesized that (1)

Johel Chaves-Campos

2011-01-01

252

Improving MAX-MIN ant system performance with the aid of ART2-based Twin Removal method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondeterministic algorithm that mimics the foraging behavior of ants to solve difficult optimization problems is known as Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). One of the most important problems in ACO is stagnation. Early convergence to a small region of the search space leaves its large sections unexplored. On the other hand, very slow convergence cannot sufficiently concentrate the search in

Mahsa Imani; Esmat Pakizeh; Mir Mohsen Pedram; Hamid Reza Arabnia

2010-01-01

253

Improved Robustness through Population Variance in Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant Colony Optimization algorithms are population-based Stochastic Local Search algorithms that mimic the behavior of ants, simulating pheromone trails to search for solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. This paper introduces Population Variance, a novel approach to ACO algorithms that allows parameters to vary across the population over time, leading to solution construction differences that are not strictly stochastic. The increased exploration appears to help the search escape from local optima, significantly improving the robustness of the algorithm with respect to suboptimal parameter settings.

Matthews, David C.; Sutton, Andrew M.; Hains, Doug; Whitley, L. Darrell

254

NOVA: Lord of the Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a young man growing up in Depression-era Alabama, E.O.Wilson spent a great time outdoors observing everything from butterflies to ants. His fascination with ants grew into a lifelong passion, and amidst his many accomplishments in later life, he would win a Pulitzer Prize for his 1991 work "The Ants". Today Wilson continues to be well-known as a strong advocate for the protection of the environment and his work in the field of sociobiology. Wilson was recently profiled in an episode of the popular PBS program "NOVA, and this site allows visitors to watch the program in its entirety as well as view a transcript or purchase a DVD of the program.

2008-05-20

255

Impacts of Residual Insecticide Barriers on Perimeter-Invading Ants, with Particular Reference to the Odorous House Ant, Tapinoma sessile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three liquid insecticide formulations were evaluated as barrier treatments against perimeter-invading ants at a multifamily housing complex in West Lafayette, IN. Several ant species were present at the study site, including (in order of abundance) pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum (L.); honey ant, Prenolepis imparis (Say); odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say); thief ant, Solenopsis molesta (Say); acrobat ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi

Michael E. Scharf; Catina R. Ratliff; Gary W. Bennett

2004-01-01

256

8.EE Ant and Elephant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: An ant has a mass of approximately $4 \\times 10^{?3}$ grams and an elephant has a mass of approximately 8 metric tons. How many ants does it take to ha...

257

Unit commitment using the ant colony search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an ant colony search algorithm (ACSA)-based approach to solve the unit commitment (UC) problem. This ACSA algorithm is a relatively new meta-heuristic for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems. It is a population-based approach that uses exploitation of positive feedback, distributed computation as well as a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback is for fast discovery of good solutions,

N. S. Sisworahardjo; A. A. El-Keib

2002-01-01

258

Ant Based Fuzzy Modeling Applied to Marble Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Automatic classification of objects based on their visual appearance is often performed based on clustering algorithms, which\\u000a can be based on soft computing techniques. One of the most used methods is fuzzy clustering. However, this method can converge\\u000a to local minima. This problem has been addressed very recently by applying ant colony optimization to tackle this problem.\\u000a This paper proposed

Susana M. Vieira; João M. C. Sousa; João Rogério Caldas Pinto

2006-01-01

259

A Max-Min Ant System modeling approach for production scheduling in a FMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an Ant Colony optimization approach for production scheduling problem in a flexible manufacturing system. The problem is treated on two perspectives, based on the modeling and the search method. The problem modeling is characterized by a high-level problem description, using the production routes as a way to represent the states of the solution space. About the collaboration

Edilson R. R. Kato; Orides Morandin Jr.; Marcos Abraao de Souza Fonseca

2010-01-01

260

The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.  

PubMed

It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V; Drijfhout, Falko P; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R; Nash, David R; Pedersen, Jes S; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2008-12-03

261

Ant opsins: sequences from the Saharan silver ant and the carpenter ant.  

PubMed

cDNA clones encoding opsins from compound eyes of carpenter ant, Camponotus abdominalis, and Saharan silver ant, Cataglyphis bombycina, were isolated from cDNA libraries. The opsin cDNAs from each species code for deduced proteins with 378 amino acids which are 92% identical. Of the 30 amino acid differences between the two proteins, 13 are non-conservative. Eight of these non-conservative substitutions are within the membrane spanning domain. The presence of a potential Schiff-base counterion in helix III in both species suggests that these opsins are the protein moiety of the visible range pigments. When compared to all known opsins, these opsins are most similar to the opsin from preying mantis (76% identity at the amino acid level). Phyletic comparisons group the two ant opsins with the other arthropod long wavelength opsins. PMID:9372150

Popp, M P; Grisshammer, R; Hargrave, P A; Smith, W C

1996-03-01

262

A Paradigm for Self-Organisation: New Inspiration from Ant Foraging Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organised biological systems are robust, flexible and adaptive. They respond to changing conditions in a manner which is desirable in emerging computational systems. The problems solved by Pharaoh’s ants are analogous to those challenging modern computer science; specifically dynamic or continuous optimisation problems. Pharaoh’s ants utilise multiple chemical pheromones for communication (and memory) over divergent time scales. Furthermore, there is

Duncan E. Jackson; Mesude Bicak; Mike Holcombe

2008-01-01

263

Mirex, Fire Ants, and Estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The insecticide mirex was used for 16 years (1962-1978) in the Southeastern United States to control the imported fire ant. During 1969-1971, a field monitoring study, carried out in conjunction with an aerial application of mirex to coastal areas in Sout...

J. I. Lowe

1982-01-01

264

Termites, hemimetabolous diploid white ants?  

PubMed Central

Ants and termites are the most abundant animals on earth. Their ecological success is attributed to their social life. They live in colonies consisting of few reproducing individuals, while the large majority of colony members (workers/soldiers) forego reproduction at least temporarilly. Despite their apparent resemblance in social organisation, both groups evolved social life independently. Termites are basically social cockroaches, while ants evolved from predatory wasps. In this review, I will concentrate on termites with an ancestral life type, the wood-dwelling termites, to compare them with ants. Their different ancestries provided both groups with different life history pre-adaptations for social evolution. Like their closest relatives, the woodroaches, wood-dwelling termites live inside their food, a piece of wood. Thus, intensive costly food provisioning of their young is not necessary, especially as young instars are rather independent due to their hemimetabolous development. In contrast, ants are progressive food provisioners which have to care intensively for their helpless brood. Corresponding to the precocial – altricial analogy, helping by workers is selected in ants, while new evidence suggests that wood-dwelling termite workers are less engaged in brood care. Rather they seem to stay in the nest because there is generally low selection for dispersal. The nest presents a safe haven with no local resource competition as long as food is abundant (which is generally the case), while founding a new colony is very risky. Despite these differences between ants and termites, their common dwelling life style resulted in convergent evolution, especially winglessness, that probably accounts for the striking similarity between both groups. In ants, all workers are wingless and winglessness in sexuals evolved in several taxa as a derived trait. In wood-dwelling termites, workers are by default wingless as they are immatures. These immatures can develop into winged sexuals that disperse and found a new nest or into neotenic replacement reproductives that inherit the natal colony. Depending on the worker instar from which the latter develop, the neotenic reproductives are either apterous or brachypterous, but never winged. I propose that this wing polyphenism might present a basis for the evolution of social life in termites.

Korb, Judith

2008-01-01

265

Auguste Forel on ants and neurology.  

PubMed

Auguste Forel was born in 1848 in the French part of Switzerland. He developed a lifelong passion for myrmecology in his childhood, but chose medicine and neuropsychiatry to earn his living. He first undertook a comparative study of the thalamus under Theodor Meynert in Vienna and then, from 1872 to 1879, he worked as Assistant Physician to Bernhard von Gudden in Munich. This led in 1877 to his seminal work on the organization of the tegmental region in which he provides the first description of the zona incerta and the so-called H (Haubenfeld) fields that still bear his name. In 1879, Forel was appointed Professor of Psychiatry in Munich and Director of the Burghölzli cantonal asylum. He became interested in the therapeutic value of hypnotism, while continuing his work on brain anatomy and ants. His neuroanatomical studies with Gudden's method led him to formulate the neuron theory in 1887, four years before Wilhelm von Waldeyer, who received most of the credit for it. Forel then definitively turned his back on neuroscience. After his retirement from the Burghölzli asylum in 1898. and despite a stroke in 1911 that left him hemiplegic, Forel started to write extensively on various social issues, such as alcohol abstinence and sexual problems. Before his death in 1931 at the age of 83, Forel published a remarkable book on the social world of the ants in which he made insightful observations on the neural control of sensory and instinctive behavior common to both humans and insects. PMID:12945958

Parent, André

2003-08-01

266

Ant Colony Optimization and Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique was inspired by the ants’ behavior throughout their exploration for food. In nature,\\u000a ants wander randomly, seeking for food. After succeeding, they return to their nest. During their move, they lay down pheromone\\u000a that forms an evaporating chemical path. Other ants that locate this trail, follow it and reinforce it, since they also lay

Ioannis Michelakos; Nikolaos Mallios; Elpiniki Papageorgiou; Michael Vassilakopoulos

267

Using Ants to Investigate the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The best place for students to begin to understand complex environmental relationships is in their own back yards. Doing investigations of ants allows students to establish a baseline survey of ant fauna, test the importance of ants in nutrient cycling and soil structure maintenance, and increase their understanding of the environment and their…

Hagevik, Rita A.

2005-01-01

268

Using Ants To Investigate the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three inquiry-based activities designed for students to begin to understand complex environmental relationships in their own backyard. Includes investigations of ants, which allow students to establish a baseline survey of ant fauna, test the importance of ants in nutrient cycling and soil structure maintenances, and increase student…

Hagevik, Rita A.

2003-01-01

269

BiDirectional ANT Traffic on Trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the non-stationary traffic flow of the ant-trail model. The nontrivial boundary conditions are adopted. The fundamental diagram is distinctly different from that of a closed system. A shock wave is generated when the first ant reaches the food source. The shock wave propagates backward to the nest long before the first ant returns. We revise the pheromone mechanism

Ding-Wei Huang

2007-01-01

270

The effectiveness of dynamic ant colony tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the Genetically Modified Ant Colony System (GMACS) algorithm (3), which claims to dynamically tune an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to its near-optimal parameters. While our research indicates that the use of GMACS does result in higher quality solutions over a hand-tuned ACO algorithm, we found that the algorithm is ultimately hindered by its emphasis on randomized ant

Adrian A. De Freitas; Christopher B. Mayer

2007-01-01

271

Using Ants To Investigate the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three inquiry-based activities designed for students to begin to understand complex environmental relationships in their own backyard. Includes investigations of ants, which allow students to establish a baseline survey of ant fauna, test the importance of ants in nutrient cycling and soil structure maintenances, and increase student…

Hagevik, Rita A.

2003-01-01

272

Prophylaxis with resin in wood ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals may use plant compounds to defend themselves against parasites. Wood ants, Formica paralugub- ris, incorporate pieces of solidified conifer resin into their nests. This behaviour inhibits the growth of bac- teria and fungi in nest material and protects the ants against some detrimental microorganisms. Here, we studied the resin-collecting behaviour of ants under field and laboratory conditions. First, we

Gregoire Castella; Michel Chapuisat; Philippe Christe

2008-01-01

273

FIRE ANT, BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND BIOCONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red fire ant Solenopsis invicta was accidentally introduced into the United States from South America sometime in the 1930s. These ants do best in open, disturbed habitats associated with human activities. Fire ants construct large earthen mounds which function as solar collecting devises. Fire...

274

Tournaments and Slavery in a Desert Ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of ants engage in physical fighting when territorial borders are challenged. In contrast, colonies of the honeypot ant species Myrmecocystus mimicus conduct ritualized tournaments, in which hundreds of ants perform highly stereotyped display fights. Opposing colonies summon their worker forces to the tournament area by means of an alarm-recruitment system. When one colony is considerably stronger than the

Bert Holldobler

1976-01-01

275

Modeling Ant Colony Algorithms Using Learning Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithms are a group of heuristic optimization algorithms that have been inspired by ants foraging for food. In these algorithms there are some agents, the ants, that for finding the suitable solution, search the solution space. On the other hand, Learning Automata is an abstract model that can do finite actions. Each selected action is evaluated by a

F. Abdali; M. R. Meybodi

276

Using Ants to Investigate the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best place for students to begin to understand complex environmental relationships is in their own back yards. Doing investigations of ants allows students to establish a baseline survey of ant fauna, test the importance of ants in nutrient cycling and soil structure maintenance, and increase their understanding of the environment and their…

Hagevik, Rita A.

2005-01-01

277

An aggregated clustering approach using multi-ant colonies algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a multi-ant colonies approach for clustering data that consists of some parallel and independent ant colonies and a queen ant agent. Each ant colony process takes different types of ants moving speed and different versions of the probability conversion function to generate various clustering results with an ant-based clustering algorithm. These results are sent to the queen

Yan Yang; Mohamed S. Kamel

2006-01-01

278

The Ant Colony Optimization Metaheuristic: Algorithms, Applications, and Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of ACO algorithms is very lively, as testified, for example, by the successful biannual workshop (ANTS—From Ant Colonies to Artificial Ants: A Series of International Workshops on Ant Algorithms; http:\\/\\/iridia.ulb.ac.be\\/~ants\\/) where researchers meet to discuss the properties of ACO and other ant algorithms, both theoretically and experimentally.

Marco Dorigo; Thomas Stützle

279

Tropical annual cropping systems: Ant ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological role of ants in tropical annual cropping systems is discussed in general and with respect to a specific Mexican agroecosystem Generally, the potential positive contributions of ants to crop yields result from their impact on soil structure, nutrient cycling, and reduction of insect and weed pests In annual wet lowland fields in eastern Mexico, the ant community is simple and dominated by the aggressive fire ant, Solenopsis geminata. The influence of vegetation structure and composition on the ant community and, specifically, on the foraging behavior of S geminata is discussed

Carroll, C. Ronald; Risch, Stephen J.

1983-01-01

280

Revolutionizing Remote Exploration with ANTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) architecture based on an insect colony analogue for the cost-effective, efficient, systematic survey of remote or inaccessible areas with multiple object targets, including planetary surface, marine, airborne, and space environments. The mission context is the exploration in the 2020s of the most compelling remaining targets in the solar system: main belt asteroids. Main belt asteroids harbor important clues to Solar System origins and evolution which are central to NASA's goals in Space Science. Asteroids are smaller than planets, but their number is far greater, and their combined surface area likely dwarfs the Earth's. An asteroid survey will dramatically increase our understanding of the local resources available for the Human Exploration and Development of Space. During the mission composition, shape, gravity, and orbit parameters could be returned to Earth for perhaps several thousand asteroids. A survey of this area will rival the great explorations that encircled this globe, opened up the New World, and laid the groundwork for the progress and challenges of the last centuries. The ANTS architecture for a main belt survey consists of a swarm of as many as a thousand or more highly specialized pico-spacecraft that form teams to survey as many as one hundred asteroids a month. Multi-level autonomy is critical for ANTS and the objective of the proposed study is to work through the implications and constraints this entails. ANTS couples biologically inspired autonomic control for basic functions to higher level artificial intelligence that together enable individual spacecraft to operate as specialized, cooperative, social agents. This revolutionary approach postulates highly advanced, but familiar, components integrated and operated in a way that uniquely transcends any evolutionary extrapolation of existing trends and enables thousand-spacecraft missions.

Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S.; Truszkowski, W.

2002-05-01

281

Reconfiguration and Capacitor Placement for Loss Reduction of Distribution Systems by Ant Colony Search Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to study distribution system operations by the ant colony search algorithm (ACSA). The objective of this study is to present new algorithms for solving the optimal feeder reconfiguration problem, the optimal capacitor placement problem, and the problem of a combination of the two. The ACSA is a relatively new and powerful swarm intelligence method for solving optimization

Chung-Fu Chang

2008-01-01

282

Hybrid Ant Colony Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing with Time Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) is an NP-complete optimization problem. The objective of VRPTW is to use a fleet of vehicles with specific capacity to serve a number of customers with fixed demand and time window constraints. A hybrid ant colony system (DSACA-VRPTW) is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, each antpsilas solution might be improved by dynamic

Tong Zhen; Qiuwen Zhang; Wenshuai Zhang; Zhi Ma

2008-01-01

283

Introduced fire ants can exclude native ants from critical mutualist-provided resources.  

PubMed

Animals frequently experience resource imbalances in nature. For ants, one resource that may be particularly valuable for both introduced and native species is high-carbohydrate honeydew from hemipteran mutualists. We conducted field and laboratory experiments: (1) to test if red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) competed with native ants for access to mutualisms with aphids, and (2) to quantify the effects of aphid honeydew presence or absence on colony growth of native ants. We focused on native dolichoderine ants (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) because they are abundant ants that have omnivorous diets that frequently include mutualist-provided carbohydrates. At two sites in the southeastern US, native dolichoderine ants were far less frequent, and fire ants more frequent, at carbohydrate baits than would be expected based on their frequency in pitfall traps. A field experiment confirmed that a native ant species, Dorymyrmex bureni, was only found tending aphids when populations of S. invicta were suppressed. In the laboratory, colonies of native dolichoderine ants with access to both honeydew and insect prey had twice as many workers and over twice as much brood compared to colonies fed only ad libitum insect prey. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that introduced ants compete for access to mutualist-provided carbohydrates with native ants and that these carbohydrates represent critical resources for both introduced and native ants. These results challenge traditional paradigms of arthropod and ant nutrition and contribute to growing evidence of the importance of nutrition in mediating ecological interactions. PMID:23053235

Wilder, Shawn M; Barnum, Thomas R; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

2012-09-28

284

Ants can learn to forage on one-way trails.  

