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Sample records for mukaiyama aldol reactions

  1. Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-01-01

    Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media have been surveyed. While the original Mukaiyama aldol reactions entailed stoichiometric use of Lewis acids in organic solvents under strictly anhydrous conditions, Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media are not only suitable for green sustainable chemistry but are found to produce singular phenomena. These findings led to the discovery of a series of water-compatible Lewis acids such as lanthanide triflates in 1991. Our understanding on these beneficial effects in the presence of water will be deepened through the brilliant examples collected in this review. 1 Introduction 2 Rate Enhancement by Water in the Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction 3 Lewis Acid Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 3.1 Water-Compatible Lewis Acids 4 Lewis-Base Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 5 The Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in 100% Water 6 Asymmetric Catalysts in Aqueous Media and Water 7 Conclusions and Perspective PMID:24971045

  2. Pushing the boundaries of vinylogous reactivity: catalytic enantioselective mukaiyama aldol reactions of highly unsaturated 2-silyloxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Curti, Claudio; Sartori, Andrea; Battistini, Lucia; Brindani, Nicoletta; Rassu, Gloria; Pelosi, Giorgio; Lodola, Alessio; Mor, Marco; Casiraghi, Giovanni; Zanardi, Franca

    2015-04-20

    The first example of catalytic, enantioselective hypervinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction (HVMAR) involving multiply unsaturated 2-silyloxyindoles is reported. The reaction utilizes a chiral Lewis base-catalyzed Lewis acid-mediated technology to deliver homoallylic 3-polyenylidene 2-oxindoles with extraordinary levels of regio-, enantio-, and geometrical selectivity. This work highlights a subtle yet decisive influence of the indole N-substituents on the propagation of the vinylogous reactivity space of the donor substrates up to ten bonds away from the origin of the vinylogy effect. Analysis of the (13) C NMR chemical shifts of the C-ω remote site within homologous silyloxyindole donors enabled rationalization of the results and easy qualitative prediction of the HVMAR reactivity/inertia toward a given aldehyde acceptor. PMID:25735832

  3. FeCl3·6H2O-catalyzed Mukaiyama-aldol type reactions of enolizable aldehydes and acetals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gimeno, Alejandra; Cuenca, Ana B; Gil-Tomás, Jesús; Medio-Simón, Mercedes; Olmos, Andrea; Asensio, Gregorio

    2014-09-01

    Mukaiyama-aldol type reactions of acetals derived from enolizable aldehydes with FeCl3·6H2O, an eco-friendly, low-cost, and stable catalyst, lead to β-methoxycarbonyl compounds with nearly quantitative yields. The methodology is extended to the parent aldehydes as starting materials, leading to the corresponding aldols with lower yields, but efficiently. Different alkyl and aryl substituted acetals and aldehydes have been tested in the reaction with linear and cyclic silyl enol ethers. Reactions are carried out in an open air atmosphere, and additives are not required. Acetals can be considered activating groups of the carbonyl moiety rather than a protecting group in this type of FeCl3·6H2O-catalyzed condensation. PMID:25102027

  4. The Mukaiyama aldol reaction of in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds: selective C-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage in one-pot for α-amination of ketones.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Isai; Grandhi, Gowri Sankar; Sahoo, Harekrishna; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2015-09-21

    A practical protocol for the α-amination of ketones (up to 99% yield) has been developed via the Mukaiyama aldol reaction of in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds. The reaction with silyl enol ethers having a disilane (-SiMe2TMS) backbone proceeded not only with perfect N-selectivity but concomitant N-O bond cleavage was also accomplished. Such a cascade of C-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage in a single step was heretofore unknown in the field of nitrosocarbonyl chemistry. A very high diastereoselectivity (dr = 19 : 1) was accomplished using (-)-menthol derived chiral nitrosocarbonyl compounds. PMID:26245149

  5. Sequential Mukaiyama-Michael reaction induced by carbon acids.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hikaru; Kobayashi, Osamu; Takada, Kenji; Isono, Takuya; Satoh, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2016-02-16

    In the presence of a strong carbon acid, the sequential Mukaiyama-Michael reaction using two different Michael acceptors proceeded and the reaction of ketene silyl acetal derived from EtOAc with α-pyrones as primal acceptors yielded the corresponding cyclic ketene silyl acetals, which were reactive enough to undergo the following reaction with second acceptors. PMID:26734829

  6. Organolanthanide reagents and the Mukaiyama reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, L.

    1989-01-01

    The bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) lutetium halide complex ((C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)/sub 2/LuCl/center dot/THF) was synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of this complex shows that the Lu is at the center of a distorted tetrahedron consisting of the centroids of two cyclopentadienyl rings, the oxygen atom of a tetrahydrofuran molecule and a chlorine atom. /sup 1/H NMR studies of toluene-d/sub 8/ solutions of (C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/LuCl(THF) + THF, (TMS/sub 2/CP)/sub 2/LuCl(THF) + THF, and (MeCp)/sub 2/LuCl(THF) + THF at various temperatures showed exchange processes between co- ordinated THF and free THF with average values of ..delta..G/sup ne/ of 13.0 /+-/ 0.3 kcal/mol, 11.1 /+-/ 0.1 kcal/mol and <11 kcal/mol at 0/degree/C, respectively. It has been found that under the influence of a catalytic amount (1--5 mol %) of (TMS/sub 2/Cp)/sub 2/YbCl dimer, silyl enol ethers (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C = C(OR/sub 3/)OSiMe/sub 3/)) react with benzaldehyde smoothly in dichloromethane at room temperature, giving >99% of the aldol silyl ether (isolated yield: 90%) within 3 h. At /minus/78/degrees/C, the reaction gives kinetically controlled diastereoselectivity, which was not observed in the TiCl/sub 4/-mediated aldol reaction. The use of organoytterbium enolates shows promise result with respect to increased stereoselectivity, and indicates the importance of the bulky ligands on the metal center. In addition, Yb(III) species can retard retroaldol reaction owing to its mild Lewis acidity. 118 refs., 14 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Catalytic asymmetric aldol reactions in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Mlynarski, Jacek; Paradowska, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Nature has perfected the stereospecific aldol reaction by using aldolase enzymes. While virtually all the biochemical aldol reactions use unmodified donor and acceptor carbonyls and take place under catalytic control in an aqueous environment, the chemical domain of the aldol addition has mostly relied on prior transformation of carbonyl substrates, and the whole process traditionally is carried out in anhydrous solvents. The area of aqua-asymmetric aldol reactions has received much attention recently in light of the perception both of its green chemistry advantages and its analogy to eon-perfected enzyme catalysis. Both chiral metal complexes and small chiral organic molecules have been recently reported to catalyze aldol reactions with relatively high chemical and stereochemical efficiency. This tutorial review describes recent developments in this area. PMID:18648676

  8. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds.

  9. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds. PMID:26892561

  10. Stereodefined Acyclic Polysubstituted Silyl Ketene Aminals: Asymmetric Formation of Aldol Products with Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Nairoukh, Zackaria; Marek, Ilan

    2015-11-23

    The regio- and stereoselective formation of stereodefined polysubstituted silyl ketene aminals is easily achieved through selective combined carbometalation-oxidation-silylation reactions. These substrates are ideal candidates for Mukaiyama aldol reactions with aliphatic aldehydes as they give the aldol products with a quaternary carbon stereocenter α to the carbonyl groups in outstanding diastereoselectivities. PMID:26448575

  11. Asymmetric Aldol-Tishchenko Reaction of Sulfinimines.

    PubMed

    Foley, Vera M; McSweeney, Christina M; Eccles, Kevin S; Lawrence, Simon E; McGlacken, Gerard P

    2015-11-20

    Methods for the preparation of 1,3-amino alcohols and their derivatives containing two stereogenic centers usually involve a two-step installation of the chiral centers. An aldol-Tishchenko reaction of chiral sulfinimines which involves the first reported reduction of a C═N in this type of reaction is described. Two and even three chiral centers can be installed in one synthetic step, affording anti-1,3-amino alcohols in good diastereo- and enantioselectivity. PMID:26528888

  12. Direct catalytic enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of thioamides.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Mitsutaka; Yazaki, Ryo; Chen, I-Hon; Sureshkumar, Devarajulu; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2011-04-13

    A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamides using a soft Lewis acid/hard Brønsted base cooperative catalyst comprising (R,R)-Ph-BPE/[Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)]PF(6)/LiOAr is described. Exclusive enolate generation from thioacetamides through a soft-soft interaction with the soft Lewis acid allowed for a direct aldol reaction to α-nonbranched aliphatic aldehydes, which are usually susceptible to self-condensation under conventional basic conditions. A hard Lewis basic phosphine oxide has emerged as an effective additive to constitute a highly active ternary soft Lewis acid/hard Brønsted base/hard Lewis base cooperative catalyst, enabling a direct enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of thiopropionamides. Strict control of the amount of the hard Lewis base was essential to drive the catalytic cycle efficiently with a minimized retro-aldol pathway, affording syn-aldol products with high stereoselectivity. Divergent transformation of the thioamide functionality is an obvious merit of the present aldol methodology, allowing for a facile transformation of the aldol product into the corresponding aldehyde, ketone, amide, amine, and ketoester. An aldehyde derived from the direct aldol reaction was subjected to a second direct aldol reaction, which proceeded in a catalyst-controlled manner to provide 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivity. PMID:21417332

  13. Organocatalytic asymmetric aldol reaction in the presence of water.

    PubMed

    Gryko, Dorota; Saletra, Wojciech J

    2007-07-01

    Water was found to be a suitable solvent for the l-prolinethioamide catalysed aldol reaction of various cyclic ketones with aromatic aldehydes. Treatment of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with as little as 1.2 equiv. of cyclohexanone in the presence of the protonated catalyst 1-TFA, afforded aldol products in high yields (up to 97%) with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity (up to >5 : 95 dr and 98% ee). The use of a high excess of ketone was avoided by conducting the aldol addition in the presence of water. Furthermore, different 'salting-out' and 'salting-in' salts were investigated and it was proven that the rate of acceleration and the stereochemical outcome of the reaction are affected by hydrophobic aggregation. Scope and limitation studies revealed that electron deficient aldehydes afforded aldol products with high stereoselectivity in the presence of 1-Cl(2)CHCO(2)H. It was shown that various cyclic ketones, under the conditions found, gave aldol products with fair yields, even if they are used in substoichiometric amounts (1.2 to 2.0 equiv.). PMID:17581659

  14. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulos, D D; Kokotos, C G; Karousis, N; Kokotos, G; Tagmatarchis, N

    2015-02-14

    The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was evaluated for the first time, showing to proceed almost quantitatively in aqueous media. Furthermore, several amino-modified MWCNTs were prepared and examined in the particular aldol reaction. These new hybrid materials exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity in water, contrasting with the pristine MWCNTs as well as the parent organic molecule, which failed to catalyze the reaction efficiently. Furthermore, the modified MWCNTs proved to catalyze the aldol reaction even after three repetitive cycles. Overall, a green approach for the aldol reaction is presented, where water can be employed as the solvent and modified MWCNTs can be used as catalysts, which can be successfully recovered and reused, while their catalytic activity is retained. PMID:25585101

  15. Switching diastereoselectivity in proline-catalyzed aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castañeda, Ángel; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Concellón, Carmen; del Amo, Vicente

    2012-11-16

    The choice of the anion of an achiral TBD-derived guanidinium salt, used as cocatalyst for proline, allows reacting cycloketones with aromatic aldehydes and preparing either anti- or syn-aldol adducts with very high enantioselectivity. As a proof of principle, we show how the judicious choice of an additive allows individual access to all possible products, thus controlling the stereochemical outcome of the asymmetric aldol reaction. The origin of the syn diastereoselectivity unfolds from an unusual equilibrium process coupled to the enamine-based catalytic cycle standard for proline. PMID:23101761

  16. Investigating ionic effects applied to water based organocatalysed aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Joshua P; Henderson, Luke C

    2011-01-01

    Saturated aqueous solutions of various common salts were examined for their effect on aqueous aldol reactions catalysted by a highly active C(2)-symmetric diprolinamide organocatalyst developed in our laboratory. With respect to the aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, deionised water was always a superior medium to salt solutions though some correlation to increasing anion size and depression in enantiomeric excess could be observed. Additionally, the complete inhibition of catalyst activity observed when employing tap water could be alleviated by the inclusion of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the aqueous media prior to reaction initiation. Extension of these reaction conditions demonstrated that these ionic effects vary on a case-to-case basis depending on the ketone/aldehyde combination. PMID:22272120

  17. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an aldol reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronopoulos, D. D.; Kokotos, C. G.; Karousis, N.; Kokotos, G.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-01-01

    The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was evaluated for the first time, showing to proceed almost quantitatively in aqueous media. Furthermore, several amino-modified MWCNTs were prepared and examined in the particular aldol reaction. These new hybrid materials exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity in water, contrasting with the pristine MWCNTs as well as the parent organic molecule, which failed to catalyze the reaction efficiently. Furthermore, the modified MWCNTs proved to catalyze the aldol reaction even after three repetitive cycles. Overall, a green approach for the aldol reaction is presented, where water can be employed as the solvent and modified MWCNTs can be used as catalysts, which can be successfully recovered and reused, while their catalytic activity is retained.The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was evaluated for the first time, showing to proceed almost quantitatively in aqueous media. Furthermore, several amino-modified MWCNTs were prepared and examined in the particular aldol reaction. These new hybrid materials exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity in water, contrasting with the pristine MWCNTs as well as the parent organic molecule, which failed to catalyze the reaction efficiently. Furthermore, the modified MWCNTs proved to catalyze the aldol reaction even after three repetitive cycles. Overall, a green approach for the aldol reaction is presented, where water can be employed as the solvent and modified MWCNTs can be used as catalysts, which can be successfully recovered and reused, while their catalytic activity is retained. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the synthesis of 5, 8 and 11; 1H & 13C NMR of compounds 8 and 11; ATR-IR spectra, thermographs and TEM imaging of hybrids 10 and 13. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06543c

  18. Practical and highly selective oxazolidinethione-based asymmetric acetate aldol reactions with aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Guz, Nathan R; Phillips, Andrew J

    2002-06-27

    [reaction: see text] The utility of a valine-derived oxazolidinethione for auxiliary-based asymmetric acetate aldol reactions is reported. Titanium(IV) chloride, along with (-)-sparteine and N-methylpyrrolidinone, is employed for enolization. Subsequent aldol reaction with aliphatic aldehydes occurs with high diastereoselectivity (from 92:8 to 99:1 dr). PMID:12074680

  19. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOEpatents

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hanson, Susan Kloek

    2013-07-30

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons. comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising chloromethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.3, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  20. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOEpatents

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hangson, Susan Kloek

    2013-08-13

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising hydroxymethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.2, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  1. Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reactions of thioamides: toward a stereocontrolled synthesis of 1,3-polyols.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Mitsutaka; Yazaki, Ryo; Suzuki, Yuta; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2009-12-30

    A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamides with a soft Lewis acid/hard Brønsted base cooperative catalytic system comprising (R,R)-Ph-BPE/[Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)]PF(6)/LiOAr is described. Highly chemoselective deprotonative activation of thioamides allows for a direct aldol reaction of alpha-nonbranched aliphatic aldehydes, which are susceptible to self-condensation. Facile reduction of the thioamide functionality and a catalyst-controlled second aldol reaction provides 1,3-diols in a highly stereoselective manner. PMID:19994862

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of beta-hydroxy amino acids via aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Mettath, Sashikumar; Srikanth, G S C; Dangerfield, Benjamin S; Castle, Steven L

    2004-09-17

    The Cinchona alkaloid derived chiral ammonium salt developed by Park and Jew functions as an effective catalyst for the synthesis of beta-hydroxy alpha-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions under homogeneous conditions. The syn diastereomers are obtained in good ee, and aryl-substituted aliphatic aldehydes are the best substrates for the reaction. These results represent the highest ee's obtained to date in direct aldol reactions of glycine equivalents catalyzed by inexpensive, readily prepared chiral ammonium salts. PMID:15357616

  3. Preparation of C9-aldehyde via aldol condensation reactions in ionic liquid media.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Christian P; Dispenziere, Nicholas C; Cook, Raymond A

    2002-08-01

    C9-aldehyde has been prepared via aldol condensation reactions in ionic liquid media; catalyst investigation showed enhanced product selectivity for the desired aldehyde in ionic liquid media than in conventional solvent systems. PMID:12170806

  4. Domino Michael-Michael and Aldol-Aldol Reactions: Diastereoselective Synthesis of Functionalized Cyclohexanone Derivatives Containing Quaternary Carbon Center.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Manas K; Halder, Sandipan; Das, Subhomoy

    2015-10-01

    A simple strategy for the synthesis of highly functionalized cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center from α-(aryl/alkyl)methylidene-β-keto esters or β-diketones via a K-enolate mediated domino Michael-Michael reaction sequence with moderate to good yield and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%) is described. Interestingly, Li-base mediated reaction of α-arylmethylidene-β-diketones affords functionalized 3,5-dihydroxy cyclohexane derivatives as the kinetically controlled products via a domino aldol-aldol reaction sequence with excellent diastereoselectivity. Li-enolates of the β-keto esters or β-diketones undergo facile domino Michael-Michael reaction with nitro-olefins to afford the corresponding nitrocyclohexane derivatives in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%). The formation of the products and the observed stereoselectivity were explained by plausible mechanisms and supported by extensive computational study. An asymmetric version of the protocol was explored with (L)-menthol derived nonracemic substrates, and the corresponding nonracemic cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center were obtained with excellent stereoselectivity (de, ee > 99%). PMID:26334184

  5. A Tandem Michael-Aldol Reaction Sequence: An Undergraduate Research Organic Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutlangus, Marilyn L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a short reaction sequence that allows the student to determine by spectroscopic methods the constitution and stereochemistry of the reaction products. Reports the interpretations needed to illustrate the usefulness of the spectroscopic method. Notes the products of the Michael-Aldol reaction have not been reported in the literature. (MVL)

  6. Rapid and Efficient Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions Associated with Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang; Liu, Jing; Leng, Wenguang; Gao, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions. PMID:24445262

  7. A NOVEL CHIRAL GALLIUM LEWIS ACID CATALYST WITH SEMI-CROWN LIGAND IN AQUEOUS ASYMMETRIC MUKAIYAMA ALDOL REACTIONS. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. α-Hydroxyallylsilanes as propionaldehyde enolate equivalents and their use toward iterative aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Johal; Murthy, Akondi Srirama; Roisnel, Thierry; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Grée, René

    2015-02-20

    Smooth and efficient reaction conditions have been found for the transformation of protected β-hydroxyacylsilanes into the corresponding aldehydes. This opens a new route to iterative aldol reactions, and it has been used for the synthesis of fragments of several bioactive natural products. PMID:25636066

  9. Unexpected Retroaldol-Aldol Reaction during O-Alkylation of Hydroxylated Vince Lactam Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Christoffer; Wetzel, Alexander; Bergman, Joakim; Brånalt, Jonas

    2016-01-15

    The unexpected retroaldol-aldol reaction during O-alkylation of a β-hydroxy lactam was found to be highly dependent on the temperature and shows a remarkable solvent effect. In DMF, O-alkylation is faster than retroaldol-aldol rearrangement giving exclusively products with retention of configuration. In THF, O-alkylation is slower than rearrangement, giving selectively products with inversion of stereochemistry. In DMSO, a retroaldol reaction followed by fast intramolecular proton transfer occurs to give the ring-opened aldehyde. PMID:26703240

  10. Hydrophobic Substituent Effects on Proline Catalysis of Aldol Reactions in Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingquan; Lam, Yu-hong; Kheirabadi, Mahboubeh; Xu, Chongsong; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    Derivatives of 4-hydroxyproline with a series of hydrophobic groups in well-defined orientations have been tested as catalysts for the aldol reactions. All of the modified proline catalysts carry out the intermolecular aldol reaction in water and provide high diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. Modified prolines with aromatic groups syn to the carboxylic acid are better catalysts than those with small hydrophobic groups (1a is 43.5 times faster than 1f). Quantum mechanical calculations provide transition structures, TS-1awater and TS-1fwater that support the hypothesis that a stabilizing hydrophobic interaction occurs with 1a. PMID:22500641

  11. Bifunctional Brønsted Base Catalyzes Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Amides.

    PubMed

    Echave, Haizea; López, Rosa; Palomo, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The first enantioselective direct cross-aldol reaction of α-keto amides with aldehydes, mediated by a bifunctional ureidopeptide-based Brønsted base catalyst, is described. The appropriate combination of a tertiary amine base and an aminal, and urea hydrogen-bond donor groups in the catalyst structure promoted the exclusive generation of the α-keto amide enolate which reacted with either non-enolizable or enolizable aldehydes to produce highly enantioenriched polyoxygenated aldol adducts without side-products resulting from dehydration, α-keto amide self-condensation, aldehyde enolization, and isotetronic acid formation. PMID:26835655

  12. Anti-selective aldol reactions with titanium enolates of N-glycolyloxazolidinethiones.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Michael T; McDougall, Patrick J

    2003-02-20

    [reaction: see text] A highly diastereoselective anti aldol addition utilizing a variety of N-glycolyloxazolidinethiones has been developed. Enolization of an N-glycolyloxazolidinethione with titanium (IV) chloride and (-)-sparteine followed by addition of an aldehyde activated with additional TiCl(4) resulted in highly anti-selective aldol additions, typically with no observable syn isomers. Allyl-protected glycolates demonstrated the highest levels of selection and yields, although O-benzyl and O-methyl glycolyloxazolidinethiones also performed well. PMID:12583777

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (-)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  14. A General Diastereoselective Catalytic Vinylogous Aldol Reaction Among Tetramic Acid-Derived Pyrroles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic diastereoselective aldol reaction has been developed for N1-arylated/C2-O-silylated/C3-methylated and brominated/C4-O-methylated pyrroles in its reactions with various aldehydes. Syn adducts emerge with regard to the vicinal nitrogen and oxygen heteroatom substituents. The N1-aryl residue undergoes oxidative cleavage, and the C3-bromine atom undergoes palladium-mediated coupling reactions, both without disturbing the newly created stereocenters. PMID:25119431

  15. The stereoselective synthesis of α-amino aldols starting from terminal alkynes.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tomoya; Nakamuro, Takayuki; Hiraga, Kentaro; Murakami, Masahiro

    2014-09-18

    A new procedure for the stereoselective synthesis of syn α-amino β-oxy ketones is reported. It consists of two steps; in the first step, α-amino silyl enol ethers having a (Z) geometry are prepared from 1-alkynes via 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles. In the second step, the silyl enol ethers undergo the TiCl4-mediated Mukaiyama aldol reaction with aldehydes to produce α-amino β-oxy ketones with excellent syn-selectivity. PMID:25068433

  16. Stereoselective titanium-mediated aldol reactions of a chiral lactate-derived ethyl ketone with ketones.

    PubMed

    Alcoberro, Sandra; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Solà, Ricard; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-01-17

    Aldol reactions of titanium enolates of lactate-derived ethyl ketone 1 with other ketones proceed in a very efficient and stereocontrolled manner provided that a further equivalent of TiCl4 is added to the reacting mixture. The scope of these reactions encompasses simple ketones such as acetone or cyclohexanone as well as other ketones that contain potential chelating groups such as pyruvate esters or α- and β-hydroxy ketones. PMID:24372372

  17. Solvent-Induced Reversal of Activities between Two Closely Related Heterogeneous Catalysts in the Aldol Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Althaus, Stacey M; Peeraphatdit, Chorthip; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Trewyn, Brian G; Pruski, Marek; Slowing, Igor I

    2013-01-11

    The relative rates of the aldol reaction catalyzed by supported primary and secondary amines can be inverted by 2 orders of magnitude, depending on the use of hexane or water as a solvent. Our analyses suggest that this dramatic shift in the catalytic behavior of the supported amines does not involve differences in reaction mechanism, but is caused by activation of imine to enamine equilibria and stabilization of iminium species. The effects of solvent polarity and acidity were found to be important to the performance of the catalytic reaction. This study highlights the critical role of solvent in multicomponent heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  18. From allylic alcohols to aldols through a new nickel-mediated tandem reaction: synthetic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Cuperly, David; Petrignet, Julien; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2006-04-12

    Nickel hydride type complexes have been successfully developed as catalysts for the tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of allylic alcohols with aldehydes. Optimization of the reaction conditions has shown that a cocatalyst, such as MgBr2, has a very positive effect on the kinetics of the reaction and in the yields of aldols. Under such optimized conditions {[NiHCl(dppe)] + MgBr(2) at 3-5 mol %)}, this reaction affords the aldols in good to excellent yields. It is a full-atom-economy-type reaction that occurs under mild conditions. Furthermore, it has a broad scope for the allylic alcohols and it is compatible with a wide range of aldehydes, including very bulky derivatives. The reaction is completely regioselective, but it exhibits a low stereoselectivity, except for allylic alcohols with a bulky substituent at the carbinol center. The use of chiral nonracemic catalysts was not successful, affording only racemic compounds. However, it was possible to use asymmetric synthesis for the preparation of optically active aldols. Various mechanistic studies have been performed using, for instance, a deuterated alcohol or a deuterated catalyst. They gave strong support to a mechanism involving first a transition-metal-mediated isomerization of the allylic alcohol into the free enol, followed by the addition of the latter intermediate onto the aldehyde in an "hydroxyl-carbonyl-ene" type reaction. These results confirm that allylic alcohols can be considered as new and useful partners in the development of the aldol reaction. PMID:16506253

  19. Unraveling the role of water in the stereoselective step of aqueous proline-catalyzed aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Carvajal, Maria Angels; Chaumont, Alain; Masia, Marco

    2012-12-01

    A multiscale computational study was performed with the aim of tracing the source of stereoselectivity and disclosing the role of water in the stereoselective step of propionaldehyde aldol self-condensation catalyzed by proline amide in water, a reaction that serves as a model for aqueous organocatalytic aldol condensations. Solvent mixing and hydration behavior were assessed by classical molecular dynamics simulations, which show that the reaction between propanal and the corresponding enamine takes place in a fully hydrated environment. First-principles molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the free-energy profile of four possible reaction paths, each of which yields a different stereoisomer, and high-level static first-principles calculations were employed to characterize the transition states for microsolvated species. The first solvation shell of the oxygen atom of the electrophilic aldehyde at the transition states contains two water molecules, each of which donates one hydrogen bond to the nascent alkoxide and thereby largely stabilizes its excess electron density. The stereoselectivity originates in an extra hydrogen bond donated by the amido group of proline amide in two reaction paths. PMID:23074080

  20. Ligand-Promoted, Boron-Mediated Chemoselective Carboxylic Acid Aldol Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hideoki; Morita, Yuya; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2016-05-01

    The first carboxylic acid selective aldol reaction mediated by boron compounds and a mild organic base (DBU) was developed. Inclusion of electron-withdrawing groups in the amino acid derivative ligands reacted with BH3·SMe2 forms a boron promoter with increased Lewis acidity at the boron atom and facilitated the carboxylic acid selective enolate formation, even in the presence of other carbonyl groups such as amides, esters, ketones, or aliphatic aldehydes. The remarkable ligand effect led to the broad substrate scope including biologically relevant compounds. PMID:27104352

  1. Anti-Selective Aldol Reactions of Pentafluorosulfanylacetic Acid Esters with Aldehydes Mediated by Dicyclohexylchloroborane.

    PubMed

    Friese, Florian W; Dreier, Anna-Lena; Matsnev, Andrej V; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Thrasher, Joseph S; Haufe, Günter

    2016-03-01

    Aldol reactions of pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5)-substituted acetic acid esters with both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes proceeded with excellent anti-diastereoselectivity and good to high yields using dicyclohexylchloroborane/triethylamine. This methodology enabled the synthesis of hitherto unknown α-SF5-β-hydroxy esters. Using a norephedrine-based auxiliary, high asymmetric induction was observed. The stereochemistry of products was assigned by NMR spectroscopy and proved by X-ray diffraction analysis. The intermediate enolate was identified as a highly unstable species. PMID:26909525

  2. From allylic alcohols to aldols by using iron carbonyls as catalysts: computational study on a novel tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction.

    PubMed

    Branchadell, Vicenç; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2004-11-01

    The tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction between allyl alcohol and formaldehyde mediated by [Fe(CO)3] was studied with the density functional B3LYP method. Starting from the key [(enol)Fe(CO)3] complex, several reaction paths for the reaction with formaldehyde were explored. The results show that the most favorable reaction path involves first an enol/allyl alcohol ligand-exchange process followed by direct condensation of formaldehyde with the free enol. During this process, formation of the new C-C bond takes place simultaneously with a proton transfer between the enol and the aldehyde. Therefore, the role of [Fe(CO)3] is to catalyze the allyl alcohol to enol isomerization affording the free enol, which adds to the aldehyde in a carbonyl-ene type reaction. Similar results were obtained for the reaction between allyl alcohol and acetaldehyde. PMID:15472940

  3. The effect of the hydrophobic environment on the retro-aldol reaction: Comparison to a computationally-designed enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joshua; Ehasz, Clayton; Epperson, Michael; Klas, Kimberly; Wyatt, Justin; Hennig, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on a computationally-designed retroaldolase RA-61 suggested that most of the rate-acceleration brought about by this enzyme was due to non-specific interactions with the aromatic substrate. To provide a benchmark for the role of non-specific interactions in this system, we measured the second-order rate constant for the amine-catalysed retro-aldol reaction of methodol in the presence of non-specific hydrophobic pockets such as micelles. We found that a simple micellar system, that consists of a positively-charged surfactant and a long-chain amine, can accelerate the retro-aldol reaction of methodol by 9,500-fold. This effect rivals the 105-fold rate acceleration of RA-61. Similar results were obtained with BSA used as the catalyst, implying that the retro-aldol reaction of methodol can be greatly accelerated by non-specific hydrophobic pockets that contain an amino group. PMID:24189834

  4. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin: asymmetric glycolate aldol reactions and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Hicken, Erik J; Simmons, Bryon L; Glancey, Russell R; Ma, Wei

    2003-10-17

    The total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin (GA), following a linear route, has been completed using a demethylative quinone-forming reaction as the last step. Key steps include the use of two new asymmetric boron glycolate aldol reactions. To set the anti-C11,12 hydroxymethoxy functionality, (S,S)-5,6-bis-4-methoxyphenyldioxanone 8 was used. Methylglycolate derived from norephedrine 5 set the C6,7 methoxyurethane stereochemistry. The quinone formation step using nitric acid gave the non-natural o-quino-GA product 55 10:1 over geldanamycin. Other known oxidants gave an unusual azaquinone product 49. o-Quino-GA 55 binds Hsp90 with good affinity but is less cytotoxic compared to GA. PMID:14535799

  5. Dynamic assembly of a zinc-templated bifunctional organocatalyst in the presence of water for the asymmetric aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pont, Anna; Alfonso, Ignacio; Jimeno, Ciril; Solà, Jordi

    2015-12-21

    A bifunctional organocatalytic system consisting of simple pyridine ligands containing separate catalytic functionalities was assembled using ZnCl2. This novel metal-templated catalyst furnished high yields and stereoselectivities towards the aldol reaction. The addition of controlled amounts of water turned out to be crucial to dissolve the system and achieve optimal results. PMID:26478115

  6. Tandem Aldol-Michael Reactions in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium: A Greener and Efficient Approach to Bis-Pyrimidine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majid, Abdullah M.; Barakat, Assem; AL-Najjar, Hany J.; Mabkhot, Yahia N.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-01-01

    A simple protocol, involving the green synthesis for the construction of novel bis-pyrimidine derivatives, 3a–i and 4a–e are accomplished by the aqueous diethylamine media promoted tandem Aldol-Michael reaction between two molecules of barbituric acid derivatives 1a,b with various aldehydes. This efficient synthetic protocol using an economic and environmentally friendly reaction media with versatility and shorter reaction time provides bis-pyrimidine derivatives with high yields (88%–99%). PMID:24317435

  7. Tandem aldol-Michael reactions in aqueous diethylamine medium: a greener and efficient approach to bis-pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Barakat, Assem; Al-Najjar, Hany J; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-01-01

    A simple protocol, involving the green synthesis for the construction of novel bis-pyrimidine derivatives, 3a-i and 4a-e are accomplished by the aqueous diethylamine media promoted tandem Aldol-Michael reaction between two molecules of barbituric acid derivatives 1a,b with various aldehydes. This efficient synthetic protocol using an economic and environmentally friendly reaction media with versatility and shorter reaction time provides bis-pyrimidine derivatives with high yields (88%-99%). PMID:24317435

  8. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized 1,3,5-Triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones via an Aza-Michael/Aldol Domino Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Joie, Céline; Deckers, Kristina; Enders, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of functionalized 1,3,5-triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones bearing three contiguous stereocenters through an aza-Michael/aldol domino reaction of α-ketoamides with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The domino products were further derivatized by aldehyde olefination under one-pot conditions. The reaction proceeds with excellent diastereoselectivities (>20:1) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (60–96% ee). PMID:25278634

  9. Expedient synthesis of C-aryl carbohydrates by consecutive biocatalytic benzoin and aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Pohl, Martina; Clapés, Pere

    2015-02-16

    The introduction of aromatic residues connected by a C-C bond into the non-reducing end of carbohydrates is highly significant for the development of innovative structures with improved binding affinity and selectivity (e.g., C-aril-sLex). In this work, an expedient asymmetric "de novo" synthetic route to new aryl carbohydrate derivatives based on two sequential stereoselectively biocatalytic carboligation reactions is presented. First, the benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes to dimethoxyacetaldehyde is conducted, catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I. Then, the α-hydroxyketones formed are reduced by using NaBH4 yielding the anti diol. After acetal hydrolysis, the aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetone, or glycolaldehyde catalyzed by the stereocomplementary D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase is performed. Both aldolases accept unphosphorylated donor substrates, avoiding the need of handling the phosphate group that the dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases require. In this way, 6-C-aryl-L-sorbose, 6-C-aryl-L-fructose, 6-C-aryl-L-tagatose, and 5-C-aryl-L-xylose derivatives are prepared by using this methodology. PMID:25640727

  10. Construction of successive chiral centers adjacent to a chiral tetraalkylated quaternary center using an asymmetric aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Esumi, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Tsugawa, Yuri; Toyota, Masao; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2013-04-19

    The aldol reaction of 2″ with a variety of different aldehydes gave the corresponding β-lactones 4 bearing successive asymmetric centers adjacent to a chiral tetraalkylated quaternary center or the (E)-alkenes 8. The use of electronically neutral or electron-deficient aldehydes led to 4 in excellent yields with high diastereoselectivities, whereas electron-rich aldehydes performed poorly and underwent decarboxylation to afford 8. PMID:23577874

  11. Direct Access to 6/5/7/5- and 6/7/5/5-Fused Tetracyclic Triterpenoids via Divergent Transannular Aldol Reaction of Lanosterol-Derived Diketone

    PubMed Central

    Ignatenko, Vasily A.; Han, Yong

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to access biologically relevant chemical space, a complex natural product-derived non-symmetrical diketone was prepared as a substrate for divergent transannular aldol reactions. The use of common aldol conditions resulted in predominant syn-addition via pathway a, while the use of alumina provided access to the anti-adduct. Screening of a range of Lewis acids of varying strength unexpectedly resulted in the formation of aldol products with 6/7/5/5-fused molecular skeleton via pathway b. PMID:24161022

  12. Highly Stereoselective and Scalable anti-Aldol Reactions using N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxamide: Scope and Origins of Stereoselectivities

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Mahapatra, Subham; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    A highly enantio- and diastereoselective anti-aldol process (up to >99% ee, >99:1 dr) catalyzed by a proline mimetic N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide has been developed. Catalyst loading as low as 2 mol% can be employed. Use of industry-friendly solvents for this transformation as well as neat reaction conditions have been demonstrated. The scope of this transformation on a range of aldehydes and ketones is explored. Density Functional Theory computations reveal that the origins of enhanced diastereoselectivity is due to the presence of non-classical hydrogen bonds between the sulfonamide, the electrophile and the catalyst enamine that favor the major Anti-Re aldol TS in the Houk-List model. PMID:20932013

  13. Characterization and mechanism insight of accelerated catalytic promiscuity of Sulfolobus tokodaii (ST0779) peptidase for aldol addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Perez, Bianca; Jian, Hui; Jensen, Mads Mørk; Gao, Renjun; Dong, Mingdong; Glasius, Marianne; Guo, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    A novel peptidase from thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus tokodaii (ST0779) is examined for its catalytic promiscuity of aldol addition, which shows comparable activity as porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL, one of the best enzymes identified for biocatalytic aldol addition) at 30 °C but much accelerated activity at elevated temperature. The molecular catalytic efficiency kcat/Km (M(-1) s(-1)) of this thermostable enzyme at 55 °C adds up to 140 times higher than that of PPL at its optimum temperature 37 °C. The fluorescence quenching analysis depicts that the binding constants of PPL are significantly higher than those of ST0779, and their numbers of binding sites show opposite temperature dependency. Thermodynamic parameters estimated by fluorescence quenching analysis unveil distinctly different substrate-binding modes between PPL and ST0779: the governing binding interaction between PPL and substrates is hydrophobic force, while the dominating substrate-binding forces for ST0779 are van der Waals and H-bonds interactions. A reasonable mechanism for ST0779-catalyzed aldol reaction is proposed based on kinetic study, spectroscopic analysis, and molecular stereostructure simulation. This work represents a successful example to identify a new enzyme for catalytic promiscuity, which demonstrates a huge potential to discover and exploit novel biocatalyst from thermophile microorganism sources. PMID:26169629

  14. One-Pot Synthesis of (S)-Baclofen via Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde with Diphenylprolinol Silyl Ether Mediated Asymmetric Michael Reaction as a Key Step.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Okamura, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    An efficient asymmetric total synthesis of (S)-baclofen was accomplished via a one-pot operation from commercially available materials using sequential reactions, such as aldol condensation of acetaldehyde, diphenylprolinol silyl ether mediated asymmetric Michael reaction of nitromethane, Kraus-Pinnick oxidation, and Raney Ni reduction. Highly enantioenriched baclofen was obtained in one pot with a good yield over four reactions. PMID:26636719

  15. TANDEM BIS-ALDOL REACTION OF KETONES: A FACILE ONE-POT SYNTHESIS OF 1,3-DIOXANES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel tandem bis-aldol reaction of ketone with paraformaldehyde catalyzed by polystyrenesulfonic acid in aqueous medium delivers 1,3-dioxanes in high yield. This one pot, operationally simple microwave-assisted synthetic protocol proceeds efficiently in water in the absence of ...