PubMed

The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues -- chemical, visual or any other -- are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication. PMID:19337369

Ribeiro, Pedro Leite; Helene, André Frazão; Xavier, Gilberto; Navas, Carlos; Ribeiro, Fernando Leite

2009-04-01

285

Penalty adapting ant algorithm: application to pipe network optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A penalty adapting ant algorithm is presented in an attempt to eliminate the dependency of ant algorithms on the penalty parameter used for the solution of constrained optimization problems. The method uses an adapting mechanism for determination of the penalty parameter leading to elimination of the costly process of penalty parameter tuning. The method is devised on the basis of observation that for large penalty parameters, infeasible solutions will have a higher total cost than feasible solutions and vice versa. The method therefore uses the best feasible and infeasible solution costs of the iteration to adaptively adjust the penalty parameter to be used in the next iteration. The pheromone updating procedure of the max-min ant system is also modified to keep ants on and around the boundary of the feasible search space where quality solutions can be found. The sensitivity of the proposed method to the initial value of the penalty parameter is investigated and indicates that the method converges to optimal or near-optimal solutions irrespective of the initial starting value of the penalty parameter. This is significant as it eliminates the need for sensitivity analysis of the method with respect to the penalty factor, thus adding to the computational efficiency of ant algorithms. Furthermore, it is shown that the success rate of the search algorithm in locating an optimal solution is increased when a self-adapting mechanism is used. The presented method is applied to a benchmark pipe network optimization problem in the literature and the results are presented and compared with those of existing algorithms.

Afshar, M. H.

2008-10-01

286

Switching destinations: memory change in wood ants.  

PubMed

We have studied the changing use of spatial memories in wood ants by charting how the ants' paths transform when ants are first trained to feed at one site and must then switch to another site. Because ants, which are trained to approach a single feeding site from a single starting point, are attracted directly to that goal when started from unfamiliar positions, we describe the ants' paths in terms of the use of two stored snapshots. Each snapshot consists of retinotopic views of the ants' surroundings acquired at one of the two feeding sites. When a snapshot is activated, it draws an ant to the related site from a wide range of directions. Here, we focus on routes that occur before ants have learnt to go directly from the start to the second site. The initial direction of the ant's path is then mostly aimed either at the first site or between the two sites. On 62.2% of all recorded paths, this segment is followed by an abrupt turn, after which the ant often aims directly at the second feeding site. The details of this behaviour suggest that, after the turn, control of the path switches from the snapshot recorded at the first feeding site (or some combination of the two snapshots) to the snapshot recorded at the second feeding site. We discuss different ways in which control might be transferred from one snapshot to the other. PMID:15184512

Durier, Virginie; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

2004-06-01

287

A multi-type ant colony optimization (MACO) method for optimal land use allocation in large areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing land use allocation is a challenging task, as it involves multiple stakeholders with conflicting objectives. In addition, the solution space of the optimization grows exponentially as the size of the region and the resolution increase. This article presents a new ant colony optimization algorithm by incorporating multiple types of ants for solving complex multiple land use allocation problems. A

Xiaoping Liu; Xia Li; Xun Shi; Kangning Huang; Yilun Liu

2012-01-01

288

Metatranscriptomics and pyrosequencing facilitate discovery of potential viral natural enemies of the invasive Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia pubens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Nylanderia pubens (Forel) is an invasive ant species that in recent years has developed into a serious nuisance problem in the Caribbean and United States. A rapidly expanding range, explosive localized population growth, and control difficulties have elevated this ant to pest status. ...

289

cAnt-Miner: An Ant Colony Classification Algorithm to Cope with Continuous Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension to Ant-Miner, named cAnt-Miner (Ant-Miner coping with continuous attributes), which incorporates an entropy-based discretization method in order\\u000a to cope with continuous attributes during the rule construction process. By having the ability to create discrete intervals\\u000a for continuous attributes “on-the-fly”, cAnt-Miner does not requires a discretization method in a preprocessing step, as Ant-Miner requires. cAnt-Miner has

Fernando E. B. Otero; Alex Alves Freitas; Colin G. Johnson

2008-01-01

290

Runtime Analysis of a Simple Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has become quite popular in recent years. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical\\u000a foundation of this randomized search heuristic is rather weak. Building up such a theory is demanded to understand how these\\u000a heuristics work as well as to come up with better algorithms for certain problems. Up to now, only convergence results have

Frank Neumann; Carsten Witt

2009-01-01

291

Parallelization Strategies for Ant Colony Optimisation on GPUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) is an effective population-based meta-heuristic\\u000afor the solution of a wide variety of problems. As a population-based\\u000aalgorithm, its computation is intrinsically massively parallel, and it is\\u000athere- fore theoretically well-suited for implementation on Graphics Processing\\u000aUnits (GPUs). The ACO algorithm comprises two main stages: Tour construction\\u000aand Pheromone update. The former has been previously implemented

José M. Cecilia; José M. García; Manuel Ujaldon; Andy Nisbet; Martyn Amos

2011-01-01

292

Mimetic host shifts in an endangered social parasite of ants  

PubMed Central

An emerging problem in conservation is whether listed morpho-species with broad distributions, yet specialized lifestyles, consist of more than one cryptic species or functionally distinct forms that have different ecological requirements. We describe extreme regional divergence within an iconic endangered butterfly, whose socially parasitic young stages use non-visual, non-tactile cues to infiltrate and supplant the brood in ant societies. Although indistinguishable morphologically or when using current mitochondrial and nuclear sequence-, or microsatellite data, Maculinea rebeli from Spain and southeast Poland exploit different Myrmica ant species and experience 100 per cent mortality with each other's hosts. This reflects major differences in the hydrocarbons synthesized from each region by the larvae, which so closely mimic the recognition profiles of their respective hosts that nurse ants afford each parasite a social status above that of their own kin larvae. The two host ants occupy separate niches within grassland; thus, conservation management must differ in each region. Similar cryptic differentiation may be common, yet equally hard to detect, among the approximately 10 000 unstudied morpho-species of social parasite that are estimated to exist, many of which are Red Data Book listed.

Thomas, Jeremy A.; Elmes, Graham W.; Sielezniew, Marcin; Stankiewicz-Fiedurek, Anna; Simcox, David J.; Settele, Josef; Schonrogge, Karsten

2013-01-01

293

Fire ant-detecting canines: a complementary method in detecting red imported fire ants.  

PubMed

In this investigation, detection dogs are trained and used in identifying red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and their nests. The methodology could assist in reducing the frequency and scope of chemical treatments for red imported fire ant management and thus reduce labor costs and chemical use as well as improve control and quarantine efficiency. Three dogs previously trained for customs quarantine were retrained to detect the scents of red imported fire ants. After passing tests involving different numbers of live red imported fire ants and three other ant species--Crematogaster rogenhoferi Mayr, Paratrechina longicornis Latreille, and Pheidole megacephala F.--placed in containers, ajoint field survey for red imported fire ant nests by detection dogs and bait traps was conducted to demonstrate their use as a supplement to conventional detection methods. The most significant findings in this report are (1) with 10 or more red imported fire ants in scent containers, the dogs had >98% chance in tracing the red imported fire ant. Upon the introduction of other ant species, the dogs still achieved on average, a 93% correct red imported fire ant indication rate. Moreover, the dogs demonstrated great competence in pinpointing emerging and smaller red imported fire ant nests in red imported fire ant-infested areas that had been previously confirmed by bait trap stations. (2) Along with the bait trap method, we also discovered that approximately 90% of red imported fire ants foraged within a distance of 14 m away from their nests. The results prove detection dogs to be most effective for red imported fire ant control in areas that have been previously treated with pesticides and therefore containing a low density of remaining red imported fire ant nests. Furthermore, as a complement to other red imported fire ant monitoring methods, this strategy will significantly increase the efficacy of red imported fire ant control in cases of individual mount treatment. PMID:21404862

Lin, Hui-Min; Chi, Wei-Lien; Lin, Chung-Chi; Tseng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Wang-Ting; Kung, Yu-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Chen, Yang-Yuan

2011-02-01

294

An ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous optimization: application to feed-forward neural network training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is an optimization technique that was inspired by the foraging behaviour of real ant colonies.\\u000a Originally, the method was introduced for the application to discrete optimization problems. Recently we proposed a first\\u000a ACO variant for continuous optimization. In this work we choose the training of feed-forward neural networks for pattern classification\\u000a as a test case for

Krzysztof Socha; Christian Blum

2007-01-01

295

A mechanism design approach to an optimal contract under ex ante and ex post private information  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper applies a mechanism design approach to the problem of an optimal contract when one party has both ex ante and\\u000a ex post private information. With ex ante private information added to the costly state verification environment, the timing\\u000a of the contract is important in achieving the first-best investment decision. It is shown that an optimal contract involves

C. Choe

1998-01-01

296

Generalized Nets as Tools for Modeling of the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been used successfully to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. This metaheuristic\\u000a method is inspired by the foraging behavior of ant colonies, which manage to establish the shortest routes to feeding sources\\u000a and back. We discuss some possibilities for describing of the ACO algorithms by Generalized Nets (GNs), that help us deeply\\u000a to understand the processes

Stefka Fidanova; Krassimir Atanassov

2009-01-01

297

A P2P resource search model based on Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the problems of exiting P2P network, such as low search efficiency, huge message of packets, this paper propose a P2P resource search mechanism based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. It directs the searching ants to the domains with higher reputation degree in the inter-domain resource query. The simulation shows that the method is effective improving the success

Lian-ying Zhou; Long-ji Sun

2010-01-01

298

Interaction between Ants on a Scent Trail  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that many ants lay scent trails on the ground which can be followed by other ants1-3. When an ant is following such a trail it is guided primarily by the scent `marks', although other orientating factors, including visual stimuli, are sometimes also involved2,4. Carthy3 has suggested that another factor contributing to the dense trails formed by

J. H. Sudd

1959-01-01

299

Ant assemblages on rehabilitated tropical landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant assemblages have been used widely throughout the world except in Asia to assess land restoration. In this study, ant assemblages\\u000a were studied on three rehabilitated landfills (closed for 11–26 years) and a mature woodland as reference in Hong Kong. Grassland\\u000a and woodland areas on each landfill were examined separately. Ants were sampled by soil extraction, litter extraction and\\u000a pitfall trapping

W. Y. So; L. M. Chu

2010-01-01

300

Bi-Directional ANT Traffic on Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the non-stationary traffic flow of the ant-trail model. The nontrivial boundary conditions are adopted. The fundamental diagram is distinctly different from that of a closed system. A shock wave is generated when the first ant reaches the food source. The shock wave propagates backward to the nest long before the first ant returns. We revise the pheromone mechanism to ensure that the ants follow the leader on a complex network. The breaking of following-the-leader is also discussed.

Huang, Ding-Wei

301

Spectacular Batesian mimicry in ants.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which palatable species take advantage of their similarity in appearance to those that are unpalatable, in order to avoid predation, is called Batesian mimicry. Several arthropods are thought to be Batesian mimics of social insects; however, social insects that are Batesian mimics among themselves are rare. In Malaysia we found a possible Batesian mimic in an arboreal ant species, Camponotus sp., which was exclusively observed on foraging trails of the myrmicine ant Crematogaster inflata. The bright yellow and black colouring pattern, as well as the walking behaviour, were very similar in both species. We observed general interactions between the two species, and tested their palatability and the significance of the remarkably similar visual colour patterns for predator avoidance. Prey offered to C. inflata was also eaten by Camponotus workers in spite of their being attacked by C. inflata, indicating that Camponotus sp. is a commensal of C. inflata. An experiment with chicks as potential predators suggests that Camponotus sp. is palatable whereas C. inflata is unpalatable. After tasting C. inflata, the chicks no longer attacked Camponotus sp., indicating that Camponotus sp. is a Batesian mimic of Crematogaster inflata. PMID:15729761

Ito, Fuminori; Hashim, Rosli; Huei, Yek Sze; Kaufmann, Eva; Akino, Toshiharu; Billen, Johan

2004-10-01

302

Spectacular Batesian mimicry in ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism by which palatable species take advantage of their similarity in appearance to those that are unpalatable, in order to avoid predation, is called Batesian mimicry. Several arthropods are thought to be Batesian mimics of social insects; however, social insects that are Batesian mimics among themselves are rare. In Malaysia we found a possible Batesian mimic in an arboreal ant species, Camponotus sp., which was exclusively observed on foraging trails of the myrmicine ant Crematogaster inflata. The bright yellow and black colouring pattern, as well as the walking behaviour, were very similar in both species. We observed general interactions between the two species, and tested their palatability and the significance of the remarkably similar visual colour patterns for predator avoidance. Prey offered to C. inflata was also eaten by Camponotus workers in spite of their being attacked by C. inflata, indicating that Camponotus sp. is a commensal of C. inflata. An experiment with chicks as potential predators suggests that Camponotus sp. is palatable whereas C. inflata is unpalatable. After tasting C. inflata, the chicks no longer attacked Camponotus sp., indicating that Camponotus sp. is a Batesian mimic of Crematogaster inflata.

Ito, Fuminori; Hashim, Rosli; Huei, Yek Sze; Kaufmann, Eva; Akino, Toshiharu; Billen, Johan

2004-10-01

303

Plants in Your Ants: Using Ant Mounds to Test Basic Ecological Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban students often have limited access to field sites for ecological studies. Ubiquitous ants and their mounds can be used to study and test ecology-based questions. We describe how soil collected from ant mounds can be used to investigate how biotic factors (ants) can affect abiotic factors in the soil that can, in turn, influence plant…

Zettler, Jennifer A.; Collier, Alexander; Leidersdorf, Bil; Sanou, Missa Patrick

2010-01-01

304

Competitive Mechanisms Underlying the Displacement of Native Ants by the Invasive Argentine Ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is a widespread invasive species that competitively displaces native ants throughout its introduced range. Although this pattern of displacement is well known, its underlying mechanisms remain little studied. To gain a more detailed understanding of this widespread competitive displacement, I compared the exploitative and interference abilities of the Argentine ant with those of seven species

David A. Holway

1999-01-01

305

An Adaptive Ant Colony Algorithm Based on Equilibrium of Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To settle the contradictory between convergence speed and precocity and stagnation in ant colony algorithm, an adaptive ant colony algorithm, which is based on the equilibrium of the ant distribution, is presented. By dynamically adjusting the influence of each ant to the trail information updating and the selected probabilities of the paths according to the equilibrium of the ant distribution,

CHEN Ling; SHEN Jie; QIN Ling; CHEN Hong-Jian

306

Application of the Ant Colony Algorithm for the Path Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the ant colony algorithm and its application for the path planning. Ant algorithms were designed on the base of the behaviour of real ant colonies. Real ants can always find the shortest way between the nest and the food so one of the most “natural” is the application of the ant colony algorithm in the path planning.

Marcin Pluci?ski

307

An Adaptive Pheromone Updation of the Ant-System using LMS Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a modified model of pheromone updation for Ant-System, entitled as Adaptive Ant System (AAS), using the properties of basic Adaptive Filters. Here, we have exploited the properties of Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm for the pheromone updation to find out the best minimum tour for the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). TSP library has been used for the selection of benchmark problem and the proposed AAS determines the minimum tour length for the problems containing large number of cities. Our algorithm shows effective results and gives least tour length in most of the cases as compared to other existing approaches.

Paul, Abhishek; Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra

2010-10-01

308

The evolution of genome size in ants  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae) remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta), and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg). Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus), trapjaw ants (Odontomachus), fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex), harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex), carpenter ants (Camponotus), a fire ant (Solenopsis), and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia). Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae) and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may include occasional whole-genome duplication. The small genome sizes of ants, combined with their ecological, evolutionary and agricultural importance, suggest that some of these species may be good candidates for future whole-genome sequencing projects.

2008-01-01

309

Parameter estimation of dynamical systems via a chaotic ant swarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the construction of suitable objective function, the parameter estimation of the dynamical system could be converted to the problem of parameter optimization. Based on the chaotic ant swarm optimization approach, we investigate the problem of parameter optimization for the dynamical systems in the presence of noise. We systematically analyze the basic relationships among the complexity of objective function, the length of time series, and the performance of the searching algorithm. Furthermore, we consider the effect of measurable additive noise on the objective function. Numerical simulations are also provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

Peng, Haipeng; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian; Liu, Fei

2010-01-01

310

Resource leveling scheduling by an ant colony-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In project scheduling, many problems can arise when resource fluctuations are beyond acceptable limits. To overcome this, mathematical techniques have been developed for leveling resources. However, these produce a hard and inflexible approach in scheduling projects. The authors propose a simple resource leveling approach that can be used in scheduling projects with multi-mode execution activities. In the mentioned approach, an ant algorithm determines the execution mode of each activity so that resource leveling index and project time become optimum. In the model, some visibility functions (defined in accordance with problem characteristics) are utilized, and the best, which return the best result, is selected for the model.

Garmsiri, Mohsen; Abassi, Mohammad Reza

2012-07-01

311

Optimal path planning for mobile robots based on intensified ant colony optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal path planning for mobile robots plays an important role in the field of robotics. At present, there are many advanced algorithms used to solve this optimal problem. However, for those algorithms, it is very difficult to solve some path planning problems containing certain constraint conditions due to the complex background environment. Based on the intensified ant colony optimization algorithm,

Xiaoping Fan; Xiong Luo; Sheng Yi; Shengyue Yang; Heng Zhang

2003-01-01

312

Distribution network reconfiguration for loss reduction by ant colony search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) to solve the optimal network reconfiguration problem for power loss reduction. The ACSA is a relatively new and powerful intelligence evolution method for solving optimization problems. It is a population-based approach that uses exploration of positive feedback as well as greedy search. The ACSA was inspired from natural behavior of the

Ching-Tzong Su; Chung-Fu Chang; Ji-Pyng Chiou

2005-01-01

313

Solving the Optimization of Projection Pursuit Model Using Improved Ant Colony Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection pursuit was a reducing dimensions treatment method. It was widely used to make the transition from high dimensional problem to one dimensional problem by projection direction. It was usually difficult to search the best projection direction, however it could be solved by an optimization question. Aimed at the prematurity and stagnancy shortages of basic ant colony, some improved countermeasures

Guang-Zhou Chen; Jia-Quan Wang; Chuan-Jun Li

2008-01-01

314

Information Exchange in Multi Colony Ant Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi colony ant algorithms are evolutionary optimization heuristics that are well suited for parallel execution. Information exchange between the colonies is an important topic that not only influences the parallel execution time but also the optimization behaviour. In this paper different kinds of information exchange strategies in multi colony ant algorithms are investigated. It is shown that the exchange of

Martin Middendorf; Frank Reischle; Hartmut Schmeck

2000-01-01

315

Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Yukon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant material examined from the Yukon suggests that 19 recognized species occur there, taking into account outdated species taxonomy for the genera Myrmica, Leptothorax (sensu stricto) and Formica that compose the core of the ant fauna of the Yukon. The Palaearctic Formica gagatoides, a species associated with taiga environments in Eurasia, is recorded for the first time in North America.

ANDRÉ FRANCOEUR

316

The Use of Ants in Field Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a brief description of the biology and taxonomy of British ants. Suggested are a range of exercises which could be used for class or project work in secondary biology classes. Illustrates many ecological, behavioral and physiological points regarding the species of ants found in Great Britain. (Author/CW)

Skinner, Gary J.

1988-01-01

317

CONTROL FIRE ANTS BY USING DECAPITATING FLIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers with the USDA, ARS Biological Control of Pests Research Unit are rearing Pseudacteon curvatus, a tiny fly in the family Phoridae that parasitizes and kills imported fire ants. The flies only attack fire ants, and are not attracted to vegetables (12 kinds), fruit (13 kinds), raw meat (7 ...

318

Key to Identifying Common Household Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short lucid key to 8 common household ant species with control strategies. The information presented is accurate and the key easy to use; ancillary pages are also useful. The key may present difficulties if other ant species are encountered or in other parts of the U.S.

0002-11-30

319

Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants’ response was very precise, since they exhibited

M. C. Cammaerts

2004-01-01

320

Pheromone models in ant colony optimization (ACO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization is a constructive meta-heuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. In this paper, using the difference equations as a tool of research, we propose the mathematical model of the distribution of pheromone at the classic double bridge experiment, explain the mathematical model of the pheromone function in the

E. Foundas

2006-01-01

321

Modeling Ant Behavior Under a Variable Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the behavior of ants when moving in an artificial network composed of several interconnected paths linking their nest to a food source. The ant responses when temporarily blocking the access to some branches of the maze were observed in order to study which factors influenced their local decisions about the paths to follow. We present a mathematical

Karla Vittori; Jacques Gautrais; Aluizio F. R. Araújo; Vincent Fourcassié; Guy Theraulaz

2004-01-01

322

Particle Swarm and Ant Colony Approaches in Multiobjective Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The social behavior of groups of birds, ants, insects and fish has been used to develop evolutionary algorithms known as swarm intelligence techniques for solving optimization problems. This work presents the development of strategies for the application of two of the popular swarm intelligence techniques, namely the particle swarm and ant colony methods, for the solution of multiobjective optimization problems. In a multiobjective optimization problem, the objectives exhibit a conflicting nature and hence no design vector can minimize all the objectives simultaneously. The concept of Pareto-optimal solution is used in finding a compromise solution. A modified cooperative game theory approach, in which each objective is associated with a different player, is used in this work. The applicability and computational efficiencies of the proposed techniques are demonstrated through several illustrative examples involving unconstrained and constrained problems with single and multiple objectives and continuous and mixed design variables. The present methodologies are expected to be useful for the solution of a variety of practical continuous and mixed optimization problems involving single or multiple objectives with or without constraints.

Rao, S. S.

2010-10-01

323

Microtubules viewed as molecular ant colonies.  

PubMed

Populations of ants and other social insects self-organize and develop 'emergent' properties through stigmergy in which individual ants communicate with one another via chemical trails of pheromones that attract or repulse other ants. In this way, sophisticated properties and functions develop. Under appropriate conditions, in vitro microtubule preparations, initially comprised of only tubulin and GTP, behave in a similar manner. They self-organize and develop other higher-level emergent phenomena by a process where individual microtubules are coupled together by the chemical trails they produce by their own reactive growing and shrinking. This behaviour is described and compared with the behaviour of ant colonies. Viewing microtubules as populations of molecular ants may provide new insights as to how the cytoskeleton may spontaneously develop high-level functions. It is plausible that such processes occur during the early stages of embryogenesis and in cells. PMID:16968217

Tabony, James

2006-10-01

324

Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails.  

PubMed

The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings. PMID:22482017

Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2012-01-01

325

Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails  

PubMed Central

The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

Gruter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M.; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

2012-01-01

326

Worker reproduction in Formica ants.  

PubMed

A potential tragedy of the commons arises in social-insect colonies where workers are fertile if egg-laying workers decrease their contribution to other tasks. We studied worker ovary development and egg laying in relation to kin structure, colony size, and the presence of a queen in nine species (11 populations) of Formica ants. Workers were highly fertile and laid eggs in the presence of a queen in five out of the seven species where egg samples were obtained. Worker fertility correlated neither with colony size nor with kin structure, which suggests that colony-level costs and efficiency of policing precede relatedness as the most important conflict determinant. We conclude that careful quantification of the costs of worker reproduction and policing is essential for inferences about the tragedy of the commons. PMID:17853986

Helantera, Heikki; Sundstrom, Liselotte

2007-05-22

327

7 CFR Appendix to Subpart - Imported Fire Ant  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...monthly for the presence of imported fire ants. Nurseries participating in...of previous detections of imported fire ants in or near containerized plants...inspectors upon request. If imported fire ants are detected in nursery...

2007-01-01

328

A population-based hybrid ant system for quadratic assignment formulations in facility layout design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facility layout design problem is an extensively studied research problem and belongs to nonpolynomial hard (NP-hard)\\u000a combinatorial optimization problem. Quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is one of the formulations that is investigated for\\u000a facility layout design because of its wide applicability. Ant colony optimization (ACO), a biologically inspired heuristic\\u000a has centered on solving the QAP by achieving approximation as good

A. S. Ramkumar; S. G. Ponnambalam; N. Jawahar

2009-01-01

329

Diaspore trait preferences of dispersing ants.  

PubMed

Elaiosomes of myrmecochorous plant seeds are known to enhance the attraction of diaspore-dispersing ants by serving as a nutritional reward. However, it remained unclear which (nutritional) compounds affect diaspore preferences of ants. We hypothesized that apart from elaiosome/seed-size ratio, volume, and physical surface of diaspores, the quantity and the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars strongly influence the diaspore preferences of different species. Chemical (nutritional) profiles as well as structural properties of seeds with and without elaiosomes were analyzed and correlated with observed seed choice behavior of ants. Cafeteria experiments in the field confirmed the enhanced attractiveness of elaiosome-bearing seeds for all three ant species tested (Lasius fuliginosus, Myrmica ruginodis, and Temnothorax nylanderi), although seeds lacking elaiosomes also were transported. In multiple-choice cafeteria experiments with simultaneously offered diaspores of 16 plant species with and without elaiosome and with highly varying structural and chemical properties, all three ant species showed distinct preferences for certain diaspore species. Correlation analyses confirmed that the presence of an elaiosome represents the crucial factor that favors ant diaspore dispersal. In addition, the composition and the content of free amino acids, and to varying degrees fatty acids, were found to significantly affect preferences of each ant species, whereas the effect of single fatty acids acting as chemical triggers for diaspore transport by ants, as supposed by several studies, was not confirmed. In conclusion, although at least some diaspore species lacking elaiosomes attract ants for diaspore removal services by presenting nutritional seed coats, the production of elaiosomes seems to provide a worthwhile investment. Elaiosomes ensure rapid diaspore detection and removal due to chemical cue compounds and by offering a highly nutritional food supply, probably fitting the nutritional demands of ants. PMID:22903746

Reifenrath, Kerstin; Becker, Christine; Poethke, Hans Joachim

2012-08-18

330

Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.  

PubMed

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

2008-11-26

331

Phylogenomics Resolves Evolutionary Relationships among Ants, Bees, and Wasps.  

PubMed

Eusocial behavior has arisen in few animal groups, most notably in the aculeate Hymenoptera, a clade comprising ants, bees, and stinging wasps [1-4]. Phylogeny is crucial to understanding the evolution of the salient features of these insects, including eusociality [5]. Yet the phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of aculeate Hymenoptera remain contentious [6-12]. We address this problem here by generating and analyzing genomic data for a representative series of taxa. We obtain a single well-resolved and strongly supported tree, robust to multiple methods of phylogenetic inference. Apoidea (spheciform wasps and bees) and ants are sister groups, a novel finding that contradicts earlier views that ants are closer to ectoparasitoid wasps. Vespid wasps (paper wasps, yellow jackets, and relatives) are sister to all other aculeates except chrysidoids. Thus, all eusocial species of Hymenoptera are contained within two major groups, characterized by transport of larval provisions and nest construction, likely prerequisites for the evolution of eusociality. These two lineages are interpolated among three other clades of wasps whose species are predominantly ectoparasitoids on concealed hosts, the inferred ancestral condition for aculeates [2]. This phylogeny provides a new framework for exploring the evolution of nesting, feeding, and social behavior within the stinging Hymenoptera. PMID:24094856

Johnson, Brian R; Borowiec, Marek L; Chiu, Joanna C; Lee, Ernest K; Atallah, Joel; Ward, Philip S

2013-10-03

332

Ant-colony algorithms for permutation flowshop scheduling to minimize makespan\\/total flowtime of jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The problem of scheduling in permutation flowshops is considered with the objective of minimizing the makespan, followed,by the consideration,of minimization,of total flowtime,of jobs. Two ant-colony optimization,algorithms,are proposed,and analyzed,for solving the permutation,flowshop,scheduling problem. The first algorithm,extends the ideas of the ant-colony algorithm,by Stuetzle [Proceedings of the 6th European,Congress on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing (EUFIT 98),vol. 3,Verlag Mainz Aachen Germany

Chandrasekharan Rajendran; Hans Ziegler

2004-01-01

333

A Stochastic Inversion Method for Potential Field Data: Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulating natural ants' foraging behavior, the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm performs excellently in combinational optimization problems, for example the traveling salesman problem and the quadratic assignment problem. However, the ACO is seldom used to inverted for gravitational and magnetic data. On the basis of the continuous and multi-dimensional objective function for potential field data optimization inversion, we present the node partition strategy ACO (NP-ACO) algorithm for inversion of model variables of fixed shape and recovery of physical property distributions of complicated shape models. We divide the continuous variables into discrete nodes and ants directionally tour the nodes by use of transition probabilities. We update the pheromone trails by use of Gaussian mapping between the objective function value and the quantity of pheromone. It can analyze the search results in real time and promote the rate of convergence and precision of inversion. Traditional mapping, including the ant-cycle system, weaken the differences between ant individuals and lead to premature convergence. We tested our method by use of synthetic data and real data from scenarios involving gravity and magnetic anomalies. The inverted model variables and recovered physical property distributions were in good agreement with the true values. The ACO algorithm for binary representation imaging and full imaging can recover sharper physical property distributions than traditional linear inversion methods. The ACO has good optimization capability and some excellent characteristics, for example robustness, parallel implementation, and portability, compared with other stochastic metaheuristics.

Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Liu, Tianyou

2013-10-01

334

Ant-seed interactions: combined effects of ant and plant species on seed removal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Seed dispersal by ants (i.e. myrmecochory) is usually considered as a mutualism: ants feed on nutritive bodies, called elaiosomes,\\u000a before rejecting and dispersing seeds in their nest surroundings. While mechanisms of plant dispersal in the field are well\\u000a documented, the behaviour of the ant partner was rarely investigated in details. Here, we compared in laboratory conditions\\u000a the foraging behaviour of

P. Servigne; C. Detrain

2008-01-01

335

Tropical arboreal ant mosaics: innate attraction and imprinting determine nest site selection in dominant ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modalities of nest site selection have, until now, been a key factor missing in the understanding of the arboreal ant\\u000a mosaic, the manipulation of which could be used to favour one ant species to the detriment of others in biological control.\\u000a We compared two dominant African arboreal ants of economic importance, Tetramorium aculeatum (Myrmicinae) and Oecophylla longinoda (Formicinae). The

Champlain Djieto-Lordon; Alain Dejean

1999-01-01

336

Forest edges and fire ants alter the seed shadow of an ant-dispersed plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic species invade fragmented, edge-rich habitats readily, yet the distinct impacts of habitat edges and invaders on native biota are rarely distinguished. Both appear detrimental to ant-dispersed plants such as bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis. Working in northeastern Georgia (USA), an area characterized by a rich ant-dispersed flora, fragmented forests, and invasions by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta , I

J. H. Ness

2004-01-01

337

Public Notification: “African Black Ant” Contains Undeclared ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... 04-05-2012] The Food and Drug ... analysis confirmed that “African Black Ant” contains sildenafil ... These drugs may interact with nitrates found in some ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

338

Structure and formation of ant transportation networks  

PubMed Central

Many biological systems use extensive networks for the transport of resources and information. Ants are no exception. How do biological systems achieve efficient transportation networks in the absence of centralized control and without global knowledge of the environment? Here, we address this question by studying the formation and properties of inter-nest transportation networks in the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). We find that the formation of inter-nest networks depends on the number of ants involved in the construction process. When the number of ants is sufficient and networks do form, they tend to have short total length but a low level of robustness. These networks are topologically similar to either minimum spanning trees or Steiner networks. The process of network formation involves an initial construction of multiple links followed by a pruning process that reduces the number of trails. Our study thus illuminates the conditions under and the process by which minimal biological transport networks can be constructed.

Latty, Tanya; Ramsch, Kai; Ito, Kentaro; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Sumpter, David J. T.; Middendorf, Martin; Beekman, Madeleine

2011-01-01

339

Imported Fire Ant Program Manual, First Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual will prepare you to accomplish the following tasks: Perform accurate surveys for Imported Fire Ant (IFA) along the leading edge of infestation; Determine the movement (entry) status of regulated and nonregulated articles; Facilitate the moveme...

2004-01-01

340

Public Notification: "Black Ant” Contains Undeclared Drug ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Public Notification: "Black Ant” Contains Undeclared Drug Ingredient. [3/16/2011] The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is advising consumers ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

341

Flow shop scheduling to minimize the total completion time with a permanently present operator: Models and ant colony optimization metaheuristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the one-operator m-machine flow shop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the total completion time. In this problem, the processing of jobs and setup of machines require the continuous presence of a single operator. We compare three different mathematical formulations and propose an ant colony optimization based metaheuristic to solve this flow shop scheduling problem. A

Xiangyong Li; Yash P. Aneja

2011-01-01

342

Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved\\u000a after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant\\u000a walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone.

D. M. Suckling; R. W. Peck; L. M. Manning; L. D. Stringer; J. Cappadonna; A. M. El-Sayed

2008-01-01

343

Characteristics of ant-inspired traffic flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the organization of traffic flow on preexisting uni- and\\u000abidirectional ant trails. Our investigations comprise a theoretical as well as\\u000aan empirical part. We propose minimal models of uni- and bi-directional traffic\\u000aflow implemented as cellular automata. Using these models, the spatio-temporal\\u000aorganization of ants on the trail is studied. Based on this, some unusual flow\\u000acharacteristics which

Alexander John; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katsuhiro Nishinari

2008-01-01

344

Ant-Based Clustering and Topographic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant-based clustering and sorting is a nature-inspired heuristic first introduced as a model for explaining two types of emergent behavior observed in real ant colonies. More recently, it has been applied in a data-mining context to perform both clustering and topographic mapping. Early work demonstrated some promising characteristics of the heuristic but did not extend to a rigorous investigation of

Julia Handl; Joshua D. Knowles; Marco Dorigo

2006-01-01

345

Science Nation: Leaf-cutter Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In established colonies, millions of leaf-cutter ants cut and carry sections of leaves larger than their own bodies as part of a well choreographed, highly functioning society. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF),bacteriologist Cameron Currie and his team study ants and their complex, productive societies to help address some of human society's most pressing challenges, such as better drugs and cleaner energy.

346

Positive effects of shade and shelter construction by ants on leafhopper-ant mutualism.  

PubMed

The myrmecophilous five-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus DeLong and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the influence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quinquenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artificially constructed shade. The greatest numbers of leafhoppers and ants were found on plants that received 50% shade. Shelters made by the ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) contained large numbers of leafhoppers and ants but were found only on T. dactyloides exposed to 50% shade in artificially constructed habitats. Additional sampling was conducted on wild gamagrass plants in the field to explore the presence of ants tending leafhoppers in shelters and to evaluate whether ant-constructed shelters protect leafhopper nymphs from parasitoid wasps. Large aggregations of S. geminata in shelters were also found in natural gamagrass habitats. Leafhopper nymphs living in shelters made by S. geminata may be protected against the dryinid wasp parasitoid Anteon ciudadi Olmi. No sheltered nymphs were parasitized by dryinids, whereas 24% of unsheltered nymphs had dryinid parasitism. PMID:19161690

Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Larsen, Kirk J

2008-12-01

347

An Ant Colony Optimization Model for Parallel Machine Scheduling with Human Resource Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This model proposed an ant colony optimization model to tackle human resource constrained parallel machine scheduling problem\\u000a with precedence constraints. In this model, four subsystems are designed to solve the problem, including input subsystem which\\u000a conducts the problem and the ACO model related parameters and output subsystem which exports scheduling and analysis results,\\u000a sequence searching subsystem which constructs feasible sequence

Zhu Qiong; Gu Yichao; Zhang Gong; Zhang Jie; Chen Xuefang

348

Experimental Study of the Dynamics of Ant Search Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the search paths of ants in order to describe their search mechanism mathematically. Ants have become a popular species to use in models of artificial life. In this experiment, we study real ants searching for food on two-dimensional smooth and textured surfaces in the absence of a food source. The ant's position is extracted from a time series

D. J. Slomski; S. M. Covert; G. W. Baxter

2004-01-01

349

Literature for 1911 on the behavior of ants and myrmecophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 47 studies (1911) on the behavior of ants and myrmecophiles. Studies on ants focus on their moving habits and division of labor, their homing and nests. Studies have also focused on the relation of fecundated female ants toward each other. Characteristics of their nests and the activities of different species of ants have been the focus of some studies.