  16. Organocatalyzed aldol reaction between pyridine-2-carbaldehydes and α-ketoacids: a straightforward route towards indolizidines and isotetronic acids.

    PubMed

    Liautard, Virginie; Jardel, Damien; Davies, Clotilde; Berlande, Muriel; Buffeteau, Thierry; Cavagnat, Dominique; Robert, Frédéric; Vincent, Jean-Marc; Landais, Yannick

    2013-10-18

    Enantioselective aldol reactions between substituted pyridine carbaldehydes and α-ketoacids were shown to provide isotetronic acids or their corresponding pyridinium salts, depending on the nature of the substituents on the pyridine ring. The pyridinium salts were generated through nucleophilic attack of the pyridine nitrogen atom onto the reactive keto functional group. Moderate-to-good yields of both compounds were typically obtained and high levels of enantioselectivity were observed by using benzimidazole pyrrolidine I as a catalyst. Hydrogenation of the resulting pyridinium salts led to new indolizidines with high ee values and diastereocontrol. X-ray diffraction studies allowed the determination of the relative configuration of the products. Finally, DFT calculations were performed to rationalize the divergent pathway as a function of the pyridine substituents. PMID:24038579

  17. Steric factors direct Baylis-Hillman and aldol reactions in titanium tetrachloride mediated coupling between alpha-keto esters and cyclohex-2-enone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Basavaiah, Deevi; Sreenivasulu, Bandaru; Rao, Anumolu Jaganmohan

    2003-07-25

    The titanium tetrachloride mediated reaction of alpha-keto esters with 5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enone provides the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts exclusively whereas a similar reaction of alpha-keto esters with cyclohex-2-enone furnishes the corresponding aldol adducts (with high syn-diasteroeselectivity) as the major product (along with the Baylis-Hillman adducts as the minor product), thus clearly demonstrating the role of the steric factors in directing the reaction pathway. PMID:12868937

  18. (16) O/(18) O Exchange of Aldehydes and Ketones caused by H2 (18) O in the Mechanistic Investigation of Organocatalyzed Michael, Mannich, and Aldol Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Mukaiyama, Takasuke; Benohoud, Meryem; Gupta, Nishant R; Ono, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Shunsuke

    2016-04-18

    Organocatalyzed Michael, Mannich, and aldol reactions of aldehydes or ketones, as nucleophiles, have triggered several discussions regarding their reaction mechanism. H2 (18) O has been utilized to determine if the reaction proceeds through an enamine or enol mechanism by monitoring the ratio of (18) O incorporated into the final product. In this communication, we describe the risk of H2 (18) O as an evaluation tool for this mechanistic investigation. We have demonstrated that exchange of (16) O/(18) O occurs in the aldehyde or ketone starting material, caused by the presence of H2 (18) O and amine catalysts, before the Michael, Mannich, and aldol reactions proceed. Because the newly generated (18) O starting aldehydes or ketones and (16) O water affect the incorporation ratio of (18) O in the final product, the use of H2 (18) O would not be appropriate to distinguish the mechanism of these organocatalyzed reactions. PMID:26841358

  19. Asymmetric assembly of aldose carbohydrates from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde by tandem biocatalytic aldol reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekrenyi, Anna; Garrabou, Xavier; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2015-09-01

    The preparation of multifunctional chiral molecules can be greatly simplified by adopting a route via the sequential catalytic assembly of achiral building blocks. The catalytic aldol assembly of prebiotic compounds into stereodefined pentoses and hexoses is an as yet unmet challenge. Such a process would be of remarkable synthetic utility and highly significant with regard to the origin of life. Pursuing an expedient enzymatic approach, here we use engineered D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli to prepare a series of three- to six-carbon aldoses by sequential one-pot additions of glycolaldehyde. Notably, the pertinent selection of the aldolase variant provides control of the sugar size. The stereochemical outcome of the addition was also altered to allow the synthesis of L-glucose and related derivatives. Such engineered biocatalysts may offer new routes for the straightforward synthesis of natural molecules and their analogues that circumvent the intricate enzymatic pathways forged by evolution.

  20. Asymmetric assembly of aldose carbohydrates from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde by tandem biocatalytic aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Szekrenyi, Anna; Garrabou, Xavier; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2015-09-01

    The preparation of multifunctional chiral molecules can be greatly simplified by adopting a route via the sequential catalytic assembly of achiral building blocks. The catalytic aldol assembly of prebiotic compounds into stereodefined pentoses and hexoses is an as yet unmet challenge. Such a process would be of remarkable synthetic utility and highly significant with regard to the origin of life. Pursuing an expedient enzymatic approach, here we use engineered D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli to prepare a series of three- to six-carbon aldoses by sequential one-pot additions of glycolaldehyde. Notably, the pertinent selection of the aldolase variant provides control of the sugar size. The stereochemical outcome of the addition was also altered to allow the synthesis of L-glucose and related derivatives. Such engineered biocatalysts may offer new routes for the straightforward synthesis of natural molecules and their analogues that circumvent the intricate enzymatic pathways forged by evolution. PMID:26291944

  1. A cinchona alkaloid catalyzed enantioselective sulfa-Michael/aldol cascade reaction of isoindigos: construction of chiral bispirooxindole tetrahydrothiophenes with vicinal quaternary spirocenters.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Jian; Qi, Liang-Wen; Wang, Xiao; Tian, Fang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Peng, Lin; Wang, Li-Xin

    2015-06-14

    A cinchona alkaloid catalyzed diastereoselective and enantioselective sulfa-Michael/aldol cascade reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and isoindigos has been successfully developed to afford the highly congested bispirooxindole tetrahydrothiophenes with vicinal quaternary spirocenters in high yields (up to 91%), excellent diastereoselectivities (up to >20 : 1 dr), and good enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). Some synthetic transformations of the reaction products were also studied. PMID:25974840

  2. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Cichowicz, Nathan R.; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive ββ′-enones and substituted ββ′-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ5-unsaturation are key controling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones. PMID:26491886

  3. Access to polyfunctionalized diquinanes, hydrindanes, and decalines via TiCl4 promoted Michael-aldol and Baylis-Hillman reactions.

    PubMed

    Ressault, Blandine; Jaunet, Alexis; Geoffroy, Philippe; Goudedranche, Sébastien; Miesch, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The addition of 0.5 equiv of TiCl(4) to (cyclo)alkanones tethered to α,β-unsaturated ketones afforded polyfunctionalized diquinanes, hydrindanes, and decalines. These products, resulting from a Michael-aldol or a Baylis-Hillman reaction, can be obtained with high or total diastereoselectivity in moderate to high yields. These scaffolds represent interesting building blocks for the synthesis of complex natural products. PMID:22149721

  4. Tandem Aldol-Michael reactions in aqueous diethylamine medium: a greener and efficient approach to dimedone-barbituric acid derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Green chemistry is a rapidly developing new field that provides us with a proactive avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. Green chemistry uses highly efficient and environmentally benign synthetic protocols to deliver lifesaving medicines, accelerating lead optimization processes in drug discovery, with reduced unnecessary environmental impact. From this view point, it is desirable to use water instead of organic solvents as a reaction medium, since water is safe, abundant and an environmentally benign solvent. Results A convenient one-pot method for the efficient synthesis of the novel Zwitterion derivatives 4a-pvia a three-component condensation reaction of barbituric acid derivatives 1a,b, dimedone 2, and various aldehydes 3 in the presence of aqueous diethylamine media is described. This new approach is environmentally benign, with clean synthetic procedure, short reaction times and easy work-up procedure which proceeded smoothly to provide excellent yield (88-98%). The synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, NMR and CHN analysis. The structure of 4a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with α = 14.6669 (5) Å, b = 18.3084 (6) Å, c = 19.0294 (6) Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, = 90°, V = 5109.9 (3) Å3, and Z = 8. The molecules are packed in crystal structure by weak intermolecular C–H⋅ ⋅ ⋅O hydrogen bonding interactions. Conclusions An environmentally benign Aldol-Michael protocol for the synthesis of dimedone-barbituric derivatives using aqueous diethylamine medium is achieved. PMID:24485059

  5. The Aldol Addition and Condensation: The Effect of Conditions on Reaction Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David; Richardson, Amie; Howard, Jessica L.; Harker, Rebecca L.; Barker, Kathryn H.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of a ketone and an aldehyde in aqueous Na[subscript 2]CO[subscript 2] is described. This experiment is performed in the absence of strong bases or organic solvents and offers the opportunity for students to observe the critical role that reaction temperature and base strength have in determining the product of the base-mediated…

  6. The Aldol Addition and Condensation: The Effect of Conditions on Reaction Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David; Richardson, Amie; Howard, Jessica L.; Harker, Rebecca L.; Barker, Kathryn H.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of a ketone and an aldehyde in aqueous Na[subscript 2]CO[subscript 2] is described. This experiment is performed in the absence of strong bases or organic solvents and offers the opportunity for students to observe the critical role that reaction temperature and base strength have in determining the product of the base-mediated

  7. Brønsted acid mediated N-O bond cleavage for α-amination of ketones through the aromatic nitroso aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Isai; Sahoo, Harekrishna; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2016-02-11

    A Brønsted acid mediated N-O bond cleavage for α-amination of ketones has been developed through the nitroso aldol reaction of less-reactive aromatic nitroso compounds and silyl enol ethers having a disilane (-SiMe2TMS) backbone. This transformation is operationally simple and scalable, offering structurally diverse α-amino ketones in high yields (up to 98%) with complete regioselectivity. It represents a mechanistically unique and rare example of a metal-free N-O bond cleavage process. PMID:26810365

  8. Direct synthesis of C-glycosides from unprotected 2-N-acyl-aldohexoses via aldol condensation-oxa-Michael reactions with unactivated ketones.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherida; Tanaka, Fujie

    2016-01-01

    C-glycosides are important compounds as they are used as bioactive molecules and building blocks. We have developed methods to concisely synthesize C-glycosides from unprotected 2-N-acyl-aldohexoses and unactivated ketones; we designed aldol-condensation-oxa-Michael addition reactions catalyzed by amine-based catalysts using additives. Depending on the conditions used, C-glycosides were stereoselectively obtained. Our methods allowed the C-C bond formations at the anomeric centers of unprotected carbohydrates under mild conditions to lead the C-glycosides in atom- and step-economical ways. PMID:26565955

  9. Intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) Studies toward the Synthesis of Australifungin. Stereocontrol in the Acetate Aldol Reaction of β,β'-Branched Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Klein, J Cullen

    2016-02-01

    Studies of australifungin illustrate an enantiocontrolled synthesis of the trans-decalin core 28 via an intramolecular [4π + 2π] cycloaddition. This strategy utilizes the nitroalkene dienophile of 27 as a surrogate ketene equivalent. Stereocontrol at C-2 is critically important for an effective intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) process. Our studies report high asymmetric induction using a nonracemic Duthaler titanium enolate in the acetate aldol reaction with β,β'-branched aldehyde 13 to introduce the required C-2 chirality. PMID:26782107

  10. Towards organo-click chemistry: development of organocatalytic multicomponent reactions through combinations of aldol, Wittig, Knoevenagel, Michael, Diels-Alder and Huisgen cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    Ramachary, Dhevalapally B; Barbas, Carlos F

    2004-10-25

    Here we report on our studies on combinations of amino acids and copper(I) for catalyzing multicomponent reactions (MCRs). We aimed to prepare both diene and dienophiles simultaneously, under very mild and environmentally friendly conditions, thus giving the constituents for a stereocontrolled Diels-Alder reaction, which in turn yields compounds 4 to 8. A diversity-oriented synthesis of polysubstituted spirotriones 4 to 6 were assembled from simple substrates like 1-(triphenylphosphanylidene)-propan-2-one, two aldehydes, and cyclic-1,3-diketones through Wittig/Knoevenagel/Diels-Alder and aldol/Knoevenagel/Diels-Alder reaction sequences in one pot under stereospecific organocatalysis. Chemical diversity libraries of polysubstituted spirotrione-1,2,3-traizoles 8 were assembled from simple substrates by means of Wittig/Knoevenagel/Diels-Alder/Huisgen cycloaddition reaction sequences in one pot under stereospecific organo/Cu(I) catalysis. Functionalized dispirolactones such as 6 are biologically active antioxidants and radical scavengers, and spirotrione-1,2,3-traizoles 8 have found wide applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Experimentally simple and environmentally friendly, organocatalytic, asymmetric four-component Diels-Alder (AFCDA) reactions of 1-(triphenylphosphanylidene)- propan-2-one, two different aldehydes, and cyclic-1,3-diketones produced diastereospecific and highly enantioselective substituted spirotriones 4 by means of a Wittig/Knoevenagel/Diels-Alder reaction sequence in one pot. Additionally we have developed an organocatalytic, asymmetric three-component Michael (ATCM) reaction of 1-(triphenylphosphanylidene)-propan-2-one, aldehyde, and cyclic-1,3-diketones that produced Michael adducts 15, 16 through a Wittig/Michael reaction sequence in a highly enantioselective one-pot process. PMID:15390208

  11. Application of a new tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of allylic alcohols to the synthesis of three diastereoisomers of (2R)-1,2-O-isopropylidene-4-methylpentane-1,2,3,5-tetraol.

    PubMed

    Cuperly, David; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2003-08-01

    The tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of (2R)-1,2-O-isopropylidene-4-penten-1,2,3-triol 3 and formaldehyde gives a mixture of two aldol products 2a and 2b. The stereoselective reduction of each compound by l-Selectride affords two diastereoisomers of (2R)-1,2-O-Isopropylidene-4-methylpentane-1,2,3,5-tetraol while a third diastereoisomer is obtained by stereoselective reduction with Me(4)NHB(OAc)(3). PMID:12895076

  12. Tandem Rh(i)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] cycloaddition/aldol reaction for the construction of linear triquinane skeleton: total syntheses of (+/-)-hirsutene and (+/-)-1-desoxyhypnophilin.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lei; Yuan, Changxia; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-04-01

    A tandem reaction involving a Rh(I)-catalyzed two-component [(5+2)+1] cycloaddition and an aldol condensation has been developed to construct the tricyclo[6.3.0.02,6]undecane skeleton and its heteroatom-imbedded analogues. Meanwhile, this method has been successfully applied to natural product synthesis for the first time. The present strategy enables a straightforward approach to the natural linear triquinane skeleton, as demonstrated by concise and step economical syntheses of hirsutene and 1-desoxy-hypnophilin, whereby the linear triquinane core is diastereoselectively established in one manipulation with correct placement of all stereocenters, including two quarternary centers. This first application of the Rh(I)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] cycloaddition in natural product synthesis highlights the efficiency of this methodology for constructing complex fused ring systems. PMID:18335933

  13. A Brønsted Acid-Amino Acid as a Synergistic Catalyst for Asymmetric List-Lerner-Barbas Aldol Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ramachary, Dhevalapally B; Shruthi, Kodambahalli S

    2016-03-18

    Herein, for the first time, a combination of l-amino acid, (R)-5,5-dimethyl thiazolidinium-4-carboxylate (l-DMTC) with simple Brønsted acid TFA is reported as the suitable synergistic catalyst for the List-Lerner-Barbas aldol (LLB-A) reaction of less reactive 2-azidobenzaldehydes with various ketones at ambient temperature to furnish the optically active functionalized (2-azidophenyl)alcohols with very good yields, dr's, and ee's. This method gives first time access to the novel azido-containing multifunctional compounds, which are applicable in material to medicinal chemistry. Chiral functionalized (2-azidophenyl)alcohols were transformed into different molecular scaffolds in good yields with high selectivity through Lewis acid mediated NaBH4 reduction, aza-Wittig and Staudinger reaction (azide reduction), followed by oxidative cyclizations, allenone synthesis, and click reaction, respectively. Chiral LLB-A products might become suitable starting materials for the total synthesis of natural products, ingredients, and inhibitors in medicinal chemistry. The mechanistic synergy of l-DMTC with TFA to increase the rate and selectivity of LLB-A reaction in DMSO-D6 is explained with the controlled and online NMR experiments. PMID:26907463

  14. Contemporaneous Dual Catalysis: Aldol Products from Non-Carbonyl Substrates.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Tracy, Jacob S

    2015-10-19

    The aldol reaction represents an important class of atom-economic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions vital to modern organic synthesis. Despite the attention this reaction has received, issues related to chemo- and regioselectivity as well as reactivity of readily enolizable electrophiles remain. To help overcome these limitations, a new direct approach toward aldol products that does not rely upon carbonyl substrates is described. This approach employs room-temperature contemporaneous lanthanum/vanadium dual catalysis, whereby a vanadium-catalyzed 1,3-transposition of allenols is coupled with a lanthanum-catalyzed Meinwald rearrangement of epoxides in situ to directly form aldol products. PMID:26334442

  15. Microwave-Assisted Esterification of N-Acetyl-L-Phenylalanine Using Modified Mukaiyama's Reagents: A New Approach Involving Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Song, Zhiyan; Cowins, Janet V.; Olubajo, Olarongbe

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the concept of ionic liquids (ILs), this study modified the original Mukaiyama's reagent, 2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide (m.p. 200-dec), from ionic solid into liquids by changing its anion. The esterification of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine was investigated as a model reaction. The microwave irradiation was more effective in esterifying N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine than the conventional reflux method. The original Mukaiyama's reagent was modified into ILs through manipulating its anion. However, only non-nucleophilic anions (such as EtSO4– and Tf2N–) were favorable since nucleophilic ones (such as CF3COO– and CH3COO–) could exchange with chlorine resulting in non-reactive coupling reagents. Two modified Mukaiyama's compounds (i.e. hydrophilic [2-ClMePy][EtSO4] and hydrophobic [2-ClMePy][Tf2N]) have been identified as the best ILtype coupling reagents. The esterification reaction was greatly enhanced by using 1- methylimidazole as the base instead of conventional toxic tertiary amines, and by using excess amount of alcohols as solvents instead of dichloromethane. Overall, the method reported is effective and ‘greener’. PMID:19325717

  16. A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

  17. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin with use of asymmetric anti- and syn-glycolate aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Simmons, Bryon L; Soma Sekhar, B B V; Hicken, Erik J

    2002-10-01

    Geldanamycin (GA), an antitumor Hsp90 inhibitor, was made for the first time by using an oxidative demethylation reaction as the final step. A biaryldioxanone auxiliary set the anti C11-12 hydroxy-methoxy functionality and a methylglycolate auxiliary based on norephedrine was used for the syn C6-7 methoxy-urethane. p-Quinone-forming oxidants, CAN and AgO, produced an unusual aza-quinone product. Nitric acid gave GA from a trimethoxy precursor in 55% yield as a 1:10 mixture with nonnatural o-quino-GA. [structure: see text] PMID:12323066

  18. Chiral catalysts dually functionalized with amino acid and Zn2+ complex components for enantioselective direct aldol reactions inspired by natural aldolases: design, synthesis, complexation properties, catalytic activities, and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Susumu; Kitamura, Masanori; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Aoki, Shin

    2009-10-12

    Aldolases are enzymes that catalyze stereospecific aldol reactions in a reversible manner. Naturally occurring aldolases include class I aldolases, which catalyze aldol reactions via enamine intermediates, and class II aldolases, in which Zn(2+) enolates of substrates react with acceptor aldehydes. In this work, Zn(2+) complexes of L-prolyl-pendant[15]aneN(5) (ZnL(3)), L-prolyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(4)), and L-valyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(5)) were designed and synthesized for use as chiral catalysts for enantioselective aldol reactions. The complexation constants for L(3) to L(5) with Zn(2+) [logK(s)(ZnL)] were determined to be 14.1 (for ZnL(3)), 7.6 (for ZnL(4)), and 9.6 (for ZnL(5)), indicating that ZnL(3) is more stable than ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). The deprotonation constants of Zn(2+)-bound water [pK(a)(ZnL) values] for ZnL(3), ZnL(4), and ZnL(5) were calculated to be 9.2 (for ZnL(3)), 8.2 (for ZnL(4)), and 8.6 (for ZnL(5)), suggesting that the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(3) is a less acidic Lewis acid than in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). These values also indicated that the amino groups on the side chains weakly coordinate to Zn(2+). We carried out aldol reactions between acetone and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and other aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of the chiral Zn(2+) complexes in acetone/H(2)O at 25 and 37 degrees C. Whereas ZnL(3) yielded the aldol product in 43% yield and 1% ee (R), ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) afforded good chemical yields and high enantioselectivities of up to 89% ee (R). UV titrations of proline and ZnL(4) with acetylacetone (acac) in DMSO/H(2)O (1:2) indicate that ZnL(4) facilitates the formation of the ZnL(4)(acac)(-) complex (K(app)=2.1x10(2) M(-1)), whereas L-proline forms a Schiff base with acac with a very small equilibrium constant. These results suggest that the amino acid components and the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) function in a cooperative manner to generate the Zn(2+)-enolate of acetone, thus permitting efficient enantioselective C-C bond formation with aldehydes. PMID:19746465

  19. Asymmetric, Three-Component, One-Pot Synthesis of Spiropyrazolones and 2,5-Chromenediones from Aldol Condensation/NHC-Catalyzed Annulation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Sun; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Philipps, Arne R; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    A novel one-pot, three-component diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of spiropyrazolones has been developed involving the aldol condensation of an enal to generate α,β-unsaturated pyrazolones, which react with a second equivalent of enal through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation. The desired spirocyclopentane pyrazolones are obtained in moderate to good yields and good to excellent stereoselectivities. Alternatively, starting from cyclic 1,3-diketones, 2,5-chromenediones are available through [2+4] annulation. PMID:26864437

  20. Aldol derivatives of Thioxoimidazolidinones as potential anti-prostate cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Khatik, Gopal L; Kaur, Jasmine; Kumar, Varun; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Venugopalan, P; Nair, Vipin A

    2011-08-01

    The paper discusses the synthesis and stereochemical aspects of the anti aldol products, 3-(substituted phenyl)-5-[(substituted phenyl) hydroxy methyl]-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidines. The stereochemistry observed in the aldol reactions with benzaldehydes was explained by transition state model of the endocyclic (E)-enolate formed from the rigid 4-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidine skeleton. Proton NMR and ROESY spectral analyses were carried out to identify the syn and anti conformations of the aldol diastereomers. Configurations of the enantiomers of the representative anti aldol product 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-[(4-chlorophenyl) hydroxy methyl]-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidine was determined by single crystal XRD studies. The compounds were screened in vitro against prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and LNCaP and the most potent derivatives were identified. PMID:21600678

  1. Computational Catalysis Using the Artificial Force Induced Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Sameera, W M C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-04-19

    The artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method in the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy is an automatic approach to explore all important reaction paths of complex reactions. Most traditional methods in computational catalysis require guess reaction paths. On the other hand, the AFIR approach locates local minima (LMs) and transition states (TSs) of reaction paths without a guess, and therefore finds unanticipated as well as anticipated reaction paths. The AFIR method has been applied for multicomponent organic reactions, such as the aldol reaction, Passerini reaction, Biginelli reaction, and phase-transfer catalysis. In the presence of several reactants, many equilibrium structures are possible, leading to a number of reaction pathways. The AFIR method in the GRRM strategy determines all of the important equilibrium structures and subsequent reaction paths systematically. As the AFIR search is fully automatic, exhaustive trial-and-error and guess-and-check processes by the user can be eliminated. At the same time, the AFIR search is systematic, and therefore a more accurate and comprehensive description of the reaction mechanism can be determined. The AFIR method has been used for the study of full catalytic cycles and reaction steps in transition metal catalysis, such as cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation and iron-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in aqueous media. Some AFIR applications have targeted the selectivity-determining step of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, including stereoselective water-tolerant lanthanide Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reactions. In terms of establishing the selectivity of a reaction, systematic sampling of the transition states is critical. In this direction, AFIR is very useful for performing a systematic and automatic determination of TSs. In the presence of a comprehensive description of the transition states, the selectivity of the reaction can be calculated more accurately. For relatively large molecular systems, the computational cost of AFIR searches can be reduced by using the ONIOM(QM:QM) or ONIOM(QM:MM) methods. In common practice, density functional theory (DFT) with a relatively small basis set is used for the high-level calculation, while a semiempirical approach or a force field description is used for the low-level calculation. After approximate LMs and TSs are determined, standard computational methods (e.g., DFT with a large basis set) are used for the full molecular system to determine the true LMs and TSs and to rationalize the reaction mechanism and selectivity of the catalytic reaction. The examples in this Account evidence that the AFIR method is a powerful approach for accurate prediction of the reaction mechanisms and selectivities of complex catalytic reactions. Therefore, the AFIR approach in the GRRM strategy is very useful for computational catalysis. PMID:27023677

  2. Illustrating the Utility of X-Ray Crystallography for Structure Elucidation through a Tandem Aldol Condensation/Diels-Alder Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Giang T.; Kubo, Tomohiro; Young, Victor G., Jr.; Kautzky, Jacob A.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Two introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiments are described based on the Diels-Alder reaction of 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, which is synthesized prior to or in a one-pot reaction, with styrene. Students are presented with three possible products, the "endo" and "exo" diastereomers and the decarbonylated

  3. Illustrating the Utility of X-Ray Crystallography for Structure Elucidation through a Tandem Aldol Condensation/Diels-Alder Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Giang T.; Kubo, Tomohiro; Young, Victor G., Jr.; Kautzky, Jacob A.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Two introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiments are described based on the Diels-Alder reaction of 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, which is synthesized prior to or in a one-pot reaction, with styrene. Students are presented with three possible products, the "endo" and "exo" diastereomers and the decarbonylated…

  4. Autoxidation/Aldol Tandem Reaction of 2-Oxindoles with Ketones: A Green Approach for the Synthesis of 3-Hydroxy-2-Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Bao; Jia, Wen-Liang; Ban, Yong-Liang; Zheng, Yong; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-02-01

    In the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride and molecular sieves (MS) 4 Å in DMF, an efficient autoxidation reaction of 2-oxindoles with ketones under air at room temperature has been developed. This approach may provide a green, practical, and metal-free protocol for a wide range of biologically important 3-hydroxy-3-(2-oxo-alkyl)-2-oxindoles. PMID:26714924

  5. Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Transformations of β-Stereogenic-α-Keto Esters via Direct Aldolization

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Michael T.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformations (DyKAT) of racemic β-bromo-α-keto esters via direct aldolization of nitromethane and acetone provide access to fully substituted α-glycolic acid derivatives bearing a β-stereocenter. The aldol adducts are obtained in excellent yield with high relative and absolute stereocontrol under mild reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies determined that the reactions proceed through a facile catalyst-mediated racemization of the β-bromo-α-keto esters under a DyKAT Type I manifold. PMID:24222195

  6. Iron-catalyzed vinylogous aldol condensation of Biginelli products and its application toward pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidinones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Qingfeng; Liu, Tongxin; Zhang, Guisheng

    2014-03-01

    A novel iron-catalyzed vinylogous aldol condensation of Biginelli products with aryl aldehydes has been developed for the syntheses of potential bioactive (E)-6-arylvinyl-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones. These materials are valuable synthetic precursors to drug-like pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives. The amide group at the 5-position of the dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones played an important role in the vinylogous aldol condensation reaction. PMID:24517724

  7. Asymmetric total synthesis and structural elucidation of NFAT-68.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Xi, Yumeng; Yang, Shouliang; Zhu, Rong; Liang, Yufan; Chen, Jiahua; Yang, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Total synthesis of NFAT-68 (7) has been achieved and its relative stereochemistry has been determined. A key step thereof is the utilization of the chelation-controlled vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction (VMAR) to stereoselectively synthesize the syn-aldol product 8. This developed chemistry is anticipated to have wider application in total syntheses of many other natural products. PMID:21121639

  8. Base-Catalyzed Direct Aldolization of α-Alkyl-α-Hydroxy Trialkyl Phosphonoacetates**

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Michael T.; Uraguchi, Daisuke; Ooi, Takashi; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic direct aldol addition of α-hydroxy trialkyl phosphonacetates to aldehydes affords α-hydroxy-β-phosphonyloxy ester products. The fully substituted glycolate enolate intermediate is generated in situ under mild conditions via [1,2]-phosphonate-phosphate rearrangement. High enantioselectivity and dramatic enhancement of reaction diastereocontrol is realized via the application of chiral iminophosphorane catalysts. The phosphate products undergo stereoselective nucleophilic displacement reactions. PMID:22474004

  9. Stereoselectivities of Histidine-Catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Additions and Contrasts with Proline Catalysis: A Quantum Mechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Yu-hong; Houk, K. N.; Scheffler, Ulf; Mahrwald, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations reveal the origin of diastereo- and enantioselectivities of aldol reactions between aldehydes catalyzed by histidine, and differences between related reactions catalyzed by proline. A stereochemical model that explains both the sense and the high levels of the experimentally observed stereoselectivity is proposed. The computations suggest that both the imidazolium and the carboxylic acid functionalities of histidine are viable hydrogen-bond donors that can stabilize the cyclic aldolization transition state. The stereoselectivity is proposed to arise from minimization of gauche interactions around the forming C–C bond. PMID:22458689

  10. NMR investigations on the proline-catalyzed aldehyde self-condensation: Mannich mechanism, dienamine detection, and erosion of the aldol addition selectivity.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Markus B; Zeitler, Kirsten; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2011-05-01

    The proline-catalyzed self-condensation of aliphatic aldehydes in DMSO with varying amounts of catalyst was studied by in situ NMR spectroscopy. The reaction profiles and intermediates observed as well as deuteration studies reveal that the proline-catalyzed aldol addition and condensation are competing, but not consecutive, reaction pathways. In addition, the rate-determining step of the condensation is suggested to be the C-C bond formation. Our findings indicate the involvement of two catalyst molecules in the C-C bond formation of the aldol condensation, presumably by the activation of both the aldol acceptor and donor in a Mannich-type pathway. This mechanism is shown to be operative also in the oligomerization of acetaldehyde with high proline amounts, for which the first in situ detection of a proline-derived dienamine was accomplished. In addition, the diastereoselectivity of the aldol addition is evidenced to be time-dependent since it is undermined by the retro-aldolization and the competing irreversible aldol condensation; here NMR reaction profiles can be used as a tool for reaction optimization. PMID:21446689

  11. Cu/MgAl(2)O(4) as bifunctional catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and selective transfer hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Kristina; Palkovits, Regina

    2013-11-01

    Copper supported on mesoporous magnesium aluminate has been prepared as noble-metal-free solid catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with acetone, followed by hydrogenation of the aldol condensation products. The investigated mesoporous spinels possess high activity as solid-base catalysts. Magnesium aluminate exhibits superior activity compared to zinc and cobalt-based aluminates, reaching full conversion and up to 81 % yield of the 1:1 aldol product. The high activity can be correlated to a higher concentration of basic surface sites on magnesium aluminate. Applying continuous regeneration, the catalysts can be recycled without loss of activity. Focusing on the subsequent hydrogenation of aldol condensation products, Cu/MgAl2 O4 allows a selective hydrogenation and CO bond cleavage, delivering 3-hydroxybutyl-5-methylfuran as the main product with up to 84 % selectivity avoiding ring saturation. Analysis of the hydrogenation activity reveals that the reaction proceeds in the following order: CC>CO>CO cleavage>ring hydrogenation. Comparable activity and selectivity can be also achieved utilizing 2-propanol as solvent in the transfer hydrogenation, providing the possibility for partial recycling of acetone and optimization of the hydrogen management. PMID:24038987

  12. Structure-Reactivity Relationships in Lithiated Evans Enolates: Influence of Aggregation and Solvation on the Stereochemistry and Mechanism of Aldol Additions.

    PubMed

    Tallmadge, Evan H; Jermaks, Janis; Collum, David B

    2016-01-13

    Aldol additions to isobutyraldehyde and cyclohexanone with lithium enolates derived from acylated oxazolidinones (Evans enolates) are described. Previously characterized trisolvated dimeric enolates undergo rapid addition to isobutyraldehyde to give a 12:1 syn:syn selectivity in high yield along with small amounts of one anti isomer. The efficacy of the addition depends critically on aging effects and the reaction quench. Unsolvated tetrameric enolates that form on warming the solutions are unreactive toward isobutyraldehyde and undergo retroaldol reaction under forcing conditions. Additions to cyclohexanone are relatively slow but form a single isomeric adduct in >80% yield. The ketone-derived aldolates are robust. All attempts to control stereoselectivity by controlling aggregation failed. Rate studies of addition to cyclohexanone trace the lack of aggregation-dependent selectivities to a monomer-based mechanism. The synthetic implications and possible utility of lithium enolates in Evans aldol additions are discussed. PMID:26639525

  13. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large…

  14. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large

  15. Synthesis of the C22-C40 Domain of the Azaspiracids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigao; Chen, Yong; Adu-Ampratwum, Daniel; Okumu, Antony Akura; Kenton, Nathaniel T; Forsyth, Craig J

    2016-04-15

    An efficient synthesis of the C22-C40 domain of the azaspiracids is described. The synthetic route features a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi (NHK) coupling and chelation controlled Mukaiyama aldol reaction to access an acyclic intermediate and a double-intramolecular-hetero-Michael addition (DIHMA) to provide the FG-ring system bridged ketal. PMID:27043010

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of a benzofuran-based cage-shaped borate: photo activation of Lewis acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Akihito; Yasunaga, Ryosuke; Chiba, Kouji; Yasuda, Makoto

    2016-02-16

    A cage-shaped borate with benzofuran moieties was synthesized. This borate showed a higher degree of catalytic activity for Mukaiyama-aldol type reactions than a simple benzene-based cage-shaped borate induced by self-aggregation. Moreover, the exposure of the complex to black-light irradiation enhanced the catalytic activity. PMID:26823084

  17. Engineering the donor selectivity of D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase for biocatalytic asymmetric cross-aldol additions of glycolaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Szekrenyi, Anna; Soler, Anna; Garrabou, Xavier; Guérard-Hélaine, Christine; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Lemaire, Marielle; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2014-09-22

    D-Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) is a unique catalyst for asymmetric cross-aldol additions of glycolaldehyde. A combination of a structure-guided approach of saturation mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis, and computational modeling was applied to construct a set of FSA variants that improved the catalytic efficiency towards glycolaldehyde dimerization up to 1800-fold. A combination of mutations in positions L107, A129, and A165 provided a toolbox of FSA variants that expand the synthetic possibilities towards the preparation of aldose-like carbohydrate compounds. The new FSA variants were applied as highly efficient catalysts for cross-aldol additions of glycolaldehyde to N-carbobenzyloxyaminoaldehydes to furnish between 80-98 % aldol adduct under optimized reaction conditions. Donor competition experiments showed high selectivity for glycolaldehyde relative to dihydroxyacetone or hydroxyacetone. These results demonstrate the exceptional malleability of the active site in FSA, which can be remodeled to accept a wide spectrum of donor and acceptor substrates with high efficiency and selectivity. PMID:25146467

  18. Catalytic Aldol-Cyclization Cascade of 3-Isothiocyanato Oxindoles with α-Ketophosphonates for the Enantioselective Synthesis of β-Amino-α-hydroxyphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Satavisha; Mukherjee, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    A cascade aldol-cyclization reaction between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and α-ketophosphonates has been developed for the synthesis of β-amino-α-hydroxyphosphonate derivatives. Catalyzed by a quinine-based tertiary amino-thiourea derivative, this reaction delivers 2-thioxooxazolidinyl phosphonates based on a spirooxindole scaffold bearing two contiguous quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields with excellent diastereo- (up to >20:1 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 er). PMID:26512732

  19. Total Synthesis of the Spirocyclic Imine Marine Toxin (−)-Gymnodimine and an Unnatural C4-Epimer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ke; Moussa, Ziad; Lee, Changsuk

    2011-01-01

    The first total synthesis of the marine toxin (−)-gymnodimine (1) has been accomplished in a convergent manner. A highly diastereo- and enantioselective exo-Diels–Alder reaction catalyzed by a bis-oxazoline Cu(II) catalyst enabled rapid assembly of the spirocyclic core of gymnodimine. The preparation of the tetrahydrofuran fragment utilized a chiral auxiliary based anti-aldol reaction. Two major fragments, spirolactam 56 and tetrahydrofuran 55, were then coupled through an efficient Nozaki–Hiyama–Kishi reaction. An unconventional, ambient temperature t-BuLi-initiated intramolecular Barbier reaction of alkyl iodide 64 was employed to form the macrocycle. A late stage vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol addition of a silyloxyfuran to a complex cyclohexanone 83 appended the butenolide and a few additional steps provided (−)-gymnodimine (1). A diastereomer of the natural product was also synthesized, C4-epi-gymnodimine (90), derived from the vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol addition. PMID:22023219

  20. Synthesis of pyrrolidine homoazasugars and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethylprolines using aldol additions of metalated bislactim ethers to 2,4-O-ethylidene-D-erythroses.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Olga; Pato, Cristina; Ruiz, María; Ojea, Vicente

    2009-06-01

    A strategy for the synthesis of 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-iminohexitols and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-iminoglyconic acids is described by using diastereoselective aldol additions of metalated bislactim ethers to 2,4-O-ethylidene-d-erythroses and intramolecular N-alkylation as key steps. The nature of the metal fragment of the azaenolate and the beta-alkoxy protecting group for the erythrose moiety were varied to modulate the level and the direction of the asymmetric induction in the aldol addition. The contrasting stereochemical results of the tin(II)-mediated aldol reactions have been rationalized with the aid of density functional theory calculations (B3LYP/cc-pVDZ-PP). DFT calculations indicate that boat-shaped transition structures that allow the formation of a stabilizing hydrogen bond can account for the unusual anti,syn-stereoselectivity of the aldol addition to beta-protected 2,4-O-ethylidene-erythroses. In the addition to the "unprotected" 2,4-O-ethylidene-erythrose, the preference for chair-shaped transition structures in which the erythrose moiety is involved in a six-membered chelate ring is consistent with the experimentally observed syn,anti-stereochemical outcome. The preparative utility of the aldol-based approach was demonstrated by application in concise routes for the synthesis of glycosidase inhibitors 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-iminogalactitol and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-glucitol (DGADP and DGDP) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethylprolines (2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-l-gulonic acid and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-l-galactonic acid) that may be useful for glycosidase and glycuronidase inhibition. PMID:19462040

  1. One-pot aldol condensation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Faba, Laura; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    Integrating reaction steps is of key interest in the development of processes for transforming lignocellulosic materials into drop-in fuels. We propose a procedure for performing the aldol condensation (reaction between furfural and acetone is taken as model reaction) and the total hydrodeoxygenation of the resulting condensation adducts in one step, yielding n-alkanes. Different combinations of catalysts (bifunctional catalysts or mechanical mixtures), reaction conditions, and solvents (aqueous and organic) have been tested for performing these reactions in an isothermal batch reactor. The results suggest that the use of bifunctional catalysts and aqueous phase lead to an effective integration of both reactions. Therefore, selectivities to n-alkanes higher than 50% were obtained using this catalyst at typical hydrogenation conditions (T=493 K, P=4.5 MPa, 24 h reaction time). The use of organic solvent, carbonaceous supports, or mechanical mixtures of monofunctional catalysts leads to poorer results owing to side effects; mainly, hydrogenation of reactants and adsorption processes. PMID:25088473

  2. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Biheterocyclic Tetrahydrothiophene Derivatives via Base-Catalyzed Cascade Michael-Aldol [3 + 2] Annulation of 1,4-Dithiane-2,5-diol with Maleimides.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Ma, Shixiong; Li, Bai; Jiang, Xianxing; Wang, Rui

    2015-07-01

    A highly diastereoselective intermolecular [3 + 2] annulation of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol to maleimides has been developed by using DABCO as a catalyst, which provides a series of highly functionalized biheterocyclic tetrahydrothiophene derivatives containing tetrahydrothiophene and pyrolidine backbones in excellent yields and diastereoselectivities (up to 98% yield and >20:1 d.r.). The cascade Michael-aldol reaction is capable of tolerating organic solvents as well as water. PMID:26035462

  3. A kinetic and mechanistic study of the amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde in aqueous and salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Nozière, Barbara; Córdova, Armando

    2008-04-01

    The amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation is of great interest in organic synthesis and natural environments such as atmospheric particles. However, kinetic and mechanistic information on these reactions is limited. In this work the kinetics of the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde in water and aqueous salt solutions (NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4, MgSO4) catalyzed by five amino acids (glycine, alanine, serine, arginine, and proline) at room temperature (295 +/- 2 K) has been studied. Monitoring the formation of three products, crotonaldehyde, 2,4-hexadienal, and 2,4,6-octatrienal, by UV-vis absorption over 200-1100 nm revealed two distinct kinetic regimes: at low amino acid concentrations (in all cases, below 0.1 M), the overall reaction was first-order with respect to acetaldehyde and kinetically limited by the formation of the enamine intermediate. At larger amino acid concentrations (at least 0.3 M), the kinetics was second order and controlled by the C-C bond-forming step. The first-order rate constants increased linearly with amino acid concentration consistent with the enamine formation. Inorganic salts further accelerated the enamine formation according to their pKb plausibly by facilitating the iminium or enamine formation. The rate constant of the C-C bond-forming step varied with the square of amino acid concentration suggesting the involvement of two amino acid molecules. Thus, the reaction proceeded via a Mannich pathway. However, the contribution of an aldol pathway, first-order in amino acid, could not be excluded. Our results show that the rate constant for the self-condensation of acetaldehyde in aqueous atmospheric aerosols (up to 10 mM of amino acids) is identical to that in sulfuric acid 10-15 M (kI approximately 10-7-10-6 s-1) clearly illustrating the potential importance of amino acid catalysis in natural environments. This work also demonstrates that under usual laboratory conditions and in natural environments aldol condensation is likely to be kinetically controlled by the enamine formation. Notably, kinetic investigations of the C-C bond-forming addition step would only be possible with high concentrations of amino acids. PMID:18314969

  4. Mineral catalysis of a potentially prebiotic aldol condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Graaf, R. M.; Visscher, J.; Xu, Y.; Arrhenius, G.; Schwartz, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    Minerals may have played a significant role in chemical evolution. In the course of investigating the chemistry of phosphonoacetaldehyde (PAL), an analogue of glycolaldehyde phosphate, we have observed a striking case of catalysis by the layered hydroxide mineral hydrotalcite ([Mg2Al(OH)6][Cl.nH2O]). In neutral or moderately basic aqueous solutions, PAL is unreactive even at a concentration of 0.1 M. In the presence of a large excess of NaOH (2 M), the compound undergoes aldol condensation to produce a dimer containing a C3-C4 double-bond. In dilute neutral solutions and in the presence of the mineral, however, condensation takes place rapidly, to produce a dimer which is almost exclusively the C2-C3 unsaturated product.