William M. Mann

1912-01-01

350

A theoretical model for uni-directional ant trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model of uni-directional ant traffic, motivated by the motion of ants in trail is proposed. Two different type of ants, one of which smells very well and the other does not, are considered. The flux of ants in this model is investigated as functions of the probability of evaporation rate of pheromone. The obtained results indicate that the

Ozhan Kayacan

2011-01-01

351

Multi agent routing to multi targets via ant colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a cooperative, population-based technique for optimization. Ant algorithms were designed on the base of the behavior of real ant colonies. Real ants can always find the shortest way between the nest and food source, using the environment as the communication tool, named stigmergy. In this paper we focus precisely on the process of finding an

Mandana Eghbali; Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi

2010-01-01

352

UAV path planning method based on ant colony optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new UAV path planning method based on ant colony optimization (ACO) is presented. The target position is considered as the food source which the ants are going to find. The enemy defense region is considered as the searching area of the ants and is divided into equally spaced grids. The ants move to the destination node through several nodes

Chao Zhang; Ziyang Zhen; Daobo Wang; Meng Li

2010-01-01

353

Musings on the management of Nylanderia fulva Crazy Ants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nylanderia fulva is an invasive crazy ant that can inundate landscapes and structures. This invasive ant has been called the Caribbean crazy ant in Florida and the Rasberry [sic] crazy ant in Texas. The species was thought to be Nylanderia pubens or Nylanderia near pubens, in Florida and Texas, resp...

354

The macroevolutionary dynamics of ant diversification.  

PubMed

The availability of increasingly comprehensive phylogenies has provided unprecedented opportunities to assess macroevolutionary patterns, yet studies on invertebrate diversification are few. In particular, despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of ants, little is known about their tempo and mode of diversification. Recent advances in ant phylogenetics can now provide a basis for rigorous analyses of the diversification of ant lineages. The goals of the present study are threefold. First, we demonstrate that a hypothesized disproportionate increase in ant diversification during the angiosperm radiation is largely artifactual. Rather, current evidence points to a fairly constant rate of lineage growth during its history. Moreover, an analysis of diversification patterns across the ant phylogeny indicates considerable rate heterogeneity among lineages. Indeed, and contrary to the expectation if lineages had experienced a single rate of lineage increase, we found no correspondence between genus age and diversity. Finally, we demonstrate a statistically significant phylogenetic signal in ant diversification: closely related genera have diversities that are more similar to one another than one would expect by chance. This suggests that the capacity for diversification may be itself a biological trait that evolved during the radiation of the family Formicidae. PMID:19619225

Pie, Marcio R; Tschá, Marcel K

2009-07-10

355

Visual scene perception in navigating wood ants.  

PubMed

Ants, like honeybees, can set their travel direction along foraging routes using just the surrounding visual panorama. This ability gives us a way to explore how visual scenes are perceived. By training wood ants to follow a path in an artificial scene and then examining their path within transformed scenes, we identify several perceptual operations that contribute to the ants' choice of direction. The first is a novel extension to the known ability of insects to compute the "center of mass" of large shapes: ants learn a desired heading toward a point on a distant shape as the proportion of the shape that lies to the left and right of the aiming point--the 'fractional position of mass' (FPM). The second operation, the extraction of local visual features like oriented edges, is familiar from studies of shape perception. Ants may use such features for guidance by keeping them in desired retinal locations. Third, ants exhibit segmentation. They compute the learned FPM over the whole of a simple scene, but over a segmented region of a complex scene. We suggest how the three operations may combine to provide efficient directional guidance. PMID:23583550

Lent, David D; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

2013-04-11

356

Ant semiochemicals limit apterous aphid dispersal.  

PubMed

Some organisms can manipulate the nervous systems of others or alter their physiology in order to obtain benefit. Ants are known to limit alate aphid dispersal by physically removing wings and also through chemical manipulation of the alate developmental pathway. This results in reduced dispersal and higher local densities of aphids, which benefit ants in terms of increased honeydew and prey availability. Here, we show that the walking movement of mutualistic apterous aphids is also reduced by ant semiochemicals. Aphids walk slower and their dispersal from an unsuitable patch is hampered by ants. If aphid walking dispersal has evolved as a means of natural enemy escape, then ant chemicals may act as a signal indicating protection; hence, reduced dispersal could be adaptive for aphids. If, however, dispersal is primarily a means to reduce competition or to maintain persistent metapopulations, then manipulation by ants could be detrimental. Such manipulation strategies, common in host-parasite and predator-prey interactions, may be more common in mutualism than expected. PMID:17925280

Oliver, Thomas H; Mashanova, Alla; Leather, Simon R; Cook, James M; Jansen, Vincent A A

2007-12-22

357

Strong Combination of Ant Colony Optimization with Constraint Programming Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an approach which combines ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) and IBM ILOG CP Optimizer for solving COPs (Combinatorial Optimization Problems). The problem is modeled using the CP Optimizer modeling API. Then, it is solved in a generic way by a two-phase algorithm. The first phase aims at creating a hot start for the second: it samples the solution space and applies reinforcement learning techniques as implemented in ACO to create pheromone trails. During the second phase, CP Optimizer performs a complete tree search guided by the pheromone trails previously accumulated. The first experimental results on knapsack, quadratic assignment and maximum independent set problems show that this new algorithm enhances the performance of CP Optimizer alone.

Khichane, Madjid; Albert, Patrick; Solnon, Christine

358

Invention and modification of a new tool use behavior: ant-fishing in trees by a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.  

PubMed

Wild chimpanzees are known to have a different repertoire of tool use unique to each community. For example, "ant-dipping" is a tool use behavior known in several chimpanzee communities across Africa targeted at driver ants (Dorylus spp.) on the ground, whereas "ant-fishing," which is aimed at carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) in trees, has primarily been observed among the chimpanzees of Mahale in Tanzania. Although the evidence for differences between field sites is accumulating, we have little knowledge on how these tool use behaviors appear at each site and on how these are modified over time. This study reports two"ant-fishing" sessions which occurred 2 years apart by a young male chimpanzee at Bossou, Guinea. Ant-fishing had never been observed before in this community over the past 27 years. During the first session, at the age of 5, he employed wands of similar length when ant-fishing in trees to those used for ant-dipping on the ground, which is a customary tool use behavior of this community. Two years later, at the age of 7, his tools for ant-fishing were shorter and more suitable for capturing carpenter ants. This observation is a rare example of innovation in the wild and does provide insights into problem-solving and learning processes in chimpanzees. PMID:18459112

Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamakoshi, Gen; Humle, Tatyana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2008-07-01

359

Data mining with an ant colony optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes an algorithm for data mining called Ant-Miner (Ant Colony-based Data Miner). The goal of Ant-Miner is to extract classification rules from data. The algorithm is inspired by both research on the behavior of real ant colonies and some data mining concepts and principles. We compare the performance of Ant-Miner with CN2, a well-known data mining algorithm for

Rafael S. Parpinelli; Heitor S. Lopes; Alex Alves Freitas

2002-01-01

360

Experimental Study of the Dynamics of Ant Search Paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the search paths of ants in order to describe their search mechanism mathematically. Ants have become a popular species to use in models of artificial life. In this experiment, we study real ants searching for food on two-dimensional smooth and textured surfaces in the absence of a food source. The ant's position is extracted from a time series of images to determine the trajectory or ant trail. The resulting trails are compared with various types of random walk.

Slomski, D. J.; Covert, S. M.; Baxter, G. W.

2004-03-01

361

Code of AntPlant Mutualism Broken by Parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly discovered Phyllobaenus beetles are parasites of a mutualism. Piper ant-plants in tropical forests provide lipid and protein-rich food cells and shelter for Pheidole bicornis ants while the ants remove small herbivores and vines from the foliage. In contrast to all other ant-plants, Piper ant-plants produce food bodies only when Pheidole bicornis is present in the plant. However, Phyllobaenus beetles

Deborah K. Letourneau

1990-01-01

362

Project EAST: Fire Ants or No Fire Ants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Project EAST program rises to the top as a best practices model. Currently serving 450 students on four Islands, the mission of EAST is to promote critical thinking and problem solving skills, by engaging students in an educational environment steeped in emerging technologies and community based learning. Project EAST student, Shanoa Miller utilized GIS to answer the burning question

Shanoa Miller; Leslie Wilkins; Isla Young

363

Linked indirect effects in ant-phorid interactions: impacts on ant assemblage structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction modifications arise when the presence of one species alters the behavior of a second thereby altering that species' interactions with a third. Species-specific phorid parasitoids that attack ants at food resources can modify the competitive interactions between their host and competing ant species. This study examines whether interaction modifications created during interactions between the phorid fly parasitoid, Apocephalus sp.

Edward G. LeBrun; Donald H. Feener Jr

2002-01-01

364

Bacterial Associates of Arboreal Ants and Their Putative Functions in an Obligate AntPlant Mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities are highly diverse and have great ecological importance. In the present study, we used an in silico analysis of terminal restriction fragments (tRF) to characterize the bacterial community of the plant ant Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus. This species is an obligate inhabitant of Acacia myrmecophytes and feeds exclusively on plant-derived food sources. Ants are the dominant insect group in tropical

Sascha Eilmus; Martin Heil

2009-01-01

365

AntCrawlers: Focused Crawling Agents Based on the Idea of Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the researches on focused search engines have achieved a series of results. Such as, in focused search field, most researchers focus on how single agent to crawl on web. However, we propose a multi-agent system in this paper based on the idea of Ants. As natural ants communicate with pheromone to find food, our agents work with

Zhen Zhang; Yajun Du; Chengjie Li

2009-01-01

366

Using ants for rangeland monitoring: Global patterns in the responses of ant communities to grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants are a prominent invertebrate group used to assess ecological change in response to disturbance. Their application as a bioindicator group has been particularly widespread in Australia, and a recent comprehensive review of their responses to environmental disturbance identified a range of consistent and predictable patterns. Here I conduct a literature review of the responses of ants to grazing globally,

Benjamin D. Hoffmann

2010-01-01

367

An Empirical Analysis of Multiple Objective Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms for the Bi-criteria TSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diculty to solve multiple objective combinatorial op- timization problems with traditional techniques has urged researchers to look for alternative, better performing approaches for them. Recently, several algorithms have been proposed which are based on the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic. In this contribution, the existing algorithms of this kind are reviewed and experimentally tested in several instances of the bi-objective

C. Gar; Oscar Cordón; Francisco Herrera

2004-01-01

368

Combined heat and power economic dispatch by improved ant colony search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulty of solving combined heat and power (CHP) economic dispatch lies in the constraints imposed by the multi-objectives. The mutual dependencies of heat–power capacity make it hard to find a feasible region, not to mention the optimum. This paper presents a novel ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) approach for this problem. The main characteristics of the ACSA are positive

Y. H. Song; C. S. Chou; T. J. Stonham

1999-01-01

369

A Congestion Avoidance Routing Algorithm Based on Ant-Algorithm in Satellite IP Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a congestion avoidance routing algorithm is proposed to solve congestion problems in satellite IP networks. Because of long delay of satellite IP networks, congestions degrade performances of networks dramatically which can not be solved by current routing algorithms proposed in previous works. The routing algorithm named AARA is based on globally optimizing ant-algorithm, which is inspired from

Zhen-Yong Wang; Xue-Mai Gu; Qing Guo

2006-01-01

370

Loss Reduction in Distribution Network Using Simultaneous Capacitor Placement and Reconfiguration with Ant Colony Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

High current amounts, low voltage level and radial structure assign high percentage of active power loss in distribution system. There are many means in reducing the active power loss of distribution networks; this paper introduces an ant colony algorithm to solve the optimal network reconfiguration and capacitor placement problem for power loss reduction and voltage profile enhancement in distribution networks.

M. J. Kasaei; M. Gandomkar

2010-01-01

371

Hybrid genetic-ant colony algorithm based job scheduling method research of arc welding robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research of job scheduling methods of arc welding robot is focused in this paper. The job scheduling of arc welding robot is considered as a Traveling-salesman-Problem. Welding job scheduling is modeled and relevant job scheduling optimization methods are designed. Genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm are applied to robot welding job scheduling first. Then, based on the characteristics of both

Zhengda Meng; Qinqi Chen

2010-01-01

372

A framework for the ex-ante evaluation of ERP software  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely reported that a large number of ERP implementations fail to meet expectations. This is indicative, firstly, of the magnitude of the problems involved in ERP systems implementation and, secondly, of the importance of the ex-ante evaluation and selection process of ERP software. This paper argues that ERP evaluation should extend its scope beyond operational improvements arising

C J Stefanou

2001-01-01

373

Santa Fe Trail for Artificial Ant with Analytic Programming and Three Evolutionary Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a novelty tool for symbolic regression - analytic programming (AP) which is able to solve various problems from the symbolic regression domain. One of the tasks for it can be a setting an optimal trajectory for an artificial ant on Santa Fe trail which is the main application of analytic programming in this paper. In this

Zuzana Oplatková; Ivan Zelinka

2007-01-01

374

SANTA FE TRAIL FOR ARTIFICIAL ANT WITH SIMULATING ANNEALING - PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a novelty tool for symbolic regression - Analytic Programming (AP) which is able to solve various problems from the symbolic regression domain. One of tasks for it can be setting an optimal trajectory for artificial ant on Santa Fe trail which is main application of Analytic Programming in this paper. In this contribution main principles of

Zuzana Oplatková; Ivan Zelinka

375

A new method based on taxonomic sufficiency to simplify studies on Neotropical ant assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects, particularly ants, are good bioindicators of the state of ecosystems. Nevertheless, incorporating them into conservation surveys is expensive due to problems associated with their identification, which is exacerbated by the fact that there are fewer and fewer taxonomists working today. “Taxonomic sufficiency” (TS), which identifies organisms to a level of taxonomic resolution sufficient enough to satisfy the objectives of

Sarah Groc; Jacques H. C. Delabie; John T. Longino; Jérôme Orivel; Jonathan D. Majer; Heraldo L. Vasconcelos; Alain Dejean

2010-01-01

376

Expanding habitat of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) : A public health concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents in the southeastern United States would hardly describe life with the aggressive imported fire ant as peaceful coexistence. The continued spread of these insects has produced agricultural problems, changes in the ecosystem, and increasing numbers of subjects with sting sequelae, including hypersensitivity reactions, secondary infections, and rare neurologic sequelae. Evolutionary changes have facilitated their expansion northward into Virginia and

Stephen F. Kemp; Richard D. deShazo; John E. Moffitt; David F. Williams; William A. Buhner

2000-01-01

377

Research on capacity planning of WDM networks using improved ant colony algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cost-effective capacity planning method of WDM networks is proposed for increase of traffic load. An improved costbased ant colony algorithm is presented from pheromone increase and update mechanisms to solve the planning problem. Simulation results show the applicability of our planning method.

Luo, Pei; Huang, Shanguo; Lv, Lin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Wanyi

2009-11-01

378

Parameter tuning of production scheduling rules by an ant system-embedded genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a search algorithm is proposed for parameter tuning of production rules in job shop scheduling problems. This algorithm is developed based on the genetic algorithm, which is the core for exploration in the search space. Then an ant system is incorporated, which directs the genetic algorithm to search in the potential regions by marking potential genes for

Tsung-che Chiang; Li-chen Fu

2004-01-01

379

Child abuse prevention: Studies of ante-natal and post-natal services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ante-natal and post-natal services provide an obvious focus for preventive strategies for child abuse. This review describes thirteen studies from the child abuse literature which assessed the impact of such additional services. The methodological problems limiting the generaliseability of the results are discussed. These include a lack of specification of the aims, methods, and outcomes of the interventions which makes

David Gough; Jeremy Taylor

1988-01-01

380

A model based on ant colony system and rough set theory to feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a hybrid approach to feature selection based on Ant Colony System algorithm and Rough Set Theory. Rough Set Theory offers the heuristic function to measure the quality of a single subset. We have studied the influence of the setting of the parameters for this problem, in particular for finding reducts. Experimental results show this hybrid

Rafael Bello; A. Nowe; Yaile Caballero; Yudel Gómez; Peter Vrancx

2005-01-01

381

Protein Folding in Hydrophobic-Polar Lattice Model: A Flexible Ant-Colony Optimization Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a flexible ant colony (FAC) algorithm for solving protein folding problems based on the hydrophobic-polar square lattice model. Collaborations of novel pheromone and heuristic strategies in the proposed algorithm make it more effective in predicting structures of proteins compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms.

Xiao-min Hu; Jun Zhang; Jing Xiao; Yun Li

2008-01-01

382

Alternative Models of Ante-Mortem Probate and Procedural Due Process Limitations on Succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ante-mortem probate stands as a significant recent development in the American law of wealth succession. It confronts a problem that seriously impairs our probate system, the depredatious will contest, and promises to help revitalize the probate process. Already enacted in several states and currently under active study by the Joint Editorial Board of the Uniform Probate Code and the National

Gregory S. Alexander; Albert M. Pearson

1979-01-01

383

Induced responses to herbivory in the Neotropical ant-plant association between Azteca ants and Cecropia trees: response of ants to potential inducing cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant defense against herbivores often involves constitutive and inducible mechanisms of resistance. Obligate ant-plants,\\u000a which provide food and housing for ants, are thought to primarily rely on ants for defense against herbivores. This form of\\u000a plant defense has largely been viewed as static. We have been investigating the dynamic nature of Azteca ants as an inducible defense of Cecropia trees.

Anurag A. Agrawal; Benjamin J. Dubin-Thaler

1999-01-01

384

Histrionicotoxin Alkaloids Finally Detected in an Ant.  

PubMed

Workers of the ant Carebarella bicolor collected in Panama were found to have two major poison-frog alkaloids, cis- and trans-fused decahydroquinolines (DHQs) of the 269AB type, four minor 269AB isomers, two minor 269B isomers, and three isomers of DHQ 271D. For the first time in an ant, however, the DHQs were accompanied by six histrionicotoxins (HTXs), viz., 283A, 285A, 285B, 285C, 287A, and 287D. This co-occurrence of the HTX and DHQ alkaloids is the usual pattern seen in dendrobatid frogs. This finding contrasts with our earlier study, where workers of a Brazilian ant, Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) sp., were found to have a very similar DHQ complex but failed to show HTXs. Several new DHQ alkaloids of MW 271 (named in the frog as 271G) are reported from the above ants that have both m/z 202 and 204 as major fragment ions, unlike the spectrum seen for the poison-frog alkaloid 271D, which has only an m/z 204 base peak. Found also for the first time in skin extracts from the comparison frog Oophaga granulifera of Costa Rica is a trace DHQ of MW 273. It is coded as 273F in the frog; a different isomer is found in the ant. PMID:23088730

Jones, Tappey H; Adams, Rachelle M M; Spande, Thomas F; Garraffo, H Martin; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Schultz, Ted R

2012-10-22

385

Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution.  

PubMed

Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution. PMID:17891532

Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André

2007-09-19

386

Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution.

Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André

2008-02-01

387

Ant-plant mutualisms should be viewed as symbiotic communities  

PubMed Central

Ant-plants provide food and nesting space (domatia) for ants that protect them against herbivores. These mutualisms are often very specific and are usually considered as bipartite, or tripartite when ants use hemipterans as trophobionts. However, fungi growing inside domatia have been recorded by a few authors. Here we report on their occurrence on additional ant-plants from Africa, Asia and South America. We demonstrated the symbiotic nature of the relationship between the plant, the ant and the fungus in the model plant Leonardoxa africana africana and its mutualistic ant Petalomyrmex phylax. Moreover, data suggest the ant-fungus relationship is mutualistic. Here we discuss the most probable role of the fungus and the potential implications on the understanding of nutritional ecology of ant-plant symbioses. The fungus is also associated with the presence of nematodes and bacteria. Many ant-plant symbioses previously considered to be bipartite will soon likely prove to be multipartite symbiotic communities.

Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge; Selosse, Marc-Andre

2009-01-01

388

Ant interactions with soil organisms and associated semiochemicals.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the semiochemical interactions between ants and their soil environment. Ants occupy virtually every ecological niche and have evolved mechanisms to not just cope with, but also manipulate soil organisms. The metapleural gland, specific to ants was thought to be the major source of semiochemical antimicrobial compounds targeting general or specific deleterious microbes. The extremely diverse variety of semiochemicals and their sources with antimicrobial activity or potential activity is highlighted. The leaf-cutting ants and fire ant provide the most researched species, in part because they cause significant economic damage. The leaf-cutting ant is particularly interesting because researchers have uncovered unexpected interactions between leaf-cutting ant fungal farm, parasitic fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and ant defensive semiochemicals. These complex relationships highlight the multidimensional aspects of ants and the soil environment in which they live. PMID:22653568

Vander Meer, Robert

2012-06-01

389

Impacts of residual insecticide barriers on perimeter-invading ants, with particular reference to the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile.  

PubMed

Three liquid insecticide formulations were evaluated as barrier treatments against perimeter-invading ants at a multifamily housing complex in West Lafayette, IN. Several ant species were present at the study site, including (in order of abundance) pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum (L.); honey ant, Prenolepis imparis (Say); odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say); thief ant, Solenopsis molesta (Say); acrobat ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi (Mayr); crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), field ants, Formica spp.; and carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer). Studies began in May 2001 and concluded 8 wk later in July. Individual replicate treatments were placed 0.61 in (2 feet) up and 0.92 m (3 feet) out from the ends of 46.1 by 10.1-m (151 by 33-foot) apartment buildings. Ant sampling was performed with 10 placements of moist cat food for 1 h within treatment zones, followed by capture and removal of recruited ants for later counting. All treatments led to substantial reductions in ant numbers relative to untreated controls. The most effective treatment was fipronil, where 2% of before-treatment ant numbers were present at 8 wk after treatment. Both imidacloprid and cyfluthrin barrier treatments had efficacy comparative with fipronil, but to 4 and 2 wk, respectively. Odorous house ants were not sampled before treatment. Comparisons of ant species composition between treatments and controls revealed an increase in odorous house ant frequencies at 1-8 wk after treatment in treated locations only. These results demonstrate efficacy for both nonrepellent and repellent liquid insecticides as perimeter treatments for pest ants. In addition, our findings with odorous house ant highlight an apparent invasive-like characteristic of this species that may contribute to its dramatic increase in structural infestation rates in many areas of the United States. PMID:15154488

Scharf, Michael E; Ratliff, Catina R; Bennett, Gary W

2004-04-01

390

Aphid egg protection by ants: a novel aspect of the mutualism between the tree-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai and its attendant ant Lasius productus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids often form mutualistic associations with ants, in which the aphids provide the ants with honeydew and the ants defend the aphids from predators. In this paper, we report aphid egg protection by ants as a novel aspect of the deeply interdependent relationship between a tree-feeding aphid and its attendant ant. The ant Lasius productus harbours oviparous females, males, and

Kenji Matsuura; Toshihisa Yashiro

2006-01-01

391

Eosinophilic fasciitis induced by fire ant bites.  

PubMed

Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.Methods: Report of a case of eosinophilic fasciitis and review of the English language literature using a Medline search from 1950 to January 2007.Results: We describe the case of a New Orleans woman who developed eosinophilic fasciitis after fire ant bites post-Hurricane Katrina. A careful literature review confirms an association of eosinophilic fasciitis with unaccustomed vigorous exercise, arthropod bites, and borreliosis, among other etiologic agents.Conclusions: Eosinophilic fasciitis, a rare disorder with unclear pathogenic mechanisms, has been associated with arthropod bites and borreliosis. Fire ant bites should be added to the list of etiologic agents for this disorder. PMID:21603462

Mallepalli, Jyothi R; Quinet, Robert J; Sus, Rachana

2008-01-01

392

Establishing food site vectors in desert ants.  

PubMed

When returning to the site of a successful previous forage, where does one search for the goodies? Should one rely on experience from the previous homebound journey, or should one consider the outbound journey as well, or even exclusively? Desert ants are particularly well suited for pursuing this question because of their primary reliance on path integration in open and featureless desert habitats. Path integration has been studied particularly with regard to homing after lengthy foraging trips. The ants also use path integration to return to plentiful feeding sites, but what is memorised for revisiting the feeder remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that desert ants consider, and indeed linearly average, both outbound and inbound travel for their return to a familiar feeder. This may be interpreted as a strategy to reduce navigation errors. PMID:22279072

Bolek, Siegfried; Wittlinger, Matthias; Wolf, Harald

2012-02-15

393

Markovian Ants in a Queuing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of memoryless Markovian systems and Ant based concept with memory characteristics of deposit pheromone is the basis for the presented artificial intelligence hybrid. Only the initial elements of the system are specified in this paper by illustrating the routes of two ants. The pheromone capacity was first modelled as an exponential-type random variable. The Ant Queueing System was formed. The pheromone capacity was then used to form two independent exponential random variables. The convolution of these variables induces significant quality and quantity changes, mainly the decrease in entropy. The study also provides a possible method for dealing with stationary queueing systems when we are familiar with the state probability and the arrival rate and service rate are unknown.

Tanackov, Ilija; Simi?, Dragan; Sremac, Siniša; Tepi?, Jovan; Koci?-Tanackov, Sun?ica

394

Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis. Methods: Report of a case of eosinophilic fasciitis and review of the English language literature using a Medline search from 1950 to January 2007. Results: We describe the case of a New Orleans woman who developed eosinophilic fasciitis after fire ant bites post-Hurricane Katrina. A careful literature review confirms an association of eosinophilic fasciitis with unaccustomed vigorous exercise, arthropod bites, and borreliosis, among other etiologic agents. Conclusions: Eosinophilic fasciitis, a rare disorder with unclear pathogenic mechanisms, has been associated with arthropod bites and borreliosis. Fire ant bites should be added to the list of etiologic agents for this disorder.

Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

2008-01-01

395

Recruitment strategies and colony size in ants.  

PubMed

Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small colonies tend to use solitary foraging; small to medium sized colonies use tandem running or group recruitment whereas larger colonies use pheromone recruitment trails. Until now, explanations for this correlation have focused on the ants' ecology, such as food resource distribution. However, many species have colonies with a single queen and workforces that grow over several orders of magnitude, and little is known about how a colony's organization, including recruitment methods, may change during its growth. After all, recruitment involves interactions between ants, and hence the size of the colony itself may influence which recruitment method is used--even if the ants' behavioural repertoire remains unchanged. Here we show using mathematical models that the observed correlation can also be explained by recognizing that failure rates in recruitment depend differently on colony size in various recruitment strategies. Our models focus on the build up of recruiter numbers inside colonies and are not based on optimality arguments, such as maximizing food yield. We predict that ant colonies of a certain size should use only one recruitment method (and always the same one) rather than a mix of two or more. These results highlight the importance of the organization of recruitment and how it is affected by colony size. Hence these results should also expand our understanding of ant ecology. PMID:20694195

Planqué, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

2010-08-04

396

Desert ants compensate for navigation uncertainty.  

PubMed

During foraging trips, desert ants Cataglyphis fortis do not rely only on their well-studied path integration system, they also use olfactory cues when approaching a familiar food source. When a wind is blowing from a constant direction, as is characteristic of their desert habitat, the ants do not approach the feeder directly. They rather steer some distance downwind of the food source to pick up odour filaments emanating from the food. They follow this odour trail upwind, and find the source quickly and reliably. This approach behaviour was examined in more detail in order to identify the underlying orientation strategy. First, the ants may employ a 'goal expansion strategy', using odour spread as a spatially limited indicator for the presence of food. In that case, the distance steered downwind of the feeder should be determined by the range of the odour plume (and, for instance, wind speed). It should be independent of the distance between nest and feeder. Second, the ants may apply an 'error compensation strategy', using odour filaments as a guideline towards the food source. Steering downwind by a margin just exceeding their maximum navigation error will lead the ants safely across the odour guide. In that case, the distance steered downwind of the feeder should increase more or less linearly with the nest-feeder distance. Our results unambiguously support the second strategy. When feeders were established at distances of 5-75 m from the nest, the distances steered downwind of the food increased from 0.7 m to 3.4 m in a linear fashion. This result was independent of wind speed or wind direction. It translates into an ant's estimate of its navigation error within a range of 3 degrees to 8 degrees. PMID:16272245

Wolf, Harald; Wehner, Rüdiger

2005-11-01

397

Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to “classical” AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

2006-05-01

398

Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests.  

PubMed

Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to "classical" AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category. PMID:16544124

Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

2006-03-17

399

An ant's-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism.  

PubMed

Ant protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN)-secreting plants is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the EFN-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5 m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5,000 m(2), and workers visit between five and 34 EFN-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to 20 nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms. PMID:23515612

Lanan, M C; Bronstein, J L

2013-03-21

400

A novel short-term generation scheduling technique of thermal units using ant colony search algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel co-operative agents approach, ant colony search algorithm (ACSA)-based scheme, for solving a short-term generation scheduling problem of thermal power systems. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of an alternative intelligent search method in power system optimisation, particularly in short-term generation scheduling problems. The ACSA is derived from the theoretical biology

I. K Yu; Y. H Song

2001-01-01

401

Using Ant Colony Algorithm for Solving Minimum MPR Set and OPNET Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding the minimum MPR set is a NP-complete problem in OLSR protocol, and intelligent computing methods can be used to solve it. Based on analyzing the defects of the strategy of the greedy heuristic algorithm, ant colony algorithm is imported to solve the minimum set of MPR problem. Firstly, defining the out-degree and the in-degree of a node, and in

Xianming Zhao; Huazhu Song; Hongxia Xia; Luo Zhong

2009-01-01

402

Plants in Your Ants: Using Ant Mounds to Test Basic Ecological Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

[PDF] Article from The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 72, No. 3, pages 173Â176. ISSN 0002-7685, electronic ISSN 1938Â4211. ©2010 by National Association of Biology Teachers. This is an article about providing urban students with a field site for ecological studies, using ants and their mounds. The authors describe how soil collected from ant mounds can be used to investigate how biotic factors (ants) can affect abiotic factors in the soil that can, in turn, influence plant growth.

Zettler, Jennifer A.; Sanou, Missa P.; Leidersdorf, Bil; Collier, Alexander

403

Multiobjective optimal placement of switches and protective devices in electric power distribution systems using ant colony optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a multiobjective optimization methodology to optimally place switches and protective devices in electric power distribution networks. Identifying the type and location of them is a combinatorial optimization problem described by a nonlinear and nondifferential function. The multiobjective ant colony optimization (MACO) has been applied to this problem to minimize the total cost while simultaneously minimize two distribution

Wiwat Tippachon; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

2009-01-01

404

Homing in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius.  

PubMed

During homing, the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius orients both to the sun and to chemical cues. Visual patterns are generally the less important. Trails laid from the secretion of Dufour's gland comprise the main chemical homing signal. This orientation mechanism assists foraging workers to return precisely to their own nests even when the nest populations are dense. PMID:5544869

Hölldobler, B

1971-03-19

405

Purification of the Fire Ant Trail Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith), utilizes a trail substance as an aid in effective foraging1. Workers secrete a substance from the Dufour's gland which is deposited from the sting in the form of minute streaks. These mark a trail from a suitable food source to the nest. Workers are strongly attracted to this substance and follow the trail

Christopher T. Walsh; John H. Law

1965-01-01

406

Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.  

PubMed

Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants. PMID:21893064

Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

2011-08-24

407

Fire Ants and the Decapitating Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excellent summary of how the decapitating fly works as a biological control measure against fire ants. Unhurried pace with great supporting video. Good choice for introducing students to the idea of biological control. Video quality is extremely high and the depiction of the complete lifecycle of the fly is valuable.

0002-11-30

408

Allometric scaling of ant foraging trail networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggregation of individuals into colonies raises important questions about scaling of structure and function. We model the metabolic benefits and costs of two-dimensional, fractal- like foraging trails, such as those used by ant colonies. Total area foraged by the colony and, consequently, resource flow to the nest and rate of colony metabolism, increase non-linearly with number of foragers (F)

Joseph Jun; John W. Pepper; Van M. Savage; James F. Gillooly; James H. Brown

2003-01-01

409

The use of ants in field work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper briefly describes the biology and taxonomy of British ants. It then suggests a range of exercises which may be used for class or project work both at GCSE and A-level. The suggestions made illustrate many ecological points but cover other aspects of the biology of these organisms, including their behaviour and physiology.

Gary J. Skinner

1988-01-01

410

Daily and seasonal activity in woodland ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily and seasonal foraging patterns are described for nine species of ants occupying a temperate zone woodland. Two common dominant species, Prenolepis imparis and Formica subsericea, are active at different times of day and during different parts of the year. They appear to be limited by physical factors (temperature and light, respectively) while the subordinate species show a wider tolerance

Joan H. Fellers

1989-01-01

411

Genetic population structure in polygynous formica ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic population structures, both mating and interaction structures, were investigated in three polygynous Formica ants by examining how genotype frequencies are distributed among the nests in their populations. The study is based on electrophoretically analysed enzyme polymorphisms. The patterns of genotypic variation among single-nest workers suggest that polygyny is functional in all the three species. The observed genotype frequencies indicate

Pekka Pamilo

1982-01-01

412

Ants, Crickets and Frogs in Cyclic Pursuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We consider a deterministic continuous pursuit, in which n ants chase each otherin cyclic order and with preassigned, varying speeds. We also consider two discrete analogs, inwhich crickets or frogs are engaged in cyclic pursuit with constant and equal speeds. We examinethe possible evolutions of these pursuits as time goes to infinity: collision, limit points, equilibriumstates and periodic motion.IntroductionImagine

A. m. Bruckstein; N. Cohen; A. Efrat

1991-01-01

413

Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti.  

PubMed

Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants' response was very precise, since they exhibited it only in front of an apparatus identical to that used during the training phase. Operant conditioning obtained using meat as a reward was more pronounced than that obtained by using sugared water, probably because meat is more valuable as a reward than sugar for the species studied, which is essentially a carnivorous one. Such a conditioning was rather persistent. Indeed, a first operant conditioning obtained by using meat as a reward could still be detected after seven hours, and a reconditioning was still significant after eight hours. One day after this eight-hour period without rewarding the ants, the response was higher again and a further day later, it was still significant. Since the operant conditioning is easy to perform and quantify and since the ants' response is very precise, such a conditioning can be used for further studying M. sabuleti workers' visual perception. PMID:15518991

Cammaerts, M C

2004-11-30

414

Epigenetics: the making of ant castes.  

PubMed

Social insects represent a unique model for how the same genome can give rise to entirely different phenotypes - soldiers, common labourers, and queens. New research on ants and honeybees points to DNA methylation as a crucial factor in determining the caste of a developing individual. PMID:23058801

Chittka, Alexandra; Wurm, Yannick; Chittka, Lars

2012-10-01

415

Ants recognize foes and not friends.  

PubMed

Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating 'friends' (nest-mates) from 'foes' (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

Guerrieri, Fernando J; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2009-04-01

416

Red wood ants in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red wood ants of the Formica rufa group are present in many conifer and mixed- conifer forests of northern Europe and Asia. These six species are part of the For- mica s. str. subgenus, and build large above-ground organic mounds. In contrast, the taxonomic usage of the F. rufa group in North America seems to have a much broader meaning

Martin F. Jurgensen; Andrew J. Storer; Anita C. Risch

2005-01-01

417

Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm of hundreds of picoclass autonomous spacecraft) have many applications. A version designed for surveying and the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

2003-03-01

418

Farmers, Warriors, Builders: The Hidden Life of Ants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History has a highly informative and just plain delightful interactive exhibit on ants. The exhibit explains how, much like humans, "ants achieve domination by being social creatures". Dividing the ants' lives into "food", "warriors", "shelter" and "communication", the exhibit offers an array of photos in its photo gallery to illustrate the variety of ant life and behavior on earth. Clicking on the thumbnails will enlarge the photos and reveal a brief description of the photo. More than half a dozen videos of ants taken throughout the world can be found under the "Ant Videos" link on the left side of the page. Visitors interested in learning more about myrmecology (ant science) would be remiss if they didn't visit the "Ant Web Links" section of the website, which can also be found on the left side of the page.