  5. Diastereo- and Enantioselective Reductive Aldol Addition of Vinyl Ketones via Catalytic Hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soo Bong; Hassan, Abbas; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of studies on hydrogenative reductive aldol addition is presented. By simply hydrogenating enones in the presence of aldehydes at ambient temperature and pressure, aldol adducts are generated under neutral conditions in the absence of any stoichiometric byproducts. Using cationic rhodium complexes modified by tri(2-furyl)phosphine, highly syn-diastereoselective reductive aldol additions of vinyl ketones are achieved. Finally, using novel monodentate TADDOL-like phosphonite ligands, the first highly diastereo- and enantioselective reductive aldol couplings of vinyl ketones were devised. These studies, along with other works from our laboratory, demonstrate that organometallics arising transiently in the course of catalytic hydrogenation offer byproduct-free alternatives to preformed organometallic reagents employed in classical carbonyl addition processes. PMID:21866204

  6. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Methylene-β-hydroxy Carboxylic Acid Derivatives via a Diastereoselective Aldol-β-Elimination Sequence: Application to the C(15)–C(21) Fragment of Tedanolide C

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Roland; Roush, William R.

    2010-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of α-methylene-β-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives via a highly diastereoselective, one-pot syn-aldol and β-elimination sequence utilizing the chiral β-(phenylselenyl)propionyl imide 15 is described. This new method, which constitutes an alternative to the Baylis-Hillman reaction, has been applied to the synthesis of the C(15)-C(21) fragment of tedanolide C. PMID:20405855

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of (–)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterisation data, copies of 1H and 13C NMR spectra, and HPLC traces. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02141c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (–)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  8. Direct carbon-carbon bond formation via soft enolization: aldol addition of α-halogenated thioesters.

    PubMed

    Yost, Julianne M; Alfie, Rachel J; Tarsis, Emily M; Chong, Insun; Coltart, Don M

    2011-01-01

    α-Halo thioesters undergo soft enolization and syn-selective direct aldol addition to aldehydes in the presence of MgBr(2)·OEt(2) and i-Pr(2)NEt to produce α-halo-β-hydroxy thioesters. PMID:20963247

  9. Mathematical model for aldol addition catalyzed by two D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolases variants overexpressed in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Sudar, Martina; Findrik, Zvjezdana; Vasić-Rački, Durđa; Clapés, Pere; Lozano, Carles

    2013-09-10

    Two D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase variants namely, single variant FSA A129S and double variant FSA A129S/A165G, were used as catalysts in the aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to N-Cbz-3-aminopropanal. Mathematical model for reaction catalyzed by both enzymes, consisting of kinetic and mass balance equations, was developed. Kinetic parameters were estimated from the experimental data gathered by using the initial reaction rate method. The model was validated in the batch and continuously operated ultrafiltration membrane reactor (UFMR). The same type of kinetic model could be applied for both enzymes. The operational stability of the aldolases was assessed by measuring enzyme activity during the experiments. FSA A129S/A165G had better operational stability in the batch reactor (half-life time 26.7 h) in comparison to FSA A129S (half-life time 5.78 h). Both variants were unstable in the continuously operated UFMR in which half-life times were 1.99 and 3.64 h for FSA A129S and FSA A129S/A165G, respectively. PMID:23876482

  10. Aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone to N-Cbz-3-aminopropanal catalyzed by two aldolases variants in microreactors.

    PubMed

    Sudar, Martina; Findrik, Zvjezdana; Vasić-Rački, Durđa; Clapés, Pere; Lozano, Carles

    2013-06-10

    Aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone to N-Cbz-3-aminopropanal catalyzed by two d-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase variants, FSA A129S and FSA A129S/A165G, overexpressed in Escherichia coli was studied in microreactors. The presence of organic solvent was necessary due to poor solubility of N-Cbz-3-aminopropanal in water. Hence, three co-solvents were evaluated: ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and dimethylformamide (DMF). The influence of these solvents and their concentration on the enzyme activity was independently tested and it was found that all solvents significantly reduce the activity of FSA depending on their concentration. The reaction was carried out in three different microreactors; two without and one with micromixers. By increasing enzyme concentration, it was possible to achieve higher substrate conversion at lower residence time. Enzyme activity measured at the outlet flow of the microreactor at different residence time revealed that enzymes are more stable at lower residence times due to shorter time of exposure to organic solvent. The reaction in the batch reactor was compared with the results in microreactor with micromixers. Volume productivity was more than three fold higher in microreactor with micromixers than in the batch reactor for both aldolases. It was found to be 0.88Md(-1) and 0.80Md(-1) for FSA A129S and FSA A129S/A165G, respectively. PMID:23683703

  11. Asymmetric aldol additions: use of titanium tetrachloride and (-)-sparteine for the soft enolization of N-acyl oxazolidinones, oxazolidinethiones, and thiazolidinethiones.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, M T; King, B W; Tabet, E A; Chaudhary, K

    2001-02-01

    Asymmetric aldol additions using chlorotitanium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinone, oxazolidinethione, and thiazolidinethione propionates proceed with high diastereoselectivity for the Evans or non-Evans syn product depending on the nature and amount of the base used. With 1 equiv of titanium tetrachloride and 2 equiv of (-)-sparteine as the base or 1 equiv of (-)-sparteine and 1 equiv of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, selectivities of 97:3 to > 99:1 were obtained for the Evans syn aldol products using N-propionyl oxazolidinones, oxazolidinethiones, and thiazolidinethiones. The non-Evans syn aldol adducts are available with the oxazolidinethione and thiazolidinethiones by altering the Lewis acid/amine base ratios. The change in facial selectivity in the aldol additions is proposed to be a result of switching of mechanistic pathways between chelated and nonchelated transition states. The auxiliaries can be reductively removed or cleaved by nucleophilic acyl substitution. Iterative aldol sequences with high diastereoselectivity can also be accomplished. PMID:11430110

  12. An Exercise on Structure Elucidation Based on a Tricky Aldol Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Manuel Gonzalez; Pellegrinet, Silvina C.; Colombo, Maria I.; Ruveda, Edmundo A.

    2008-01-01

    An exercise on structure elucidation for advanced undergraduate students is described. To determine the structure of an unknown product, students are required to use spectra together with an organic chemistry mechanism. This exercise exemplifies the procedure commonly used in research, thus helping students develop problem-solving skills. In…

  13. ALDOL REACTION VIA IN SITU OLEFIN MIGRATION IN WATER. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mingwen Wang and Chao-Jun LiCorresponding Author Contact Information

    Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, Ne...

  14. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Syn-β-Hydroxy-α-Amino Acids by Direct Aldolization of Pseudoephenamine Glycinamide

    PubMed Central

    Seiple, Ian B.; Mercer, Jaron A. M.; Sussman, Robin J.; Zhang, Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids figure prominently as chiral building blocks in chemical synthesis, serving as precursors to numerous important medicines. We have developed and here report a method for the synthesis of β-hydroxy-α-amino acid derivatives by aldolization of pseudoephenamine glycinamide, which can be prepared from pseudoephenamine in a one-flask protocol. Enolization of (R,R)- or (S,S)-pseudoephenamine glycinamide with lithium hexamethyldisilazide in the presence of lithium chloride followed by addition of an aldehyde or ketone substrate affords aldol addition products that are stereochemically homologous with L- or D-threonine, respectively. These products, which are typically solids, can be obtained in stereoisomerically pure form in yields of 55–98%, and are readily transformed into β-hydroxy-α-amino acids by mild hydrolysis or into 2-amino-1,3-diols by reduction with sodium borohydride. This new chemistry greatly facilitates the construction of novel antibiotics of several different classes. PMID:24692320

  15. Stereocontrolled synthesis of syn-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids by direct aldolization of pseudoephenamine glycinamide.

    PubMed

    Seiple, Ian B; Mercer, Jaron A M; Sussman, Robin J; Zhang, Ziyang; Myers, Andrew G

    2014-04-25

    β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids figure prominently as chiral building blocks in chemical synthesis and serve as precursors to numerous important medicines. Reported herein is a method for the synthesis of β-hydroxy-α-amino acid derivatives by aldolization of pseudoephenamine glycinamide, which can be prepared from pseudoephenamine in a one-flask protocol. Enolization of (R,R)- or (S,S)-pseudoephenamine glycinamide with lithium hexamethyldisilazide in the presence of LiCl followed by addition of an aldehyde or ketone substrate affords aldol addition products that are stereochemically homologous with L- or D-threonine, respectively. These products, which are typically solids, can be obtained in stereoisomerically pure form in yields of 55-98 %, and are readily transformed into β-hydroxy-α-amino acids by mild hydrolysis or into 2-amino-1,3-diols by reduction with sodium borohydride. This new chemistry greatly facilitates the construction of novel antibiotics of several different classes. PMID:24692320

  16. Formation of the BC ring system of upenamide via a Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhushou; Peplowski, Katherine; Sulikowski, Gary A

    2007-11-22

    The BC ring system of upenamide was assembled using a stereoselective Diels-Alder reaction followed by a Staudinger/aza-Wittig/imine hydrolysis reaction. Stereoselective aldol coupling with an aldehyde that incorporates the DE ring system led to an advanced synthetic intermediate en route to the marine alkaloid upenamide. PMID:17973484

  17. Synthesis of acylsilanes via nickel-catalyzed reactions of α-hydroxyallylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gangireddy PavanKumar; Reddy, J Satyanarayana; Das, Saibal; Roisnel, Thierry; Yadav, Jhillu S; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Grée, René

    2013-04-01

    The redox isomerization processes and tandem isomerization-aldolization reactions, mediated by nickel catalysts, offer new versatile entries to acylsilanes. For the second reaction, high diastereoselectivities, up to 98:2, have been obtained with bulky substituents on silicon. PMID:23517341

  18. Organic Reactions in Aqueous Media (by Chao-Jun Li and Tak-Hang Chan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosan, Reviewed Alan M.

    2000-06-01

    This concise book joins the series of Wiley Interscience special topic publications. In seven chapters it selectively reviews the burgeoning literature on organic reactions conducted in water or in aqueous media as a reaction cosolvent, nicely complementing another recent book on the subject by Grieco. Following a short introduction there are six chapters that vary in length from 10 to 50 pages; they cover pericyclic reactions, nucleophilic additions and substitutions, metal-mediated reactions, transition metal-catalyzed reactions, oxidation and reduction reactions, and industrial applications. These chapters, each of which is prefaced with a short provocative quotation, also vary in depth, containing from 11 to more than 180 references. The literature is complete through 1996 and commendably includes citations of original papers by Barbier, Faraday, Frankland, Grignard, Kolbe, Lapworth, and Reformatsky as well as references to selected U.S. and foreign patents and the Russian literature. There is a subject index but no author index. This book is timely and effective. From the title, one might expect a broad discussion of the unique properties of water and water-soluble components (salts, surfactants, etc.) that would be thought to bear on organic reactivity. The first chapter opens by noting that water is the most abundant volatile material in comets and briefly describes those properties that suggest its utility as a solvent or cosolvent, summarizing the potential technical, economic, and environmental advantages. Also described are the remarkable changes in density, conductance, heat capacity, dielectric constant, and ionization constant that accompany the transition to the critical point, but the emphasis here is on the effect of water under non-critical conditions. Discussion of the structure of liquid water and the role of hydrogen bonding in mediating molecular recognition events is abbreviated. In fact, the term "hydrogen bond" is surprisingly absent from the index. The text does not explicitly include a discussion of what has come to be broadly termed biphasic reaction conditions. Understandably, enzymatic reactions are beyond the scope of the presentation. This book has a decidedly applied character with an understated environmental theme, and the authors succinctly present the extraordinary effects of water on the kinetics, efficiency, and stereoselectivity of a large number of diverse reactions. In addition to their emphasis on the historically significant aqueous Diels-Alder reaction, discovered in 1980, and the literature regarding reactions of various nucleophilic organometals, the authors are to be commended for gathering together a wide and diverse body of information: it is clear that many of the examples shown are gems buried among larger bodies of work. Thus the book does an excellent job of culling and surveying a vast amount of data. There is, however, less emphasis on organizing the mechanistic bases underlying these often dramatic effects. For example, the apparent lack of generality of the effect of water on rate and selectivity in pericyclic reactions calls for some theoretical foundation. The singularly effective use of aqueous TlOH in the Suzuki reaction is cited without comment. On the other hand, the authors' concept of a mechanistic triad that incorporates to various degrees anion, radical, or covalent character in the carbon-carbon bond-forming step between various organometals and carbonyl substrates is appealing and suggests the need for future sophisticated experimental design. The most interesting sections are those dealing with synthesis and industrial applications. Unfortunately the latter is also the shortest chapter. The synthetic examples are timely and well chosen and include water-promoted Heck, Stille, Suzuki, and aldol reactions. There is an extensive, highly informative listing and survey of the use of water-soluble phosphines (both achiral and chiral) and an excellent discussion of the diastereoselectivity that often accompanies carbonyl attack by indium, tin, and zinc organometals (Barbier-Grignard reaction). The liberal use, on nearly every page, of clear, detailed drawings enhances the text, and substantive errors are few. Inexplicably, water is described as serving as a presumptive weak Lewis acid (pages 54-55) in the aqueous Mukaiyama reaction. Occasional slips of grammar, spelling, and syntax, including confusion over the difference between media and medium, are relatively minor. Some expressions, such as "olefinated", are unfortunate and there are several mysterious changes in font. This is not a textbook and no problems are offered. Many technical advances, some occurring since this book was published, have impacted the economic and environmental advantages of water. However, these more recent findings, involving the use of triphase aqueous-fluorous-organic systems, the discovery of living homogeneous ROMP catalysis in water, the utilization of supercritical water oxidation for toxic cleanup, and the utility of biphasic supercritical carbon dioxide-water emulsions, can be appreciated within the broad scope of reactivity described here. With the emerging wide interest, technical feasibility, and rapid innovative advances and an increasingly vast literature in this area, this book is most useful as a selected compendium rather than a definitive treatise. It is certainly suitable as a reference in a special topics or an advanced course. Rich with well-explicated examples and reactions, it is an invitingly readable and valuable survey of this fascinating area.

  19. Diastereoselective synthesis of piperidine imino sugars using aldol additions of metalated bislactim ethers to threose and erythrose acetonides.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María; Ruanova, Tania M; Blanco, Olga; Núñez, Fatima; Pato, Cristina; Ojea, Vicente

    2008-03-21

    A general strategy for the synthesis of 1-deoxy-azasugars from a chiral glycine equivalent and 4-carbon building blocks is described. Diastereoselective aldol additions of metalated bislactim ethers to matched and mismatched erythrose or threose acetonides and intramolecular N-alkylation (by reductive amination or nucleophilic substitution) were used as key steps. The dependence of the yield and the asymmetric induction of the aldol addition with the nature of the metallic counterion of the azaenolate and the gamma-alkoxy protecting group for the erythrose or threose acetonides has been studied. The stereochemical outcome of the aldol additions with tin(II) azaenolates has been rationalized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In accordance with DFT calculations with model glyceraldehyde acetonides, high trans,syn,anti-selectivitity for the matched pairs and moderate to low trans,anti,anti-selectivity for the mismatched ones may originate from (1) the intervention of solvated aggregates of tin(II) azaenolate and lithium chloride as the reactive species and (2) favored chair-like transition structures with a Cornforth-like conformation for the aldehyde moiety. DFT calculations indicate that aldol additions to erythrose acetonides proceed by an initial deprotonation, followed by coordination of the alkoxy-derivative to the tin(II) azaenolate and final reorganization of the intermediate complex through pericyclic transition structures in which the erythrose moiety is involved in a seven-membered chelate ring. The preparative utility of the aldol-based approach was demonstrated by application in concise routes for the synthesis of the glycosidase inhibitors 1-deoxy-d-allonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-L-altronojirimycin, 1-deoxy-D-gulonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-D-galactonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-L-idonojirimycin and 1-deoxy-D-talonojirimycin. PMID:18302413

  20. Total Synthesis of (+)-Azaspiracid-1. An Exhibition of the Intricacies of Complex Molecule Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Kværnø, Lisbet; Dunn, Travis B.; Beauchemin, André; Raymer, Brian; Mulder, Jason A.; Olhava, Edward J.; Juhl, Martin; Kagechika, Katsuji; Favor, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of the marine neurotoxin azaspiracid-1 has been accomplished. The individual fragments were synthesized by catalytic enantioselective processes: A hetero-Diels-Alder reaction to afford the E- and HI-ring fragments, a carbonyl-ene reaction to furnish the CD-ring fragment, and a Mukaiyama aldol reaction to deliver the FG-ring fragment. The subsequent fragment couplings were accomplished by aldol and sulfone anion methodologies. All ketalization events to form the non-acyclic target were accomplished under equilibrating conditions utilizing the imbedded configurations of the molecule to adopt one favored conformation. A final fragment coupling of the anomeric EFGHI-sulfone anion to the ABCD-aldehyde completed the convergent synthesis of (+)-azaspiracid-1. PMID:19006391

  1. From vinyl pyranoses to carbasugars by an iron-catalyzed reaction complementary to classical Ferrier carbocyclization.

    PubMed

    Mac, Dinh Hung; Samineni, Ramesh; Petrignet, Julien; Srihari, Pabbaraja; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Yadav, Jhillu Singh; Grée, René

    2009-08-21

    Starting from vinyl pyranoses an iron-catalyzed tandem isomerization-intramolecular aldolization reaction was developed to prepare cyclohexenone derivatives bearing substituents on the double bond, and it has been applied in a short synthesis of 4-epi-gabosines A and B, from d-glucose. PMID:19641820

  2. (S)-4-Trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol as an auxiliary for stereocontrolled synthesis of salinosporamide analogs with modifications at positions C2 and C5.

    PubMed

    Blasdel, Landy K; Lee, DongEun; Sun, Binyuan; Myers, Andrew G

    2013-12-15

    Analogs of salinosporamide A with variations of the C2 and C5 substituents are prepared in 8-10 steps using as the first and key transformation a diastereoselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction between the chiral 5-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic ester depicted and various aldehyde substrates, promoted by tert-butyldimethylsilyl triflate. In this transformation, the 4-trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol ester functions to direct the formation of predominantly one of four possible diastereomeric aldol products. Introduction of the C2 appendage by a later-stage, stereocontrolled alkylation reaction permits the construction of analogs variant at this position. Results from in vitro and cell-based assays of proteasomal inhibition are reported. Mass spectrometric studies provide mechanistic details of proteasomal modification by salinosporamide A and analogs. PMID:24269479

  3. (S)-4-Trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol as an auxiliary for stereocontrolled synthesis of salinosporamide analogs with modifications at positions C2 and C5

    PubMed Central

    Blasdel, Landy K.; Lee, DongEun; Sun, Binyuan; Myers, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Analogs of salinsporamide A with variations of the C2 and C5 substituents are prepared in 8–10 steps using as the first and key transformation a diastereoselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction between the chiral 5-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic ester depicted and various aldehyde substrates, promoted by tert-butyldimethylsilyl triflate. In this transformation, the 4-trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol ester functions to direct the formation of predominantly one of four possible diastereomeric aldol products. Introduction of the C2 appendage by a later-stage, stereocontrolled alkylation reaction permits the construction of analogs variant at this position. Results from in vitro and cell-based assays of proteasomal inhibition are reported. Mass spectrometric studies provide mechanistic details of proteasomal modification by salinosporamide A and analogs. PMID:24269479

  4. Divergent Synthesis of Multisubstituted Tetrahydrofurans and Pyrrolidines via Intramolecular Aldol-type Trapping of Onium Ylide Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jing, Changcheng; Xing, Dong; Gao, Lixin; Li, Jia; Hu, Wenhao

    2015-12-21

    This paper reports a divergent strategy for the synthesis of multisubstituted tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines, starting from easily accessible β-hydroxyketones or β-aminoketones to react with diazo compounds. Under Rh(II) catalysis, this transformation is proposed to proceed through a metal-carbene-induced oxonium ylide or ammonium ylide formation followed by an intramolecular aldol-type trapping of these active intermediates. A series of highly substituted tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines are synthesized in high yields with good to excellent diastereoselectivities. Preliminary biological evaluations revealed that both types of heterocycles show good PTP1B inhibitory activities. PMID:26592374

  5. Theory and Modeling of Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Yu-Hong; Grayson, Matthew N; Holland, Mareike C; Simon, Adam; Houk, K N

    2016-04-19

    Modern density functional theory and powerful contemporary computers have made it possible to explore complex reactions of value in organic synthesis. We describe recent explorations of mechanisms and origins of stereoselectivities with density functional theory calculations. The specific functionals and basis sets that are routinely used in computational studies of stereoselectivities of organic and organometallic reactions in our group are described, followed by our recent studies that uncovered the origins of stereocontrol in reactions catalyzed by (1) vicinal diamines, including cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines, (2) vicinal amidophosphines, and (3) organo-transition-metal complexes. Two common cyclic models account for the stereoselectivity of aldol reactions of metal enolates (Zimmerman-Traxler) or those catalyzed by the organocatalyst proline (Houk-List). Three other models were derived from computational studies described in this Account. Cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines and other vicinal diamines are venerable asymmetric organocatalysts. For α-fluorinations and a variety of aldol reactions, vicinal diamines form enamines at one terminal amine and activate electrophilically with NH(+) or NF(+) at the other. We found that the stereocontrolling transition states are cyclic and that their conformational preferences are responsible for the observed stereoselectivity. In fluorinations, the chair seven-membered cyclic transition states is highly favored, just as the Zimmerman-Traxler chair six-membered aldol transition state controls stereoselectivity. In aldol reactions with vicinal diamine catalysts, the crown transition states are favored, both in the prototype and in an experimental example, shown in the graphic. We found that low-energy conformations of cyclic transition states occur and control stereoselectivities in these reactions. Another class of bifunctional organocatalysts, the vicinal amidophosphines, catalyzes the (3 + 2) annulation reaction of allenes with activated olefins. Stereocontrol here is due to an intermolecular hydrogen bond that activates the electrophilic partner in this reaction. We have also studied complex organometallic catalysts. Krische's ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrohydroxyalkylation of butadiene involves two chiral ligands at Ru, a chiral diphosphine and a chiral phosphate. The size of this combination strains the limits of modern computations with over 160 atoms, multiple significant steps, and a variety of ligand coordinations and conformations possible. We found that carbon-carbon bond formation occurs via a chair Zimmerman-Traxler-type transition structure and that a formyl CH···O hydrogen bond from aldehyde CH to phosphate oxygen, as well as steric interactions of the two chiral ligands, control the stereoselectivity. PMID:26967569

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones: An Inquiry-Based Experiment in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate chemistry laboratory in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and an unknown ketone is described. The experiment involves the use of techniques such as TLC, column chromatography, and recrystallization, and compounds are characterized by [to the first power]H NMR, GC-MS, and FTIR.…

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones: An Inquiry-Based Experiment in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate chemistry laboratory in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and an unknown ketone is described. The experiment involves the use of techniques such as TLC, column chromatography, and recrystallization, and compounds are characterized by [to the first power]H NMR, GC-MS, and FTIR.

  8. Crystal Structure of Reaction Intermediates in Pyruvate Class II Aldolase

    PubMed Central

    Coincon, Mathieu; Wang, Weijun; Sygusch, Jurgen; Seah, Stephen Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Crystal structures of divalent metal-dependent pyruvate aldolase, HpaI, in complex with substrate and cleavage products were determined to 1.8–2.0 Å resolution. The enzyme·substrate complex with 4-hydroxy-2-ketoheptane-1,7-dioate indicates that water molecule W2 bound to the divalent metal ion initiates C3–C4 bond cleavage. The binding mode of the aldehyde donor delineated a solvent-filled capacious binding locus lined with predominantly hydrophobic residues. The absence of direct interactions with the aldehyde aliphatic carbons accounts for the broad specificity and lack of stereospecific control by the enzyme. Enzymatic complex structures formed with keto acceptors, pyruvate, and 2-ketobutyrate revealed bidentate interaction with the divalent metal ion by C1-carboxyl and C2-carbonyl oxygens and water molecule W4 that is within close contact of the C3 carbon. Arg70 assumes a multivalent role through its guanidinium moiety interacting with all active site enzymatic species: C2 oxygen in substrate, pyruvate, and ketobutyrate; substrate C4 hydroxyl; aldehyde C1 oxygen; and W4. The multiple interactions made by Arg70 stabilize the negatively charged C4 oxygen following proton abstraction, the aldehyde alignment in aldol condensation, and the pyruvate enolate upon aldol cleavage as well as support proton exchange at C3. This role is corroborated by loss of aldol cleavage ability and pyruvate C3 proton exchange activity and by a 730-fold increase in the dissociation constant toward the pyruvate enolate analog oxalate in the R70A mutant. Based on the crystal structures, a mechanism is proposed involving the two enzyme-bound water molecules, W2 and W4, in acid/base catalysis that facilitates reversible aldol cleavage. The same reaction mechanism promotes decarboxylation of oxaloacetate. PMID:22908224

  9. Catalytic, asymmetric, aldol/O-conjugate addition sequence for the construction of highly substituted furanoids.

    PubMed

    Calter, Michael A; Korotkov, Alexander

    2015-03-20

    A new method for the enantioselective synthesis of highly functionalized dihydrofurans has been developed. This process, related to the interrupted Feist-Bénary reaction, involves the reaction of 2-ene 1,4-diketones with dimedone in the presence of bis(cinchona alkaloid)pyrimidine catalysts to afford dihydrofuran products in excellent yields and high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. PMID:25739895

  10. Asymmetric Three-Component Coupling Reaction of Alkyne, Enone, and Aldehyde Catalyzed by Chiral Phebox Ruthenium Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Shino; Ito, Jun-Ichi; Oguri, Ryota; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2016-04-15

    Catalytic asymmetric three-component coupling reactions of terminal alkynes, α,β-unsaturated ketones, and aldehydes were studied. The chiral ruthenium complexes containing bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl ligands were found to serve as efficient catalysts for a tandem reaction based on conjugate addition of terminal alkynes to α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent aldol reaction with aldehydes, giving β-hydroxyketone derivatives containing α-propargyl groups in high yields with moderate to good enantioselectivities. This method can produce various functional molecules from commercially available substrates in a one-pot procedure. The absolute configuration of the major product was determined by X-ray analysis. The control experiments suggested that a ruthenium enolate species generated in situ by conjugate addition could be involved as an intermediate for the aldol coupling with an aldehyde. PMID:27008318

  11. Molecular Mechanism by which One Enzyme Catalyzes Two Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    Unlike ordinary enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase (FBPA/P) catalyzes two distinct reactions : (1) the aldol condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to FBP, and (2) the dephosphorylation of FBP to fructose-6-phosphate. We solved the crystal structures of FBPA/P in complex with DHAP (its aldolase form) and FBP (its phosphatase form). The crystal structures revealed that FBPA/P exhibits the dual activities through a dramatic conformational change in the active-site architecture. Our findings expand the conventional concept that one enzyme catalyzes one reaction.

  12. An Entry to Curcuphenol/Elvirol Core Structures via a Retro-Aldol Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Plano, María F.; Labadie, Guillermo R.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Cravero, Raquel M.

    2013-01-01

    Curcuphenol/elvirol analogues, the naturally occurring bisabolane sesquiterpenes were prepared in six steps from alkyl α-tetralones employing an aromatization reaction of cyclic dienone precursors and olefination of the key aldehyde intermediates. The in vitro antifungal activities of 6a, 6b, 6d and 6g are also reported. PMID:21674782

  13. Synthesis of octitols and the respective amino-derivatives from 'organo-aldols'.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, Katarzyna; Chaciak, Bartosz; Cieplak, Maciej; Cmoch, Piotr; Jarosz, Sławomir

    2015-02-11

    Two diastereoisomeric keto-octoses, obtained in the reaction of 2,3:4,5-diacetone-D-arabinose with protected dihydroxyacetone catalyzed with L- or D-proline, were converted into octitols by stereoselective reduction of the carbonyl group with zinc borohydride and final deprotection. The study on the preparation of the respective amino-derivatives by reductive amination of these organo-adducts is presented; stereochemical aspects of these processes are discussed. PMID:25130931

  14. Total Synthesis and Structure Determination of JBIR-108-A 2-Hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-2,3-dihydro-3(2H)-furanone Isolated from Streptomyces gramineus IR087Pi-4.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Hirokazu; Izumikawa, Miho; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kagaya, Noritaka; Takagi, Motoki; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Doi, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The planar and stereostructures of JBIR-108 isolated from Streptomyces gramineus IR087Pi-4 were determined partly by spectral analysis, and these structural assignments were confirmed and completed by the total synthesis of both 1-epimers. The key stereocenters in JBIR-108 were constructed via a Corey-Bakshi-Shibata (CBS) reduction (C-1), vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction (C-7), and Brown crotylation (C-14 and C-15). Although it was difficult to determine the stereochemistries at the C-1 and C-7 positions in the natural product using the modified Mosher's method, the synthesis of two possible C-1 diastereomers enabled the identification of the configurations at the hitherto unknown stereocenters. PMID:25437251

  15. An aromatic ion platform for enantioselective Brønsted acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gheewala, Chirag D; Collins, Bridget E; Lambert, Tristan H

    2016-02-26

    Chiral acid catalysts are useful for the synthesis of enantioenriched small molecules, but the standard catalysts require laborious and expensive preparations. Here, we describe a chiral Brønsted acid prepared in one step from naturally occurring (-)-menthol and readily available 1,2,3,4,5-pentacarbomethoxycyclopentadiene. Aromatic stabilization serves as a key contributing factor to the potent acidity of the resulting compound, which is shown to catalyze both Mukaiyama-Mannich and oxocarbenium aldol reactions with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mole percent and preparative scalability (25 grams) are demonstrated. Alternative amide catalysts are also shown to be promising platforms. In addition to proton catalysis, a chiral anion pathway is demonstrated to be viable with this catalyst system. PMID:26917768

  16. Application of the intramolecular isomerisation-aldolisation from allylic alcohols and allylic silyl ethers to the synthesis of indanones and indenones.

    PubMed

    Petrignet, Julien; Roisnel, Thierry; Grée, René

    2007-01-01

    A new access to indanones was discovered through a one-step nickel or iron-mediated transposition of 2-hydroxyisobenzofurans. Starting from the corresponding silylenol ethers, a new one-pot tandem isomerisation-Mukaiyama aldol process was also developed. These versatile strategies will be useful for the preparation of various types of indanones and indenones. PMID:17579904

  17. 'Super Silyl' Group for Diastereoselective Sequential Reactions: Access to Complex Chiral Architecture in One Pot

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Matthew B.; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2008-04-02

    We have shown that the tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl (TTMSS) silyl enol ether of acetaldehyde undergoes aldehyde cross-aldol reactions with high selectivity and the extremely low catalyst loading (0.05 mol % of HNTf{sub 2}) allows for one-pot sequential reactions where acidic or basic nucleophiles can be subsequently added. Various ketone-derived silyl enol ethers, Grignard reagents, and dienes succeeded, generating relatively complex molecular architectures in a single step. This represents the first case where, in a single pot, highly acidic conditions followed by very basic conditions were tolerated to give products with high diastereoselectivities and good yields.

  18. Design of chiral urea-quaternary ammonium salt hybrid catalysts for asymmetric reactions of glycine Schiff bases†

    PubMed Central

    Tiffner, Maximilian; Novacek, Johanna; Busillo, Alfonso; Gratzer, Katharina; Massa, Antonio; Waser, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Bifunctional chiral urea-containing quaternary ammonium salts can be straightforwardly synthesised in good yield and with high structural diversity via a scalable and operationally simple highly telescoped sequence starting from trans-1,2-cyclohexanediamine. These novel hybrid catalysts were systematically investigated for their potential to control glycine Schiff bases in asymmetric addition reactions. It was found that Michael addition reactions and the herein presented aldol-initiated cascade reaction can be carried out to provide enantiomeric ratios up to 95 : 5 and good yields under mild conditions at room temperature. PMID:26504516

  19. Analysis of transition state stabilization by non-covalent interactions in the Houk-List model of organocatalyzed intermolecular Aldol additions using functional-group symmetry-adapted perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Brandon W; Sherrill, C David

    2016-04-21

    Rational design of catalysts would be aided by a better understanding of how non-covalent interactions stabilize transition states. Here, we apply the newly-developed Functional-Group Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (F-SAPT) to quantify non-covalent interactions in transition states of the proline-catalyzed intermolecular aldol reaction between benzaldehyde and cyclohexanone, according to the Houk-List mechanism [Bahmanyar et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 2475]. A recent re-examination of this organocatalytic reaction by Rzepa and co-workers [Armstrong et al., Chem. Sci., 2014, 5, 2057] used electron density analysis to identify three key non-covalent interactions thought to influence stereoselectivity: (1) a favorable electrostatic interaction (originally identified by Houk and List) between the NCH(δ+) group of the enamine intermediate and the (δ-)O[double bond, length as m-dash]C of benzaldehyde; (2) a C-H/π interaction between the cyclohexene group of the enamine intermediate and the benzaldehyde phenyl ring; (3) a stabilizing contact between an ortho-hydrogen of the phenyl and an oxygen of the carboxylic acid group of the enamine. These three interactions have been directly computed using F-SAPT, which confirms the stabilizing interaction between an ortho-hydrogen and the carboxylic acid in the (S,S) and (R,S) transition state stereoisomers. F-SAPT analysis also finds stabilizing dispersion and electrostatic interactions due to a C-H/π interaction between the cyclohexene and phenyl groups in the (S,S) and (R,R) transition states. However, unfavorable exchange-repulsion cancels the attractive terms that favor these stereoisomers. Surprisingly, the interaction thought to be most important for stereoselectivity, the NCH(δ+)(δ-)O[double bond, length as m-dash]C interaction, is actually found to be repulsive due to the negative charge on the nitrogen. Hence, our results indicate that geometric analysis and/or density-based analysis does not necessarily produce a reliable picture of non-covalent stabilization. As confirmed by high-level coupled-cluster computations, intermolecular interaction energies are strongest for the (R,R) transition states, which are not the experimentally favored products. This suggests that at least for this reaction, stereoselectivity is also strongly dependent on the energy required to distort the reacting molecules into the transition state geometry. PMID:27020417

  20. On the adsorption/reaction of acetone on pure and sulfate-modified zirconias.

    PubMed

    Crocellà, Valentina; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Morterra, Claudio

    2013-08-28

    In situ FTIR spectroscopy was employed to investigate some aspects of the ambient temperature (actually, IR-beam temperature) adsorption of acetone on various pure and sulfate-doped zirconia specimens. Acetone uptake yields, on all examined systems and to a variable extent, different types of specific molecular adsorption, depending on the kind/population of available surface sites: relatively weak H-bonding interaction(s) with surface hydroxyls, medium-strong coordinative interaction with Lewis acidic sites, and strong H-bonding interaction with Brønsted acidic centres. Moreover acetone, readily and abundantly adsorbed in molecular form, is able to undergo the aldol condensation reaction (yielding, as the main reaction product, adsorbed mesityl oxide) only if the adsorbing material possesses some specific surface features. The occurrence/non-occurrence of the acetone self-condensation reaction is discussed, and leads to conclusions concerning the sites that catalyze the condensation reaction that do not agree with either of two conflicting interpretations present in the literature of acetone uptake/reaction on, mainly, zeolitic systems. In particular, what turns out to be actually necessary for the acetone aldol condensation reaction to occur on the examined zirconia systems is the presence of coordinatively unsaturated O(2-) surface sites of basicity sufficient to lead to the extraction of a proton from one of the CH3 groups of adsorbed acetone. PMID:23873248

  1. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C9-C15 branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  2. Thermodynamics of the formation of atmospheric organic particulate matter by accretion reactionsPart 1: aldehydes and ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.

    The term "accretion reactions" is introduced here to refer to the large collection of reactions by which atmospheric organic molecules can add mass, especially as by combination with other organic molecules. A general thermodynamic approach is developed for evaluating the tendency of atmospheric constituents (e.g., C 10 aldehydes) to undergo accretion reactions (e.g., dimerization) and thereby form less volatile molecules (e.g., aldol condensation products) that may subsequently condense and so contribute to the levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) observed in the atmosphere. As an example, gaseous compounds A and B may contribute to OPM formation by the net overall reaction A g+B g=C liq. This reaction may occur according to any of three kinetic schemes. Scheme I: (1) A g+B g=C g (accretion in the gas phase): then (2) C g=C liq (condensation of the accretion product); Scheme II: (1) B g=B liq (condensation of B); then (2) A g+B liq=C liq (heterogeneous accretion reaction of gaseous A with condensed B); or Scheme III: (1) A g+B g=A liq+B liq (condensation of A and B); then (2) A liq+B liq=C liq (accretion of A with B within the PM phase). For all three schemes, the net overall reaction remains A g+B g=C liq. The overall thermodynamic tendency of the net reaction remains the same regardless of the actual predominating kinetic mechanism. If an accretion reaction between two atmospheric components is to produce significant new OPM, appreciable amounts of the product C must form, and the vapor pressure of C must be relatively low so that a significant proportion of C can condense into the multicomponent liquid OPM phase. This study considers the thermodynamics of accretion reactions of atmospheric aldehydes including: (a) hydration, polymerization (i.e., oligomer formation), hemiacetal/acetal formation; and (b) aldol condensation. It was concluded regarding OPM formation that: (1) the reactions in the first group are not thermodynamically favored, either in the atmosphere, or in the "acid-catalyzed" chamber experiments of Jang and Kamens (Environ. Sci. Technol. 35 (2001b) 4758) with n-butanal, n-hexanal, n-octanal, and n-decanal; (2) aldol condensation is not thermodynamically favored for the conditions of the Jang and Kamens (2001b) experiments with those four aldehydes; (3) the mechanism for any observed OPM formation from n-butanal, n-hexanal, and n-octanal in those experiments remains unknown, and may also have been involved in the "acid-catalyzed" experiments with n-decanal; (4) whether Jang and Kamens (2001b) observed the consequences of aldol condensation in their n-decanal experiments remains unclear due in part to uncertainties in the free energy of formation (? Gf0) values for the aldol products of n-decanal; (5) analogous refinement in the quality of needed ? Gf0 values is required to clarify the potential importance of aldol products of pinonaldehyde in the formation of ambient OPM; and (6) the possibility that photo-assisted mechanisms may compensate for unfavorable thermodyamics in the formation of accretion products in the atmosphere should be considered.

  3. Effects of water on reactions for waste treatment, organic synthesis, and bio-refinery in sub- and supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Rumiko; Oshima, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Current research analyzing the effects of water in the field of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of organics in sub- and supercritical water are reviewed in this article. Since the physical properties of water (e.g., density, ion product and dielectric constants) can affect the reaction rates and mechanisms of various reactions, understanding the effects that water can have is important in controlling reactions. For homogeneous reactions, the effects of water on oxidation, hydrolysis, aldol condensation, Beckman rearrangement and biomass refining were introduced including recent experimental results up to 100 MPa using special pressure-resistance equipment. For heterogeneous reactions, the effects of ion product on acid/base-catalyzed reactions, such as hydrothermal conversion of biomass-related compounds, organic synthesis in the context of bio-refinery, and hydration of olefins were described and how the reaction paths are controlled by the concentration of water and hydrogen ions was summarized. PMID:23867097

  4. The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E.

    2003-10-01

    This investigational laboratory experiment emphasizes structure determination using modern spectroscopic techniques. The experiment examines the base-induced reaction of salicylaldehyde with 1-bromobutane in acetone. The product obtained from the reaction depends upon the identity of the base, either carbonate or hydroxide. With carbonate, an SN2 reaction yields the butyl salicyl ether. Reaction with hydroxide results in a dehydrative aldol reaction between salicylaldehyde and acetone that occurs along with the etherification. Students are divided into groups of four. Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.

  5. Synthesis of two subunits of the macrolide domain of the immunosuppressive agent sanglifehrin a and assembly of a macrolactone precursor. application of masamune anti-aldol condensation.

    PubMed

    Suttisintong, Khomson; White, James D

    2015-02-20

    Asymmetric anti-aldol coupling of a norephedrine-derived ester with an α-chiral aldehyde was used to synthesize a carboxylic acid representing the C13-C19 segment of the macrocyclic domain present in the immunosuppressive agent sanglifehrin A. Felkin addition set configuration at the C14-C17 stereotetrad in this unit in which hydroxyl functions at C15 and C17 were masked as an internal ketal. The carboxyl group of this segment was coupled to the N-terminus of the tripeptide portion (C1-N12) of sanglifehrin A macrolactone to assemble the C1-C19 domain. Synthesis of the C20-C25 subunit of sanglifehrin A containing a (23S) alcohol was completed via asymmetric allylation of (E)-3-iodo-2-methylprop-2-enal followed by oxidative cleavage of the terminal vinyl appendage and a Takai olefination with pinacol dichloromethylboronate. Esterification of this alcohol with a C1-C19 carboxylic acid furnished an open C1-C25 macrolactone precursor, but this substance failed to undergo macrocyclization via intramolecular Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. PMID:25584782

  6. Titanium(IV) chloride-mediated carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction between 3,3-dialkylcyclobutanones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Jun-ichi; Kawano, Mizuki; Okuno, Ryosuke; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-09-01

    Treatment of 3,3-dialkylcyclobutanones with titanium(IV) chloride in the presence of aldehyde gave beta'-chloro-beta-hydroxy ketones in high yields. It was speculated that ring cleavage of the cyclobutanone ring with titanium(IV) chloride gave trichlorotitanium enolate having a tertiary alkyl chloride moiety and then aldol reaction of the titanium enolate proceeded. A trialkylsilylmethyl group at the 2-position of cyclobutanone facilitated the ring cleavage. Synthesis of substituted cyclopentenone from an obtained product is also described. PMID:20690661

  7. Vapor-phase reaction of acetophenone with methanol or dimethyl carbonate on magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Aramendia, M.A.; Borau, V.; Jimenez, C.; Marinas, J.M.; Romero, F.J.

    1999-04-01

    The vapor-phase reaction of acetophenone with methanol on magnesium oxide, various magnesium phosphates, and combinations of the two types of catalysts was studied. The process was found to involve the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction, aldol condensations, dehydrations, and hydrogenations. The presence of basic sites is indispensable for the reaction to develop; however, acid sites also play an active role. The selectivity for each reaction product depends on the particular catalyst used. The total conversion is maximal with the catalysts containing the largest populations of acid and basic sites. Also, catalysts with large numbers of acid sites exhibit an increased selectivity towards the corresponding alkenes. The use of dimethyl carbonate instead of methanol alters the reaction selectivity to an extent dependent on the particular catalyst and operating conditions. However, this also results in markedly decreased total conversion in some instances.

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of the C13-C22 fragment of callystatin A by a non-aldol approach.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Sadagopan; Rajendar, Sheelamanthula

    2015-05-01

    An efficient synthetic route to the C13-C22 subunit of callystatin A is reported. The key features include diastereoselective alkylation, using Myers auxiliary, for the preparation of the three carbon synthon 7, stereo- and regioselective oxidative vicinal functionalization of an electron deficient trisubstituted (Z)-olefin using an intramolecular sulfinyl group as the nucleophile, diastereoselective radical debromination of a bromohydrin derivative using Guindon's protocol to prepare the C16-C18 anti-anti stereotriad, Lewis acid promoted crotylation following Keck's protocol to create C19, C20 stereocenters and the use of the Pummerer reaction to reveal an aldehyde for the extension of two carbons by Wittig olefination. PMID:25827465

  9. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane: a special boron Lewis acid for special reactions.

    PubMed

    Erker, Gerhard

    2005-06-01

    Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is best known for its role as an excellent activator component in homogeneous Ziegler-Natta chemistry. However, the special properties of B(C6F5)3 have made this strong boron Lewis acid an increasingly used catalyst or stoichiometric reagent in organic and organometallic chemistry. This includes catalytic hydrometallation reactions, alkylations and catalyzed aldol-type reactions. B(C6F5)3 catalyzes tautomerizations and can sometimes stabilize less favoured tautomeric forms by adduct formation. It induces some rather unusual reactions of early metal acetylide complexes and can help in stabilizing uncommon coordination geometries of carbon. The growing number of such examples indicates an increasing application potential of the useful Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 aside from its established role in olefin polymerization catalysis. PMID:15909033

  10. Hydrogenolysis of cellulose over Cu-based catalysts-analysis of the reaction network.

    PubMed

    Tajvidi, Kameh; Hausoul, Peter J C; Palkovits, Regina

    2014-05-01

    A series of polyols, carbohydrates, and cellulose were tested in the aqueous, CuO/ZnO/Al2O3-catalyzed hydrogenolysis reaction at 245 °C and 50 bar H2. The compositions of liquid-phase products were analyzed; based on these results a unified reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for the observed product distribution. Elementary transformations such as dehydration, dehydrogenation/hydrogenation, Lobry de Bruyn-van Ekenstein isomerization and retro-aldol cleavage were identified as most important for controlling the selectivity of simple polyols and carbohydrates. For cellulose the product distribution is considerably different than for glucose or sorbitol, indicating a change in the reaction pathway. Therefore, next to the traditional hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, an additional depolymerization mechanism involving only the reducing ends of cellulose oligomers is proposed to account for this observation. PMID:24596082

  11. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal have the potential to produce significant organic aerosol mass and therefore could potentially impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols, especially if the products partition to the aerosol surface.

  12. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2014-11-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, which was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence for products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal have the potential to produce significant organic aerosol mass and therefore could potentially impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols, especially if the products partition to the aerosol surface.

  13. Hydrolysis/dehydration/aldol-condensation/hydrogenation of lignocellulosic biomass and biomass-derived carbohydrates in the presence of Pd/WO3-ZrO2 in a single reactor.

    PubMed

    Dedsuksophon, W; Faungnawakij, K; Champreda, V; Laosiripojana, N

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysis/dehydration/aldol-condensation/hydrogenation of lignocellulosic-biomass (corncobs) and biomass-derived carbohydrates (tapioca flour) to produce water-soluble C5-C15 compounds was developed in a single reactor system. WO3-ZrO2 efficiently catalyzed the hydrolysis/dehydration of these feedstocks to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural, while the impregnation of WO3-ZrO2 with Pd allowed sequential aldolcondensation/hydrogenation of these furans to C5-C15 compounds. The highest C5-C15 yields of 14.8-20.3% were observed at a hydrolysis/dehydration temperature of 573 K for 5 min, an aldol-condensation temperature of 353 K for 30 h, and a hydrogenation temperature of 393 K for 6 h. The C5-C15 yield from tapioca flour was higher than that from corncobs (20.3% compared to 14.8%). Tapioca flour produced more C6/C9/C15, whereas corncobs generated more C5/C8/C13 compounds due to the presence of hemicellulose in the corncobs. These water-soluble organic compounds can be further converted to liquid alkanes with high cetane numbers for replacing diesel fuel in transportation applications. PMID:20934873

  14. Investigation of thermochemistry associated with the carbon-carbon coupling reactions of furan and furfural using ab initio methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Assary, Rajeev S; Curtiss, Larry A

    2014-06-26

    Upgrading furan and small oxygenates obtained from the decomposition of cellulosic materials via formation of carbon-carbon bonds is critical to effective conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels. Simulation-driven molecular level understanding of carbon-carbon bond formation is required to design efficient catalysts and processes. Accurate quantum chemical methods are utilized here to predict the reaction energetics for conversion of furan (C4H4O) to C5-C8 ethers and the transformation of furfural (C5H6O2) to C13-C26 alkanes. Furan can be coupled with various C1 to C4 low molecular weight carbohydrates obtained from the pyrolysis via Diels-Alder type reactions in the gas phase to produce C5-C8 cyclic ethers. The computed reaction barriers for these reactions (∼25 kcal/mol) are lower than the cellulose activation or decomposition reactions (∼50 kcal/mol). Cycloaddition of C5-C8 cyclo ethers with furans can also occur in the gas phase, and the computed activation energy is similar to that of the first Diels-Alder reaction. Furfural, obtained from biomass, can be coupled with aldehydes or ketones with α-hydrogen atoms to form longer chain aldol products, and these aldol products can undergo vapor phase hydrocycloaddition (activation barrier of ∼20 kcal/mol) to form the precursors of C26 cyclic hydrocarbons. These thermochemical studies provide the basis for further vapor phase catalytic studies required for upgrading of furans/furfurals to longer chain hydrocarbons. PMID:24902118

  15. Total synthesis of salinosporamide A.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takeo; Sugiyama, Kouhei; Arima, Shiho; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Omura, Satoshi

    2008-10-01

    The total synthesis of salinosporamide A has been achieved through enzymatic desymmetrization, diastereoselective aldol reaction, intramolecular aldol reaction, and intermolecular Reformatsky-type reaction followed by 1,4-reduction as key reactions. PMID:18763797

  16. On the mechanism of the Dakin-West reaction.

    PubMed

    Dalla-Vechia, Luciana; Santos, Vanessa G; Godoi, Marla N; Cantillo, David; Kappe, C Oliver; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Miranda, Leandro S M

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism of the Dakin-West reaction has been thoroughly investigated by monitoring the reaction using ESI-MS/MS techniques in combination with M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. Several of the key intermediates in the previously proposed "azlactone" mechanism have been experimentally detected and characterized. In particular, interception of the mixed anhydrides involved in the early and late stages of the mechanistic scheme, as well as of the cyclic acyl-oxazolone intermediate, supports the original pathway suggested by Dakin and West. All intermediates and transition structures involved in several competing mechanisms have been calculated. The theoretical calculations support the experimental results and corroborate the proposed "azlactone" mechanism. The pathway involving the cyclic oxazolone ("azlactone") intermediate represents an energy barrier more than 3 kcal mol(-1) lower than for the competing aldol-type mechanism, thus ruling out this alternative mechanism. The DFT calculations explain the observed ESI-MS data and assess those intermediates which the experiments cannot fully elucidate. PMID:23070278

  17. Reaction theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Typel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Reactions with atomic nuclei play a pivotal role in the experimental study of nuclei. They are a tool in order to obtain crucial information on nuclear structure of nuclei, in particular for unstable nuclei far off the valley of stability. Besides the investigation of nuclear properties, nuclear reactions can be used as indirect methods to extract cross sections of astrophysical interest that cannot be measured directly in the laboratory. After an overview over the variety of nuclear reactions and their major characteristics, the basic formalism of reaction theory is introduced and essential concepts are presented in order to describe direct reactions. The main challenges in the future development of reaction theory are addressed.

  18. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Stoichiometric and Defective SrTiO?(100) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li Q.; Ferris, Kim F.; Azad, Samina; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peden, Charles HF.

    2004-02-05

    The adsorption and reaction of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), on stoichiometric (TiO{sub 2}-terminated) and reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surfaces, have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Acetaldehyde adsorbs molecularly on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface that contains predominantly Ti{sup 4+} cations. The Ti{sup 4+} sites on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface are not sufficiently active for surface reactions such as aldol condensation, as opposed to the Ti{sup 4+} ions on the TiO{sub 2}(001) surface. However, decomposition and redox reactions of acetaldehyde occur in the presence of surface defects created by Ar{sup +} sputtering. The decomposition products following reactions of acetaldehyde on the defective surface include H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CO, C{sub 4}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 4}H{sub 8}. Reductive coupling, to produce C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 4}H{sub 8} is the main reaction pathway for decomposition of acetaldehyde on the sputter reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface.

  19. Design and Synthesis of Chiral Zn2+ Complexes Mimicking Natural Aldolases for Catalytic C–C Bond Forming Reactions in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Susumu; Sonoike, Shotaro; Kitamura, Masanori; Aoki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Extending carbon frameworks via a series of C–C bond forming reactions is essential for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutically active compounds, active agrochemical ingredients, and a variety of functional materials. The application of stereoselective C–C bond forming reactions to the one-pot synthesis of biorelevant compounds is now emerging as a challenging and powerful strategy for improving the efficiency of a chemical reaction, in which some of the reactants are subjected to successive chemical reactions in just one reactor. However, organic reactions are generally conducted in organic solvents, as many organic molecules, reagents, and intermediates are not stable or soluble in water. In contrast, enzymatic reactions in living systems proceed in aqueous solvents, as most of enzymes generally function only within a narrow range of temperature and pH and are not so stable in less polar organic environments, which makes it difficult to conduct chemoenzymatic reactions in organic solvents. In this review, we describe the design and synthesis of chiral metal complexes with Zn2+ ions as a catalytic factor that mimic aldolases in stereoselective C–C bond forming reactions, especially for enantioselective aldol reactions. Their application to chemoenzymatic reactions in aqueous solution is also presented. PMID:24481060

  20. Transfusion Reactions.

    PubMed

    Savage, William J

    2016-06-01

    Transfusion reactions are common occurrences, and clinicians who order or transfuse blood components need to be able to recognize adverse sequelae of transfusion. The differential diagnosis of any untoward clinical event should always consider adverse sequelae of transfusion, even when transfusion occurred weeks earlier. There is no pathognomonic sign or symptom that differentiates a transfusion reaction from other potential medical problems, so vigilance is required during and after transfusion when a patient presents with a change in clinical status. This review covers the presentation, mechanisms, and management of transfusion reactions that are commonly encountered, and those that can be life-threatening. PMID:27113000

  1. Glucose and fructose decomposition in subcritical and supercritical water: Detailed reaction pathway, mechanisms, and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kabyemela, B.M.; Adschiri, T.; Malaluan, R.M.; Arai, K.

    1999-08-01

    The authors are developing a new catalyst-free process of cellulose decomposition in supercritical water. In their initial study on the cellulose decomposition in supercritical water, the main products of cellulose decomposition were found to be oligomers of glucose (cellobiose, cellotriose, etc.) and glucose at short residence times (400 C, 25 MPa, 0.05 s). The kinetics of glucose at these conditions can be useful in understanding the reaction pathways of cellulose. Experiments were performed on the products of glucose decomposition at short residence times to elucidate the reaction pathways and evaluate kinetics of glucose and fructose decomposition in sub- and supercritical water. The conditions were a temperature of 300--400 C and pressure of 25--40 MPa for extremely short residence times between 0.02 and 2 s. The products of glucose decomposition were fructose, a product of isomerization, 1,6-anhydroglucose, a product of dehydration, and erythrose and glyceraldehyde, products of C-C bond cleavage. Fructose underwent reactions similar to glucose except that it did not form 1,6-anhydroglucose and isomerization to glucose is negligible. The mechanism for the products formed from C-C bond cleavage could be explained by reverse aldol condensation and the double-bond rule of the respective enediols formed during the Lobry de Bruyn Alberda van Ekenstein transformation. The differential equations resulting from the proposed pathways were fit to experimental results to obtain the kinetic rate constants.

  2. The Reactions of Acetone with the Surfaces of Uranium Dioxide Single Crystal and Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    King,R.; Senanayake, S.; Chong, S.; Idriss, H.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of acetone, as an example of a carbonyl compound, is studied over UO2 (1 1 1) single crystal and thin film surfaces. Over the stoichiometric single crystal surface, acetone is molecularly and weakly adsorbed with a computed activation energy for desorption in the range of 95-65 kJ/mol with pre-exponential factors between 1011 and 1013 s-1. On the contrary, acetone reacts very strongly on the O-defected single crystal and thin film surfaces. In addition to total decomposition evidence of aldolization and cyclization reactions were seen. The thin film of UO2 was studied by synchrotron light, providing high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in the core level, and high sensitivity in the both the core and valence band regions. The U5f line was considerably enhanced at grazing angle when compared to that obtained at normal angle for the O-defected surface, showing that the surface is more reduced than the next layers. The U 4f lines indicated the presence of U cations in lower oxidation states than +4 for the O-defected surface. These lines were considerably attenuated upon adsorption of acetone, due to surface oxidation by C{double_bond}O bond dissociation. The reaction pathway for acetone on the O-defected surface is presented, and compared to that of the previously studied acetaldehyde molecule.

  3. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Stoichiometric and Defective SrTiO{sub 3}(100) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li Q.; Ferris, Kim F.; Azad, Samina; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peden, Charles HF.

    2004-02-05

    The adsorption and reaction of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), on stoichiometric (TiO{sub 2}-terminated) and reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surfaces, have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Acetaldehyde adsorbs molecularly on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface that contains predominantly Ti{sup 4+} cations. The Ti{sup 4+} sites on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface are not sufficiently active for surface reactions such as aldol condensation, as opposed to the Ti{sup 4+} ions on the TiO{sub 2}(001) surface. However, decomposition and redox reactions of acetaldehyde occur in the presence of surface defects created by Ar{sup +} sputtering. The decomposition products following reactions of acetaldehyde on the defective surface include H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CO, C{sub 4}H{sub 6} and C{sub 4}H{sub 8}. Reductive coupling, to produce C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 4}H{sub 8}, is the main reaction pathway for decomposition of acetaldehyde on the sputter reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface.

  4. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    Most of the time, medicines make our lives better. They reduce aches and pains, fight infections, and control problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is ...

  5. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... rhinitis or asthma is present. Severe Allergic Reactions Anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis) is a serious, ... are to foods, insect stings, medications and latex. Anaphylaxis typically affects more than one part of the ...

  6. Organocatalytically Generated Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes in Domino Reactions. One-Step Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Diez, Eduardo; Vesga, Diana L; Reyes, Efraim; Uria, Uxue; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L

    2016-03-18

    An easy and straightforward procedure has been developed for the synthesis of highly enantioenriched pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines through a one-pot process that comprises a domino cyclopropane ring opening/aza-Michael/aldol reaction followed by acid-promoted lactamization. The key feature of the synthetic approach relies on the ability of conveniently functionalized cyclopropaneacetaldehydes to undergo organocatalytic activation by a chiral secondary amine that enables the catalytic generation of a donor-acceptor cyclopropane. This intermediate has the potential to undergo a ring opening that generates an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated iminium ion that subsequently reacts through the already mentioned domino sequence and in which stereochemical information is very efficiently transferred from the amine catalyst to the final products. Moreover, one of the alkoxycarbonyl moieties can be easily removed by standard hydrolysis/decarboxylation, providing access to the target adducts as single stereoisomers. PMID:26916408

  7. A recyclable bifunctional acid-base organocatalyst with ionic liquid character. The role of site separation and spatial configuration on different condensation reactions.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Boronat, Mercedes; Climent, María José; Iborra, Sara; Montón, Raquel; Sabater, María J

    2011-10-14

    A series of bifunctional organic catalysts containing acid and basic sites with ionic liquid characteristics have been prepared and their catalytic activity and reaction coordinate for aldol and Knoevenagel condensations have been compared. While the only factor controlling catalyst activity for the Knoevenagel condensation was the distance between the acid and base sites, the spatial orientation of the organocatalyst is also key to achieve high activity and selectivity in the Claisen-Schmidt condensation. Mechanistic studies based on theoretical DFT calculations show that the acid-base bifunctional organocatalyst follows a mechanism inspired in natural aldolases for the synthesis of trans-chalcones, being able to produce a large variety of these compounds of industrial interest. The combination of the acid-base pairs within the proper geometry and the ionic liquid nature makes this catalyst active, selective and recyclable. PMID:21879067

  8. The effects of interactions between proline and carbon nanostructures on organocatalysis in the Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rance, G. A.; Khlobystov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    The non-covalent interactions of S-(-)-proline with the surfaces of carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and graphite) change the nucleophilic-electrophilic and acid-base properties of the amino acid, thus tuning its activity and selectivity in the organocatalytic Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert (HPESW) reaction. Whilst our spectroscopy and microscopy measurements show no permanent covalent bonding between S-(-)-proline and carbon nanostructures, a systematic investigation of the catalytic activity and selectivity of the organocatalyst in the HPESW reaction demonstrates a clear correlation between the pyramidalisation angle of carbon nanostructures and the catalytic properties of S-(-)-proline. Carbon nanostructures with larger pyramidalisation angles have a stronger interaction with the nitrogen atom lone pair of electrons of the organocatalyst, thereby simultaneously decreasing the nucleophilicity and increasing the acidity of the organocatalyst. These translate into lower conversion rates but higher selectivities towards the dehydrated product of Aldol addition.The non-covalent interactions of S-(-)-proline with the surfaces of carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and graphite) change the nucleophilic-electrophilic and acid-base properties of the amino acid, thus tuning its activity and selectivity in the organocatalytic Hajos-Parrish-Eder-Sauer-Wiechert (HPESW) reaction. Whilst our spectroscopy and microscopy measurements show no permanent covalent bonding between S-(-)-proline and carbon nanostructures, a systematic investigation of the catalytic activity and selectivity of the organocatalyst in the HPESW reaction demonstrates a clear correlation between the pyramidalisation angle of carbon nanostructures and the catalytic properties of S-(-)-proline. Carbon nanostructures with larger pyramidalisation angles have a stronger interaction with the nitrogen atom lone pair of electrons of the organocatalyst, thereby simultaneously decreasing the nucleophilicity and increasing the acidity of the organocatalyst. These translate into lower conversion rates but higher selectivities towards the dehydrated product of Aldol addition. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Control experiments in the absence of carbon nanostructures and additional spectroscopic measurements and titrations are described in the ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04009k

  9. Alpha-monodeuterated benzyl alcohols and phosphobetaines from reactions of aromatic aldehydes with a water/D2O-soluble phosphine.

    PubMed

    Moiseev, Dmitry V; James, Brian R; Hu, Thomas Q

    2006-12-11

    With the aim of learning more about the bleaching action of pulps by (hydroxymethyl)phosphines, we reacted several benzaldehydes, containing MeO, Me, OH, or halogen substituents, with tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, [HO(CH2)3]3P, in aqueous solution at 90 degrees C under argon. Effective reduction of the aldehydes to the corresponding benzyl alcohols with concomitant oxidation of the phosphine to the phosphine oxide takes place, the reaction proceeding via an initially formed phosphonium species. When the reactions are carried out in D2O, the benzyl alcohol product from 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde contains one deuterium atom at the benzyl-carbon atom, consistent with the last step of the mechanism involving a carbanion intermediate. With syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde), the reduction product (syringyl alcohol) is more reactive toward the phosphine than is the starting aldehyde, and a zwitterionic, phosphobetaine product is formed. In D2O, the zwitterion benzyl protons and protons of the hydroxypropyl-CH2 adjacent to the P atom undergo H/D exchange via presumed phosphorus ylide intermediates. Under the same aqueous reaction conditions, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, [HO(CH2)3]3P (THPP), does not undergo redox reactions with aliphatic aldehydes but simply promotes a base-catalyzed self-condensation (aldol) reaction. THPP reduction of an aromatic ketone is sluggish, presumably because the carbonyl C-atom is less electrophilic than that present in an aromatic aldehyde. PMID:17140243

  10. Gas-Phase Reactions of Glyceraldehyde and 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone as Models for Levoglucosan Conversion during Biomass Gasification.

    PubMed

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Levoglucosan, the major intermediate in wood gasification, is decomposed selectively to C1 /C2 fragments at 550-600 °C. Kinetic analyses suggest that radical chain mechanisms with the involvement of short-lived carbonyl intermediates explain the lower production of larger fragments. To address this hypothesis, the gas-phase reactivities of glyceraldehyde (Gald), 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glycerol, as simple C3 model compounds, were compared at 400-800 °C under N2 flow at residence times of 0.9-1.4 s. Retro-aldol fragmentation and dehydration proceeded for the pyrolysis of Gald/DHA at 400 °C, far below the 600 °C decomposition point of glycerol. Pyrolysis of Gald/DHA generated exclusively syngas (CO and H2 ). On the basis of the results of theoretical calculations, the effects of carbonyl intermediates on reactivity were explained by postulating uni- and bimolecular reactions, although the bimolecular reactions became less effective at elevated temperatures. PMID:26893057

  11. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albini, A.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  12. Symmetry-Driven Strategy for the Assembly of the Core Tetracycle of (+)-Ryanodine: Synthetic Utility of a Cobalt-Catalyzed Olefin Oxidation and α-Alkoxy Bridgehead Radical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Masanori; Hagiwara, Koji; Masuda, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masaki; Kawamata, Takahiro; Matsui, Yuki; Urabe, Daisuke; Inoue, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ryanodine (1) is a potent modulator of intracellular calcium release channels, designated as ryanodine receptors. The exceptionally complex molecular architecture of 1 comprises a highly oxygenated pentacyclic system with eleven contiguous stereogenic centers, which makes it a formidable target for organic synthesis. We identified the embedded C2 -symmetric tricyclic substructure within 1. This specific recognition permitted us to design a concise synthetic route to enantiopure tricycle 9 by utilizing a series of pairwise functionalizations. The four tetrasubstituted carbon centers of 9 were effectively constructed by three key reactions, a dearomatizing Diels-Alder reaction, the kinetic resolution of the obtained racemic 14 through asymmetric methanolysis, and the transannular aldol reaction of the eight-membered diketone 10. A new combination of cobalt-catalyzed hydroperoxidation and NfF-promoted elimination enabled conversion of the hindered olefin of 9 into the corresponding ketone, thus realizing the desymmetrization. Finally, the tetrasubstituted carbon was stereospecifically installed by utilizing the α-alkoxy bridgehead radical to deliver the core tetracycle 7 with the six contiguous tetrasubstituted carbon centers. Consequently, the present work not only accomplishes efficient assembly of four out of the five fused rings of 1, but also develops two new powerful methodologies: two-step ketone formation and bridgehead radical reaction. PMID:26616151

  13. Leprosy type 1 reaction (formerly reversal reaction).

    PubMed

    Naafs, Bernard; van Hees, Colette L M

    2016-01-01

    Nerve damage leading to impairment and permanent disability is the major problem in the course of a leprosy infection. Most of the damage occurs during two types of leprosy reactions, type 1 reaction (T1R) and type 2 reaction (T2R). Timely and adequate treatment may prevent this damage. Particular T1R reactions, however, are often diagnosed too late and are even missed. Clinical symptoms and warning signs are therefore covered, as are the immunology and pathophysiology of nerve damage. The differences between upgrading and downgrading, old terms but still relevant, are explained. Methods to detect reactions and to monitor their treatment are given. Triggering factors, the mechanisms of the reactions, including autoimmunity, and the presence of physical compression are discussed. Treatment over the years is placed in its context, and based on this information a treatment schedule is recommended. PMID:26773622

  14. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The

  15. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…

  16. Synthesis and Applications of Silyl 2-Methylprop-2-ene-1-sulfinates in Preparative Silylation and GC-Derivatization Reactions of Polyols and Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dean; Tchawou, Wandji Augustin; Novosjolova, Irina; Laclef, Sylvain; Stepanovs, Dmitrijs; Turks, Māris; Vogel, Pierre

    2016-03-14

    Trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, tert-butyldimethylsilyl, and triisopropylsilyl 2-methylprop-2-ene-1-sulfinates were prepared through (CuOTf)2 ⋅C6 H6 -catalyzed sila-ene reactions of the corresponding methallylsilanes with SO2 at 50 °C. Sterically hindered, epimerizable, and base-sensitive alcohols gave the corresponding silyl ethers in high yields and purities at room temperature and under neutral conditions. As the byproducts of the silylation reaction (SO2 +isobutylene) are volatile, the workup was simplified to solvent evaporation. The developed method can be employed for the chemo- and regioselective semiprotection of polyols and glycosides and for the silylation of unstable aldols. The high reactivity of the developed reagents is shown by the synthesis of sterically hindered per-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-α-d-glucopyranose, the X-ray crystallographic analysis of which is the first for a per-O-silylated hexopyranose. The per-O-silylation of polyols, hydroxy carboxylic acids, and carbohydrates with trimethylsilyl 2-methylprop-2-ene-1-sulfinate was coupled with the GC analysis of nonvolatile polyhydroxy compounds both qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:26864218

  17. Cu(II)-Gd(III) cryogenic magnetic refrigerants and Cu8Dy9 single-molecule magnet generated by in situ reactions of picolinaldehyde and acetylpyridine: experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Liang; Lin, Wei-Quan; Chen, Yan-Cong; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Aravena, Daniel; Ruiz, Eliseo; Leng, Ji-Dong; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2013-12-16

    A series of heterometallic [Ln(III)(x)Cu(II)(y)] complexes, [Gd2Cu2]n (1), [Gd4Cu8] (2), [Ln9Cu8] (Ln=Gd, 3·Gd; Ln=Dy, 3·Dy), were successfully synthesized by a one-pot route at room temperature with three kinds of in situ carbonyl-related reactions: Cannizzaro reaction, aldol reaction, and oxidation. This strategy led to dysprosium analogues that behaved as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and gadolinium analogues that showed significant magnetocaloric effect (MCE). In this study a numerical DFT approach is proposed by using pseudopotentials to calculate the exchange coupling constants in three polynuclear [Gd(x)Cu(y)] complexes; with these values exact diagonalization or quantum Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to calculate the variation of the magnetic entropy involved in the MCE. For the [Dy9Cu8] complexes, local magnetic properties of the Dy(III) centers have been determined by using the CASSCF+RASSI method. PMID:24265054

  18. Microscale Thermite Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnaiz, Susana

    1998-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of thermite (aluminum with metal oxides) reactions from whole-class demonstrations to student-run micro-reactions. Lists detailed directions and possible variations of the experiment. (WRM)

  19. Continuous detonation reaction engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, O. H.; Stein, R. J.; Tubbs, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Reaction engine operates on the principles of a controlled condensed detonation rather than on the principles of gas expansion. The detonation results in reaction products that are expelled at a much higher velocity.

  20. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  1. Transfusion reaction - hemolytic

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blood transfusion. The reaction occurs when the red blood cells that were given during the transfusion are destroyed by the person's immune system. There are other types of allergic transfusion reactions that do not cause hemolysis.

  2. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... dental treatment trigger a hypersensitivity reaction? A: Some dental materials used by the dentist can cause a hypersensitivity reaction in certain individuals. Potential allergens include the metals in amalgam (silver) fillings, crowns and bridges, and orthodontic wires; ...

  3. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  4. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  5. High Resolution Reaction Intermediates of rabbit Muscle Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase: Substrate Cleavage and Induced Fit

    SciTech Connect

    St-Jean,M.; Lafrance-Vanasse, J.; Liotard, B.; Sygusch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Crystal structures were determined to 1.8-Angstrom resolution of the glycolytic enzyme fructose-1, 6-bis(phosphate) aldolase trapped in complex with its substrate and a competitive inhibitor, mannitol-1, 6-bis(phosphate). The enzyme substrate complex corresponded to the postulated Schiff base intermediate and has reaction geometry consistent with incipient C3-C4 bond cleavage catalyzed by Glu-187, which is adjacent to the Schiff base forming Lys-229. Atom arrangement about the cleaved bond in the reaction intermediate mimics a pericyclic transition state occurring in non-enzymatic aldol condensations. Lys-146 hydrogen bonds the substrate C4 hydroxyl and assists substrate cleavage by stabilizing the developing negative charge on the C4 hydroxyl during proton abstraction. Mannitol-1, 6-bis(phosphate) forms a non-covalent complex in the active site whose binding geometry mimics the covalent carbinolamine precursor. Glu-187 hydrogen bonds the C2 hydroxyl of the inhibitor in the enzyme complex substantiating a proton transfer role by Glu-187 in catalyzing the conversion of the carbinolamine intermediate to Schiff base. Modeling of the acyclic substrate configuration into the active site shows Glu-187, in acid form, hydrogen bonding both substrate C2 carbonyl and C4 hydroxyl, thereby aligning the substrate ketose for nucleophilic attack by Lys-229. The multi-functional role by Glu-187 epitomizes a canonical mechanistic feature conserved in Schiff base forming aldolases catalyzing carbohydrate metabolism. Trapping of tagatose-1, 6-bis(phosphate), a diastereoisomer of fructose-1, 6-bis(phosphate), displayed stereospecific discrimination and reduced ketohexose binding specificity. Each ligand induces homologous conformational changes in two adjacent a-helical regions that promote phosphate binding in the active site.