419

Collective effects in traffic on bi-directional ant trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent experimental work of Burd et al., we propose a model of bi-directional ant traffic on pre-existing ant trails. It captures in a simple way some of the generic collective features of movements of real ants on a trail. Analysing this model, we demonstrate that there are crucial qualitative differences between vehicular- and ant-traffics. In particular, we predict

Alexander John; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury; Katsuhiro Nishinari

2004-01-01

420

Ant species identity mediates reproductive traits and allocation in an ant-garden bromeliad  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Determining the sources of variation in floral morphology is crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying Angiosperm evolution. The selection of floral and reproductive traits is influenced by the plant's abiotic environment, florivores and pollinators. However, evidence that variations in floral traits result from mutualistic interactions with insects other than pollinators is lacking in the published literature and has rarely been investigated. We aimed to determine whether the association with either Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii (both involved in seed dispersal and plant protection) mediates the reproductive traits and allocation of Aechmea mertensii, an obligatory ant-garden tank-bromeliad, differently. Methods Floral and reproductive traits were compared between the two A. mertensii ant-gardens. The nitrogen flux from the ants to the bromeliads was investigated through experimental enrichments with stable isotopes (15N). Key Results Camponotus femoratus-associated bromeliads produced inflorescences up to four times longer than did P. goeldii-associated bromeliads. Also, the numbers of flowers and fruits were close to four times higher, and the number of seeds and their mass per fruit were close to 1·5 times higher in C. femoratus than in P. goeldii-associated bromeliads. Furthermore, the 15N-enrichment experiment showed that C. femoratus-associated bromeliads received more nitrogen from ants than did P. goeldii-associated bromeliads, with subsequent positive repercussions on floral development. Greater benefits were conferred to A. mertensii by the association with C. femoratus compared with P. goeldii ants. Conclusions We show for the first time that mutualistic associations with ants can result in an enhanced reproductive allocation for the bromeliad A. mertensii. Nevertheless, the strength and direction of the selection of floral and fruit traits change based on the ant species and were not related to light exposure. The different activities and ecological preferences of the ants may play a contrasting role in shaping plant evolution and speciation.

Leroy, Celine; Corbara, Bruno; Pelozuelo, Laurent; Carrias, Jean-Francois; Dejean, Alain; Cereghino, Regis

2012-01-01

421

Can the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) replace native ants in myrmecochory?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the influence of the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) on the seed dispersal process of the myrmecochorous plants Euphorbia characias, E. biumbellata, Genista linifolia, G. triflora, G. monspessulana and Sarothamnus arboreus. The observations were made in two study plots of Mediterranean cork-oak secondary forest (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile). The presence of L. humile implies the displacement of all native ant species that disperse seeds. Seed transports in the non-invaded zone were carried out by eight ant species. In the invaded zone, L. humile workers removed and transported seeds to the nest. In vertebrate exclusion trials, we observed the same level of seed removal in the invaded and non-invaded zones. Two findings could explain this result. Although mean time to seed localization was higher for native ants (431.7 s) than that for L. humile (150.5 s), the mean proportion of seeds transported after being detected was higher (50.1%) in non-invaded than in invaded (16.8%) zones. The proportion of seeds removed and transported into an ant nest after an ant-seed interaction had dramatically reduced from non-invaded (41.9%) to invaded (7.4%) zones. The levels of seed dispersal by ants found prior to invasion are unlikely to be maintained in invaded zones. However, total replacement of seed dispersal function is possible if contact iteration finally offers similar levels or quantities of seeds reaching the nests. The results obtained confirm that the Argentine ant invasion may affect myrmecochory dramatically in the Mediterranean biome.

Gómez, Crisanto; Oliveras, Jordi

2003-04-01

422

Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world but toxic bait systems affect non-target ant species and can not be used in sensitive ecosystems. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of food resources back to the colony....

423

Multiple Ant Colonies Algorithm Based on Colony Level Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Recently, researchers in various fields have shown interest in the behavior of creatures from the viewpoint of adaptiveness and flexibility. Ants, known as social insects, exhibit collective behavior in performingtasks that can not be carried out by an individual ant. In ant colonies, chemical sub- stances, called pheromones, are used as a way to communicate important information on global

Hidenori KAWAMURA; Masahito YAMAMOTO; Keiji SUZUKI; Azuma OHUCHI

2000-01-01

424

Continuous interacting ant colony algorithm based on dense heterarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithms are a class of metaheuristics which are inspired from the behavior of real ants. The original idea consisted in simulating the stigmergic communication, therefore these algorithms are considered as a form of adaptive memory programming. A new formalization is proposed for the design of ant colony algorithms, introducing the biological notions of heterarchy and communication channels. We

Johann Dréo; Patrick Siarry

2004-01-01

425

Path efficiency of ant foraging trails in an artificial network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an individual-based model describing the foraging behavior of ants moving in an artificial network of tunnels in which several interconnected paths can be used to reach a single food source. Ants lay a trail pheromone while moving in the network and this pheromone acts as a system of mass recruitment that attracts other ants in

Karla Vittori; Grégoire Talbot; Jacques Gautrais; Vincent Fourcassieb; Aluizio F. R. Araújo; Guy Theraulaz

2006-01-01

426

Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.|

Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

2003-01-01

427

Exploratory behavior of Lasius pallitarsis ants encountering novel areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lasius pallitarsis ants were placed in situations where they encountered unfamiliar areas and had to choose between one of two directions for further exploration. Workers advancing onto new ground apparently leave behind some chemical signature to which later ants orient. This orientation occurred under two types of experimental conditions. First, ants show a significant tendency to follow each other

P. Nonacs

1991-01-01

428

Angioedema following ingestion of fried flying red fire ants.  

PubMed

Red ants sting anaphylaxis was rarely reported from India. But angioedema due to ingestion of fried flying red fire ants in children is almost never reported from India and also very rarely reported from outside India. We report a case of recurrent non allergic angioedema following ingestion of fried flying red ants. PMID:23665605

Nandhakumar, V

2013-04-01

429

Queen primer pheromone affects conspecific fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta ) aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogyne fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, colony workers are territorial and are aggressive toward members of other fire ant colonies. In contrast, polygyne colony workers are not aggressive toward non-nestmates, presumably due to broader exposure to heritable and environmentally derived nestmate recognition cues (broad template). Workers from both monogyne and polygyne fire ant colonies execute newly mated queens after mating flights.

Robert K. Vander Meer; Leeanne E. Alonso

2002-01-01

430

Development of harvester ant colonies alters soil chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nests of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus typically contain higher concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus than surrounding soils. The difference between nest soils and surrounding soils is due, at least in part, to ant foraging behavior. Ants retrieve seeds from the environment and concentrate seed nutrients in the vicinity of the nest. But elevated nutrient concentrations in nests

Diane Wagner; Jeremy B. Jones; Deborah M. Gordon

2004-01-01

431

Millipede Defense: Use of Detachable Bristles to Entangle Ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The millipede Polyxenus fasciculatus (Diplopoda; Polyxenida) defends itself against ants by use of a pair of bristle tufts at its rear. When attacked, it wipes the tufts against the ants, thereby causing these to become encumbered by bristles that detach from the tufts. Ants contaminated with bristles desist from their assault. The bristles have grappling hooks at the tip by

Thomas Eisner; Maria Eisner; Mark Deyrup

1996-01-01

432

Modelling of self-driven particles: Foraging ants and pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for the behavior of ants and pedestrians are studied in a unified way in this paper. Each ant follows pheromone put by preceding ants, hence creating a trail on the ground, while pedestrians also try to follow others in a crowd for efficient and safe walking. These following behaviors are incorporated in our stochastic models by using only local

Katsuhiro Nishinari; Ken Sugawara; Toshiya Kazama; Andreas Schadschneider; Debashish Chowdhury

2006-01-01

433

Ant colony optimization: models and applications [Guest editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic that is inspired by the shortest path searching behavior of various ant species [1,2]. The initial work of Dorigo, Maniezzo and Colorni [3,4] who proposed the first ACO algorithm called Ant System, has stimulated a still strongly increasing number of researchers to develop more sophisticated and better performing ACO algorithms that are used

Oscar Cordón García; Francisco Herrera Triguero; Thomas Stützle

1970-01-01

434

Ant colonies and foraging line dynamics: Modeling, experiments and computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants are one of several types of insects that form robust and complex societies, and as such, provide rich theoretical ground for the exploration and understanding of collective dynamics and the behaviorial parameters that drive the dynamics. Many species of ants are nearly or completely blind, so they interact locally through behaviorial cues with nearby ants, and through pheromone trails

Louis Rossi

2005-01-01

435

Improving the channeler ant model for lung CT analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Channeler Ant Model (CAM) is an algorithm based on virtual ant colonies, conceived for the segmentation of complex structures with different shapes and intensity in a 3D environment. It exploits the natural capabilities of virtual ant colonies to modify the environment and communicate with each other by pheromone deposition. When applied to lung CTs, the CAM can be turned

Piergiorgio Cerello; Ernesto Lopez Torres; Elisa Fiorina; Chiara Oppedisano; Cristiana Peroni; Raul Arteche Diaz; Roberto Bellotti; Paolo Bosco; Niccolo Camarlinghi; Andrea Massafra

2011-01-01

436

A Contrast-Based Neural Control System for Ant Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for a neural control system of ant locomotion was developed. Contrast-based detectors using excitation and inhibition were tuned to specific contrast orientations. A control system using multiple orientation contrast detectors was then developed and optimized for a model ant, which could move via a biased random walk. The system allowed sufficient control to guide the ant through

JOANNA PRESSLEY; PREDRAG-PETER ILICH; DANIEL P. DOUGHERTY

437

Modeling ant colony foraging in dynamic and confined environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collective foraging behavior of ants is an example of self-organization and adaptation arising from the superposition of simple individual behavior. With the objective of understanding and modeling such interactions, experiments with the Argentine ants Linepithema humile were conducted into a relatively complex, artificial network. This consisted of interconnected branches and bifurcations, where the ants have to choose among fourteen

Elton Bernardo Bandeira De Melo; Aluízio Fausto Ribeiro Araújo

2008-01-01

438

Model Checking Algorithm Based on Ant Colony Swarm Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel model checking algorithm. This algorithm distributes mobile agents, artificial ants modeled natural ants, on control flow graph and states graph of the programs. While the ants reversely track correct traces and error traces, and deposit two kinds of pheromone representing respectively correct traces and error traces along the travel between vertexes of the control flow

Xiangning Wu; Chengyu Hu; Yuan Wang

2009-01-01

439

On how Pachycondyla apicalis ants suggest a new search algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new optimization algorithm based on a model of the foraging behavior of a population of primitive ants (Pachycondyla apicalis). These ants are characterized by a relatively simple but efficient strategy for prey search in which individuals hunt alone and try to cover a given area around their nest. The ant colony search behavior consists

Nicolas Monmarché; Gilles Venturini; Mohamed Slimane

2000-01-01

440

Plant lock and ant key: pairwise coevolution of an exclusion filter in an ant-plant mutualism.  

PubMed Central

Although observations suggest pairwise coevolution in specific ant-plant symbioses, coevolutionary processes have rarely been demonstrated. We report on, what is to the authors' knowledge, the strongest evidence yet for reciprocal adaptation of morphological characters in a species-specific ant-plant mutualism. The plant character is the prostoma, which is a small unlignified organ at the apex of the domatia in which symbiotic ants excavate an entrance hole. Each myrmecophyte in the genus Leonardoxa has evolved a prostoma with a different shape. By performing precise measurements on the prostomata of three related myrmecophytes, on their specific associated ants and on the entrance holes excavated by symbiotic ants at the prostomata, we showed that correspondence of the plant and ant traits forms a morphological and behavioural filter. We have strong evidence for coevolution between the dimensions and shape of the symbiotic ants and the prostoma in one of the three ant-Leonardoxa associations.

Brouat, C; Garcia, N; Andary, C; McKey, D

2001-01-01

441

Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant–plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by

Champlain Djiéto-Lordon; Alain Dejean; Marc Gibernau; Martine Hossaert-McKey; Doyle McKey

2004-01-01

442

When are ant-attractant devices a worthwhile investment? Vicia faba extrafloral nectaries and Lasius niger ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies aiming to determine the beneficial effect of ants on plants simply consider the effects of the presence or exclusion\\u000a of ants on plant yield. This approach is often inadequate, however, as ants interact with both non-tended herbivores and tended\\u000a Homoptera. Moreover, the interaction with these groups of organisms is dependent on ant density, and these functional relationships\\u000a are

Thomas H. Oliver; James M. Cook; Simon R. Leather

2007-01-01

443

Regulation Mechanism of Task-allocation and Formation Mechanism of Ants' Distribution Pattern in Collective Behavior of Ant Colony Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to clarify the interaction between the formation mechanism of the distribution pattern of ants\\u000a supported by pheromone signals and the regulation mechanism of task-allocation in collective behavior of an ant colony. In\\u000a this paper I design two types of ant colony model focusing on pheromone signals and the sensitivity of ants, and analyze simulated

Mari Nakamura

2005-01-01

444

SamACO: variable sampling ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous optimization.  

PubMed

An ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm offers algorithmic techniques for optimization by simulating the foraging behavior of a group of ants to perform incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. Although ACO is first designed for solving discrete (combinatorial) optimization problems, the ACO procedure is also applicable to continuous optimization. This paper presents a new way of extending ACO to solving continuous optimization problems by focusing on continuous variable sampling as a key to transforming ACO from discrete optimization to continuous optimization. The proposed SamACO algorithm consists of three major steps, i.e., the generation of candidate variable values for selection, the ants' solution construction, and the pheromone update process. The distinct characteristics of SamACO are the cooperation of a novel sampling method for discretizing the continuous search space and an efficient incremental solution construction method based on the sampled values. The performance of SamACO is tested using continuous numerical functions with unimodal and multimodal features. Compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms, including traditional ant-based algorithms and representative computational intelligence algorithms for continuous optimization, the performance of SamACO is seen competitive and promising. PMID:20371409

Hu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Jun; Chung, Henry Shu-Hung; Li, Yun; Liu, Ou

2010-04-05

445

Interhabitat differences in ant activity on plant foliage: ants at extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis in sandy and mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between visiting ants and the extrafloral nectaries (EFN)-bearing shrub Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae) was investigated in two different coastal habitats - a permanently dry sandy forest and a regularly inundated mangrove forest. In both habitats the frequency of plants with ants and the mean number of ants per plant were much higher on H. pernambucensis than on non-nectariferous

Rodrigo Cogni; Andre V. L. Freitas; Paulo S. Oliveira

2003-01-01

446

Application of Ant Colony Optimization for Modeling Natural Object and Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that some kinds of intelligent behavior can be realized by utilizing a model of an ant colony in which ants act by exchanging information with one another via virtual pheromone. This model is called ant colony model or ant colony optimization. The ant colony model often makes the ants generate routes that look like patterns similar to

Xin Yin; Tadahiro Fujimoto; Norishige Chiba

2005-01-01

447

Multiple ant colony algorithm method for selecting tag SNPs.  

PubMed

The search for the association between complex disease and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes has recently received great attention. Finding a set of tag SNPs for haplotyping in a great number of samples is an important step to reduce cost for association study. Therefore, it is essential to select tag SNPs with more efficient algorithms. In this paper, we model problem of selection tag SNPs by MINIMUM TEST SET and use multiple ant colony algorithm (MACA) to search a smaller set of tag SNPs for haplotyping. The various experimental results on various datasets show that the running time of our method is less than GTagger and MLR. And MACA can find the most representative SNPs for haplotyping, so that MACA is more stable and the number of tag SNPs is also smaller than other evolutionary methods (like GTagger and NSGA-II). Our software is available upon request to the corresponding author. PMID:22480582

Liao, Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa; Wang, Shulin

2012-03-28

448

Path integration controls nest-plume following in desert ants.  

PubMed

The desert ant Cataglyphis fortis is equipped with sophisticated navigational skills for returning to its nest after foraging. The ant's primary means for long-distance navigation is path integration, which provides a continuous readout of the ant's approximate distance and direction from the nest. The nest is pinpointed with the aid of visual and olfactory landmarks. Similar landmark cues help ants locate familiar food sites. Ants on their outward trip will position themselves so that they can move upwind using odor cues to find food. Here we show that homing ants also move upwind along nest-derived odor plumes to approach their nest. The ants only respond to odor plumes if the state of their path integrator tells them that they are near the nest. This influence of path integration is important because we could experimentally provoke ants to follow odor plumes from a foreign, conspecific nest and enter that nest. We identified CO(2) as one nest-plume component that can by itself induce plume following in homing ants. Taken together, the results suggest that path-integration information enables ants to avoid entering the wrong nest, where they would inevitably be killed by resident ants. PMID:22405868

Buehlmann, Cornelia; Hansson, Bill S; Knaden, Markus

2012-03-08

449

Effects of vegetation cover, presence of a native ant species, and human disturbance on colonization by Argentine ants.  

PubMed

The spread of non-native invasive species is affected by human activity, vegetation cover, weather, and interaction with native species. We analyzed data from a 17-year study of the distribution of the non-native Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis) in a preserve in northern California (U.S.A.). We conducted logistic regressions and used model selection to determine whether the following variables were associated with changes in the distribution of each species: presence of conspecifics at neighboring sites, distance to development (e.g., roads, buildings, and landscaped areas), proportion of vegetation cover taller than 0.75 m, elevation, distance to water, presence of both species at a site, temperature, and rainfall. Argentine ants colonized unoccupied sites from neighboring sites, but the probability of appearance and persistence decreased as distance to development, vegetation cover, and elevation increased. Winter ants appeared and persisted in sites with relatively high vegetation cover (i.e., highly shaded sites). Presence of the 2 species was negatively associated in sites with high vegetation cover (more winter ants) and sites near development (more Argentine ants). Probability of colonization of Argentine ants decreased where winter ants were most persistent. At sites near development within the preserve, abundant Argentine ant populations may be excluding winter ants. The high abundance of Argentine ants at these sites may be due to immigration from suburban areas outside the preserve, which are high-quality habitat for Argentine ants. In the interior of the preserve, distance from development, low-quality habitat, and interaction with winter ants may in combination exclude Argentine ants. Interactions among the variables we examined were associated with low probabilities of Argentine ant colonization in the preserve. PMID:22533673

Fitzgerald, Katherine; Gordon, Deborah M

2012-04-25

450

Caste-Specific Tyramides from Myrmicine Ants#  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the extracts of male ants of Monomorium minimum and M. ebeninum, by GC-MS and GC-FTIR revealed the presence of tyramides 2 and 4c, for which the structures were established by comparison with synthetic samples. These compounds and their analogs 1 and 3 were also found in males of other Monomorium species, males of Myrmicaria opaciventris, and males of several Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) species. Vapor-phase FTIR spectra revealed critically important structural clues to two of the tyramides, which had methyl-branching in the tyramide acyl moiety. Tyramide 4c exhibited a strong intramolecular amide NH hydrogen bond where an ?-keto group was deduced to be present in the acyl moiety and also showed the overlap of this ketone group frequency with that of the amide ?C=O. The biological function of these compounds is uncertain; however their role in ant-mating behavior may be suggested by a large body of evidence.

Jones, Tappey. H.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Spande, Thomas F.; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R.; Gorman, Jeffrey S. T.; Snyder, Alexander J.; Jeter, Andrew W.; Torres, Juan A.; Snelling, Roy R.; Daly, John W.

2010-01-01

451

Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.  

PubMed

Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

2013-08-14

452

Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant.  

PubMed

Some parasites modify characteristics of intermediate hosts to facilitate their consumption by subsequent hosts, but examples of parasite-mediated mimicry are rare. Here we report dramatic changes in the appearance and behavior of nematode-parasitized ants such that they resemble ripe fruits in the tropical rain forest canopy. Unlike healthy ants, which are completely black, infected ants have bright red, berry-like gasters full of parasite eggs. The infected gasters are held in a conspicuous elevated position as the ants are walking, and they are easily detached from living ants, which also exhibit reduced defensive responses. This combination of changes presumably makes the infected ants attractive to frugivorous birds, which ingest the red gasters and pass the parasite eggs in their feces. The feces are collected by ants and fed to the developing brood, thus completing the cycle. This is the first documentation of parasites causing apparent fruit mimicry in an animal host to complete their life cycle. PMID:18279076

Yanoviak, S P; Kaspari, M; Dudley, R; Poinar, G

2008-04-01

453

USDA: FORMIS: A Master Bibliography of Ant Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the USDA's Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, this Master Bibliography of Ant Literature, entitled FORMIS, "is a composite of several ant literature databases. It contains citations for a large fraction of the world's ant literature (about 32,000 references). FORMIS contains all known ant taxonomic literature (through 1996)." In addition, FORMIS features comprehensive bibliographies of fire ants, Russian wood ants, and leaf-cutting ants. The website offers options for online searches and downloads. The site was last modified in April 2004; however, it should be noted that FORMIS has not been updated since 2003, thus users should not expect to find the most recent literature. Despite the lack of up-to-date literature, FORMIS remains a substantial resource for myrmecologists and other researchers. Furthermore, the editors are requesting assistance for the continued expansion and updating of FORMIS.

454

Extrafloral nectar content alters foraging preferences of a predatory ant.  

PubMed

We tested whether the carbohydrate and amino acid content of extrafloral nectar affected prey choice by a predatory ant. Fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, were provided with artificial nectar that varied in the presence of carbohydrates and amino acids and were then provided with two prey items that differed in nutritional content, female and male crickets. Colonies of fire ants provided with carbohydrate supplements consumed less of the female crickets and frequently did not consume the high-lipid ovaries of female crickets. Colonies of fire ants provided with amino acid supplements consumed less of the male crickets. While a number of studies have shown that the presence of extrafloral nectar or honeydew can affect ant foraging activity, these results suggest that the nutritional composition of extrafloral nectar is also important and can affect subsequent prey choice by predatory ants. Our results suggest that, by altering the composition of extrafloral nectar, plants could manipulate the prey preferences of ants foraging on them. PMID:19864270

Wilder, Shawn M; Eubanks, Micky D

2009-10-28

455

Ant trails: equilibrium selection through initial bias?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we suggest the MAF-ACO algorithm that belongs to the class of ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms and give an analysis of its convergence. The MAF-ACO algorithm has two components, the pheromone update scheme and the agent learning scheme. We view the two components as stochastic approximation algorithms and use the ordinary dierential equation (o.d.e.) method to analyze

Dibyajyoti Das; Vivek S. Borkar

456

Biomimicry: Further Insights from Ant Colonies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomimicry means learning from nature. Well known examples include physical structures such as the Velcro fastener. But natural\\u000a selection has also “engineered” mechanisms by which the components of adaptive biological systems are organized. For example,\\u000a natural selection has caused the foragers in an ant colony to cooperate and communicate in order to increase the total foraging\\u000a success of the colony.

Francis L. W. Ratnieks

2007-01-01

457

Evolution of cuticular hydrocarbon diversity in ants.  

PubMed

The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of ants provide important cues for nest-mate and caste recognition. There is enormous diversity in the composition of these CHCs, but the manner in which this diversity has evolved is poorly understood. We gathered data on CHC profiles for 56 ant species, relating this information to their phylogeny. We deduced the mode of evolution of CHC profiles by reconstructing character evolution and then relating the number of changes in CHC components along each branch of the phylogeny to the length of the branch. There was a strong correlation between branch length and number of component changes, with fewer changes occurring on short branches. Our analysis thereby indicated a gradual mode of evolution. Different ant species tend to use specific CHC structural types that are exclusive of other structural types, indicating that species differences may be generated in part by switching particular biosynthetic pathways on or off in different lineages. We found limited, and contradictory, evidence for abiotic factors (temperature and rainfall) driving change in CHC profiles. PMID:21375648

van Wilgenburg, E; Symonds, M R E; Elgar, M A

2011-03-07

458

Recognition of Social Identity in Ants  

PubMed Central

Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend of hydrocarbons present on the cuticle of every individual (the “label”). Recognition occurs when an ant encounters another individual, and compares the label it perceives to an internal representation of its own colony odor (the “template”). A mismatch between label and template leads to rejection of the encountered individual. Although advances have been made in our understanding of how the label is produced and acquired, contradictory evidence exists about information processing of recognition cues. Here, we review the literature on template acquisition in ants and address how and when the template is formed, where in the nervous system it is localized, and the possible role of learning. We combine seemingly contradictory evidence in to a novel, parsimonious theory for the information processing of nestmate recognition cues.

Bos, Nick; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

2012-01-01

459

Kin-informative recognition cues in ants  

PubMed Central

Although social groups are characterized by cooperation, they are also often the scene of conflict. In non-clonal systems, the reproductive interests of group members will differ and individuals may benefit by exploiting the cooperative efforts of other group members. However, such selfish behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation—social insect colonies—because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential for within-colony conflicts in genetically diverse societies than previously thought.

Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E. F.; Santorelli, Lorenzo A.; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Hughes, William O. H.

2011-01-01

460

Ant antennae: are they sites for magnetoreception?  

PubMed Central

Migration of the Pachycondyla marginata ant is significantly oriented at 13° with respect to the geomagnetic north–south axis. On the basis of previous magnetic measurements of individual parts of the body (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen), the antennae were suggested to host a magnetoreceptor. In order to identify Fe3+/Fe2+ sites in antennae tissue, we used light microscopy on Prussian/Turnbull's blue-stained tissue. Further analysis using transmission electron microscopy imaging and diffraction, combined with elemental analysis, revealed the presence of ultra-fine-grained crystals (20–100 nm) of magnetite/maghaemite (Fe3O4/?-Fe2O3), haematite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH) besides (alumo)silicates and Fe/Ti/O compounds in different parts of the antennae, that is, in the joints between the third segment/pedicel, pedicel/scape and scape/head, respectively. The presence of (alumo)silicates and Fe/Ti/O compounds suggests that most, if not all, of the minerals in the tissue are incorporated soil particles rather than biomineralized by the ants. However, as the particles were observed within the tissue, they do not represent contamination. The amount of magnetic material associated with Johnston's organ and other joints appears to be sufficient to produce a magnetic-field-modulated mechanosensory output, which may therefore underlie the magnetic sense of the migratory ant.

de Oliveira, Jandira Ferreira; Wajnberg, Eliane; de Souza Esquivel, Darci Motta; Weinkauf, Sevil; Winklhofer, Michael; Hanzlik, Marianne

2010-01-01

461

Exploration versus exploitation in polydomous ant colonies.  

PubMed

In socially foraging species resource information can be shared between individuals, increasing foraging success. In ant colonies, nestmate recruitment allows high exploitation rates at known resources however, to maximise foraging efficiency this must be balanced with searching for new resources. Many ant species form colonies inhabiting two or more spatially separated but socially connected nests: this type of organisation is known as polydomy. Polydomous colonies may benefit from increased foraging efficiency by carrying out dispersed-central place foraging. However, decentralisation of the colony may affect recruitment success by limiting interaction between ants based in separate nests. We use an agent-based model which compares the foraging success of monodomous and polydomous colonies in different food environments, incorporating recruitment through pheromone trails and group foraging. In contrast to previous results we show that polydomy is beneficial in some but not all cases. Polydomous colonies discover resources at a higher rate, making them more successful when food is highly dispersed, but their relative success can be lowered by limitations on recruitment success. Monodomous colonies can have higher foraging efficiency than polydomous colonies by exploiting food more rapidly. The results show the importance of interactions between recruitment strategy, colony size, and colony organisation. PMID:23380232

Cook, Zoe; Franks, Daniel W; Robinson, Elva J H

2013-02-01

462

Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms have been intensively investigated, demonstration of indirect effects between co-occurring mutualistic systems is rare. For instance, the ecological consequences of co-occurrence of ant-tended insects on a plant have never been examined for survival effects on either trophobiont species. Here, we assess the selective pressures mediating co-occurrence of a facultative ant-tended butterfly (Parrhasius polibetes) with ant-tended treehoppers (Guayaquila xiphias) on Schefflera vinosa shrubs. We evaluated host plant selection and caterpillar survival in P. polibetes in the presence and absence of ant-treehopper associations. Paired trials revealed that butterflies preferably oviposit on branches hosting ant-tended treehoppers when they had a choice between those and branches without this interaction. Presence of ant-tended treehoppers on a branch reduced the abundance of P. polibetes' natural enemies and improved caterpillar survival in both premyrmecophylic and ant-tended phases. Thus ant-tended treehoppers create an enemy-free space on foliage that butterflies exploit to protect larval offspring. These findings connect two widely documented ant-trophobiont mutualisms and highlight the importance of considering multiple interactions for a proper understanding of ant-plant-herbivore systems. Detection of other ant-based mutualisms on oviposition to improve offspring survival may have represented an important evolutionary step in the process of host plant selection in facultative myrmecophilous butterflies. PMID:20645858

Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

2010-09-01

463

Relative effects of disturbance on red imported fire ants and native ant species in a longleaf pine ecosystem.  

PubMed

The degree to which changes in community composition mediate the probability of colonization and spread of non-native species is not well understood, especially in animal communities. High species richness may hinder the establishment of non-native species. Distinguishing between this scenario and cases in which non-native species become established in intact (lacking extensive anthropogenic soil disturbance) communities and subsequently diminish the abundance and richness of native species is challenging on the basis of observation alone. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), an invasive species that occurs throughout much of the southeastern United States, is such an example. Rather than competitively displacing native species, fire ants may become established only in disturbed areas in which native species richness and abundance are already reduced. We used insecticide to reduce the abundance of native ants and fire ants in four experimental plots. We then observed the reassembly and reestablishment of the ants in these plots for 1 year after treatment. The abundance of fire ants in treated plots did not differ from abundance in control plots 1 year after treatment. Likewise, the abundance of native ants increased to levels comparable to those in control plots after 1 year. Our findings suggest that factors other than large reductions in ant abundance and species density (number of species per unit area) may affect the establishment of fire ants and that the response of native ants and fire ants to disturbance can be comparable. PMID:21561472

Stuble, Katharine L; Kirkman, L Katherine; Carroll, C Ronald; Sanders, Nathan J

2011-02-01

464

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.  

PubMed

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2013-09-09

465

Self-organized structures in a superorganism: do ants “behave” like molecules?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the striking structures (e.g. nest architecture, trail networks) of insect societies may seem familiar to many of us, the understanding of pattern formation still constitutes a challenging problem. Over the last two decades, self-organization has dramatically changed our view on how collective decision-making and structures may emerge out of a population of ant workers having each their own individuality

Claire Detrain; Jean-Louis Deneubourg

2006-01-01

466

Gas bearing capacity forecasting method based on ant colony optimization and support vector regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, new energy's exploitation is becoming more and more important, one type of the new energy is gas bearing in the coal layers. Forecasting for coal-seam gas content is a complicated non-linear forecasting problem, which is difficult to solve. A prediction model of coal-seam gas capacity based on support vector regression and ant colony optimization is presented in

Chunliu Sun; Hanmin Xiao; Weidong Liu; Linghui Sun

2010-01-01

467

Isolating antifungals from fungus-growing ant symbionts using a genome-guided chemistry approach.  

PubMed

We describe methods used to isolate and identify antifungal compounds from actinomycete strains associated with the leaf-cutter ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. These ants use antibiotics produced by symbiotic actinomycete bacteria to protect themselves and their fungal cultivar against bacterial and fungal infections. The fungal cultivar serves as the sole food source for the ant colony, which can number up to tens of thousands of individuals. We describe how we isolate bacteria from leaf-cutter ants collected in Trinidad and analyze the antifungal compounds made by two of these strains (Pseudonocardia and Streptomyces spp.), using a combination of genome analysis, mutagenesis, and chemical isolation. These methods should be generalizable to a wide variety of insect-symbiont situations. Although more time consuming than traditional activity-guided fractionation methods, this approach provides a powerful technique for unlocking the complete biosynthetic potential of individual strains and for avoiding the problems of rediscovery of known compounds. We describe the discovery of a novel nystatin compound, named nystatin P1, and identification of the biosynthetic pathway for antimycins, compounds that were first described more than 60 years ago. We also report that disruption of two known antifungal pathways in a single Streptomyces strain has revealed a third, and likely novel, antifungal plus four more pathways with unknown products. This validates our approach, which clearly has the potential to identify numerous new compounds, even from well-characterized actinomycete strains. PMID:23084933

Seipke, Ryan F; Grüschow, Sabine; Goss, Rebecca J M; Hutchings, Matthew I

2012-01-01

468

Where and how Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) spreads in Corsica?  

PubMed

The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Dolichoderinae), is one of the most widespread invasive ant species in the world. When established in optimal habitat, this species usually excludes most other local ants and can heavily impact other arthropods as well. Although Argentine ants have been present in southern Europe for more than 100 years, they were first noted in Corsica, a French Mediterranean island, in 1957 in only one urban station. In this study, we aimed to map precisely their geographical distribution in Corsica and to quantify their presence by using an infestation index. We recorded changes in the distribution of Argentine ants in Corsica over the past decade. Argentine ants appeared to be well established within their introduced range and spreading along the Corsican coasts principally through Human-mediated jump-dispersal but not homogenously. PMID:19632658

Blight, Olivier; Orgeas, Jérôme; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Provost, Erick

2009-06-16

469

Millipede defense: use of detachable bristles to entangle ants.  

PubMed Central

The millipede Polyxenus fasciculatus (Diplopoda; Polyxenida) defends itself against ants by use of a pair of bristle tufts at its rear. When attacked, it wipes the tufts against the ants, thereby causing these to become encumbered by bristles that detach from the tufts. Ants contaminated with bristles desist from their assault. The bristles have grappling hooks at the tip by which they lock onto setae of the ants and barbs along their length by which they interlink. In attempting to rid themselves of bristles, ants may succeed only in further entangling themselves by causing the bristles to become enmeshed. Ants heavily contaminated may remain entangled and die. Most millipedes have chemical defenses; polyxenids, instead, have a mechanical weapon. Images Fig. 2

Eisner, T; Eisner, M; Deyrup, M

1996-01-01

470

Millipede defense: use of detachable bristles to entangle ants.  

PubMed

The millipede Polyxenus fasciculatus (Diplopoda; Polyxenida) defends itself against ants by use of a pair of bristle tufts at its rear. When attacked, it wipes the tufts against the ants, thereby causing these to become encumbered by bristles that detach from the tufts. Ants contaminated with bristles desist from their assault. The bristles have grappling hooks at the tip by which they lock onto setae of the ants and barbs along their length by which they interlink. In attempting to rid themselves of bristles, ants may succeed only in further entangling themselves by causing the bristles to become enmeshed. Ants heavily contaminated may remain entangled and die. Most millipedes have chemical defenses; polyxenids, instead, have a mechanical weapon. PMID:8855269

Eisner, T; Eisner, M; Deyrup, M

1996-10-01

471

Improved multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithm and its application in complex reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of fault reasoning has aroused great concern in scientific and engineering fields. However, fault investigation and reasoning of complex system is not a simple reasoning decision-making problem. It has become a typical multi-constraint and multi-objective reticulate optimization decision-making problem under many influencing factors and constraints. So far, little research has been carried out in this field. This paper transforms the fault reasoning problem of complex system into a paths-searching problem starting from known symptoms to fault causes. Three optimization objectives are considered simultaneously: maximum probability of average fault, maximum average importance, and minimum average complexity of test. Under the constraints of both known symptoms and the causal relationship among different components, a multi-objective optimization mathematical model is set up, taking minimizing cost of fault reasoning as the target function. Since the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-hard(NP-hard), a modified multi-objective ant colony algorithm is proposed, in which a reachability matrix is set up to constrain the feasible search nodes of the ants and a new pseudo-random-proportional rule and a pheromone adjustment mechinism are constructed to balance conflicts between the optimization objectives. At last, a Pareto optimal set is acquired. Evaluation functions based on validity and tendency of reasoning paths are defined to optimize noninferior set, through which the final fault causes can be identified according to decision-making demands, thus realize fault reasoning of the multi-constraint and multi-objective complex system. Reasoning results demonstrate that the improved multi-objective ant colony optimization(IMACO) can realize reasoning and locating fault positions precisely by solving the multi-objective fault diagnosis model, which provides a new method to solve the problem of multi-constraint and multi-objective fault diagnosis and reasoning of complex system.