  6. Mechanisms in Knockout Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bazin, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Lee, J.; McDaniel, S.; Rogers, A. M.; Tsang, M. B.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Souza, R. T. de; Hudan, S.; Famiano, M. A.; Gade, A.; Lynch, W. G.; Lukyanov, S.; Mocko, M.; Wallace, M. S.; Obertelli, A.; Terry, J. R.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2009-06-12

    We report the first detailed study of the relative importance of the stripping and diffraction mechanisms involved in nucleon knockout reactions, by the use of a coincidence measurement of the residue and fast proton following one-proton knockout reactions. The measurements used the S800 spectrograph in combination with the HiRA detector array at the NSCL. Results for the reactions {sup 9}Be({sup 9}C,{sup 8}B+X)Y and {sup 9}Be({sup 8}B,{sup 7}Be+X)Y are presented and compared with theoretical predictions for the two reaction mechanisms calculated using the eikonal model. The data show a clear distinction between the stripping and diffraction mechanisms and the measured relative proportions are very well reproduced by the reaction theory. This agreement adds support to the results of knockout reaction analyses and their applications to the spectroscopy of rare isotopes.

  7. The Biginelli Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Michael S.; Crouch, R. David

    2001-08-01

    The utilization of the Biginelli reaction, a one-pot condensation of an aldehyde, a b-keto ester, and urea, is described. This reaction involves a number of individual steps, each of which is accessible to first-year organic students. The product, a 3,4-dihydropyrimidinone, is a member of a medicinally useful class of compounds. The reaction is simple to perform and the product precipitates from solution in an extremely pure form.

  8. Radical reactions of borohydrides.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Takuji; Ryu, Ilhyong

    2014-12-28

    Borohydrides are an important class of reagents in both organic and inorganic chemistry. Though popular as hydride-transfer reagents for reduction, since earlier work from the 1970s, borohydride reagents have also been known to serve as hydrogen-transfer reagents. In pursuit of greener tin hydride substitutes, recent progress has been made to mediate radical C-C bond forming reactions, including Giese reactions, radical carbonylation and addition to HCHO reactions, with borohydride reagents. This review article focuses on state-of-the-art borohydride based radical reactions, also covering earlier work, kinetics and some DFT calculations with respect to the hydrogen transfer mechanism. PMID:25349957

  9. Tissue Reaction and Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Melsen, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Tissue reaction to orthodontic force has been a subject of research with the purpose of providing the orthodontists with information necessary for the application of a force system that can generate a maximum of tooth movement and modeling of the alveolar process with a minimum of damage. Traditionally, the studies of bone biological reactions have been distinguishable from those performed by bone biologists. This has led to a controversy regarding both the terminology and perception of the reaction to mechanical perturbation. The present chapter, with its basis in bone biology, surveys the attempts by orthodontists to optimize the tissue reaction and shorten treatment time. PMID:26599116

  10. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Beeman, Barton V.; Benett, William J.; Hadley, Dean R.; Landre, Phoebe; Lehew, Stacy L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  11. Reactions to tetanus toxoid*

    PubMed Central

    White, W. G.; Barnes, G. M.; Barker, E.; Gall, D.; Knight, P.; Griffith, A. H.; Morris-Owen, R. M.; Smith, J. W. G.

    1973-01-01

    In a factory population the occurrence of reactions to tetanus toxoid was recorded after 6740 injections. The incidence of general reactions was 0·3% and of local reactions 2·6%. The local reaction rate to the first injection of the basic immunization course was 0·9%, to the second injection 2·7%, and to the third injection 7·4%. To booster injections the rate was 1·6%. The local reaction rate was appreciably higher in women than in men — 14·4% and 5·7% respectively in the case of the third injection — and the incidence among women increased with age. Tetanus vaccine containing 10 Lf of toxoid caused fewer reactions than one containing 20 Lf, but a reduction in the content of aluminium adjuvant did not affect the reaction rate. Almost all reactors were found to have a satisfactory serum antitoxin concentration at the time of the reaction or developed a satisfactory immunity within 1-6 months. Skin tests were made in 32 hypersensitive patients. Neither the diluent, thiomersal preservative, nor the culture medium appeared to be responsible for hypersensitivity. The degree of hypersensitivity elicited by a special highly purified toxoid was only very slightly less than that elicited by the commercially pure toxoid. It is suggested that reactions are largely due to the toxoid antigen itself rather than to impurities or other components of the vaccine. PMID:4515879

  12. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  13. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it

  14. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePlus

    Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ... leave the person alone and watch carefully for reactions affecting the entire body. Note: If a chemical gets into the eyes, the eyes should be ...

  15. Oscillating Reactions: Two Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina I.; Šoptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2007-01-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions are truly spectacular phenomena, and demonstrations are always appreciated by the class. However, explaining such reactions to high school or first-year university students is problematic, because it may seem that no acceptable explanation is possible unless the students have profound knowledge of both physical…

  16. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  17. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Clock Reaction: Outreach Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Yuen-ying; Phillips, Heather A.; Jakubinek, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry students are often introduced to the concept of reaction rates through demonstrations or laboratory activities involving the well-known iodine clock reaction. For example, a laboratory experiment involving thiosulfate as an iodine scavenger is part of the first-year general chemistry laboratory curriculum at Dalhousie University. With

  19. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-04-17

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described.

  20. Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…

  1. REUSABLE REACTION VESSEL

    DOEpatents

    Soine, T.S.

    1963-02-26

    This patent shows a reusable reaction vessel for such high temperature reactions as the reduction of actinide metal chlorides by calcium metal. The vessel consists of an outer metal shell, an inner container of refractory material such as sintered magnesia, and between these, a bed of loose refractory material impregnated with thermally conductive inorganic salts. (AEC)

  2. Clock Reaction: Outreach Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Yuen-ying; Phillips, Heather A.; Jakubinek, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry students are often introduced to the concept of reaction rates through demonstrations or laboratory activities involving the well-known iodine clock reaction. For example, a laboratory experiment involving thiosulfate as an iodine scavenger is part of the first-year general chemistry laboratory curriculum at Dalhousie University. With…

  3. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  4. Thermal decomposition of specifically phosphorylated D-glucoses and their role in the control of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Yaylayan, Varoujan A; Machiels, David; Istasse, Louis

    2003-05-21

    One of the main shortcomings of the information available on the Maillard reaction is the lack of knowledge to control the different pathways, especially when it is desired to direct the reaction away from the formation of carcinogenic and other toxic substances to more aroma and color generation. The use of specifically phosphorylated sugars may impart some elements of control over the aroma profile generated by the Maillard reaction. Thermal decomposition of 1- and 6-phosphorylated glucoses was studied in the presence and absence of ammonia and selected amino acids through pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using nonpolar PLOT and medium polar DB-1 columns. The analysis of the data has indicated that glucose-1-phosphate relative to glucose undergoes more extensive phosphate-catalyzed ring opening followed by formation of sugar-derived reactive intermediates as was indicated by a 9-fold increase in the amount of trimethylpyrazine and a 5-fold increase in the amount of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, when pyrolyzed in the presence of glycine. In addition, glucose-1-phosphate alone generated a 6-fold excess of acetol as compared to glucose. On the other hand, glucose-6-phosphate enhanced retro-aldol reactions initiated from a C-6 hydroxyl group and increased the subsequent formation of furfural and 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione. Furthermore, it also stabilized 1- and 3-deoxyglucosone intermediates and enhanced the formation of six carbon atom-containing Maillard products derived directly from them through elimination reactions such as 1,6-dimethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (acetylformoin), 2-acetylpyrrole, 5-methylfurfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), due to the enhanced leaving group ability of the phosphate moiety at the C-6 carbon. However, Maillard products generated through the nucleophilic action of the C-6 hydroxyl group such as 2-acetylfuran and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one were retarded, due to the blocked nucleophilic atom at C-6. PMID:12744667

  5. Enhancing chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  6. Reactions of oriented molecules.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P R

    1976-07-01

    Beams of oriented molecules have been used to directly study geometrical requirements in chemical reactions. These studies have shown that reactivity is much greater in some orientations than others and demonstrated the existence of steric effects. For some reactions portions of the orientation results are in good accord with traditional views of steric hindrance, but for others it is clear that our chemical intuition needs recalibrating. Indeed, the information gained from simultaneously orienting the reactants and observing the scattering angle of the products may lead to new insights about the detailed mechanism of certain reactions. Further work must be done to extend the scope and detail of the studies described here. More detailed information is needed on the CH(3)I reaction and the CF(3)I reaction. The effects of alkyl groups of various sizes and alkali metals of various sizes are of interest. In addition, reactions where a long-lived complex is formed should be studied to see if orientation is important. Finally, it would be of interest to apply the technique to the sort of reactions that led to our interest in the first place: the S(N)2 displacements in alkyl halides where the fascinating Walden inversion occurs. PMID:17793988

  7. One-Pot Synthesis of β,β-Disubstituted α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Masaharu; Ashikari, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    TiCl4-promoted aldol reaction of ketones as aldol acceptors followed by elimination of the titanoxy group from the Ti-aldolates affords β,β-disubstituted α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in a one-pot procedure. The use of additives, such as DMF, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, and pyridine, in the elimination step was found to be important. PMID:26284292

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1963-09-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described for breeding fissionable material, including a heat-exchange tank, a high- and a low-pressure chamber therein, heat- exchange tubes connecting these chambers, a solution of U/sup 233/ in heavy water in a reaction container within the tank, a slurry of thorium dioxide in heavy water in a second container surrounding the first container, an inlet conduit including a pump connecting the low pressure chamber to the reaction container, an outlet conduit connecting the high pressure chamber to the reaction container, and means of removing gaseous fission products released in both chambers. (AEC)

  9. Highly efficient synthesis of HIV NNRTI doravirine.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Donald R; Sherry, Benjamin D; Cao, Yang; Journet, Michel; Humphrey, Guy; Itoh, Tetsuji; Mangion, Ian; Tschaen, David M

    2015-03-20

    The development of an efficient and robust process for the production of HIV NNRTI doravirine is described. The synthesis features a continuous aldol reaction as part of a de novo synthesis of the key pyridone fragment. Conditions for the continuous flow aldol reaction were derived using microbatch snapshots of the flow process. PMID:25751537

  10. Total Synthesis of a Diacetonide Derivative of Thuggacin A.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Dutta, Palash

    2016-03-01

    A highly stereoselective total synthesis of the diacetonide derivative of the antibiotic thuggacin A has been described. The synthesis features the stereoselective Stille cross-coupling reaction to set up the whole carbon framework, aldol condensation to construct the highly substituted conjugated diene, non-Evans syn aldol, CBS reduction, Hantzsch's thiazole synthesis, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction, and Shiina's macrolactonization. PMID:26856208

  11. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  12. Untoward penicillin reactions

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, T.; Idsöe, O.; Willcox, R. R.

    1958-01-01

    The literature on untoward reactions following the administration of penicillin is reviewed. These reactions, including a certain number of deaths which have been reported, are of particular interest to health administrations and to WHO in view of the large-scale programmes for controlling the treponematoses which are now under way—programmes affecting millions of people in many parts of the world. The most serious problems are anaphylactic sensitivity phenomena and superinfection or cross-infection with penicillin-resistant organisms, and the reactions involved range in intensity from the mildest to the fatal; the incidence of the latter is estimated at 0.1-0.3 per million injections. The authors point out that with increasing use of penicillin, more persons are likely to become sensitized and the number of reactions can therefore be expected to rise. The best prevention against such an increase is the restriction of the unnecessary use of penicillin. PMID:13596877

  13. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  14. Common Reactions After Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » Common Reactions After Trauma PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... bottom of the page. Share this page Search PTSD Site Choose Section Enter Term and Search Advanced ...

  15. Chemisorption And Precipitation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transport and bioavailability of chemical components within soils is, in part, controlled by partitioning between solids and solution. General terms used to describe these partitioning reactions include chemisorption and precipitation. Chemisorption is inclusive of the suit...

  16. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  17. An Illuminating Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of carbide lights as an excellent mechanism for introducing or reviewing many basic chemistry concepts including elements and compounds, endothermic and exothermic reactions, physical and chemical changes, and balancing chemical equations. (JRH)

  18. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  19. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Reactions From Cosmetics More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  20. Jets in hadronic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental data on the properties of jets in hadronic reactions are reviewed and compared with theoretical expectations. Jets are clearly established as the dominant process for high E/sub T/ events in hadronic reactions. The cross section and the other properties of these events are in qualitative and even semiquantitative agreement with expectations based on perturbative QCD. However, we can not yet make precise tests of QCD, primarily because there are substantial uncertainties in the theoretical calculations. 45 references. (WHK)

  1. Hypersensitivity reactions from taxol.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R B; Donehower, R C; Wiernik, P H; Ohnuma, T; Gralla, R J; Trump, D L; Baker, J R; Van Echo, D A; Von Hoff, D D; Leyland-Jones, B

    1990-07-01

    Taxol is an antitumor agent in clinical trial that has been shown to have activity against advanced ovarian carcinoma and melanoma. Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) have been one of the toxicities observed with administration of this drug. Of 301 patients treated, 32 patients have had definite (27 patients) or possible (five patients) hypersensitivity reactions to taxol. All but one patient had the reaction from the first or second exposure to this agent. Reactions occurred at a variety of doses and were characterized most frequently by dyspnea, hypotension, bronchospasm, urticaria, and erythematous rashes. Thirteen (41%) patients had received premedication designed to prevent such toxicity; nevertheless, they sustained HSRs. Prolonging the drug infusion appears to have somewhat reduced, but not obviated, the risk of HSRs. The cause (taxol itself or its excipient Cremophor EL; Badische Anilin und Soda-Fabrik AG [BASF], Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany) and the mechanism of these reactions to taxol are unknown. We provide guidelines to prevent or minimize such toxicity and treat reactions if they still occur. PMID:1972736

  2. The black reaction.

    PubMed

    Pannese, E

    1996-01-01

    Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) invented the black reaction in 1873, when he was head physician at the hospice for old people in Abbiategrasso, near Milan. Unlike the procedures that were available before its invention, the black reaction was able to reveal neurons in their entirety, i.e., with all their processes. This weighty event at first passed unnoticed. The first stirring of interest in the black reaction outside Italy began in 1885. The reasons the Golgi technique took so long to receive wide international attention are here analyzed. After it became known, the black reaction was widely employed for almost 30 years, during which time it was responsible for bringing about major advances in our knowledge of the microscopic anatomy of the nervous system, as well as in other fields of study. A number of results obtained by other researchers with the black reaction were vitally important for establishing the neuron theory. In the period between the two World Wars, the Golgi technique was almost forgotten, but returned in vogue once more around the middle of the 20th century following the introduction of the electron microscope to neurocytological research. One-hundred and twenty years after its invention, the black reaction is still widely employed, not only in combination with electron microscopy, but also as an autonomous technique for light microscope studies on the organization of the nervous system in normal conditions and after experimental manipulations. PMID:8973838

  3. Rhodium-catalyzed [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO: reaction design, development, application in natural product synthesis, and inspiration for developing new reactions for synthesis of eight-membered carbocycles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-08-18

    Practical syntheses of natural products and their analogues with eight-membered carbocyclic skeletons are important for medicinal and biological investigations. However, methods and strategies to construct the eight-membered carbocycles are limited. Therefore, developing new methods to synthesize the eight-membered carbocycles is highly desired. In this Account, we describe our development of three rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions for the construction of the eight-membered carbocycles, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of medium-sized ring systems. The first reaction described in this Account is our computationally designed rhodium-catalyzed two-component [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes (ene-VCPs) and CO for the diastereoselective construction of bi- and tricyclic cyclooctenones. The design of this reaction is based on the hypothesis that the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination of the eight-membered rhodacycle intermediate generated from the rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropane cleavage and alkene insertion, giving Wender's [5 + 2] cycloadduct, is not easy. Under CO atmosphere, CO insertion may occur rapidly, converting the eight-membered rhodacycle into a nine-membered rhodacycle, which then undergoes an easy C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination process and furnishes the [5 + 2 + 1] product. This hypothesis was supported by our preliminary DFT studies and also served as inspiration for the development of two [7 + 1] cycloadditions: the [7 + 1] cycloaddition of buta-1,3-dienylcyclopropanes (BDCPs) and CO for the construction of cyclooctadienones, and the benzo/[7 + 1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to synthesize the benzocyclooctenones. The efficiency of these rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions can be revealed by the application in natural product synthesis. Two eight-membered ring-containing natural products, (±)-asterisca-3(15),6-diene and (+)-asteriscanolide, have been synthesized using the [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition as the key step. In the latter case, excellent asymmetric induction was obtained using a chiral substrate. The efficiency of the [5 + 2 + 1] reaction was further demonstrated by the synthesis of four sesquiterpene natural products, (±)-pentalenene, (+)-hirsutene, (±)-1-desoxyhypnophilin, and (±)-hirsutic acid C, containing linear or branched triquinane skeletons utilizing the tandem or stepwise [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition/aldol reaction strategy. With the success of [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition in natural product synthesis, application of the [7 + 1] and benzo/[7 + 1] cycloadditions in target- and function-oriented syntheses can be envisioned. PMID:26227886

  4. Uptake and Reactions of Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Propanal and Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid solutions at 200-240 K: Implications for upper tropospheric aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Williams, M. B.; Axson, J.; Michelsen, R.

    2007-12-01

    The production of light absorbing, organic material in aerosol that is normally considered to be transparent in the UV and visible wavelength regions has significant implications for biogeochemical cycling and climate modelling. Production mechanisms likely involve carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and propanal that are present in significant quantities in the upper troposphere (UT). In this study, we have performed experiments focusing on a class of acid catalyzed carbonyl reactions, the formation of acetals. R2C=O + 2R'OH --> R2C(OR')2 + H2O Using a Knudsen cell apparatus, we have measured the rate of uptake of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, and ethanol into sulfuric acid solutions ranging between 40-70 wt% of acid, containing 0-0.1 M of ethanol, acetone or formaldehyde at temperatures of 220-250 K. For all reactant pairs, the aldol condensation path, including self reaction, should be insignificant at the acidities studied. Evidence for reaction between organics was observed for all pairs, except those involving propanal which were likely limited by the very low solubility. We attribute enhanced uptake to the formation of acetals, such as 1,1-diethoxyethane and 2,2- diethoxypropane, among others. Enhanced uptake was observed to proceed on timescales > 1 hour and sometimes shows complex dependence on acidity that is likely related to speciation of the individual carbonyls in acidic solution. The acetal products do not absorb in the visible but are less volatile than parent molecules, allowing for accumulation in sulfuric acid particles, and enhanced uptake. Cross reactions of carbonyls with alcohols in sulfuric acid medium have not been previously measured, yet methanol and ethanol show high solubility and are present at significant concentrations in the UT. Thus even at slow reaction rates, the acetal reaction has ample starting material and proceeds under conditions common to the UT. We will present results for the enhanced uptake of carbonyls in the presence of alcohols, derive rate constants, and discuss the atmospheric impact of the acetal reaction path.

  5. [Reactional status of leprosy].

    PubMed

    Alonso, A M

    1975-01-01

    Reactional leprosy is studied according to its clinical forms A) Lepromatous a) Acute lepromatization: encroaching and invasive nature; the patient becomes more and more lepromatous ; bad prognosis. b) Erythema nodosum: "contusiform dermatitis"; variable prognosis not so bad as it is in the preceding case; allergic nature and its evolution is usually detained and therapeutics efficient. c) Erythema multiform. d) Lucio's phenomenon: vascular lesions and consequently necrosis as a complication of the "erythema necrotisans" (beautiful leprosy). B) Tuberculoid Reactional tuberculoid is the only one in this benign type, the Mitsuda's test must always be positive and prognosis consequently good. C) Dimorphous or "Borderline" whose Mitsuda's test is mostly negative, sometimes positive, but not stable. The lesions may stimulate the tuberculoid leprids but they invade mucous membranes, are impregnated by pigmentation, may present the Unna's band, and other characteristics of the Lepromatous type. Are associated (fever, asthenia and emaciation). Prognosis not very good, because of the possibility of lepromatization, according to its tendency. Evolution slower and frequent relapses. Besides there are nodular lesions. Pathogeny 1) Perifocal allergic reaction (Jadassohn). Similar to epituberculosis and Herxheimer reaction. 2) Septicemia. Sensitized tissues inside or outside the lesions, are invaded by the bacilli and so the allergic reaction takes place. Even without culture resources, Mycobacterium leprae has been found in the blood by direct examination. 3) Autoimmunization (Waldenstrom, Matthews and Trantman, 1965). Based upon the similarity between both humoral syndromes, in leprosy reactions and collagenous, diseases, as to: hypergammaglobulins, hypercryoproteins, antigammaglobulins, serological reactions (Wassermann, Kahn, Kline, VDRL) positives, Antistreptolysin O, protein C reactive, antinuclear factors, latex and Wadler-Rose test positives (rheumatoid tests) lowering of complement. If leprosy reaction is like this, it should be the less agressive of the autoimmune diseases. a) Its eruptions are cyclic not of long standing duration, as a general rule. b) Its prognosis has been recognized as good, except lately, because of the use of corticoid therapy which has been fatal, in many cases. After some years the leprosy reaction cures spontaneously. Treatment (see article) PMID:1241072

  6. Reaction/Momentum Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    CTA Space Systems, Inc. has been licensed to sell commercially a reaction/momentum wheel originally developed for NASA's scientific satellites. NASA originally identified a need for the wheel in its Small Explorer program. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite required extremely low jitter and a reaction/momentum wheel with a torque greater than any comparably sized commercially available wheel to keep the instrument pointed at celestial objects to a high degree of precision. After development, a market assessment by Research Triangle Institute was completed, showing commercial potential for the flywheel technology. A license was granted to CTA in the fall of 1996. The company currently uses the technology in its complete spacecraft fabrication services and has built over 10 reaction/momentum wheels for commercial, scientific, and military customers.

  7. Cutaneous reactions to vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adena E; Stein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations are important for infectious disease prevention; however, there are adverse effects of vaccines, many of which are cutaneous. Some of these reactions are due to nonspecific inflammation and irritation at the injection site, whereas other reactions are directly related to the live attenuated virus. Rarely, vaccinations have been associated with generalized hypersensitivity reactions, such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. The onset of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions, such as lichen planus, granuloma annulare, and pemphigoid, were reported to occur shortly after vaccine administration. Allergic contact dermatitis can develop at the injection site, typically due to adjuvant ingredients in the vaccine, such as thimerosal and aluminum. Vaccinations are important to promote development of both individual and herd immunity. Although most vaccinations are considered relatively safe, there may be adverse effects associated with any vaccine. Cutaneous manifestations make up a large portion of the types of reactions associated with vaccines. There are many different reasons for the development of a cutaneous reaction to a vaccination. Some are directly related to the injection of a live attenuated virus, such as varicella or vaccinia (for immunity to smallpox), whereas others cause more nonspecific erythema and swelling at the injection site, as a result of local inflammation or irritation. Vaccinations have also been associated in rare reports with generalized hypersensitivity reactions, such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. There have been case reports associating the administration of a vaccine with the new onset of a dermatologic condition, such as lichen planus, granuloma annulare, and Sweet syndrome. Finally, allergic contact dermatitis can develop at the injection site, typically due to adjuvant ingredients in the vaccine, such as thimerosal and aluminum. PMID:25889134

  8. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  9. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  10. Adverse reaction to pseudoephedrine.

    PubMed

    Rochina, A; Burchés, E; Morales, C; Brasó, J V; Pelaéz, A

    1995-01-01

    A patient developed a scarlatina-like rash on two separate occasions after receiving a dose of pseudoephedrine. Patch tests with this substance and other structurally related substances (i.e. ephedrine, phenylephrine, and epinephrine) were negative. The oral test with pseudoephedrine provoked a new episode. It is difficult to clarify the exact mechanism of the described reaction; the nature of this eruption probably resembles many other drug-induced adverse reactions in which there is no certainty if mechanisms of type I or III are involved. PMID:8705016

  11. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  12. Exocharmic Reactions up Close

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramette, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    The exocharmic reactions that can be observed microscopically are discussed. The students can discover the optimal concentration of an acidic lead nitrate solution, so that a crystal of potassium iodide, nudged to the edge of a drop, results in glinting golden hexagons of lead iodide.

  13. Reaction Formulation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Reaction formation was studied by Sigmund Freud. This defense mechanism may be related to repression, substitution, reversal, and compensation (or over-compensation). Alfred Adler considered compensation a basic process in his individual psychology. Anna Freud discussed some defense mechanisms, and Bibring, Dwyer, Huntington, and Valenstein…

  14. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Henderson and Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-04-14

    Chemical reactions at surfaces underlie some of the most important processes of today, including catalysis, energy conversion, microelectronics, human health and the environment. Understanding surface chemical reactions at a fundamental level is at the core of the field of surface science. The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is one of the premiere meetings in the field. The program this year will cover a broad range of topics, including heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry, surfaces in environmental chemistry and energy conversion, reactions at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interface, electronic materials growth and surface modification, biological interfaces, and electrons and photons at surfaces. An exciting program is planned, with contributions from outstanding speakers and discussion leaders from the international scientific community. The conference provides a dynamic environment with ample time for discussion and interaction. Attendees are encouraged to present posters; the poster sessions are historically well attended and stimulate additional discussions. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for junior researchers (e.g. graduate students or postdocs) to present their work and interact with established leaders in the field.

  15. A Principal's Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaretsky, Lindy

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a principal's reaction to Catherine Marshall and Michael Ward's article on research on social justice and training for leadership. The author applauds Marshall and Ward's efforts to address what is undoubtedly among the most fundamentally important issues facing principals today. Marshall and Ward illuminate the importance of…

  16. A Superintendent's Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, James H.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a superintendent's reaction to Catherine Marshall and Michael Ward's article on research on social justice and training for leadership. The author states that there is a problem with Marshall and Ward's article which begins with the title, particularly with the word "training." The author contends that there is a significant…

  17. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  18. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  19. A Principal's Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaretsky, Lindy

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a principal's reaction to Catherine Marshall and Michael Ward's article on research on social justice and training for leadership. The author applauds Marshall and Ward's efforts to address what is undoubtedly among the most fundamentally important issues facing principals today. Marshall and Ward illuminate the importance of

  20. Introducing the Wittig Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstead, D. E. F.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described which provides a simple example of the application of the Wittig reaction to the synthesis of unsaturated compounds. The experiment was designed with British HNC chemistry students in mind, but it is also suitable as a project-type exercise for final year GCE A-level students. (Author/BB)

  1. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  2. Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. C. W.; Zisook, S.

    1981-01-01

    1 The overall incidence of paradoxical responses to the benzodiazepines is extremely small, but a few controlled studies have been carried out which define the population at risk. 2 Such reactions tend to be idiosyncratic except possibly in patients with pre-rage personality, and do not seem to be associated with any predictable clinical indications. PMID:6133541

  3. The aromatic ene reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Dawen; Hoye, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The ene reaction is a pericyclic process in which an alkene with an allylic hydrogen atom (the ene donor) reacts with a second unsaturated species (the enophile) to form a new product with a transposed π-bond. The aromatic ene reaction, in which the alkene component is embedded in an aromatic ring, has only been reported in a few (four) instances and has proceeded in low yield (≤6%). Here, we show efficient aromatic ene reactions in which a thermally generated aryne intermediate engages a pendant m-alkylarene substituent to produce a dearomatized isotoluene, itself another versatile but rare reactive intermediate. Our experiments were guided by computational studies that revealed structural features conducive to the aromatic ene process. We proceeded to identify a cascade comprising three reactions: (1) hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (for aryne generation), (2) intramolecular aromatic ene and (3) bimolecular Alder ene. The power of this cascade is evident from the structural complexity of the final products, the considerable scope, and the overall efficiency of these multistage, reagent- and by-product-free, single-pot transformations.

  4. Elucidation of Mechanisms and Selectivities of Metal-Catalyzed Reactions using Quantum Chemical Methodology.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Stefano; Kalek, Marcin; Huang, Genping; Himo, Fahmi

    2016-05-17

    Quantum chemical techniques today are indispensable for the detailed mechanistic understanding of catalytic reactions. The development of modern density functional theory approaches combined with the enormous growth in computer power have made it possible to treat quite large systems at a reasonable level of accuracy. Accordingly, quantum chemistry has been applied extensively to a wide variety of catalytic systems. A huge number of problems have been solved successfully, and vast amounts of chemical insights have been gained. In this Account, we summarize some of our recent work in this field. A number of examples concerned with transition metal-catalyzed reactions are selected, with emphasis on reactions with various kinds of selectivities. The discussed cases are (1) copper-catalyzed C-H bond amidation of indoles, (2) iridium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H borylation of chlorosilanes, (3) vanadium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangement and its combination with aldol- and Mannich-type additions, (4) palladium-catalyzed propargylic substitution with phosphorus nucleophiles, (5) rhodium-catalyzed 1:2 coupling of aldehydes and allenes, and finally (6) copper-catalyzed coupling of nitrones and alkynes to produce β-lactams (Kinugasa reaction). First, the methodology adopted in these studies is presented briefly. The electronic structure method in the great majority of these kinds of mechanistic investigations has for the last two decades been based on density functional theory. In the cases discussed here, mainly the B3LYP functional has been employed in conjunction with Grimme's empirical dispersion correction, which has been shown to improve the calculated energies significantly. The effect of the surrounding solvent is described by implicit solvation techniques, and the thermochemical corrections are included using the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. The reviewed examples are chosen to illustrate the usefulness and versatility of the adopted methodology in solving complex problems and proposing new detailed reaction mechanisms that rationalize the experimental findings. For each of the considered reactions, a consistent mechanism is presented, the experimentally observed selectivities are reproduced, and their sources are identified. Reproducing selectivities requires high accuracy in computing relative transition state energies. As demonstrated by the results summarized in this Account, this accuracy is possible with the use of the presented methodology, benefiting of course from a large extent of cancellation of systematic errors. It is argued that as the employed models become larger, the number of rotamers and isomers that have to be considered for every stationary point increases and a careful assessment of their energies is therefore necessary in order to ensure that the lowest energy conformation is located. This issue constitutes a bottleneck of the investigation in some cases and is particularly important when analyzing selectivities, since small energy differences need to be reproduced. PMID:27082700

  5. Photoneutron reactions in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Varlamov, V. V. Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.; Stopani, K. A.

    2014-12-15

    Among key problems in nuclear astrophysics, that of obtaining deeper insight into the mechanism of synthesis of chemical elements is of paramount importance. The majority of heavy elements existing in nature are produced in stars via radiative neutron capture in so-called s- and r processes, which are, respectively, slow and fast, in relation to competing β{sup −}-decay processes. At the same time, we know 35 neutron-deficient so-called bypassed p-nuclei that lie between {sup 74}Se and {sup 196}Hg and which cannot originate from the aforementioned s- and r-processes. Their production is possible in (γ, n), (γ, p), or (γ, α) photonuclear reactions. In view of this, data on photoneutron reactions play an important role in predicting and describing processes leading to the production of p-nuclei. Interest in determining cross sections for photoneutron reactions in the threshold energy region, which is of particular importance for astrophysics, has grown substantially in recent years. The use of modern sources of quasimonoenergetic photons obtained in processes of inverse Compton laser-radiation scattering on relativistic electronsmakes it possible to reveal rather interesting special features of respective cross sections, manifestations of pygmy E1 and M1 resonances, or the production of nuclei in isomeric states, on one hand, and to revisit the problem of systematic discrepancies between data on reaction cross sections from experiments of different types, on the other hand. Data obtained on the basis of our new experimental-theoretical approach to evaluating cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions are invoked in considering these problems.

  6. Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, D. O.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a collection of data on the mechanistic aspects of inorganic chemical reactions. Wherever possible includes procedures for classroom demonstration or student project work. The material covered includes gas phase reactions, reactions in solution, mechanisms of electron transfer, the reaction between iron III and iodine, and hydrolysis. (GS)

  7. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  8. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  9. Concordant Chemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shinar, Guy; Feinberg, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We describe a large class of chemical reaction networks, those endowed with a subtle structural property called concordance. We show that the class of concordant networks coincides precisely with the class of networks which, when taken with any weakly monotonic kinetics, invariably give rise to kinetic systems that are injective — a quality that, among other things, precludes the possibility of switch-like transitions between distinct positive steady states. We also provide persistence characteristics of concordant networks, instability implications of discordance, and consequences of stronger variants of concordance. Some of our results are in the spirit of recent ones by Banaji and Craciun, but here we do not require that every species suffer a degradation reaction. This is especially important in studying biochemical networks, for which it is rare to have all species degrade. PMID:22659063

  10. Polymerase chain displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire L; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma J; Olson, Ken E; Alphey, Luke; Fu, Guoliang

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative PCR assays are now the standard method for viral diagnostics. These assays must be specific, as well as sensitive, to detect the potentially low starting copy number of viral genomic material. We describe a new technique, polymerase chain displacement reaction (PCDR), which uses multiple nested primers in a rapid, capped, one-tube reaction that increases the sensitivity of normal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Sensitivity was increased by approximately 10-fold in a proof-of-principle test on dengue virus sequence. In PCDR, when extension occurs from the outer primer, it displaces the extension strand produced from the inner primer by utilizing a polymerase that has strand displacement activity. This allows a greater than 2-fold increase of amplification product for each amplification cycle and therefore increased sensitivity and speed over conventional PCR. Increased sensitivity in PCDR would be useful in nucleic acid detection for viral diagnostics. PMID:23384180

  11. On Reaction Coordinate Optimality.

    PubMed

    Krivov, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    The following question is addressed: how to establish that a constructed reaction coordinate is optimal, i.e., that it provides an accurate description of dynamics. It is shown that the reaction coordinate is optimal if its cut free energy profile, determined using length-weighted transitions, is constant, i.e., it is position and sampling interval independent. The observation leads to a number of interesting results. In particular, the equilibrium flux between two boundary states can be computed exactly as diffusion on a free energy profile associated with the coordinate. The mean square displacement, for the trajectory projected onto the coordinate, grows linear with time. That for the same trajectory projected onto a suboptimal coordinate grows slower than linear with time. The results are illustrated on a number of model systems, Sierpinski gasket, FIP35 protein, and beta3s peptide. PMID:26589017

  12. Implant site Nexplanon reaction?

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Célia; Martins, Isabel; Palma, Fátima; Machado, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Nexplanon (Schering-Plough Limited/Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited (MSD)) is a long active reversible contraceptive method that provides effective contraception for 3 years. It consists of a single, flexible, rod-shaped implant, containing 68 mg etonogestrel. It is 4 cm long, consists of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, a non-absorbable material, and also contains 15 mg of barium sulfate, which makes it visible by X-ray. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who experienced a local reaction to the barium sulfate in Nexplanon. She was given medical treatment, but only the removal of the implant resolved the symptoms. After removal there was gradual improvement and 72 h later the patient was asymptomatic. Allergic reaction to barium sulfate is extremely rare: until now, there have only been two cases associated with Nexplanon described in the literature. PMID:25953577

  13. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Loke, Yoon K

    2012-06-01

    Our ability to understand fully the characteristics of clinically important adverse drug reactions is hindered by a lack of emphasis on biological mechanisms, patient susceptibility factors and long-term outcomes. Assessment of drug safety needs to move beyond industry and regulatory perspectives, towards a greater focus on evidence-based preventive and management strategies that will allow patients and physicians to deal with adverse drug reactions at the bedside. This would ideally involve close collaboration between clinical pharmacologists and pharmacoepidemiologists skilled at interrogating the increasingly sophisticated electronic healthcare databases. In light of the myriad safety scares that are constantly emerging, patients and physicians would be best served by a centrally funded independent network of rapid-response drug safety researchers who can use techniques of teleoanalysis to describe fully the magnitude of risk, the potential biological mechanisms and patients' susceptibility factors. PMID:22360319

  14. Postmarketing adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Bourdette, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Physicians play an important role in recognizing and reporting suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Physicians can report suspected ADRs directly to the FDA via its MedWatch program, by contacting the manufacturer of the drug, and by publishing case reports. While this takes time, physicians have an ethical obligation to participate in recognizing and reporting ADR. PMID:24195018

  15. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.C.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  16. Sulfided heterogeneous, bimetallic RuMo catalysts derived from mixtures of Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} (or RuCl{sub 3}) and a molybdenum heteropolyanion. The reactions of ethanol with tetrahydroquinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Sang-Man; Ryan, D.; Laine, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    Efforts have been made to develop Ru/Mo bimetallic catalyst systems for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of tetrahydroquinoline (THQ)- In the course of these studies, it was discovered that in ethanol, under H{sub 2} and in the presence Of CS2, Precatalyst solutions containing Ru [as Ru{sub 3} (CO){sub 12} or RuCl{sub 3}] and Mo [as the H{sub 3}PMO{sub 12}0{sub 40} heteropolyanion (HPA)] decompose to form bimetallic, sulfided particles. Particle diameters run from 0.1 to 5 {mu}m depending on the rate of stirring. Catalyst particles with sizes ranging from 0.1--1 {mu}m can be prepared reproducibly. BET measured surface areas for these size particles ranged from 2 to 20 m2/g. These sulfided particles were found to catalyze, at temperatures of 200--250{degrees}C and hydrogen pressures of 200--1000 psig H{sub 2}, the N-ethylation of THQ to form NEt-THQ; rather than the formation of propylcyclohexane or propylbenzene, reaction products expected for HDN of THQ. Monometallic heterogeneous catalysts prepared from the individual precatalyst complexes, under identical conditions, show minimal activity for N-ethylation by comparison with the bimetallic catalyst. In the absence of H{sub 2}, the reaction proceeds such that THQ is converted to Q, N-EtTHQ, N-C{sub 6}H{sub 9}-THQ, and N-C{sub 6}H{sub 13}-THQ. The latter products appear to arise via acetaldehyde, formed as an intermediate by dehydrogenation of ethanol. Acetaldehyde either condenses with THQ to form N-Et-THQ, or self condenses (aldol condensation) prior to reaction with THQ thereby giving higher homolog alkylation products.