Wang, Xinqing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huijie; Zhang, Qing

2013-09-01

472

A Taxonomy and an Empirical Analysis of Multiple Objective Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms for the Bi-criteria TSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diculty to solve multiple objective combinatorial optimization problems with traditional tech- niques has urged researchers to look for alternative, better performing approaches for them. Recently, several algorithms have been proposed which are based on the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic. In this contribution, the existing algorithms of this kind are reviewed and a proposal of a taxonomy for them is

C. Garc

473

A taxonomy and an empirical analysis of multiple objective ant colony optimization algorithms for the bi-criteria TSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The difficulty to solve multiple objective combinatorial,optimization,problems,with traditional techniques has urged researchers to look for alternative, better performing approaches for them. Recently, several algorithms have been pro- posed which are based on the ant colony optimization metaheuristic. In this contribution, the existing algorithms of this kind are reviewed and a proposal of a taxonomy for them is presented. In

Carlos García-martínez; Oscar Cordón; Francisco Herrera

2007-01-01

474

Optimizing expressway maintenance planning by coupling ant algorithm and geography information system transportation in Hubei province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway maintenance scheduling is a complex optimization problem and imposes a challenge for GIS-T research. In this paper, a new approach was put forward to determining the optimal set of alternatives for highway infrastructure facilities by using ant colony algorithm and GIS. In the proposed approach, GIS was used to analyze traffic flux, toll and maintenance time of each highway

Hongga Li; Xiaoxia Huang; Quan Feng

2011-01-01

475

Using Metadata Snapshots for Extending Ant-Based Resource Discovery Service in Inter-cooperative Grid Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much work is under way within the resource management community on issues associated with grid scheduling upon dynamically discovered information. In this paper we tackle the problem by exploiting a bio-inspired resource discovery mechanism, where information is provided by ant-based lightweight mobile agents traveling across a grid network and collecting data from each visited node. We start by providing the

Ye Huang; N. Bessis; A. Brocco; P. Kuonen; M. Courant; B. Hirsbrunner

2009-01-01

476

Do Herbivores Eavesdrop on Ant Chemical Communication to Avoid Predation?  

PubMed Central

Strong effects of predator chemical cues on prey are common in aquatic and marine ecosystems, but are thought to be rare in terrestrial systems and specifically for arthropods. For ants, herbivores are hypothesized to eavesdrop on ant chemical communication and thereby avoid predation or confrontation. Here I tested the effect of ant chemical cues on herbivore choice and herbivory. Using Margaridisa sp. flea beetles and leaves from the host tree (Conostegia xalapensis), I performed paired-leaf choice feeding experiments. Coating leaves with crushed ant liquids (Azteca instabilis), exposing leaves to ant patrolling prior to choice tests (A. instabilis and Camponotus textor) and comparing leaves from trees with and without A. instabilis nests resulted in more herbivores and herbivory on control (no ant-treatment) relative to ant-treatment leaves. In contrast to A. instabilis and C. textor, leaves previously patrolled by Solenopsis geminata had no difference in beetle number and damage compared to control leaves. Altering the time A. instabilis patrolled treatment leaves prior to choice tests (0-, 5-, 30-, 90-, 180-min.) revealed treatment effects were only statistically significant after 90- and 180-min. of prior leaf exposure. This study suggests, for two ecologically important and taxonomically diverse genera (Azteca and Camponotus), ant chemical cues have important effects on herbivores and that these effects may be widespread across the ant family. It suggests that the effect of chemical cues on herbivores may only appear after substantial previous ant activity has occurred on plant tissues. Furthermore, it supports the hypothesis that herbivores use ant chemical communication to avoid predation or confrontation with ants.

Gonthier, David J.

2012-01-01

477

Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management\\u000a in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in\\u000a 400 m2 field plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was

David Maxwell Suckling; Robert W. Peck; Lloyd D. Stringer; Kirsten Snook; Paul C. Banko

2010-01-01

478

Traffic on bi-directional ant-trails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize cellular automaton models for uni-directional ant-trails to bi-directional motion. Several extensions (1-lane,\\u000a 2-lane with and without common pheromone trail) corresponding to different realistic situations are compared. The interactions\\u000a between the ants give rise to interesting collective behavior which is reflected in the flow properties and the spatio-temporal\\u000a organization of the ants along the trail.

A. John; A. Kunwar; A. Namazi; D. Chowdhury; K. Nishinari; A. Schadschneider

479

Weeding and grooming of pathogens in agriculture by ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient mutualism between fungus-growing ants and the fungi they cultivate for food is a textbook example of symbiosis. Fungus-growing ants'ability to cultivate fungi depends on protection of the garden from the aggressive microbes associated with the substrate added to the garden as well as from the specialized virulent garden parasite Escovopsis. We examined ants' ability to remove alien microbes

Cameron R. Currie; Alison E. Stuart

2001-01-01

480

An innate template for enemy recognition in red wood ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of the innate template for perception and recognition of the enemy image in red wood ants Formica aquilonia Yarr. was tested by initiating conflicts between ants and predatory ground beetles, their competitors for space. Live beetles\\u000a and their models with different characters were used. In nature, ants respond selectively to such features of competitors\\u000a as dark coloration, the

E. A. Dorosheva; I. K. Yakovlev; Zh. I. Reznikova

2011-01-01

481

Ant-based and swarm-based clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering with swarm-based algorithms is emerging as an alternative to more conventional clustering methods, such as hierarchical\\u000a clustering and k-means. Ant-based clustering stands out as the most widely used group of swarm-based clustering algorithms. Broadly speaking,\\u000a there are two main types of ant-based clustering: the first group of methods directly mimics the clustering behavior observed\\u000a in real ant colonies. The

Julia Handl; Bernd Meyer

2007-01-01

482

Using taxonomies for content-based routing with ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the ant metaphor has been successfully applied to routing of data packets both in wireless and fixed networks, little is known yet about its appropriateness for search in peer-to-peer environments. This paper presents SemAnt, a distributed content-based routing algorithm based on the Ant Colony Optimization meta-heuristic and adapted for deployment in peer-to-peer networks. Under the assump- tion that content

Elke Michlmayr; Arno Pany; Gerti Kappel

2007-01-01

483

New fossil ants in French Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on the ant phylogeny are mainly based on the molecular analyses of extant subfamilies and do not include the\\u000a extinct, only Cretaceous subfamily Sphecomyrminae. However, the latter is of major importance for ant relationships, as it\\u000a is considered the most basal subfamily. Therefore, each new discovery of a Mesozoic ant is of high interest for improving\\u000a our understanding

Vincent Perrichot; André Nel; Didier Néraudeau; Sébastien Lacau; Thierry Guyot

2008-01-01

484

Why do house-hunting ants recruit in both directions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To perform tasks, organisms often use multiple procedures. Explaining the breadth of such behavioural repertoires is not always\\u000a straightforward. During house hunting, colonies of Temnothorax albipennis ants use a range of behaviours to organise their emigrations. In particular, the ants use tandem running to recruit na?ve\\u000a ants to potential nest sites. Initially, they use forward tandem runs (FTRs) in which

R. Planqué; F.-X. Dechaume-Moncharmont; N. R. Franks; T. Kovacs; J. A. R. Marshall

2007-01-01

485

Do herbivores eavesdrop on ant chemical communication to avoid predation?  

PubMed

Strong effects of predator chemical cues on prey are common in aquatic and marine ecosystems, but are thought to be rare in terrestrial systems and specifically for arthropods. For ants, herbivores are hypothesized to eavesdrop on ant chemical communication and thereby avoid predation or confrontation. Here I tested the effect of ant chemical cues on herbivore choice and herbivory. Using Margaridisa sp. flea beetles and leaves from the host tree (Conostegia xalapensis), I performed paired-leaf choice feeding experiments. Coating leaves with crushed ant liquids (Azteca instabilis), exposing leaves to ant patrolling prior to choice tests (A. instabilis and Camponotus textor) and comparing leaves from trees with and without A. instabilis nests resulted in more herbivores and herbivory on control (no ant-treatment) relative to ant-treatment leaves. In contrast to A. instabilis and C. textor, leaves previously patrolled by Solenopsis geminata had no difference in beetle number and damage compared to control leaves. Altering the time A. instabilis patrolled treatment leaves prior to choice tests (0-, 5-, 30-, 90-, 180-min.) revealed treatment effects were only statistically significant after 90- and 180-min. of prior leaf exposure. This study suggests, for two ecologically important and taxonomically diverse genera (Azteca and Camponotus), ant chemical cues have important effects on herbivores and that these effects may be widespread across the ant family. It suggests that the effect of chemical cues on herbivores may only appear after substantial previous ant activity has occurred on plant tissues. Furthermore, it supports the hypothesis that herbivores use ant chemical communication to avoid predation or confrontation with ants. PMID:22235248

Gonthier, David J

2012-01-03

486

Harvester ant nests, soil biota and soil chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ant species accumulate organic debris in the vicinity of their nests. These organic materials should provide a rich resource\\u000a base for the soil biota. We examined the effect of harvester ant nests (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) on the soil community and soil chemistry. Ant nest soils supported 30-fold higher densities of microarthropods and 5-fold\\u000a higher densities of protozoa than surrounding, control

Diane Wagner; Mark J. F. Brown; Deborah M. Gordon

1997-01-01

487

Thermoregulatory brood transport in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Nest structure in ants is often designed to optimize the colony’s ability to thermoregulate, and this specialization is most\\u000a highly developed in mound-building ant species. Solenopsis invicta invest a large amount of energy in building mounds and transporting their brood up and down in their nests as a means of\\u000a thermoregulation. Because few ant species build true mounds, we wanted

C. A. Penick; W. R. Tschinkel

2008-01-01

488

The Other ExAnte Moral Hazard in Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that pooled insurance coverage can induce a form of ex-ante moral hazard: people make inefficiently low investments in self-protective activities. This paper identifies another ex-ante moral hazard that runs in the opposite direction: it causes people to choose inefficiently high levels of self-protection. This other ex-ante moral hazard arises through the impact that self-protective activities have

Mikko Packalen; Jay Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

489

Habitat complexity facilitates coexistence in a tropical ant community.  

PubMed

The role of habitat complexity in the coexistence of ant species is poorly understood. Here, we examine the influence of habitat complexity on coexistence patterns in ant communities of the remote Pacific atoll of Tokelau. The invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith), exists in high densities on Tokelau, but still coexists with up to seven other epigeic ant species. The size-grain hypothesis (SGH) proposes that as the size of terrestrial walking organisms decreases, the perceived complexity of the environment increases and predicts that: (1) leg length increases allometrically with body size in ants, and (2) coexistence between ant species is facilitated by differential habitat use according to body size. Analysis of morphological variables revealed variation inconsistent with the morphological prediction of the SGH, as leg length increased allometrically with head length only. We also experimentally tested the ability of epigeic ants in the field to discover and dominate food resources in treatments of differing rugosity. A. gracilipes was consistently the first to discover food baits in low rugosity treatments, while smaller ant species were consistently the first to discover food baits in high rugosity treatments. In addition, A. gracilipes dominated food baits in planar treatments, while smaller ant species dominated baits in rugose treatments. We found that the normally predictable outcomes of exploitative competition between A. gracilipes and other ant species were reversed in the high rugosity treatments. Our results support the hypothesis that differential habitat use according to body size provides a mechanism for coexistence with the yellow crazy ant in Tokelau. The SGH may provide a mechanism for coexistence in other ant communities but also in communities of other terrestrial, walking insects that inhabit a complex landscape. PMID:16763839

Sarty, M; Abbott, K L; Lester, P J

2006-06-09

490

Ante-dependence Analysis of an Ordered Set of Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a set of variables in a given order, $s$th ante-dependence will be said to obtain if each one of the variables, given at least $s$ immediate antecedent variables in the order, is independent of all further preceding variables. If the number of variables is $p$, ante-dependence is of some order between 0 and $p - 1.$ 0th ante-dependence and

K. R. Gabriel

1962-01-01

491

Three Foraging Models Comprised of Ants with Different Pheromone Sensitivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An ant colony shows collective behavior through signal patterns formed by individual ants communicating among themselves who\\u000a behave according to local information. First, in this paper I devise a method for designing ant colony models that describes\\u000a both the formation mechanism of signal patterns and the regulation mechanism of task allocation. Next, using the above method,\\u000a I design three foraging

Mari Nakamura

2005-01-01

492

Anting in a Semifree-ranging Group of Cebus apella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capuchins apply many organic materials, especially leaves, to their skin. Protection against ectoparasites is the most commonly\\u000a discussed explanation for the behavior. We describe fur rubbing with carpenter ants(Camponotus rufipes) by semifree-ranging tufted capuchins(Cebus apella) in the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Carpenter ants produce and secrete high concentrations of formic acid, which\\u000a repels tick nymphs. Anting occurred significantly

M. P. Verderane; T. Falótico; B. D. Resende; M. B. Labruna; P. Izar; E. B. Ottoni

2007-01-01

493

Locating queen ant nests in the green ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Studies using Oecophylla smaragdina colonies to control cashew insect pests showed that the introduction of a partial ant colony was more permanent with a reproductive queen than without a queen. Thus, a technique to locate queens was needed. The nests of twelve established O. smaragdina colonies were examined. Each comprised many nests, but only one contained queens, and it

R. K. Peng; K. Christian; K. Gibb

1998-01-01

494

FIRE ANT REPELLENTS: PROTECTION OF BLACK-CAPPED VIREOS FROM FIRE ANT PREDATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have discovered and patented several chemical classes of repellent that have the potential to exclude fire ants from areas where they are not wanted. Examples of areas of use are electrical switch boxes, environmentally sensitive areas where insecticides are not permitted or reduction is mandated...

495

Ant-aphid mutualisms: the impact of honeydew production and honeydew sugar composition on ant preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The honeydew composition and production of four aphid species feeding on Tanacetum vulgare, and mutualistic relationships with the ant Lasius niger were studied. In honeydew of Metopeurum fuscoviride and Brachycaudus cardui, xylose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, melezitose, and raffinose were detected. The proportion of trisaccharides (melezitose,\\u000a raffinose) ranged between 20% and 35%. No trisaccharides were found in honeydew of Aphis

Wolfgang Völkl; Joseph Woodring; Melanie Fischer; Matthias W. Lorenz; Klaus H. Hoffmann

1999-01-01

496

Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.  

PubMed

Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes) of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds. PMID:23967257

Turner, Kyle M; Frederickson, Megan E

2013-08-13

497

Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.  

PubMed

Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight. PMID:21562023

Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

2011-05-11

498

Ant patchiness: a spatially quantitative test in coffee agroecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arboreal ants form patchy spatial patterns in tropical agroforest canopies. Such patchy distributions more likely occur in disturbed habitats associated with lower ant diversity and resource availability than in forests. Yet, few studies have quantitatively examined these patchy patterns to statistically test if ants are non-randomly distributed or at what scale. Coffee agroecosystems form a gradient of management intensification along which vegetative complexity and ant diversity decline. Using field studies and a spatially explicit randomization model, I investigated ant patchiness in coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico varying in management intensity to examine if: (1) coffee intensification affects occurrence of numerically dominant ants, (2) numerical dominants form statistically distinguishable single-species patches in coffee plants, (3) shade trees play a role in patch location, and (4) patch formation or size varies with management intensity. Coffee intensification correlated with lower occurrence frequency of numerically dominant species generally and of one of four taxa examined. All dominant ant species formed patches but only Azteca instabilis was patchy around shade trees. Ant patchiness did vary somewhat with spatial scale and with strata (within the coffee layer vs around shade trees). Patchiness, however, did not vary with management intensity. These results provide quantitative evidence that numerically dominant ants are patchy within the coffee layer at different scales and that shade tree location, but not coffee management intensity, may play a role in the formation of patchy distributions.

Philpott, Stacy M.

2006-08-01

499

Ant-plant-herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna.  

PubMed

The Brazilian cerrado savanna covers nearly 2 million km2 and has a high incidence on foliage of various liquid food sources such as extrafloral nectar and insect exudates. These liquid rewards generate intense ant activity on cerrado foliage, making ant-plant-herbivore interactions especially prevalent in this biome. We present data on the distribution and abundance of extrafloral nectaries in the woody flora of cerrado communities and in the flora of other habitats worldwide, and stress the relevance of liquid food sources (including hemipteran honeydew) for the ant fauna. Consumption by ants of plant and insect exudates significantly affects the activity of the associated herbivores of cerrado plant species, with varying impacts on the reproductive output of the plants. Experiments with an ant-plant-butterfly system unequivocally demonstrate that the behavior of both immature and adult lepidopterans is closely related to the use of a risky host plant, where intensive visitation by ants can have a severe impact on caterpillar survival. We discuss recent evidence suggesting that the occurrence of liquid rewards on leaves plays a key role in mediating the foraging ecology of foliage-dwelling ants, and that facultative ant-plant mutualisms are important in structuring the community of canopy arthropods. Ant-mediated effects on cerrado herbivore communities can be revealed by experiments performed on wide spatial scales, including many environmental factors such as soil fertility and vegetation structure. We also present some research questions that could be rewarding to investigate in this major neotropical savanna. PMID:15551026

Oliveira, Paulo S; Freitas, André V L

2004-11-13

500

Mapping lessons from ants to free flight: an ant-based weather avoidance algorithm in free flight airspace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing growth of air traffic worldwide motivates the need for new approaches to air traffic management that are more flexible both in terms of traffic volume and weather. Free Flight is one such approach seriously considered by the aviation community. However the benefits of Free Flight are severely curtailed in the convective weather season when weather is highly active, leading aircrafts to deviate from their optimal trajectories. This paper investigates the use of ant colony optimization in generating optimal weather avoidance trajectories in Free Flight airspace. The problem is motivated by the need to take full advantage of the airspace capacity in a Free Flight environment, while maintaining safe separation between aircrafts and hazardous weather. The experiments described herein were run on a high fidelity Free Flight air traffic simulation system which allows for a variety of constraints on the computed routes and accurate measurement of environments dynamics. This permits us to estimate the desired behavior of an aircraft, including avoidance of changing hazardous weather patterns, turn and curvature constraints, and the horizontal separation standard and required time of arrival at a pre determined point, and to analyze the performance of our algorithm in various weather scenarios. The proposed Ant Colony Optimization based weather avoidance algorithm was able to find optimum weather free routes every time if they exist. In case of highly complex scenarios the algorithm comes out with the route which requires the aircraft to fly through the weather cells with least disturbances. All the solutions generated were within flight parameters and upon integration with the flight management system of the aircraft in a Free Flight air traffic simulator, successfully negotiated the bad weather.

Alam, Sameer; Abbass, Hussein A.; Barlow, Michael; Lindsay, Peter

2005-01-01