  17. Sulfided heterogeneous, bimetallic RuMo catalysts derived from mixtures of Ru sub 3 (CO) sub 12 (or RuCl sub 3 ) and a molybdenum heteropolyanion. The reactions of ethanol with tetrahydroquinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Sang-Man; Ryan, D.; Laine, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts have been made to develop Ru/Mo bimetallic catalyst systems for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of tetrahydroquinoline (THQ)- In the course of these studies, it was discovered that in ethanol, under H{sub 2} and in the presence Of CS2, Precatalyst solutions containing Ru (as Ru{sub 3} (CO){sub 12} or RuCl{sub 3}) and Mo (as the H{sub 3}PMO{sub 12}0{sub 40} heteropolyanion (HPA)) decompose to form bimetallic, sulfided particles. Particle diameters run from 0.1 to 5 {mu}m depending on the rate of stirring. Catalyst particles with sizes ranging from 0.1--1 {mu}m can be prepared reproducibly. BET measured surface areas for these size particles ranged from 2 to 20 m2/g. These sulfided particles were found to catalyze, at temperatures of 200--250{degrees}C and hydrogen pressures of 200--1000 psig H{sub 2}, the N-ethylation of THQ to form NEt-THQ; rather than the formation of propylcyclohexane or propylbenzene, reaction products expected for HDN of THQ. Monometallic heterogeneous catalysts prepared from the individual precatalyst complexes, under identical conditions, show minimal activity for N-ethylation by comparison with the bimetallic catalyst. In the absence of H{sub 2}, the reaction proceeds such that THQ is converted to Q, N-EtTHQ, N-C{sub 6}H{sub 9}-THQ, and N-C{sub 6}H{sub 13}-THQ. The latter products appear to arise via acetaldehyde, formed as an intermediate by dehydrogenation of ethanol. Acetaldehyde either condenses with THQ to form N-Et-THQ, or self condenses (aldol condensation) prior to reaction with THQ thereby giving higher homolog alkylation products.

  18. Chemical Reactions in DSMC

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, G. A.

    2011-05-20

    DSMC simulations of chemically reacting gas flows have generally employed procedures that convert the macroscopic chemical rate equations to reaction cross-sections at the microscopic level. They therefore depend on the availability of experimental data that has been fitted to equations of the Arrhenius form. This paper presents a physical model for dissociation and recombination reactions and a phenomenological model for exchange and chain reactions. These are based on the vibrational states of the colliding molecules and do not require any experimentally-based data. The simplicity of the models allows the corresponding rate equations to be written down and, while these are not required for the implementation of the models, they facilitate their validation. The model is applied to a typical hypersonic atmospheric entry problem and the results are compared with the corresponding results from the traditional method. It is also used to investigate both spontaneous and forced ignition as well as the structure of a deflagration wave in an oxygen-hydrogen mixture.

  19. Astrophysical Reaction Rates as a Challenge for Nuclear Reaction Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, T.

    2010-08-12

    The relevant energy ranges for stellar nuclear reactions are introduced. Low-energy compound direct reactions are discussed. Stellar modifications of the cross sections are presented. Implications for experiments are outlined.

  20. Reaction Extrema: Extent of Reaction in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandezande, Jonathon E.; Vander Griend, Douglas A.; DeKock, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago de Donder introduced the term "extent of reaction", ?. We build on that work by defining the concept of reagent extrema for an arbitrary chemical reaction, aA + bB [reversible reaction] yY + zZ. The central equation is ?^[subscript i] = -n[subscript i,0]/?[subscript i]. The symbol ?^[subscript i] represents the

  1. Reaction Extrema: Extent of Reaction in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandezande, Jonathon E.; Vander Griend, Douglas A.; DeKock, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago de Donder introduced the term "extent of reaction", ?. We build on that work by defining the concept of reagent extrema for an arbitrary chemical reaction, aA + bB [reversible reaction] yY + zZ. The central equation is ?^[subscript i] = -n[subscript i,0]/?[subscript i]. The symbol ?^[subscript i] represents the…

  2. Procedures for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H.

    2005-01-01

    A simple algorithm for a complete enumeration of the possible ways a redox reaction (RR) might be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions (HRs) using the response reactions (RERs) formalism is presented. A complete enumeration of the possible ways a RR may be decomposed into HRs is equivalent to a complete enumeration of stoichiometrically…

  3. [Food allergies and intolerance reactions].

    PubMed

    Thiel, C

    1991-09-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives are defined by its different pathomechanisms. Clinically most important are allergic (immunologic) reactions (types I and III), which occur in 7-10% of the general population, and nonimmunologic (pseudoallergic) reactions (PAR), which occur in 1-2%, besides nonallergic reactions by vasoactive amines. Clinical features are equal. Sources of antigens for allergic reactions are proteins of cow's milk, fish, hen's egg, meat, and all kinds of cereals, fruits, vegetables, and spices, while pseudoallergic reactions are induced by chemicals (preservatives, colorants, antioxidants). The diagnostic procedures of allergic reactions include the proof of sensitization by case history, skin test, specific IgE (and IgG) in-vitro, elimination diet and provocation test; pseudoallergic reactions with no underlying sensitization are diagnosed only by elimination and provocation procedures. PMID:1763553

  4. Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E.

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates the Fenton reaction, which is carried out using the Fenton reagent that is used for groundwater and soil remediation. The Fenton reaction can be implicated in DNA damage, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and ageing in general.

  5. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Medications and drug allergic reactions TTR Share | Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions This article has been reviewed by ... with the rash has an allergy to that drug? All medications have the potential to cause side effects, but ...

  6. Organic chemistry: Reactions triggered electrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Limin; Tao, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule experiments have revealed that chemical reactions can be controlled using electric fields -- and that the reaction rate is sensitive to both the direction and the strength of the applied field. See Letter p.88

  7. Hydrazine decomposition and other reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Warren E. (Inventor); La France, Donald S. (Inventor); Voge, Hervey H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the catalytic decomposition of hydrazine, catalysts useful for this decomposition and other reactions, and to reactions in hydrogen atmospheres generally using carbon-containing catalysts.

  8. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  9. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    An iodine clock reaction that gives a colorless to black result similar to that of the familiar Landolt iodate-bisulfite clock reaction is described. The vitamin C clock reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, 3% hydrogen peroxide, and laundry starch. Orange juice may be used as the vitamin C source to give an orange to black reaction.

  10. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an iodine clock reaction that produces an effect similar to the Landolt clock reaction. This reaction uses supermarket chemicals and avoids iodate, bisulfite, and mercury compounds. Ascorbic acid and tincture of iodine are the main reactants with alternate procedures provided for vitamin C tablets and orange juice. (DDR)

  11. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  12. Metamorphic solutions and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    The composition of metamorphic solutions can be estimated from mineral assemblages, provided the appropriate reaction partners are present and the necessary laboratory calibrations are available. However, ƒ H 2O buffers or indicators are not common and this represents a severe handicap, since solubilities and dissociation equilibria depend strongly on the density of the aqueous fluid, ϱ H 2O . It might be possible in the future to estimate ƒ O 2 and then measure the intrinsic hydrogen fugacity of natural assemblages. Mineral growth and dissolution can be understood only if the necessary information is available on solute speciation. Dissociation constants are available for H 2O, NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2, HCl, but little information is available on speciation in H 2OCO 2 fluids. A review of solubility data in mineral-H 2O, mineral-H 2OHCl and mineral-H 2OCO 2 systems reveals that data are available for surprisingly few minerals and this hampers our ability to predict solute concentrations and hence compositional gradients in the supercritical fluid. Quartz, albite, magnetite, Mg-silicates and calcite are used as examples. Experimental techniques for studying mineral reactions in supercritical mixtures include a variety of fugacity buffers, all based on hydrogen diffusion and two types of hydrogen sensors, one based on the AgAgCl buffer and the other on a modified Shaw bomb. Two examples of equilibrium applications are discussed. The first is concerned with properties of KClH 2O and NaClH 2O mixtures and the second with speciation in an aqueous solution in equilibrium with K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz. Chloride concentration and temperature are shown to affect dissociation equilibria and species distribution most. Metasomatism can occur either by diffusion or fluid flow or both. A sufficiently detailed theoretical framework is available to model diffusional transport, but fluid flow and hence infiltration metasomatism are still not well understood. The effect of combining convecting fluids with chemical reactions can be illustrated in processes of ore formation such as magnetite and sulfide deposits. We can best summarize the state of the art by listing a number of key areas where progress is essential for a better understanding of metamorphic fluids.

  13. Hydrocracking reactions and catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbear, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrocracking processes convert aromatic gas oils into high quality gasoline, diesel, and turbine stocks. In doing this, they saturate aromatic rings, crack naphthenes and paraffins, and saturate olefins formed during cracking. The organic chemistry of these steps is well known. Catalysts for hydrocracking contain components for both the hydrogenation and cracking reactions. Hydrogenation activity is provided by Pd or promoted molybdenum or tungsten sulfides. Cracking takes place on strong acid sites in zeolites or amorphous silica aluminas. Specialty catalysts including narrow pore zeolites are used in dewaxing tube oil stocks. Basic nitrogen compounds such as quinoline can poison the acid sites. They are usually removed in a pretreating step, typically with a nickel/molybdenum sulfide catalyst that also removes sulfur.

  14. [Pathogenesis of embolotoxic reactions].

    PubMed

    Malota, H; Jezdinský, J; Dusek, J

    1983-08-01

    Own investigations concerning the principal mechanisms of Hoigné's syndrome demonstrated that the phenomenology of embolotoxic reactions depends in certain pre-conditions on high pressure during a rapid injection with the result of penetration of the drug into the blood stream. The occurrence of the syndrome and its symptomatology depend on the size of the crystals or lipid droplets that enter the blood stream, on the solubility of the crystals in the body, on the toxicity of the components of a particular drug and on the volume of the injected drug that enters the blood vessels. For the reasons mentioned above the symptomatology of the syndrome is variable and depends on the type of medicament applied. PMID:6138905

  15. OH + HBr reaction revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankara, A.R.; Wine, P.H.; Wells, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    Variable-temperature measurements of the rate coefficient /k(1)/ for the reaction OH + HBr yield Br + H2O are presented. The measurements are verified by two techniques: one involved a 266-nm pulsed-laser photolysis of O3/H2O/HBr/He mixtures in conjunction with time-resolved resonance fluorescence detection of OH, the second comprised pulsed laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH following 248-nm pulsed-laser photolysis of H2O2/HBr/Ar mixtures. It is reported that k(1) = (11.9 + or -1.4 x 10 to the -12th (cu cm)/(molecule)(s) independent of temperature. The measurements are compared with other available results. 6 references.

  16. Accurate determinations of the extent to which the SE2' reactions of allyl-, allenyl- and propargylsilanes are stereospecifically anti.

    PubMed

    Buckle, Michael J C; Fleming, Ian; Gil, Salvador; Pang, Kah Ling Christine

    2004-03-01

    The allylsilanes, (R)-E- and (R)-Z-4-trimethylsilylpent-2-ene 16, were prepared in essentially an enantiomerically and geometrically pure state (er >99.95 : 0.05, E : Z and Z : E >99.95 : 0.05) by, successively, conjugate addition of lithium dimethylcuprate to N-[(E)-3'-trimethylsilylpropenoyl]-(7S)-10,10-dimethyl-4-aza-5-thiatricyclo[5.2.1.0(3,7)]decane 5,5-dioxide 13, to give N-[(E)-(3'R)-3'-trimethylsilylbutanoyl]-(7S)-10,10-dimethyl-4-aza-5-thiatricyclo[5.2.1.0(3,7)]decane 5,5-dioxide, removal of the chiral auxiliary with bromomagnesium benzyloxide, aldol reaction with acetaldehyde, and decarboxylative elimination, to give either the Z- or E-isomer. Both the E- and Z-allylsilanes 16 reacted with the adamantyl cation to give mixtures of E- and Z-4-adamantylpent-2-enes 17. The E-allylsilane gave the E- and Z-products in a ratio of 40 : 60, and the Z-allylsilane gave the E- and Z-products in a ratio of 99.8:0.02. The enantiomer ratio was >99:1 for the reaction of the E-allylsilane giving the Z-product, 90:10 for the E-allylsilane giving the E-product, and 95 : 5 for the Z-allylsilane giving the E-product, showing that the reactions were stereospecific to a high degree, but not always quite completely so. The allenylsilane, 2-trimethylsilylpenta-2,3-diene 29, was prepared enantiomerically highly enriched (er 99:1) by copper-catalysed reaction of methylmagnesium chloride with (S)-4-trimethylsilylbut-3-yn-2-yl camphor-10-sulfonate 28. The allenylsilane 29 reacted with the adamantyl cation to give (S)-4-adamantylpent-2-yne (S)-30 with the same level of enantiomeric purity, showing that the reaction was, as accurately as can be measured, completely stereospecific. The allenylsilane 29 also reacted with isobutanal in the presence of titanium tetrachloride to give 2,4-dimethylhept-5-yn-3-ol as a mixture of diastereoisomers, syn 31 and anti 32, in a ratio of 95:5, with the major diastereoisomer present as a mixture of enantiomers (4R,5R):(4S,5S) in a ratio of 99:1, showing that the reaction was, as accurately as can be measured, completely stereospecific in the anti sense. The corresponding propargylsilane, 4-trimethylsilylpent-2-yne 37, reacted with the adamantyl cation to give dienes assigned the structures 2,3-diadamantyl-1,3-pentadiene 42 and 2,4-diadamantyl-1,3-pentadiene 43, and reacted with isobutanal in the presence of titanium tetrachloride to give 2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-3-trimethylsilylpenta-1,3-dienes 45 and 2,4-dimethyl-5-trimethylsilylhept-5-en-3-one 46. The enantiomerically enriched propargylsilane (R)-1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)but-1-yne (er >99.7:0.3) was prepared from the sultam 13, by removal of the chiral auxiliary with lithium ethoxide, reduction of the ethyl ester to give (R)-3-trimethylsilylbutanal 60, enol triflate formation, beta-elimination and C-silylation. The propargylsilane reacted with 2,4-dinitrobenzaldehyde in the presence of titanium tetrachloride to give the allenes, 1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2-trimethylsilylpenta-2,3-dienols 63-66, as two diastereoisomers in a ratio of 2 : 1, each of which was a pair of enantiomers in a ratio of approximately 3:1, showing that there was considerable loss of stereospecificity, but that what there was was in the anti sense. A similar reaction with isobutanal gave a similar set of four allenes, 2-methyl-4-trimethylsilylhepta-4,5-dien-3-ol 73-76, but with a negligible degree of stereospecificity. PMID:14985816

  17. Communication: Resonance reaction in diffusion-influenced bimolecular reactions.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Jakob J; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2016-02-28

    We investigate the influence of a stochastically fluctuating step-barrier potential on bimolecular reaction rates by exact analytical theory and stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that the system exhibits a new "resonant reaction" behavior with rate enhancement if an appropriately defined fluctuation decay length is of the order of the system size. Importantly, we find that in the proximity of resonance, the standard reciprocal additivity law for diffusion and surface reaction rates is violated due to the dynamical coupling of multiple kinetic processes. Together, these findings may have important repercussions on the correct interpretation of various kinetic reaction problems in complex systems, as, e.g., in biomolecular association or catalysis. PMID:26931674

  18. Communication: Resonance reaction in diffusion-influenced bimolecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Jakob J.; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the influence of a stochastically fluctuating step-barrier potential on bimolecular reaction rates by exact analytical theory and stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that the system exhibits a new "resonant reaction" behavior with rate enhancement if an appropriately defined fluctuation decay length is of the order of the system size. Importantly, we find that in the proximity of resonance, the standard reciprocal additivity law for diffusion and surface reaction rates is violated due to the dynamical coupling of multiple kinetic processes. Together, these findings may have important repercussions on the correct interpretation of various kinetic reaction problems in complex systems, as, e.g., in biomolecular association or catalysis.

  19. Intermolecular reaction screening as a tool for reaction evaluation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karl D; Glorius, Frank

    2015-03-17

    Synthetic organic chemistry underpins many scientific disciplines. The development of new synthetic methods proceeds with the ultimate intention of providing access to novel structural motifs or providing safer, increasingly efficient, or more economical chemical reactions. To facilitate the identification and application of new methods in solving real synthetic problems, this Account will highlight the benefits of providing a fuller picture of both the scope and limitations of new reactions, with a primary focus on the evaluation of functional group tolerance and stability of a reaction using intermolecular screens. This Account will begin with a discussion on reaction evaluation, specifically considering the suitability of a given reaction for application in target-oriented synthesis. A comparison of desirable and essential criteria when choosing a reaction is given, and a short discussion on the value of negative and qualitative data is provided. The concept of intermolecular reaction screening will be introduced, and a direct comparison with a traditional substrate scope highlights the benefits and limitations of each and thus the complementary nature of these approaches. In recent years, a number of ad hoc applications of intermolecular screens to evaluate the functional group tolerance of a reaction or the stability of functional groups to a given set of reaction conditions have been reported, and will be discussed. More recently, we have developed a formal high-throughput intermolecular screening protocol that can be utilized to rapidly evaluate new chemical reactions. This simple and rapid protocol enables a much broader evaluation of a reaction in terms of functional group tolerance and the stability of chemical motifs to the reaction conditions than is feasible with a typical reaction scope. The development, evaluation, and application of this method within our group will be discussed in detail, with both the potential benefits and limitations highlighted and discussed. In addition, we will discuss more recent applications of intermolecular screens from both industrial and academic groups. Modifications in protocols and applications will be highlighted, including problem based evaluations, assessment of biomolecule compatibility, establishment of relative rate data, and the identification of new reactivity. Such screens have been applied in diverse chemistries including C-H functionalization reactions, frustrated Lewis-pair-catalyzed hydrogenations, heterogeneous catalysis, photoredox catalysis, enantioselective organocatalysis, and polymer science. We feel that the application of intermolecular screens to such a diversity of reactions highlights the practical simplicity of such screens. A summary of the applications and potential utility of intermolecular reaction evaluation is provided. PMID:25699585

  20. Evans-Tishchenko coupling of heteroaryl aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Philip D; Durrani, Jamie; Cases-Thomas, Manuel J; Hulme, Alison N

    2010-11-01

    The low-temperature Evans-Tishchenko coupling of a range of functionalized heteroaryl aldehydes with β-hydroxy ketones in the presence of a Sm(III) catalyst has been achieved with high yields (90-99%) and good to excellent diastereoselectivity (90:10 → 95:5 dr). However, at room temperature a retro-aldol aldol-Tishchenko reaction was found to compete with the desired Evans-Tishchenko reaction. Identification of these byproducts has allowed the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko reaction to be optimized for several heteroaryl aldehydes. PMID:20929205

  1. Characterising Complex Enzyme Reaction Data

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Thornton, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between enzyme-catalysed reactions and the Enzyme Commission (EC) number, the widely accepted classification scheme used to characterise enzyme activity, is complex and with the rapid increase in our knowledge of the reactions catalysed by enzymes needs revisiting. We present a manual and computational analysis to investigate this complexity and found that almost one-third of all known EC numbers are linked to more than one reaction in the secondary reaction databases (e.g., KEGG). Although this complexity is often resolved by defining generic, alternative and partial reactions, we have also found individual EC numbers with more than one reaction catalysing different types of bond changes. This analysis adds a new dimension to our understanding of enzyme function and might be useful for the accurate annotation of the function of enzymes and to study the changes in enzyme function during evolution. PMID:26840640

  2. Formaldehyde reactions in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Federman, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The low-pressure reactions of formaldehyde (H2CO) with D(+), D2(+), D3(+), and He(+) are studied by the ion-cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potential loss processes for formaldehyde in cores of dark interstellar clouds. The deuterated reactants represent direct analogs for protons. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels have been measured. Charge transfer is observed to be the dominant reaction of H2CO with D(+), D2(+), and He(+) ions. Only the D3(+) reaction exhibits a proton-transfer channel. All reactions proceed at rate coefficients near the collision limit. Proton-deuteron exchange reactions are found to be inefficient processes in the formaldehyde system.

  3. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  4. [Bullous drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Hertl-Yazdi, M S; Hertl, M

    2005-01-01

    Bullous drug exanthems are clinically characteristic, usually severe cutaneous and mucosal drug hypersensitivity reactions. Commonly, they appear 5-14 days after onset of drug treatment. Therapy of choice is to avoid the culprit drug and systemic administration of glucocorticoids. A key element in the immune pathogenesis of bullous drug exanthems is presumably the activation of cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes which recognize drug metabolites as nominal antigens. These compounds form spontaneously (e.g. penicillins) or are metabolized by cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes (sulfonamides). The diagnosis of bullous drug exanthems is primarily based on skin tests and in vitro-techniques. Among the skin tests, prick as well as patch tests are important. Patch tests can be also applied at the former skin lesion in fixed drug eruption. In vitro techniques include analysis of drug-specific IgE (only available for anti-penicillin, anti-sulfamethoxazole) and cellular tests with the patients' lymphocytes (lymphocyte transformation test-LTT). PMID:15625601

  5. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  6. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  7. NIF Gamma Reaction History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform γ-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting γ-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.

  8. Racemization in Prins Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Jasti, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Isotopic labeling experiments were performed in order to elucidate a new mechanism for racemization in Prins cyclization reactions. The loss in optical activity for these reactions was shown to occur by 2-oxonia-Cope rearrangements by way of a (Z)-oxocarbenium ion intermediate. Reaction conditions such as solvent, temperature, and the nucleophile employed played a critical role in whether an erosion in enantiomeric excess was observed. Additionally, certain structural features of Prins cyclization precursors were also shown to be important for preserving optical purity in these reactions. PMID:17031979

  9. Hypersensitivity reactions to biological drugs.

    PubMed

    Corominas, M; Gastaminza, G; Lobera, T

    2014-01-01

    Strictly speaking, biological drugs are defined as drugs obtained using biotechnology that act on the immune system. They encompass monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, and cytokines. Although they are restricted to specific diseases, they have been increasingly used in recent years, with the consequent reporting of adverse reactions, many of which occur during the postmarketing phase. Because of the characteristics of adverse reactions, a new classification has been proposed. Hypersensitivity reactions are beta-type reactions and include infusion reactions and injection site reactions. In some cases, an immune mechanism mediated by IgE, IgG, or T cells is involved. Clinical symptoms vary widely, from skin reactions to anaphylaxis. Diagnostic studies are based on skin tests and in vitro tests (specific IgE, basophil activation test). Most are not standardized and are conducted in small groups of patients, thus making it impossible to obtain sensitivity and specificity values. With some biological drugs, desensitization protocols have proven successful. In this review, we discuss hypersensitivity reactions to biological drugs and the diagnostic tests used to assess these reactions. PMID:25219103

  10. Microstructure Manifestations in Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    Photonuclear reaction yields were studies at the range of giant dipole resonance for medium-mass targets and the probabilities for population of different final states were deduced and analyzed. In addition to the expected statistical trends expressed in the influence of the reaction threshold and of the product spin, there are observed the microstructure manifestations due to the individual level schemes of the products. The internal status of nucleons and their single-particle orbital momentum also make influence onto the reaction yield. The effects are isolated on the scale from tens % to orders of magnitude for the probability and branching ratio in reactions at modest energy.

  11. Kinematically complete chemical reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippel, S.; Stei, M.; Otto, R.; Hlavenka, P.; Mikosch, J.; Eichhorn, C.; Lourderaj, U.; Zhang, J. X.; Hase, W. L.; Weidemüller, M.; Wester, R.

    2009-11-01

    Kinematically complete studies of molecular reactions offer an unprecedented level of insight into the dynamics and the different mechanisms by which chemical reactions occur. We have developed a scheme to study ion-molecule reactions by velocity map imaging at very low collision energies. Results for the elementary nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction Cl- + CH3I → ClCH3 + I- are presented and compared to high-level direct dynamics trajectory calculations. Furthermore, an improved design of the crossed-beam imaging spectrometer with full three-dimensional measurement capabilities is discussed and characterization measurements using photoionization of NH3 and photodissociation of CH3I are presented.

  12. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different

  13. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  14. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Péru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C.

    2015-12-01

    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n^'), (n, xn) and (n,n^'γ cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems.

  15. Isosinglet approximation for nonelastic reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Group theoretic relations are derived between different combinations of projectile and secondary particles which appear to have a broad range of application in spacecraft shielding or radiation damage studies. These relations are used to reduce the experimental effort required to obtain nuclear reaction data for transport calculations. Implications for theoretical modeling are also noted, especially for heavy-heavy reactions.

  16. [Intolerance reactions of the skin].

    PubMed

    Sacher, R

    1987-07-01

    Intolerance reactions of the skin in which a decision is made on allergic and toxic genesis have increased in significance in recent years. Whereas antibodies blocking bacterial or viral antigens are formed in the normergic immune reaction, nonblocking antibodies to animal, plant or chemical heterologous substances are formed in an allergy as a result of an misdirected immunological reaction. Sensitization is favored by a) large structure and protein affinity of the allergen, b) irritation of the affected part of the skin by fungi or chemicals and c) genetic predisposition. Depending on the clinical manifestation, a distinction is made between inhaled allergens (bronchial asthma, hay fever), allergens ingested with the food (food allergy) and allergens which have come in contact with the skin (immediate reaction - urticaria, late reaction - contact eczema). Intolerance reactions of the skin which can be ruled out as the cause of an allergy are designated as toxic. Acute toxic reactions are based on violent or intensively physical (heat, cold, radiation), chemical (acids, alkalis, heavy metal salts, oils, solvents) or microbial damage to the skin (infection by fungi, bacteria, viruses). The degenerative eczema as the most important form of chronic toxic intolerance reaction arises by weak but continuously acting longterm mechanical or chemical exposures. PMID:2957865

  17. "Greening up" the Suzuki Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Chan, Elton; Edward, Amanda R.; Jarosz, Isabel; Lee, Vicki; Mui, Leo; Thatipamala, Sonya S.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rapid, green synthesis of a biaryl compound (4-phenylphenol) via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in water. Mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity makes this experiment especially amenable to both mid- and upper-level undergraduates. The methodology exposes students to purely aqueous…

  18. Entropy Effects in Chelation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chung-Sun

    1984-01-01

    The entropy change for a reaction in aqueous solution can be evaluated as a combination of entropy factors. Valuable insight or understanding can be obtained from a detailed examination of these factors. Several entropy effects of inorganic chemical reactions are discussed as examples. (Author/JN)

  19. Free Radical Reactions in Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  20. Free Radical Reactions in Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and

  1. The Variance Reaction Time Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker

    2004-01-01

    The variance reaction time model (VRTM) is proposed to account for various recognition data on reaction time, the mirror effect, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves, etc. The model is based on simple and plausible assumptions within a neural network: VRTM is a two layer neural network where one layer represents items and one layer…

  2. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    PubMed

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products(shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known. PMID:24449611

  3. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  4. Fundamental reaction pathways during coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the fundamental reaction pathways in coal petroleum residuum coprocessing. Once the reaction pathways are defined, further efforts can be directed at improving those aspects of the chemistry of coprocessing that are responsible for the desired results such as high oil yields, low dihydrogen consumption, and mild reaction conditions. We decided to carry out this investigation by looking at four basic aspects of coprocessing: (1) the effect of fossil fuel materials on promoting reactions essential to coprocessing such as hydrogen atom transfer, carbon-carbon bond scission, and hydrodemethylation; (2) the effect of varied mild conditions on the coprocessing reactions; (3) determination of dihydrogen uptake and utilization under severe conditions as a function of the coal or petroleum residuum employed; and (4) the effect of varied dihydrogen pressure, temperature, and residence time on the uptake and utilization of dihydrogen and on the distribution of the coprocessed products. Accomplishments are described.

  5. Enzymatic reactions in confined environments.

    PubMed

    Küchler, Andreas; Yoshimoto, Makoto; Luginbühl, Sandra; Mavelli, Fabio; Walde, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Within each biological cell, surface- and volume-confined enzymes control a highly complex network of chemical reactions. These reactions are efficient, timely, and spatially defined. Efforts to transfer such appealing features to in vitro systems have led to several successful examples of chemical reactions catalysed by isolated and immobilized enzymes. In most cases, these enzymes are either bound or adsorbed to an insoluble support, physically trapped in a macromolecular network, or encapsulated within compartments. Advanced applications of enzymatic cascade reactions with immobilized enzymes include enzymatic fuel cells and enzymatic nanoreactors, both for in vitro and possible in vivo applications. In this Review, we discuss some of the general principles of enzymatic reactions confined on surfaces, at interfaces, and inside small volumes. We also highlight the similarities and differences between the in vivo and in vitro cases and attempt to critically evaluate some of the necessary future steps to improve our fundamental understanding of these systems. PMID:27146955

  6. Enzymatic reactions in confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küchler, Andreas; Yoshimoto, Makoto; Luginbühl, Sandra; Mavelli, Fabio; Walde, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Within each biological cell, surface- and volume-confined enzymes control a highly complex network of chemical reactions. These reactions are efficient, timely, and spatially defined. Efforts to transfer such appealing features to in vitro systems have led to several successful examples of chemical reactions catalysed by isolated and immobilized enzymes. In most cases, these enzymes are either bound or adsorbed to an insoluble support, physically trapped in a macromolecular network, or encapsulated within compartments. Advanced applications of enzymatic cascade reactions with immobilized enzymes include enzymatic fuel cells and enzymatic nanoreactors, both for in vitro and possible in vivo applications. In this Review, we discuss some of the general principles of enzymatic reactions confined on surfaces, at interfaces, and inside small volumes. We also highlight the similarities and differences between the in vivo and in vitro cases and attempt to critically evaluate some of the necessary future steps to improve our fundamental understanding of these systems.

  7. [Anaphylactic reaction following hair bleaching].

    PubMed

    Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium persulphate is a potent bleach and oxidizing agent that is commonly present in hair bleaches. Because bleaching is so commonly performed, hairdressers often develop allergic contact dermatitis to ammonium persulphate. In addition to this delayed reaction, asthma and rhinitis may develop as immediate reactions in those exposed to the fumes. Severe anaphylactic reactions are rare. We report a 24-year-old woman who acquired dermatitis following contact with bleaching substances while working as a hairdresser. After changing her profession, the dermatitis disappeared. Following the private use of a hairdressing bleach containing ammonium persulphate, she suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction with unconsciousness. The patient also developed an anaphylactic reaction three hours following patch testing with the hairdresser battery. The rub test with ammonium persulphate (2.5%) in a 1:100 solution was positive. PMID:15688222

  8. Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles.

    PubMed

    Nałęcz-Jawecki, Paweł; Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miękisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme-substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%. PMID:26646890

  9. Do reaction conditions affect the stereoselectivity in the Staudinger reaction?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yikai; Liang, Yong; Jiao, Lei; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi

    2006-09-01

    The stereochemistry is one of the critical issues in the Staudinger reaction. We have proposed the origin of the stereoselectivity recently. The effects of solvents, additives, and pathways of ketene generation on the stereoselectivity were investigated by using a clean Staudinger reaction, which is a sensitive reaction system to the stereoselectivity. The results indicate that the additives, usually existed and generated in the Staudinger reaction, and the pathways of the ketene generation do not generally affect the stereoselectivity. The solvent affects the stereoselectivity. The polar solvent is favorable to the formation of trans-beta-lactams. The addition orders of the reagents affect the stereoselectivity in the Staudinger reaction between acyl chlorides and imines. The addition of a tertiary amine into a solution of the acyl chloride and the imine generally decreases the stereoselectivity, which is affected by the interval between additions of the acyl chloride and the tertiary amine, and the imine substituents. Our current results provide further understanding on the stereochemistry of the Staudinger reaction between acyl chlorides and imines and on the factors affecting the stereochemistry and also provide a method to prepare beta-lactams with the desired relative configuration via rationally tuning the stereoselectivity-controlling factors in the Staudinger reaction. PMID:16930052

  10. Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nałecz-Jawecki, Paweł; Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miekisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme-substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%.

  11. Mycoplasma-Latex Agglutination Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Harry E.

    1966-01-01

    Morton, Harry E. (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia). Mycoplasma-latex agglutination reaction. J. Bacteriol. 92:1196–1205. 1966.—The building up of Mycoplasma cell mass through adsorption to carrier particles as a method for enhancing the agglutination reaction to identify Mycoplasma is described. Mycoplasma cells of human, avian, swine, goat, sewage, and tissue-culture origin were adsorbed to latex particles (0.81 μ) and then were agglutinated by immune sera. The adsorption was demonstrated by electron microscopy. Either the cells or their antibodies, depending on which came into contact with the latex particles first, were adsorbed. The test, completed in less than 2 hr, consisted of serially diluting immune sera with buffered saline, adding the antigen, incubating in a water bath, centrifuging, and reading the reaction under 50 × microscope magnification. The antigen in each reaction tube, representing the growth from about 1.6 ml of culture, was estimated to contain 23 μg of protein (approximately one-tenth the amount of Mycoplasma cells needed for a direct agglutination reaction). In the sera from rabbits undergoing immunization with Mycoplasma antigens, the presence of anti-Mycoplasma antibodies was detected much sooner in the Mycoplasma-latex agglutination reaction test than in the agar-gel diffusion reaction and the growth inhibition tests. Four different lots of latex particles showed excellent uniformity of behavior and stability during storage and testing. Images PMID:4959043

  12. Reactions of cold trapped anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Interactions of negative ions with small organic molecules represent model systems for the investigation of reaction dynamics in few-body systems. Their corrugated potential energy landscape, originating in long-range attractive and short-range repulsive forces, requires the coupling of different degrees of freedom for reactions to occur. We have adopted two complementary approaches to study anion-molecule reaction dynamics. Using velocity map imaging in combination with crossed beams at low energy we study the differential cross section of negative ion reactions. For nucleophilic substitution reactions we have observed several distinct reaction mechanisms when varying the collision energy [1]. Total reaction rate measurements, which we carry out in the box-shaped potential of a 22pole ion trap [2], have revealed unexpected temperature-dependences for proton transfer and for cluster stabilisation at low temperatures. In addition, laser-induced photodetachment is studied in the trap to obtain absolute destruction cross sections for negative ions in light fields [3]. These results are relevant for the understanding of the negative ion abundances in interstellar molecular clouds. [1] J. Mikosch et al., Science (in press) [2] J. Mikosch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 223001 (2007) [3] S. Trippel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 193003 (2006)

  13. Nuclear Structure and Reaction Mechanism Studies with Multinucleon Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, P. H.; Jones, G. A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Abdullah, M.; Gelletly, W.; Langdown, S. D.; Wollel, G.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Kroell, Th.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.; Rusu, C.; Tonev, D.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ur, C. A.; Axiotis, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.

    2006-08-14

    This contribution reports on the results of an experiment to study the near-yrast states in selenium- and osmium-like nuclei, following their population in thick-target, multinucleon transfer reactions between an 82Se beam and a 192Os target. The experimental results for the level scheme for 84Se are presented together with investigations into the use of multi-dimensional gamma-ray energy gating to investigate angular momentum population in such heavy-ion binary reactions.

  14. Siloxy alkynes in annulation reactions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hui; Zhao, Wanxiang; Sun, Jianwei

    2014-12-01

    Siloxy alkynes are a family of versatile species in organic synthesis. This account reviews the annulation reactions of siloxy alkynes for the synthesis of a variety of carbo- and heterocyclic products. With various dipolarophiles or dipolarophile-like reaction partners, siloxy alkynes are capable of forming small (three- to six-membered) rings. Recently, we have expanded the scope to the synthesis of medium- and large-ring lactones, enabled by the design of new amphoteric molecules as well as a new ring-expansion strategy. These annulation reactions provide not only practically useful syntheses of cyclic molecules, but also important understanding of the fundamental reactivity of siloxy alkynes. PMID:25171137

  15. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin

    PubMed Central

    Indu, T. H.; Basutkar, Roopa Satyanarayan

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in the literature. Prevention of the adverse effects with AEDs is a multi-stage process, which requires implementation of preventive measures through careful monitoring and prompts interventions. PMID:26692739

  16. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Indu, T H; Basutkar, Roopa Satyanarayan

    2015-09-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are generally associated with aromatic AEDs. We present a case of hypersensitivity reactions followed by administration of phenytoin with diazepam and ranitidine in a patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Antigen-antibody reactions or decreased levels of epoxide hydrolase are well known with phenytoin. Increased level of serum phenytoin causing toxicities due to competitive inhibition with diazepam on co-administration was also reported in the literature. Prevention of the adverse effects with AEDs is a multi-stage process, which requires implementation of preventive measures through careful monitoring and prompts interventions. PMID:26692739

  17. Secondary decomposition reactions in nitramines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, Igor

    Thermal decomposition of nitramines is known to proceed via multiple, competing reaction branches, some of which are triggered by secondary reactions between initial decomposition products and unreacted nitramine molecules. Better mechanistic understanding of these secondary reactions is needed to enable extrapolations of measured rates to higher temperatures and pressures relevant to shock ignition. I will present density functional theory (DFT) based simulations of nitramines that aim to re-evaluate known elementary mechanisms and seek alternative pathways in the gas and condensed phases. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory.

  18. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  19. Solar-thermal reaction processing

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

    2014-03-18

    In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

  20. Color Changes Mark Polymer Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how polydiacetylenes can be used as educational aids. These polymers have conjugated backbones, which cause changes in color when the polydiacetylenes undergo various chemical and physical processes. Diagrams summarize all chemical reactions and their associated color changes. (CS)

  1. Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... for PTSD » Public » Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... some positive coping methods: Learn about trauma and PTSD It is useful for trauma survivors to learn ...

  2. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-01-05

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  3. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  4. Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Brearley, A. J.; Ganguly, J.; Liermann, H.-P.; Keil, K.

    2004-01-01

    Current carbonaceous chondrite parent-body thermal models [1-3] produce scenarios that are inconsistent with constraints on aqueous alteration conditions based on meteorite mineralogical evidence, such as phase stability relationships within the meteorite matrix minerals [4] and isotope equilibration arguments [5, 6]. This discrepancy arises principally because of the thermal runaway effect produced by silicate hydration reactions (here loosely called serpentinization, as the principal products are serpentine minerals), which are so exothermic as to produce more than enough heat to melt more ice and provide a self-sustaining chain reaction. One possible way to dissipate the heat of reaction is to use a very small parent body [e.g., 2] or possibly a rubble pile model. Another possibility is to release this heat more slowly, which depends on the alteration reaction path and kinetics.

  5. Thermodynamics of Random Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa −1.5 for linear and −1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks. PMID:25723751

  6. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  7. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  8. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  9. Reaction rates for mesoscopic reaction-diffusion kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hellander, Stefan; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The mesoscopic reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a popular modeling framework frequently applied to stochastic reaction-diffusion kinetics in systems biology. The RDME is derived from assumptions about the underlying physical properties of the system, and it may produce unphysical results for models where those assumptions fail. In that case, other more comprehensive models are better suited, such as hard-sphere Brownian dynamics (BD). Although the RDME is a model in its own right, and not inferred from any specific microscale model, it proves useful to attempt to approximate a microscale model by a specific choice of mesoscopic reaction rates. In this paper we derive mesoscopic scale-dependent reaction rates by matching certain statistics of the RDME solution to statistics of the solution of a widely used microscopic BD model: the Smoluchowski model with a Robin boundary condition at the reaction radius of two molecules. We also establish fundamental limits on the range of mesh resolutions for which this approach yields accurate results and show both theoretically and in numerical examples that as we approach the lower fundamental limit, the mesoscopic dynamics approach the microscopic dynamics. We show that for mesh sizes below the fundamental lower limit, results are less accurate. Thus, the lower limit determines the mesh size for which we obtain the most accurate results. PMID:25768640

  10. Reaction rates for mesoscopic reaction-diffusion kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellander, Stefan; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda

    2015-02-01

    The mesoscopic reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a popular modeling framework frequently applied to stochastic reaction-diffusion kinetics in systems biology. The RDME is derived from assumptions about the underlying physical properties of the system, and it may produce unphysical results for models where those assumptions fail. In that case, other more comprehensive models are better suited, such as hard-sphere Brownian dynamics (BD). Although the RDME is a model in its own right, and not inferred from any specific microscale model, it proves useful to attempt to approximate a microscale model by a specific choice of mesoscopic reaction rates. In this paper we derive mesoscopic scale-dependent reaction rates by matching certain statistics of the RDME solution to statistics of the solution of a widely used microscopic BD model: the Smoluchowski model with a Robin boundary condition at the reaction radius of two molecules. We also establish fundamental limits on the range of mesh resolutions for which this approach yields accurate results and show both theoretically and in numerical examples that as we approach the lower fundamental limit, the mesoscopic dynamics approach the microscopic dynamics. We show that for mesh sizes below the fundamental lower limit, results are less accurate. Thus, the lower limit determines the mesh size for which we obtain the most accurate results.

  11. Concordant Chemical Reaction Networks and the Species-Reaction Graph

    PubMed Central

    Shinar, Guy; Feinberg, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper it was shown that, for chemical reaction networks possessing a subtle structural property called concordance, dynamical behavior of a very circumscribed (and largely stable) kind is enforced, so long as the kinetics lies within the very broad and natural weakly monotonic class. In particular, multiple equilibria are precluded, as are degenerate positive equilibria. Moreover, under certain circumstances, also related to concordance, all real eigenvalues associated with a positive equilibrium are negative. Although concordance of a reaction network can be decided by readily available computational means, we show here that, when a nondegenerate network’s Species-Reaction Graph satisfies certain mild conditions, concordance and its dynamical consequences are ensured. These conditions are weaker than earlier ones invoked to establish kinetic system injectivity, which, in turn, is just one ramification of network concordance. Because the Species-Reaction Graph resembles pathway depictions often drawn by biochemists, results here expand the possibility of inferring significant dynamical information directly from standard biochemical reaction diagrams. PMID:22940368

  12. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation

    PubMed Central

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model, and show in two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is on the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules. PMID:26871190

  13. Reactions in microemulsions: Effect of thermal fluctuations on reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Venkat; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we address the generic effects arising from the interplay of thermal fluctuations and reactions. This is accomplished by considering specifically the kinetics of reactions effected in microemulsion media. In the first part of this paper we consider the kinetics of the reaction A+B→O/ in bicontinuous microemulsion media, wherein the solutes A and B are assumed to be preferentially attracted to water and oil, respectively, and O/ constitutes an inert product. We formulate the diffusion and reaction of these solutes in a field-theoretical framework within which the fluctuations of the background microemulsion are embedded. We then employ mean-field arguments and a perturbative Wilson-type renormalization group (RG) approach to discern the relevance, at long length scales, of the background fluctuations. Our analysis indicates that the dynamic fluctuations of the microemulsion prove irrelevant in impacting the asymptotic kinetics of the reaction. In view of the fact that our field-theoretic approach enables us to probe only the long time characteristics, moreover, only in the weak-coupling limit, in the second part of this paper we analyze similar issues in the context of the droplet phase of microemulsions. This enables us to surmount some of the restrictions placed upon the results of the first part of this paper. In the second part, our analysis focuses upon a simpler reaction, viz., A→O/, wherein the solute A which is present only in the water phase is anhiliated upon contact with the fluctuating interfaces of the droplets. We employ a standard diffusion equation framework to formulate the transport and reaction of A. The fluctuations of the microemulsion are manifest in the boundary condition positing the vanishing concentration of A. We then employ a perturbation scheme to the solution of the diffusion equation, and thereby discern the explicit effects of the fluctuations of the sinks. Our formulation enables, in a sequentially improvable asymptotic manner, the explicit computation of the time-dependent and the steady state fluctuation contributions to the reaction rate.

  14. Coupled reactions versus connected reactions: Coupling concepts with terms.

    PubMed

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2007-03-01

    A hallmark of living matter is its ability to extract and transform energy from the environment. Not surprisingly, biology students are required to take thermodynamics. The necessity of coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic processes is easily grasped by most undergraduate students. However, when addressing the thermodynamic concept of coupled reactions, both students and textbook authors often make claims that clash with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Herein, I point out the most common flaws, analyze the causes leading to these mistakes, and suggest a few rules to avoid them. PMID:21591066

  15. Thermal reactions of brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Bohner, M; Gbureck, U

    2008-02-01

    The thermal reactions of a brushite cement made of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), and an aqueous solution were followed in situ with an isothermal calorimeter at 37 degrees C. The investigated parameters were the beta-TCP/MCPM weight ratio, the liquid-to-powder ratio, the synthesis route and milling duration of the beta-TCP powder, as well as the presence of sulfate, citrate, and pyrophosphate ions in the mixing liquid. The thermograms were complex, particularly for mixtures containing an excess of MCPM or additives in the mixing solution. Results suggested that the endothermic MCPM dissolution and the highly exothermic beta-TCP dissolution occurred simultaneously, thereby leading to the formation of a large exothermic peak at early reaction time. Both reactions were followed by the exothermic crystallization of brushite and in the presence of an excess of MCPM by the endothermic crystallization of monetite. Additives generally widened the main exothermic reaction peak, or in some cases with pyrophosphate ions postponed the main exothermic peak at late reaction time. Generally, the results could be well explained and understood based on thermodynamic and solubility data. PMID:17618509

  16. Nonlocality in deuteron stripping reactions.

    PubMed

    Timofeyuk, N K; Johnson, R C

    2013-03-15

    We propose a new method for the analysis of deuteron stripping reactions, A(d,p)B, in which the nonlocality of nucleon-nucleus interactions and three-body degrees of freedom are accounted for in a consistent way. The model deals with equivalent local nucleon potentials taken at an energy shifted by ∼40  MeV from the "E(d)/2" value frequently used in the analysis of experimental data, where E(d) is the incident deuteron energy. The "E(d)/2" rule lies at the heart of all three-body analyses of (d, p) reactions performed so far with the aim of obtaining nuclear structure properties such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients that are crucial for our understanding of nuclear shell evolution in neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear periodic table and for predicting the cross sections of stellar reactions. The large predicted shift arises from the large relative kinetic energy of the neutron and proton in the incident deuteron in those components of the n+p+A wave function that dominate the (d, p) reaction amplitude. The large shift reduces the effective d-A potentials and leads to a change in predicted (d, p) cross sections, thus affecting the interpretation of these reactions in terms of nuclear structure. PMID:25166525

  17. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  18. Quantifying mixing using equilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Philip M.; Posner, Jonathan D.

    2009-03-15

    A method of quantifying equilibrium reactions in a microchannel using a fluorometric reaction of Fluo-4 and Ca{sup 2+} ions is presented. Under the proper conditions, equilibrium reactions can be used to quantify fluid mixing without the challenges associated with constituent mixing measures such as limited imaging spatial resolution and viewing angle coupled with three-dimensional structure. Quantitative measurements of CaCl and calcium-indicating fluorescent dye Fluo-4 mixing are measured in Y-shaped microchannels. Reactant and product concentration distributions are modeled using Green's function solutions and a numerical solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Equilibrium reactions provide for an unambiguous, quantitative measure of mixing when the reactant concentrations are greater than 100 times their dissociation constant and the diffusivities are equal. At lower concentrations and for dissimilar diffusivities, the area averaged fluorescence signal reaches a maximum before the species have interdiffused, suggesting that reactant concentrations and diffusivities must be carefully selected to provide unambiguous, quantitative mixing measures. Fluorometric equilibrium reactions work over a wide range of pH and background concentrations such that they can be used for a wide variety of fluid mixing measures including industrial or microscale flows.

  19. Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Part II: Homogeneous Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, D. O.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests several mechanisms for catalysis by metal ion complexes. Discusses the principal factors of importance in these catalysis reactions and suggests reactions suitable for laboratory study. (MLH)

  20. A unified diabatic description for electron transfer reactions, isomerization reactions, proton transfer reactions, and aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S

    2015-10-14

    While diabatic approaches are ubiquitous for the understanding of electron-transfer reactions and have been mooted as being of general relevance, alternate applications have not been able to unify the same wide range of observed spectroscopic and kinetic properties. The cause of this is identified as the fundamentally different orbital configurations involved: charge-transfer phenomena involve typically either 1 or 3 electrons in two orbitals whereas most reactions are typically closed shell. As a result, two vibrationally coupled electronic states depict charge-transfer scenarios whereas three coupled states arise for closed-shell reactions of non-degenerate molecules and seven states for the reactions implicated in the aromaticity of benzene. Previous diabatic treatments of closed-shell processes have considered only two arbitrarily chosen states as being critical, mapping these states to those for electron transfer. We show that such effective two-state diabatic models are feasible but involve renormalized electronic coupling and vibrational coupling parameters, with this renormalization being property dependent. With this caveat, diabatic models are shown to provide excellent descriptions of the spectroscopy and kinetics of the ammonia inversion reaction, proton transfer in N2H7(+), and aromaticity in benzene. This allows for the development of a single simple theory that can semi-quantitatively describe all of these chemical phenomena, as well as of course electron-transfer reactions. It forms a basis for understanding many technologically relevant aspects of chemical reactions, condensed-matter physics, chemical quantum entanglement, nanotechnology, and natural or artificial solar energy capture and conversion. PMID:26193994

  1. Radiation reaction in various dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.

    2002-07-01

    We discuss the radiation reaction problem for an electric charge moving in flat space-time of arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that four is the unique dimension where a local differential equation exists accounting for the radiation reaction and admitting a consistent mass renormalization (the Lorentz-Dirac equation). In odd dimensions Huygens's principle does not hold, and, as a result, the radiation reaction force depends on the whole past history of a charge (radiative tail). We show that the divergence in the tail integral can be removed by the mass renormalization only in the 2+1 theory. In even dimensions higher than four, divergences cannot be removed by the mass renormalization.

  2. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{μ ν α β }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  3. Autocatalytic solid-phase reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gusarov, V.V.; Suvorov, S.A.

    1988-02-20

    It was determined that solid-phase reactions can proceed autocatalytically without significant heat effects in cases where transfer of the original components from the macrophase into the surface phase in contact with faces of the nuclei formed is determined thermodynamically and facilitated kinetically, while the nucleation rate exceeds the rate of crystal growth. Such autocatalytic course of solid-phase conversions is accompanied by increase of the relative amount of surface phases in the system, i.e., increase of the amount of amorphous states. The initial stage of solid-phase reaction whose ..cap alpha.. = ..cap alpha..(t) curves have a region of increase of the reaction rate is satisfactorily described by exponential relationships derived with the assumption of an autocatalytic character of phase formation.

  4. Surface reactions of natural glasses

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.F.

    1986-12-31

    Reactions at natural glass surfaces are important in studies involving nuclear waste transport due to chemical control on ground water in host rocks such as basalt and tuff, to potential diffusion into natural hydrated glass surfaces and as natural analogs for waste glass stability. Dissolution kinetics can be described by linear surface reaction coupled with cation interdiffusion with resulting rates similar to those of synthetic silicate glasses. Rates of Cs diffusion into hydrated obsidian surfaces between 25{sup 0} and 75{sup 0}C were determined by XPS depth profiles and loss rates from aqueous solutions. Calculated diffusion coefficients were ten others of magnitude more rapid than predicted from an Arrhenius extrapolation of high temperature tracer diffusion data due to surface hydration reactions.

  5. Spatial model of autocatalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Anna, Pietro; di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; McKane, Alan J.; Dauxois, Thierry

    2010-05-01

    Biological cells with all of their surface structure and complex interior stripped away are essentially vesicles—membranes composed of lipid bilayers which form closed sacs. Vesicles are thought to be relevant as models of primitive protocells, and they could have provided the ideal environment for prebiotic reactions to occur. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic dynamics of a set of autocatalytic reactions, within a spatially bounded domain, so as to mimic a primordial cell. The discreteness of the constituents of the autocatalytic reactions gives rise to large sustained oscillations even when the number of constituents is quite large. These oscillations are spatiotemporal in nature, unlike those found in previous studies, which consisted only of temporal oscillations. We speculate that these oscillations may have a role in seeding membrane instabilities which lead to vesicle division. In this way synchronization could be achieved between protocell growth and the reproduction rate of the constituents (the protogenetic material) in simple protocells.

  6. Stability of membrane bound reactions.

    PubMed

    Thul, R; Falcke, M

    2004-10-29

    We present a novel approach to the dynamics of reactions of diffusing chemical species with species fixed in space, e.g., by binding to a membrane. The nondiffusing reaction partners are clustered in areas with a diameter smaller than the diffusion length of the diffusing partner. The activated fraction of the fixed species determines the size of an active subregion of the cluster. Linear stability analysis reveals that diffusion is one of the major determinants of the stability of the dynamics. We illustrate the model concept with Ca2+ dynamics in living cells, which has release channels as fixed reaction partners. Our results suggest that spatial and temporal structures in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics are caused by fluctuations due to the small number of channels per cluster. PMID:15525212

  7. Vitamin B12 catalysed reactions.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, Maciej; Goliszewska, Katarzyna; Gryko, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, 1) is one of a few naturally occurring organometallic molecules. As a cofactor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent and methylcobalamin-dependent enzymes, it plays a crucial role in biological processes, including DNA synthesis and regulation, nervous system function, red blood cell formation, etc. Enzymatic reactions, such as isomerisation, dehalogenation, and methyl transfer, rely on the formation and cleavage of the Co-C bond. Because it is a natural, nontoxic, environmentally benign cobalt complex, cobalamin (1) has been successfully utilised in organic synthesis as a catalyst for Co-mediated reactions. This tutorial review concisely describes cobalamin-catalysed organic reactions that hold promise for environmentally friendly cobalt catalysis, leaving the reader with basic knowledge and the ability to harness the catalytic potential of this fascinating molecule. PMID:25945462

  8. Photonuclear reactions on titanium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Belyshev, S. S.; Dzhilavyan, L. Z.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kapitonov, I. M.; Kuznetsov, A. A. Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A.

    2015-03-15

    The photodisintegration of titanium isotopes in the giant-dipole-resonance energy region is studied by the photon-activation method. Bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum has the endpoint energy of 55 MeV is used. The yields and integrated cross sections are determined for photoproton reactions on the titanium isotopes {sup 47,48,49,50}Ti. The respective experimental results are compared with their counterparts calculated on the basis of the TALYS code and a combined photonucleon-reaction model. The TALYS code disregards the isospin structure of the giant dipole resonance and is therefore unable to describe the yield of photoproton reactions on the heavy titanium isotopes {sup 49,50}Ti.

  9. Postcolumn reaction detectors for HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, R.W.; Jansen, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1985-12-01

    Currently, the best and most reliable HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) detectors are UV-VIS absorbance, fluorescence, and electrochemical detectors. It is attractive to try to expand their range of application by using suitable chemical derivatization techniques to convert the analytes of interest with their originally poor detection properties into compounds that can be detected with high sensitivity with these detectors. Besides an improvement of the detection properties, the chemical reaction can also enhance the selectivity of the total analytical method. The derivatization can be carried out either prior to the HPLC separation or by doing the reaction in an on-line postcolumn mode. Comparative advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches have been discussed previously. This paper will discuss on-line postcolumn derivatization. A general scheme of an HPLC system equipped with an on-line postcolumn reaction detector is given. 40 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Coupled Reactions "versus" Connected Reactions: Coupling Concepts with Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    A hallmark of living matter is its ability to extract and transform energy from the environment. Not surprisingly, biology students are required to take thermodynamics. The necessity of coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic processes is easily grasped by most undergraduate students. However, when addressing the thermodynamic concept of…

  11. Learning to Predict Chemical Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kayala, Matthew A.; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles respectively are not high-throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, or lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry dataset consisting of 1630 full multi-step reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval, problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of non-productive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system is generalizable, making reasonable predictions over reactants and conditions which the rule-based expert does not handle. A web interface to the machine learning based mechanistic reaction predictor is accessible through our chemoinformatics portal (http://cdb.ics.uci.edu) under the Toolkits section. PMID:21819139

  12. Vision 2020. Reaction Engineering Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Klipstein, David H.; Robinson, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    The Reaction Engineering Roadmap is a part of an industry- wide effort to create a blueprint of the research and technology milestones that are necessary to achieve longterm industry goals. This report documents the results of a workshop focused on the research needs, technology barriers, and priorities of the chemical industry as they relate to reaction engineering viewed first by industrial use (basic chemicals; specialty chemicals; pharmaceuticals; and polymers) and then by technology segment (reactor system selection, design, and scale-up; chemical mechanism development and property estimation; dealing with catalysis; and new, nonstandard reactor types).

  13. Learning to predict chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Kayala, Matthew A; Azencott, Chlo-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H; Baldi, Pierre

    2011-09-26

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles, respectively, are not high throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, and lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry data set consisting of 1630 full multistep reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top-ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of nonproductive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system is generalizable, making reasonable predictions over reactants and conditions which the rule-based expert does not handle. A web interface to the machine learning based mechanistic reaction predictor is accessible through our chemoinformatics portal ( http://cdb.ics.uci.edu) under the Toolkits section. PMID:21819139

  14. Direct simulation of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, J.P.W.; Boyd, I.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Bird (1979, 1981) developed procedures for modeling chemical reactions within the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) framework. After presenting the instabilities associated with these formulations, a novel, simplified method in which such difficulties are removed is presented. The solution involves the introduction of a steric factor by means of which the reaction path can be calculated independently of the choice of the internal energy contribution. In simulations where temperature is constant, the new model is as efficient as Bird's original formula. 7 refs.

  15. Hypersensitivity reactions to HIV therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chaponda, Mas; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2011-01-01

    Many drugs used for the treatment of HIV disease (including the associated opportunistic infections) can cause drug hypersensitivity reactions, which vary in severity, clinical manifestations and frequency. These reactions are not only seen with the older compounds, but also with the newer more recently introduced drugs. The pathogenesis is unclear in most cases, but there is increasing evidence to support that many of these are mediated through a combination of immunologic and genetic factors through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Genetic predisposition to the occurrence of these allergic reactions has been shown for some of the drugs, notably abacavir hypersensitivity which is strongly associated with the class I MHC allele, HLA-B*5701. Testing before the prescription of abacavir has been shown to be of clinical utility, has resulted in a change in the drug label, is now recommended in clinical guidelines and is practiced in most Western countries. For most other drugs, however, there are no good methods of prevention, and clinical monitoring with appropriate (usually supportive and symptomatic) treatment is required. There is a need to undertake further research in this area to increase our understanding of the mechanisms, which may lead to better preventive strategies through the development of predictive genetic biomarkers or through guiding the design of drugs less likely to cause these types of adverse drug reactions. PMID:21480946

  16. Runaway Reaction: Solving for X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartz, Solveig A.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the runaway reaction as it was displayed by Barry, a 14-year-old eighth-grade boy with learning disabilities. It identifies some of the common characteristics of this response and proposes school intervention methods. Functional behavioral assessments and strength-based assessments are encouraged, along with using strategy

  17. Reaction modeling in geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, A.

    2012-12-01

    Natural volcanic geothermal systems are open systems in term of matter and energy. Such systems are complex to model in terms of fluid chemistry, fluid flow and energy budget. Reaction modeling may be used to gain insight and possibly quantify chemical processes occurring within a system, for example fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction. Methods have been developed within the WATCH (Bjarnason, 1994; Arnrsson et al., 2007) and PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) programs to simulate reactions of multicomponent and multiphase systems to 300C. The models include boiling and phase segregation (open system boiling), fluid-fluid mixing and fluid-rock interaction (gas-water-rock interaction). The models have been applied to quantify processes within the Hellisheidi geothermal system, Iceland. Open system boiling and fluid-rock interaction were simulated as a function of temperature, initial fluid composition and extent of reaction (T-X-?). In addition the interactions of magmatic gases with geothermal fluids and rocks were modeled. In this way various component behavior has been traced within the geothermal system and compared with observations of fluid composition and mineralogy. In addition, the reaction models have been used to evaluate the geochemical feasibility and best conditions of gas (CO2 and H2S) and waste water injection into geothermal system.

  18. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read

  19. Selective Reaction Times and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between psychometric intelligence and 2 selective reaction time (RT) tasks was determined for 81 university students (27 males and 54 females). Results generally support the paradigm of W. E. Hick (1952). Some surprising findings are discussed with respect to the specific demands of selective RT tasks. (SLD)

  20. The Pitfalls of Precipitation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.

    1990-01-01

    Described are some of the difficulties presented in these reactions by competing equilibria that are usually ignored. Situations involving acid-base equilibria, solubility product calculations, the use of ammonia as a complexing agent, and semiquantitative comparisons of solubility product values are discussed. (CW)

  1. Reduction of chemical reaction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to reconcile the different terminologies pertaining to reduction of chemical reaction models. The approaches considered include global modeling, response modeling, detailed reduction, chemical lumping, and statistical lumping. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these methods are pointed out.

  2. Interfacial Reaction Studies Using ONIOM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    2003-01-01

    In this report, we focus on the calculations of the energetics and chemical kinetics of heterogeneous reactions for Organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The work described in this report builds upon our own previous thermochemical and chemical kinetics studies. The first of these articles refers to the prediction of thermochemical properties, and the latter one deals with the prediction of rate constants for gaseous homolytic dissociation reactions. The calculations of this investigation are at the microscopic level. The systems chosen consisted of a gallium nitride (GaN) substrate, and molecular nitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3) as adsorbants. The energetics for the adsorption and the adsorbant dissociation processes were estimated, and reaction rate constants for the dissociation reactions of free and adsorbed molecules were predicted. The energetics for substrate decomposition was also computed. The ONIOM method, implemented in the Gaussian98 program, was used to perform the calculations. This approach has been selected since it allows dividing the system into two layers that can be treated at different levels of accuracy. The atoms of the substrate were modeled using molecular mechanics6 with universal force fields, whereas the adsorbed molecules were approximated using quantum mechanics, based on density functional theory methods with B3LYP functionals and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. Calculations for the substrate were performed in slabs of several unit cells in each direction. The N2 and NH3 adsorbates were attached to a central location at the Ga-lined surface.

  3. Complexation reactions in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Buffle, J.; Chalmers, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the properties, reactivities, and ecological implications of all chemically ill-defined natural complexants in aquatic systems. Analytical and theoretical aspects are presented simultaneously, covering speciation parameters, nature, and properties of organic and inorganic ligands in natural waters, their reactions with inorganic elements (particularly metals), and methods of measurement of speciation parameters.

  4. Multifractality in intracellular enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan S; Salgado, Edgar; Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro

    2006-05-21

    Enzymatic kinetics adjust well to the Michaelis-Menten paradigm in homogeneous media with dilute, perfectly mixed reactants. These conditions are quite different from the highly structured cell plasm, so applications of the classic kinetics theory to this environment are rather limited. Cytoplasmic structure produces molecular crowding and anomalous diffusion of substances, modifying the mass action kinetic laws. The reaction coefficients are no longer constant but time-variant, as stated in the fractal kinetics theory. Fractal kinetics assumes that enzymatic reactions on such heterogeneous media occur within a non-Euclidian space characterized by a certain fractal dimension, this fractal dimension gives the dependence on time of the kinetic coefficients. In this work, stochastic simulations of enzymatic reactions under molecular crowding have been completed, and kinetic coefficients for the reactions, including the Michaelis-Menten parameter KM, were calculated. The simulations results led us to confirm the time dependence of michaelian kinetic parameter for the enzymatic catalysis. Besides, other chaos related phenomena were pointed out from the obtained KM time series, such as the emergence of strange attractors and multifractality. PMID:16256143

  5. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or β-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic β-keto ester or β-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as β-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic β-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic β-diketones, β-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  6. Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars.

    PubMed

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or beta-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic beta-keto ester or beta-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as beta-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic beta-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic beta-diketones, beta-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics. PMID:21626738

  7. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy. PMID:19717065

  8. Reactions to threatening health messages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal. PMID:23171445

  9. Reactions of arsine with hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Hatlelid, K.M.; Brailsford, C.; Carter, D.E.

    1996-02-09

    The mechanism of arsine (AsH{sub 3}) induced hemolysis was studied in vitro using isolated red blood cells (RBCs) from the rat or dog. AsH{sub 3}-induced hemolysis of dog red blood cells was completely blocked by carbon monoxide (CO) preincubation and was reduced by pure oxygen (O{sub 2}) compared to incubations in air. Since CO and O{sub 2} bind to heme and also reduced hemolysis, these results suggested a reaction between AsH{sub 3} and hemoglobin in the hemeligand binding pocket or with the heme iron. Further, sodium nitrite induction of methemoglobin (metHb) to 85% and 34% of total Hb in otherwise intact RBCs resulted in 56% and 16% decreases in hemolysis, respectively, after incubation for 4 h. This provided additional evidence for the involvement of hemoglobin in the AsH{sub 3}-induced hemolysis mechanism. Reactions between AsH{sub 3} and hemoglobin were studied in solutions of purified dog hemoglobin. Spectrophotometric studies of the reaction of AsH{sub 3} with various purified hemoglobin species revealed that AsH{sub 3} reacted with HbO{sub 2} to produce metHb and, eventually, degraded Hb characterized by gross precipitation of the protein. AsH{sub 3} did not alter the spectrum of deoxyHb and did not cause degradation of metHb in oxygen, but bound to and reduced metHb in the absence of oxygen. These data indicate that a reaction of AsH{sub 3} with oxygenated hemoglobin, HbO{sub 2}, may lead to hemolysis, but there are reactions between AsH{sub 3} and metHb that may not be directly involved in the hemolytic process. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-01-01

    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical

  11. Experimental Demonstrations in Teaching Chemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-01-01

    Presents demonstrations of chemical reactions by employing different features of various compounds that can be altered after a chemical change occurs. Experimental activities include para- and dia-magnetism in chemical reactions, aluminum reaction with base, reaction of acid with carbonates, use of electrochemical cells for demonstrating chemical…

  12. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  13. Microwave Irradiation and Multicomponent Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariwal, Jitender B.; Trivedi, Jalpa C.; van der Eycken, Erik V.

    A common theme throughout drug discovery and process development is speed. With the emergence of combinatorial chemistry and high-speed parallel synthesis, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have seen a resurgence of interest. MCRs are therefore becoming increasingly popular since they provide the possibility to introduce a large degree of chemical diversity in only one step! Microwave irradiation under controlled conditions has been shown to be an invaluable technology since it often allows to dramatically reduce reaction times from days or hours to minutes or even seconds. Compound libraries can be rapidly synthesized in either a parallel or sequential way using this new, enabling technology. The current chapter highlights the application of microwave irradiation for MCRs during the last 4 years. More than 110 recent literature reports have been covered.

  14. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many metamorphic reactions lead to large volume changes, and potentially to reaction-driven cracking [1,2]. Large-scale hydration of mantle peridotite to produce serpentine or talc is invoked to explain the rheology of plate boundaries, the nature of earthquakes, and the seismic properties of slow-spread ocean crust and the 'mantle wedge' above subduction zones. Carbonation of peridotite may be an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Zones of 100% magnesite + quartz replacing peridotite, up to 200 m thick, formed where oceanic mantle was thrust over carbonate-bearing metasediments in Oman. Talc + carbonate is an important component of the matrix in subduction mélanges at Santa Catalina Island , California, and the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, Japan. Engineered systems to emulate natural mineral carbonation could provide relatively inexpensive CO2 capture and storage [3]. More generally, engineered reaction-driven cracking could supplement or replace hydraulic fracture in geothermal systems, solution mining, and extraction of tight oil and gas. The controls on reaction-driven cracking are poorly understood. Hydration and carbonation reactions can be self-limiting, since they potentially reduce permeability and armor reactive surfaces [4]. Also, in some cases, hydration or carbonation may take place at constant volume. Small changes in volume due to precipitation of solid products increases stress, destabilizing solid reactants, until precipitation and dissolution rates become equal at a steady state stress [5]. In a third case, volume change due to precipitation of solid products causes brittle failure. This has been invoked on qualitative grounds to explain, e.g., complete serpentinization of mantle peridotite [6]. Below ~ 300°C, the available potential energy for hydration and carbonation of olivine could produce stresses of 100's of MPa [2], sufficient to fracture rocks to 10 km depth or more, causing brittle failure below the steady state stress required for constant volume replacement. Natural examples have fracture energy densities due to strain energy density of 100's of MPa [2]. Despite theory and observation, until now lab experiments on peridotite hydration and carbonation have not produced reaction-driven cracking. Slow kinetics and limited reactive surface area in low porosity samples may be the cause. Also, maximum stress may be limited by 'disjoining pressure', above which nano-films along grain boundaries collapse, and crystal growth essentially ceases [7]. To address these issues, we've begun experiments on analog materials with fast reaction rates, e.g., CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2, to efficiently investigate the role of confining pressure and other factors on reaction-driven fracture events. Intriguingly, commercially available 'demolition mortar', largely CaO, produces stresses of 70 MPa or more around 1 inch bore holes at room T and P [8], even though there is a free surface at the top of the borehole, and hydration in a 'closed' system creates ~ 40% air-filled pore space. [1] Jamtveit et al EPSL 08 [2] Kelemen & Hirth EPSL 12 [3] Kelemen et al AREPS 11 [4] Aharonov et al JGR 98 [5] Fletcher & Merino GCA 01 [6] Macdonald & Fyfe T'phys 85 [7] Espinosa-Marzal & Scherer GSL Special Papers 10 [8] Laefer et al Mag Concrete Res 10

  15. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-04-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  16. MEANS FOR TERMINATING NUCLEAR REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, C.M.

    1959-02-17

    An apparatus is presented for use in a reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled type for the purpose of quickly terminating the reaction, the coolant being circulated through coolant tubes extending through the reactor core. Several of the tubes in the critical region are connected through valves to a tank containing a poisoning fluid having a high neutron capture crosssection and to a reservoir. When it is desired to quickly terminate the reaction, the valves are operated to permit the flow of the poisoning fluid through these particular tubes and into the reservoir while normal coolant is being circulated through the remaining tubes. The apparatus is designed to prevent contamination of the primary coolant by the poisoning fluid.

  17. Modelling reaction kinetics inside cells

    PubMed Central

    Grima, Ramon; Schnell, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, advances in molecular biology such as the development of non-invasive single molecule imaging techniques have given us a window into the intricate biochemical activities that occur inside cells. In this article we review four distinct theoretical and simulation frameworks: (1) non-spatial and deterministic, (2) spatial and deterministic, (3) non-spatial and stochastic and (4) spatial and stochastic. Each framework can be suited to modelling and interpreting intracellular reaction kinetics. By estimating the fundamental length scales, one can roughly determine which models are best suited for the particular reaction pathway under study. We discuss differences in prediction between the four modelling methodologies. In particular we show that taking into account noise and space does not simply add quantitative predictive accuracy but may also lead to qualitatively different physiological predictions, unaccounted for by classical deterministic models. PMID:18793122

  18. Adverse drug reactions: part II.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the process of identifying, monitoring, and effectively reducing adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important consideration when assessing a patient's health. The proliferation of new pharmaceuticals means that the incidence of ADRs is increasing. The goal for all health care providers must be to minimize the risk of ADRs as much as possible. Steps to achieve this include understanding the pharmacology for all drugs prescribed and proactively assessing and monitoring those patients at greatest risk for developing an ADR. Groups at greatest risk for developing ADRs include the elderly, children, and pregnant patients, as well as others. Pharmacovigilance must be effectively practiced by all health care providers in order to avoid ADRs. PMID:20890249

  19. [Adverse drug reactions in children].

    PubMed

    Jaffan, Linda; Ler, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important safety issues in pediatric pharmacotherapy because they can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in this population. It is currently assumed that the incidence of ADRs in children is between 0.6 % and 19.9 % and that between 0.6 % und 6 % of all hospital admissions of children are triggered by ADRs. Underreporting and insufficient documentation of ADRs in children, however, may obstruct the view on the true numbers. Pharmacovigilance centres in some countries are under way to increase the awareness of the problem. Their programs may help to systematically improve reporting and documentation of ADRs. One important goal is to better assess causality between the patients clinical reaction and drug use, because this is the key knowledge to specifically target an effective and safe pharmacotherapy. PMID:21184392

  20. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  1. Prebiotic condensation reactions using cyanamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, E.; Nooner, D. W.; Eichberg, J.; Epps, D. E.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    Condensation reactions in cyanamide, 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide and cyanamide, imidazole systems under dehydrating conditions at moderate temperatures (60 to 100 deg C) were investigated. The cyanamide, imidazole system was used for synthesis of palmitoylglycerols from ammonium palmitate and glycerol. With the addition of deoxythymidine to the former system, P1, P2-dideoxythymidine 5 prime-phosphate was obtained; the same cyanamide, 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide system was used to synthesize deoxythymidine oligonucleotides using deoxythymidine 5 prime-phosphate and deoxythymidine 5 prime-triphosphate, and peptides using glycine, phenylalanine or isoleucine with adenosine 5 prime-triphosphate. The pH requirements for these reactions make their prebiotic significance questionable; however, it is conceivable that they could occur in stable pockets of low interlayer acidity in a clay such as montmorillonite.

  2. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  3. Modeling the enzyme kinetic reaction.

    PubMed

    Atangana, Abdon

    2015-09-01

    The Enzymatic control reactions model was presented within the scope of fractional calculus. In order to accommodate the usual initial conditions, the fractional derivative used is in Caputo sense. The methodologies of the three analytical methods were used to derive approximate solution of the fractional nonlinear system of differential equations. Two methods use integral operator and the other one uses just an integral. Numerical results obtained exhibit biological behavior of real world problem. PMID:25930963

  4. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  5. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  6. Redox Reactions in Polymeric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, James R., II

    2011-12-01

    Reduction-Oxidization (redox) reactions performed in polymeric environments resulted in the reversible formation of stable silver nanoparticle and two reductive radicals. The reversible formation of stable silver nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) crosslinked polymer films containing silver ions was achieved by electrochemical methods for potential applications in electrochromic devices. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic methods were used to reversibly generate silver particles while the particle formation and decay optical absorption spectra were used to evaluate reversibility, relative particle size and minimum cycle speeds. Mechanisms for the formation and decay of particles are discussed with electron microscopy data determining actual size of generated silver particles. Light activated polymeric radicals produced from sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) with PVA or SPEEK with sodium formate solutions were generated using 350 nm photons. The mechanism of radical generation is discussed for potential application for dehalogenating a well known environmental hazard carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The reaction of the generated radicals with CCl4 was followed by ion selective electrode specific for chlorine allowing for the attainment of kinetic data and reaction mechanisms. The degradation of CCl4 was observed in both SPEEK/PVA and SPEEK/formate solutions but the kinetic data revealed SPEEK/formate to be more efficient. The success of SPEEK radicals in dechlorinating CCl4 lead to the investigation of polymeric blends, films and solution of SPEEK and polyamines for the generation of SPEEK radicals with a higher redox potential. SPEEK/polyamine radicals were generated by exposing polymer blends to 350 nm photons. Optical and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra confirmed the generation of the anionic radical with a higher reducing potential. Kinetic data was obtained for selected system by following the formation and decay of the optical and ESR signatures. The reactions leading to the generation of highly reductive radicals is discussed.

  7. [Pain as adverse drug reaction].

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Birgit; Schaffarzick, Daniel; Nagano, Marietta; Janowitz, Susanne Melitta; Schweitzer, Ekkehard

    2012-09-01

    We present a multidisciplinary (anaesthesiology--clinical pharmacy--bioinformatics) analysis of pain as possible adverse drug reaction taking different manifestations of pain, indication groups, relevance to the Austrian drug market and possible mechanistic influence of drugs on development and apprehension of pain into consideration.We designed an overview that shows how transmitters that play a part in nociception and antinociception can be influenced by drugs. This allows conclusions to the dolorigene potential of therapeutics. PMID:22805763

  8. Variable expansion ratio reaction engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.

    1987-11-24

    A variable expansion ratio reaction rocket engine for producing a mainstream of hot combustion gases is described comprising: a reaction chamber including a thrust nozzle portion formed by converging and diverging wall portions in which the diverging portion terminates in a gas discharge and through which the combustion gases pass; a nozzle throat section at the juncture of the convergent-divergent wall portions; rows of circumferentially and axially spaced injection ports formed within the wall portions and communicating therethrough and into the reaction chamber; fluid conduit means in communication with the injection ports; at least one high pressure pump in communication with the fluid conduit means; a fluid containing storage tank including a conduit in communication with the high pressure pump; and means for selectively controlling a flow of fluid out of the tank, through the pump and to the fluid conduit means and the injection ports for controlling a cross-sectional area of the mainstream combustion gases passing through the thrust nozzle.

  9. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-02-02

    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  10. Force approach to radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  11. Photosynthetic reaction centers in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R. Univ. of Chicago, IL ); Schiffer, M. )

    1990-07-30

    The photochemistry of photosynthesis begins in complexes called reaction centers. These have become model systems to study the fundamental process by which plants and bacteria convert and store solar energy as chemical free energy. In green plants, photosynthesis occurs in two systems, each of which contains a different reaction center, working in series. In one, known as photosystem 1, oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP[sup +]) is reduced to NADPH for use in a series of dark reactions called the Calvin cycle, named for Nobel Laureate Melvin Calvin, by which carbon dioxide is converted into useful fuels such as carbohydrates and sugars. In the other half of the photosynthetic machinery of green plants, called photosystem 2, water is oxidized to produce molecular oxygen. A different form of photosynthesis occurs in photosynthetic bacteria, which typically live at the bottom of ponds and feed on organic debris. Two main types of photosynthetic bacteria exist: purple and green. Neither type liberates oxygen from water. Instead, the bacteria feed on organic media or inorganic materials, such as sulfides, which are easier to reduce or oxidize than carbon dioxide or water. Perhaps in consequence, their photosynthetic machinery is simpler than that of green, oxygen-evolving plants and their primary photochemistry is better understood.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagation characteristics in unimolecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingpeng; Huang, Kama

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical reactions have attracted interests because of their benefits for enhancement of reaction rates. However, the problems, such as hot spots and thermal runaway, limit the application of microwaves in the chemical industry. To study the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in a chemical reaction is critical to solve the problems. The research on the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in the unimolecular reaction that is a simple model reaction, can be generalized to the research in a chemical reaction. The approximate expressions of the attenuation and dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in the unimolecular reaction are derived by the nonlinear propagation theory. Specially, when the reaction rate is zero, the derived approximate expressions can be reduced to the formulas in low-loss dispersive media. Moreover, a 1D mold is used to validate the feasibility of the approximate expressions. The influences of the reaction rate and initial reactant concentration on the characteristics are obtained.

  13. Microfabricated electrochemiluminescence cell for chemical reaction detection

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Hsueh, Yun-Tai; Smith, Rosemary L.

    2003-01-01

    A detector cell for a silicon-based or non-silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The detector cell is an electrochemiluminescence cell constructed of layers of silicon with a cover layer of glass, with spaced electrodes located intermediate various layers forming the cell. The cell includes a cavity formed therein and fluid inlets for directing reaction fluid therein. The reaction chamber and detector cell may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The ECL cell may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  14. Visualization of chemical reaction dynamics: Toward understanding complex polyatomic reactions

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Polyatomic molecules have several electronic states that have similar energies. Consequently, their chemical dynamics often involve nonadiabatic transitions between multiple potential energy surfaces. Elucidating the complex reactions of polyatomic molecules is one of the most important tasks of theoretical and experimental studies of chemical dynamics. This paper describes our recent experimental studies of the multidimensional multisurface dynamics of polyatomic molecules based on two-dimensional ion/electron imaging. It also discusses ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids for elucidating nonadiabatic electronic dynamics in aqueous solutions. PMID:23318678

  15. The molecular dynamics of atmospheric reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information about the chemistry of the upper atmosphere took the form of quantitative data concerning the rate of reaction into specified states of product vibration, rotation and translation for exothermic reaction, as well as concerning the rate of reaction from specified states of reagent vibration, rotation and translation for endothermic reaction. The techniques used were variants on the infrared chemiluminescence method. Emphasis was placed on reactions that formed, and that removed, vibrationally-excited hydroxyl radicals. Fundamental studies were also performed on exothermic reactions involving hydrogen halides.

  16. Microfabricated sleeve devices for chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and non-silicon based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  17. The Biginelli Reaction Is a Urea-Catalyzed Organocatalytic Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Puripat, Maneeporn; Ramozzi, Romain; Hatanaka, Miho; Parasuk, Waraporn; Parasuk, Vudhichai; Morokuma, Keiji

    2015-07-17

    The recently developed artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method was applied to search systematically all possible multicomponent pathways for the Biginelli reaction mechanism. The most favorable pathway starts with the condensation of the urea and benzaldehyde, followed by the addition of ethyl acetoacetate. Remarkably, a second urea molecule catalyzes nearly every step of the reaction. Thus, the Biginelli reaction is a urea-catalyzed multicomponent reaction. The reaction mechanism was found to be identical in both protic and aprotic solvents. PMID:26066623

  18. Shame reactions after suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Wiklander, Maria; Samuelsson, Mats; Asberg, Marie

    2003-09-01

    Shame reactions were spontaneously described by 13 of 18 patients interviewed in a qualitative study investigating experiences of care following a suicide attempt. The shame data from the interview study were extracted, analysed separately, and are reported in this article. The shame reactions often occurred in conjunction with the suicide attempt. Feelings of shame were accompanied by impulses to hide or flee, i.e., fear of seeking help or impulses to leave the hospital. The attempted suicide patients often experienced the initial encounter at the hospital as difficult. Having attempted suicide and survived was often perceived as yet another failure, in addition to the problems leading to the attempt. The attempted suicide patients were sensitive to the attitudes and behaviours of the personnel. Experiencing the personnel as kind, respectful, and nonjudgemental seemed to contribute to a relief from shame for some patients. Some respondents expressed that a tolerant and flexible atmosphere in the psychiatric ward, with low demands on the attempted suicide patient, helped them accept treatment and made them feel less ashamed for not living up to the expectations of everyday life. On the other hand, feeling too exposed to others or experiencing negative attitudes from the personnel seemed to contribute to an exacerbation of shame for some patients. Being aware of possible shame reactions after a suicide attempt might help caring personnel to understand and interact with attempted suicide patients in a way that could make it easier for these patients to accept and benefit from psychiatric care after a suicide attempt. PMID:12919465

  19. Emergent computation by catalytic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Wolfgang; Dittrich, Peter; Rauhe, Hilmar

    1996-12-01

    Recently, biochemical systems have been shown to possess interesting computational properties. In a parallel development, the chemical computation metaphor is becoming more and more frequently used as part of the emergent computation paradigm in computer science. We review in this contribution the idea behind the chemical computational metaphor and outline its relevance for nanotechnology. We set up a simulated reaction system of mathematical objects and examine its dynamics by computer experiments. Typical problems of computer science, such as sorting, parity checking or prime number computation are placed within this context. The implications of this approach for nanotechnology, parallel computers based on molecular devices and DNA-RNA-protein information processing are discussed.

  20. Reaction of rhodanese with dithiothreitol.

    PubMed

    Pecci, L; Pensa, B; Costa, M; Cignini, P L; Cannella, C

    1976-08-12

    The reaction between bovine rhodanese (thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase, EC 2.8.1.1) and reduced dithiothreitol has been studied. This reagent, in the absence of thiosulfate, reduces the amount of sulfur carried by rhodanese with formation of sulfide and oxidized dithiothreitol: E-S-SH + reduced dithiothreitol replaced by E-SH + HS- + oxidized dithiothreitol, (E = enzyme). An inactivation was observed at high dithiothreitol/enzyme ratios or at very low enzyme concentrations. The inactivation was not observed in the presence of thiosulfate and can be reversed by cyanide or thiosulfate. A thiosulfate reduction activity of rhodanese was also found using dithiothreitol as reductant. PMID:986188

  1. Control Electronics For Reaction Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Bidirectional operation achieved with single-polarity main power supply. Control circuitry generates pulse-width-modulated 800-Hz waveforms to drive two-phase ac motor and reaction wheel. Operates partly in response to digital magnitude-and-direction torque command generated by external control subsystem and partly in response to tachometric feedback in form of two once-per-revolution sinusoids with amplitudes proportional to speed. Operation in either of two modes called "normal" and "safehold." In normal mode, drive pulses timed so that, on average over one or few cycles, motor applies commanded torque. In safehold mode, pulses timed to keep motor running at set speed in one direction.

  2. Nanomotors Propelled by Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapral, Raymond

    2013-12-01

    Molecular motors, like their macroscopic counterparts, consume energy and convert it to work; however, unlike macroscopic motors, they are subject to strong fluctuations and do not rely on inertia for their operation. In this chapter, the dynamics of synthetic chemically-powered nanomotors and mechanisms by which they operate are described. The focus is on motors that propel themselves by utilizing fuel in the environment to generate their own concentration gradients through chemical reactions. Macroscopic diffusiophoretic mechanisms for such motions are discussed, as well as microscopic and mesoscopic descriptions of motor dynamics.

  3. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1) Adsorption of dilute PFOS(aq) and PFOA(aq) to acoustically cavitating bubble interfaces was greater than equilibrium expectations due to high-velocity bubble radial oscillations; 2) Relative ozone oxidation kinetics of aqueous iodide, sulfite, and thiosulfate were at variance with previously reported bulk aqueous kinetics; 3) Organics that directly chelated with the anode surface were oxidized by direct electron transfer, resulting in immediate carbon dioxide production but slower overall oxidation kinetics. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces can be the rate-limiting step of a reaction network and often display novel mechanisms and kinetics as compared to homogeneous chemistry.

  4. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 1: Initial Attempts towards the Synthesis of Schiartanes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ming; You, Lin; Shan, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Ruo-Cheng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Yuan-He; Shi, Ying; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Our first-generation synthetic study towards the total synthesis of propindilactone G (1) and its analogues is reported. The key synthetic steps were an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) and a vinylogous Mukaiyama reaction (VMAR). The stereoselective synthesis of the CDE ring moiety with an all-carbon quaternary center through a PKR was difficult, whilst a VMAR afforded a product with the opposite stereochemistry at the C20 position on the side chain. These results led us to redesign our synthetic strategy for the total synthesis of compound 1. PMID:26991268

  5. Effective radii of deuteron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shintaro; Chiba, Satoshi; Yahiro, Masanobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Minomo, Kosho

    2011-05-15

    The continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) for exclusive reactions and the eikonal reaction theory (ERT) as an extension of CDCC to inclusive reactions are applied to deuteron-induced reactions. The CDCC result reproduces experimental data on the reaction cross section for d+{sup 58}Ni scattering at 200 MeV/nucleon, and ERT provides data on the neutron-stripping cross section for inclusive {sup 7}Li(d,n) reaction at 40 MeV. For deuteron-induced reactions at 200 MeV/nucleon, target-dependence of the reaction, elastic-breakup, nucleon-stripping, nucleon-removal, and complete- and incomplete-fusion cross sections is clearly explained by simple formulas. Accuracy of the Glauber model is also investigated.

  6. The carbon (formerly dark) reactions of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Bob B

    2016-05-01

    In this brief account, I describe the background for dividing photosynthesis into "light" and "dark" reactions and show how this concept changed to "light" and "carbon" reactions as science in the field advanced. PMID:26704182

  7. Paradoxical reaction in HIV negative tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-05-15

    This review focusses on paradoxical reactions occurring during the treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in human immunodeficiency virus-negative cases. A paradoxical reaction is defined as the worsening of a pre-existing lesion or the appearance of new lesion in a patient whose clinical symptoms initially improved with anti-tuberculosis treatment. A number of different paradoxical reactions have been reported in patients with TBM including expansion of existing cerebral tuberculomas, and appearance of new tuberculomas, hydrocephalus, and optochiasmatic and spinal arachnoiditis. While the exact mechanism of paradoxical reactions is uncertain, an exaggerated immune reaction against Mycobacterium tuberculosis-associated antigens is currently the most accepted theory for tuberculous paradoxical reaction. Corticosteroids are considered to have a beneficial effect in the management of paradoxical reactions. Immuno-modulatory drugs, including tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists, thalidomide and interferon-γ have been used in isolated cases with more severe forms of paradoxical reactions. PMID:24680563

  8. Laser-induced tissue reactions and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rebecca J; Taylor, Brent R; Engelman, Dendy E

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of laser tissue reactions and tissue properties allows the practitioner to tailor a treatment to an individual patient's need and goals. A laser's power, spot size and pulse duration may be manipulated to yield different tissue reactions. Five tissue reactions, each the result of varying laser pulse durations and energy densities, may be achieved. They are photochemical, photothermal, photoablation, plasma-induced ablation and photomechanical. Of these, photothermal reactions are most utilized in dermatology. When higher powered pulses are applied, tissue often undergoes multiple reactions simultaneously. An understanding of these reactions allows their effects to be predicted. In this chapter, the various reactions are reviewed, and the reactions caused by many of the most commonly used lasers in dermatology are discussed. PMID:21865795

  9. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO/sub 2/ laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D/sub 2/CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D/sub 2/CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D/sub 2/CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 ..mu..m ir fluorescence from D/sub 2/CO is proportional to the square of the D/sub 2/CO pressure in pure D/sub 2/CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D/sub 2/CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm/sup 2/ at 946.0 cm/sup -1/. The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D/sub 2/CO. In H/sub 2/CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF/sub 4/ - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel.

  10. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore » of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  11. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  12. Radiation Reaction and Thomson Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, James

    2007-07-11

    In recent years high power high irradiance lasers of peta-watt order have been or are under construction. In addition, in the next 10 years lasers of unprecedented powers, exa-watt, could be built If lasers such as these are focused to very small spot sizes, extremely high laser irradiances will be achieved. When electrons interact with such a laser, they become highly relativistic over very short time and spatial scales. Usually the motion of an electron under the influence of electromagnetic fields is influenced to a small extent by radiation emission from acceleration. However, under such violent acceleration the amount of radiation emitted by electrons can become so large that significant damping of the electron motion by the emission of this radiation can occur. In this lecture note we will study this problem of radiation reaction by first showing how the equations of motion are obtained. Then, we will examine the problems with such equations and what approximations are made. We will specifically examine the effects of radiation reaction on the Thomson scattering of radiation from counter-streaming laser pulses and high energy electrons through the numerical integration of the equations of motion. We will briefly address the fundamental physics, which can be addressed by using such high irradiance lasers interacting with high energy electrons.

  13. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-02-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three-nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between LQCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from LQCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  14. Entertaining Chemistry--Two Colorful Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsworth, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes two related color-change reactions that are relatively easy and safe to demonstrate. In the "Sunday School Reaction", a black and a white solution are mixed to form a white solution. In the "South Africa Reaction", a series of black, brown, red, and white solutions are mixed to form a clear, colorless solution. (WRM)

  15. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murov, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

  16. Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

    2010-01-01

    A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

  17. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOEpatents

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  18. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical

  19. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock

  20. Reactions to Termination of Individual Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Anne E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Queried 69 social workers about termination reactions in most recently terminated individual cases. Clients' strongest reactions were positive affect, evaluation of success, evaluation of therapeutic experience, and positive flight. Least strong client reactions were nihilistic flight, regression, denial, recapitulation, and expression of need for…

  1. New potential of the classical Biginelli reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovina, S. V.; Mamedov, Vakhid A.

    2008-12-01

    The published data on the Biginelli reaction are generalised and systematised. The major attention is focused on the publications of the last seven years. Possible reaction mechanisms and its application for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives are considered. Examples of rare versions of this reaction are given.

  2. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  3. 'GREENER' CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave (MW) irradiation in conjunction with water as reaction media has proven to be a greener chemical approach for expeditious N-alkylation reactions of amines and hydrazines wherein the reactions under mildly basic conditions afford tertiary amines and double N-alkylation t...

  4. Modified triglyceride oil through reactions with phenyltriazolinedione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of a modified triglyceride oil was achieved through the reactions with 4-phenyl-1,2-4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). 1H NMR was used for structure determination and to monitor the reactions. Several reaction products were produced, and their relative yields depended on the stoichiometry ...

  5. New reaction tester accurate within 56 microseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H.

    1972-01-01

    Testing device measures simple and disjunctive reaction time of human subject to light stimuli. Tester consists of reaction key, logic card, panel mounted neon indicators, and interconnecting wiring. Device is used for determining reaction times of patients undergoing postoperative neurological therapy.

  6. Energetics of bimolecular nucleophilic reactions in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Vladislav M.

    2006-09-01

    Published data on the activation parameters of bimolecular nucleophilic reactions in solution are generalised and described systematically. The factors that influence the relation between the activation parameters in these reactions are discussed. The relationships between the mechanisms of bimolecular nucleophilic substitution and addition reactions and their activation parameters are considered, and the role of the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect is analysed.

  7. Parental Reactions to Cleft Palate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanpoelvoorde, Leah

    This literature review examines parental reactions following the birth of a cleft lip/palate child, focusing primarily on the mother's reactions. The research studies cited have explored such influences on maternal reactions as her feelings of lack of control over external forces and her feelings of guilt that the deformity was her fault. Delays…

  8. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  9. Surface catalyzed mercury transformation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Patanjali

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with five different oxidation catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 mug/m 3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO 2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400°C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. alpha-iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but gamma-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  10. Hysterical conversion reactions: some patient characteristics and treatment team reactions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T D

    1983-07-01

    Paralysis due to an hysterical conversion reaction may require an active rehabilitation program to prevent complications such as contractures and adhesions. The delivery of this care can create an emotional burden on the rehabilitation staff due to their awareness of the psychiatric etiology of this condition. Good patient care may be undermined by the thought that the patient is malingering. This paper explores features of hysteria--its relation to emotional stress, absence of organic pathology and symbolism--and contrasts it to malingering. The impact of this condition on the treatment staff is explored with two case studies. An understanding of hysteria could make the delivery of proper care to these troubled patients less stressful. PMID:6860107

  11. Reactions of butadiyne. 1: The reaction with hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwanebeck, W.; Warnatz, J.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen (H) atoms with butadiene (C4H2) was studied at room temperature in a pressure range between w mbar and 10 mbar. The primary step was an addition of H to C4H2 which is in its high pressure range at p 1 mbar. Under these conditions the following addition of a second H atom lies in the transition region between low and high pressure range. Vibrationally excited C4H4 can be deactivated to form buten-(1)-yne-(3)(C4H4) or decomposes into two C2H2 molecules. The rate constant at room temperature for primary step is given. The second order rate constant for the consumption of buten-(1)-yne-(3) is an H atom excess at room temperature is given.

  12. Incidents of chemical reactions in cell equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.M.; Barlow, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    Strongly exothermic reactions can occur between equipment structural components and process gases under certain accident conditions in the diffusion enrichment cascades. This paper describes the conditions required for initiation of these reactions, and describes the range of such reactions experienced over nearly 50 years of equipment operation in the US uranium enrichment program. Factors are cited which can promote or limit the destructive extent of these reactions, and process operations are described which are designed to control the reactions to minimize equipment damage, downtime, and the possibility of material releases.

  13. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, J.L. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  14. Electromagnetic effects on explosive reaction and plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, Douglas G; Whitley, Von H; Mace, Jonathan L; Pemberton, Steven J; Sandoval, Thomas D; Lee, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that electric fields can have quantifiable effects on the initiation and growth of detonation, yet the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. Candidates include Joule heating of the reaction zone, perturbations to the activation energy for chemical reaction, reduction of the Peierls energy barrier that facilitates dislocation motion, and acceleration of plasma projected from the reaction zone. In this study the possible role of plasma in the initiation and growth of explosive reaction is investigated. The effects of magnetic and electric field effects on reaction growth will be reviewed and recent experiments reported.

  15. Reaction dynamics near the barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, W.

    2011-10-01

    The availability of modest intensity (103-107 p/s) radioactive nuclear beams has had a significant impact on the study of nuclear reactions near the interaction barrier. The role of isospin in capture reactions is a case in point. Using heavy elements as a laboratory to explore these effects, we note that the cross section for producing an evaporation residue is σEVR(Ec . m .) = ∑ J = 0 JmaxσCN(Ec . m . , J) Wsur(Ec . m . , J) where σCN is the complete fusion cross section and Wsur is the survival probability of the completely fused system. The complete fusion cross section can be written as, σCN(Ec . m .) = ∑ J = 0 Jmaxσcapture(Ec . m .) PCN(Ec . m . , J) where σcapture(Ec.m.,J) is the ``capture'' cross section at center-of mass energy Ec.m. and spin J and PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve inside the fission saddle point to form a completely fused system rather than re-separating (quasi-fission). The systematics of the isospin dependence of the capture cross sections has been developed and the deduced interaction barriers for all known studies of capture cross sections with radioactive beams are in good agreement with recent predictions of an improved QMD model and semi-empirical models. The deduced barriers for these n-rich systems are lower than one would expect from the Bass or proximity potentials. In addition to the barrier lowering, there is an enhanced sub-barrier cross section in these n-rich systems that is of advantage in the synthesis of new heavy nuclei. Recent studies of the ``inverse fission'' of uranium (124,132Sn + 100Mo) have yielded unexpectedly low upper limits for this process due apparently to low values of the fusion probability, PCN. The fusion of halo nuclei, like 11Li with heavy nuclei, like 208Pb, promises to give new information about these and related nuclei and has led/may lead to unusual reaction mechanisms. This work was sponsored, in part, by the USDOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  16. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  17. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  18. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  19. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.

  20. Local reaction kinetics by imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the "kinetics by imaging" approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics.

  1. Local reaction kinetics by imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the “kinetics by imaging” approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics. PMID:26865736

  2. Radiation reaction of multipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2007-08-01

    A Poincaré-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.

  3. The OH + HBr reaction revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravishankara, A. R.; Wine, P. H.; Wells, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Variable-temperature measurements of the rate coefficient /k(1)/ for the reaction OH + HBr yield Br + H2O are presented. The measurements are verified by two techniques: one involved a 266-nm pulsed-laser photolysis of O3/H2O/HBr/He mixtures in conjunction with time-resolved resonance fluorescence detection of OH, the second comprised pulsed laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH following 248-nm pulsed-laser photolysis of H2O2/HBr/Ar mixtures. It is reported that k(1) = (11.9 + or -1.4 x 10 to the -12th (cu cm)/(molecule)(s) independent of temperature. The measurements are compared with other available results.

  4. Chemical reactions in endoreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Katharina; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Endoreversible thermodynamics is a theory for the (approximate) description of thermodynamic non-equilibrium systems, which allows us to capture the ever present irreversibilities of real processes. For instance in heat engines the dissipation due to finite heat transport capabilities, as well as the resulting limitations in the energy fluxes, can be incorporated into the theory. It has thus been very successful in closing the gap between observed and theoretically predicted efficiencies. Here an extension of the theory is provided, with which chemical reactions can be included in the formalism. This opens up a wide field of applications for endoreversible modeling and the investigation of dissipative processes, for instance in fuel cells or batteries.

  5. [Paranoid syndrome, paranoid reaction, paranoia].

    PubMed

    Pavlovský, P

    2006-01-01

    The term paranoid is derived from the Greek word paranoia meaning nadnese. It does not only mean self-reference, but there are various personality features as they are hostility, a tendency towards aggressiveness, irritability, a lack of sense of humour, feelings of overestimation of one-self and a tendency towards accusations. These features may appear also within normal psychology and they becomeclinically important after thein increase of intensity and conspicuousness (los sof hearing, long-term abuse of alcohol and psychostimulants) and organic disorders of the brain may contribute to the development of paranoidity. A mechanism of projection is considered as a decivise factor from the point of view of dynamic psychiatry. Clinically unimportant sign sof paranoidity can be observed due to unusual situations. If a paranoid reaction becomes more serious, formation of a paranoid delusion should be taken to account. In our koncept the term paranoid and paranoidity should be used only as a psychopathological term. PMID:16634473

  6. Adverse Reactions of Ferric Carboxymaltose

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Navin; Shenoy, Smita; Bairy, K L; Sarma, Yashdeep

    2014-01-01

    The author reports a 55-year-old female diagnosed of chronic kidney disease grade-5 with associated co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and hypothyroidism was admitted for arteriovenous fistula construction. She was started on ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of anaemia. She was given a test dose before administering the drug intravenously and she did not develop any reaction. The drug ferric carboxymaltose was then administered over a period of one hour. About half an hour after drug administration, the patient developed breathlessness and myalgia. After half hour of the above episode of breathlessness and myalgia she also developed vomiting (one episode). Patient was managed with oxygen therapy, IV fluids and other drugs like corticosteroids, phenaramine maleate and nalbuphine which controlled the above symptoms. PMID:25478369

  7. Adverse reactions of ferric carboxymaltose.

    PubMed

    Thanusubramanian, Harish; Patil, Navin; Shenoy, Smita; Bairy, K L; Sarma, Yashdeep

    2014-10-01

    The author reports a 55-year-old female diagnosed of chronic kidney disease grade-5 with associated co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and hypothyroidism was admitted for arteriovenous fistula construction. She was started on ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of anaemia. She was given a test dose before administering the drug intravenously and she did not develop any reaction. The drug ferric carboxymaltose was then administered over a period of one hour. About half an hour after drug administration, the patient developed breathlessness and myalgia. After half hour of the above episode of breathlessness and myalgia she also developed vomiting (one episode). Patient was managed with oxygen therapy, IV fluids and other drugs like corticosteroids, phenaramine maleate and nalbuphine which controlled the above symptoms. PMID:25478369

  8. Acute transfusion reactions: an update.

    PubMed

    Scorer, T; Doughty, H

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the use of blood products by the United Kingdom (UK) military has increased significantly; with the increase in transfusion comes an increased incidence of transfusion-related incidents. Acute transfusion reactions (ATRs) are a common consequence of transfusion, which vary widely in their severity and are likely to be under-reported, although reporting is a regulatory requirement. This paper discusses the importance of identifying ATRs and managing them appropriately. It introduces a flowchart (due to be incorporated in the next version of Joint Service Publication (JSP) 999, Clinical Guidelines for Operations (CGOs)), which is designed to assist the military multi-disciplinary team caring for patients in the operational environment. PMID:25895413

  9. Reaction of nitrile pollutants in high temperature water: Reaction pathway analysis and kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, B.; Harrell, C.; Klein, M.T.; LaMarca, C.

    1996-12-31

    The reaction chemistry of acetonitrile and benzonitrile in High Temperature Water (HTW) was investigated. The reaction products were the associated amides and carboxylic acids. A kinetic model incorporating two autocatalytic steps captured the kinetics observed. The optimized rate constants highlighted differences in the reaction chemistry of aliphatic and aromatic nitrites at these reaction conditions. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fission data by surrogate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Kentaro

    2014-09-01

    A project of the fission data measurement for actinides (fragment mass distribution, cross sections and neutron multiplicities) using multi-nucleon transfer reactions is running at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Actinide targets such as 238U and 232Th were irradiated with 18O beam and fission induced by a nucleon transfer was observed. The experiment was performed at the tandem accelerator facility of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. A target of 232Th (~ 150 μ g/cm2) and 238U (~ 80 μ g/cm2) deposited on a 100- μg/cm2 thick nickel foil was bombarded with 157.7 MeV 18O beam. The scattered projectile-like nuclei were detected by a segmented ΔE-E silicon telescope located at the forward angle with respect to the beam. The thicknesses of ΔE and E detector are 75 μm and 300 μm, respectively. From the scattered particle, the compound nucleus was identified. Fission fragments by multi-nucleon transfer fission were detected in coincidence using four multi-wire proportional counters (MWPCs) located at 45 and 135 degree with a distance of 224 mm from the target. Around the reaction chamber, 12 liquid scintillators were placed to detect the fission neutrons. Mass split of each fission event was determined using the mass and momentum conservation. We obtained the mass distributions for 239,240U, 239-242Np and 241-243Pu using the 238U target and for 232-234Th, 233-236Pa and 237U using the 232Th target. As well as the fission fragment mass distribution, fission cross sections by the surrogate ratio method and the fission neutron multiplicities will also be shown in the conference.

  11. Inflammatory reaction - communication of cells.

    PubMed

    Terheyden, Hendrik; Stadlinger, Bernd; Sanz, Mariano; Garbe, Annette I; Meyle, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    This article presents scientific background information on the animated 3D film "Inflammatory Reactions - Communication of Cells" (Quintessence Publications, ISBN 978-1-85097-231-0). Gingivitis and periodontitis are understood as the result of a coordinated action of a few clearly identified cellular players who communicate with each other via cytokines. For didactic reasons, the course of a periodontal infection is described here in four phases: (1) bacterial biofilm formation and development of a host response in the marginal periodontium, (2) innate immune response leading to gingivitis, (3) role of the adaptive immune system in attachment loss and pocket formation, and (4) down-regulation of inflammation and periodontal regeneration and repair following biofilm removal. The control of the cells is discussed as a cytokine network, which can be modulated in pro- or anti-inflammatory direction depending on the control of the bacterial infection. Degradation of soft tissue structural proteins like collagen and proteoglycans by matrix metalloproteinases and degradation of hard tissue matrix by osteoclasts are explained as an interference of the immune system with the natural equilibrium of tissue remodeling. Five mechanisms of promotion of bone loss through the influence of the immune system are described. One example is bone resorption as a consequence of the shift of the RANKL/osteoprotegerin balance by soluble RANKL synthesized by CD4(+) Th 1 cells as well as the interference with the coupling of osteoclasts and osteoblasts through dedifferentiation of osteoblasts by TNFα. Finally, the signaling required for down-regulation of inflammatory reactions and the reasons for the incomplete regeneration after periodontal bone loss are discussed. PMID:23600659

  12. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions have become a powerful tool for advanced organic synthesis. This type of reaction is of significant value for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, as well as advanced materials. Both, academic as well as industrial laboratories continuously investigate new applications of the different methodologies. Clearly, this area constitutes one of the major topics in homogeneous catalysis and organic synthesis. Among the different palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions, several carbonylations have been developed and widely used in organic syntheses and are even applied in the pharmaceutical industry on ton-scale. Furthermore, methodologies such as the carbonylative Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions allow for the preparation of interesting building blocks, which can be easily refined further on. Although carbonylative coupling reactions of aryl halides have been well established, palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions are also interesting. Compared with the reactions of aryl halides, oxidative carbonylation reactions offer an interesting pathway. The oxidative addition step could be potentially avoided in oxidative reactions, but only few reviews exist in this area. In this Minireview, we summarize the recent development in the oxidative carbonylation reactions. PMID:23307763

  13. Multiconstituent Reaction Identification in Groundwater Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Yeh, W.

    2004-12-01

    The selection of appropriate reaction terms for coupled advection-dispersion-reaction (ADR) groundwater systems is a difficult enterprise. Choosing a proper analytical form is crucial to the accurate prediction of system behavior. The decision can be daunting in the absence of accurate a priori biological, chemical, and geophysical properties of the site. Moreover, once the functional form is chosen, the analyst must then calibrate that reaction functionAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAøs parameters. The calibration process itself can be challenging, especially in the case of complex empirical reaction models. Our research investigates the utility of avoiding the direct choice of a reaction function. Instead of picking a particular analytic reaction term, we construct a reaction function as best as possible given available data. The reaction term is developed by conjoining an optimal set of hyperplanes which approximate the functional geometry of the complex, multiconstituent reactions that the existing measurements suggest. The methodology employs a genetic algorithm (GA) to identify increasingly complex sets of junction nodes in the reaction space, sequential quadratic programming (SQP) to compute an ordinate at each node, and Delaunay triangulation to combine this information into a reaction surface of intersecting hyperplanes. The GA and the SQP ally with the ADR simulation itself to provide the most elementary functional approximation which satisfies the prediction and reliability requirements of the analyst. Results will be shown which demonstrate the utility of this multidimensional inverse modeling approach. Analyses will also be presented which compare an integral goodness of fit metric that indicates which member of a family of analytic functions the reaction surface approximation most closely resembles. In so doing, this methodology serves to provide both the most reliable reaction function which the data allow and to indicate to the researcher which analytic form is most likely to be present in the system studied.

  14. Intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, C.; Tamain, B.

    The intermediate energy heavy ion induced reactions are extensively studied for several years. In this paper, we try to summarize the present knowledge. The peripheral reactions appear to be intermediate between the fragmentation and the deep inelastic regimes. Many questions remain open concerning the energy relaxation mechanisms and an eventual participant zone creation. In the case of central collisions, it has been shown that very hot nuclei can be built. The fusion limits are discussed and the very hot nuclei properties are considered. In some cases, hot spot formation or compression effects could play a role. Multifragmentation is discussed as a possible decay channel. In all these aspects, a difficult question concerns the validity of the temperature concept and more generally of collective thermodynamical variables. Such collective effects have been investigated in pion production experiments. Les réactions induites par ions lourds d'énergie intermédiaire sont très étudiées depuis quelques années. Dans cet article, nous essayons de résumer l'état actuel des connaissances. Les mécanismes mis en jeu dans les collisions périphériques sont intermédiaires entre les collisions très inélastiques et la fragmentation. La cible joue clairement un rôle déterminant et des effets importants de champ moyen demeurent. De nombreuses questions restent sans réponse comme par exemple les mécanismes de relaxation d'énergie ou l'existence d'une éventuelle zone participante. Dans le cas des collisions centrales, il a pu être montré que des noyaux très chauds sont fabriqués. Les limites au processus de fusion et les propriétés des noyaux très chauds sont discutées. Dans certains cas, des effets de compression ou de points chauds peuvent être envisagés. La multifragmentation est une voie de désexcitation possible. Une importante question concerne la validité du concept de température et plus généralement la notion de variable collective équilibrée. Des effets collectifs peuvent être responsables de la production de pions.

  15. ReactionPredictor: prediction of complex chemical reactions at the mechanistic level using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Kayala, Matthew A; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-10-22

    Proposing reasonable mechanisms and predicting the course of chemical reactions is important to the practice of organic chemistry. Approaches to reaction prediction have historically used obfuscating representations and manually encoded patterns or rules. Here we present ReactionPredictor, a machine learning approach to reaction prediction that models elementary, mechanistic reactions as interactions between approximate molecular orbitals (MOs). A training data set of productive reactions known to occur at reasonable rates and yields and verified by inclusion in the literature or textbooks is derived from an existing rule-based system and expanded upon with manual curation from graduate level textbooks. Using this training data set of complex polar, hypervalent, radical, and pericyclic reactions, a two-stage machine learning prediction framework is trained and validated. In the first stage, filtering models trained at the level of individual MOs are used to reduce the space of possible reactions to consider. In the second stage, ranking models over the filtered space of possible reactions are used to order the reactions such that the productive reactions are the top ranked. The resulting model, ReactionPredictor, perfectly ranks polar reactions 78.1% of the time and recovers all productive reactions 95.7% of the time when allowing for small numbers of errors. Pericyclic and radical reactions are perfectly ranked 85.8% and 77.0% of the time, respectively, rising to >93% recovery for both reaction types with a small number of allowed errors. Decisions about which of the polar, pericyclic, or radical reaction type ranking models to use can be made with >99% accuracy. Finally, for multistep reaction pathways, we implement the first mechanistic pathway predictor using constrained tree-search to discover a set of reasonable mechanistic steps from given reactants to given products. Webserver implementations of both the single step and pathway versions of ReactionPredictor are available via the chemoinformatics portal http://cdb.ics.uci.edu/. PMID:22978639

  16. Delayed reactions to reusable protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Dubnika, Inese

    2009-04-01

    The materials in plastic protective gloves are thought to cause less contact allergy than rubber gloves. Our aim was to estimate the frequency of delayed reactions to different types of reusable protective gloves among dermatitis patients. 2 x 2 cm pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves, nitrile gloves, and natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were tested as is in consecutive dermatitis patients tested with the baseline series. Among 658 patients, 6 patients reacted to PVC gloves and 6 patients to the NRL gloves. None reacted to both these types of gloves. Five of six patients with reactions to rubber gloves reacted to thiuram mix in the baseline series. Delayed reactions to reusable PVC gloves may be as common as to reusable NRL gloves. In contrast to most reactions to the NRL glove, the reactions to the PVC glove had no obvious association with reactions to any allergen(s) in the baseline series. PMID:19338595

  17. Antibody-mediated cofactor-driven reactions

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions capable of being rate-enhanced by auxiliary species which interact with the reactants but do not become chemically bound to them in the formation of the final product are performed in the presence of antibodies which promote the reactions. The antibodies contain regions within their antigen binding sites which recognize the auxiliary species in a conformation which promotes the reaction. The antigen binding site frequently recognizes a particular transition state complex or other high energy complex along the reaction coordinate, thereby promoting the progress of the reaction along the desired route as opposed to other less favorable routes. Various classes of reaction together with appropriate antigen binding site specificities tailored for each are disclosed.

  18. Reaction Coordinates and Mechanistic Hypothesis Tests.

    PubMed

    Peters, Baron

    2016-05-27

    Reaction coordinates are integral to several classic rate theories that can (a) predict kinetic trends across conditions and homologous reactions, (b) extract activation parameters with a clear physical interpretation from experimental rates, and (c) enable efficient calculations of free energy barriers and rates. New trajectory-based rare events methods can provide rates directly from dynamical trajectories without a reaction coordinate. Trajectory-based frameworks can also generate ideal (but abstract) reaction coordinates such as committors and eigenfunctions of the master equation. However, rates and mechanistic insights obtained from trajectory-based methods and abstract coordinates are not readily generalized across simulation conditions or reaction families. We discuss methods for identifying physically meaningful reaction coordinates, including committor analysis, variational transition state theory, Kramers-Langer-Berezhkovskii-Szabo theory, and statistical inference methods that can use path sampling data to screen, mix, and optimize thousands of trial coordinates. Special focus is given to likelihood maximization and inertial likelihood maximization approaches. PMID:27090846

  19. Glycation Reactions of Casein Micelles.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Ulrike; Duerasch, Anja; Weiz, Alexander; Ruck, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-13

    After suspensions of micellar casein or nonmicellar sodium caseinate had been heated, respectively, in the presence and absence of glucose for 0-4 h at 100 °C, glycation compounds were quantitated. The formation of Amadori products as indicators for the "early" Maillard reaction were in the same range for both micellar and nonmicellar caseins, indicating that reactive amino acid side chains within the micelles are accessible for glucose in a comparable way as in nonmicellar casein. Significant differences, however, were observed concerning the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), namely, N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), pyrraline, pentosidine, and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD). CML could be observerd in higher amounts in nonmicellar casein, whereas in the micelles the pyrraline formation was increased. Pentosidine and GOLD were formed in comparable amounts. Furthermore, the extent of protein cross-linking was significantly higher in the glycated casein micelles than in the nonmicellar casein samples. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that glycation has no influence on the size of the casein micelles, indicating that cross-linking occurs only in the interior of the micelles, but altered the surface morphology. Studies on glycation and nonenzymatic cross-linking can contribute to the understanding of the structure of casein micelles. PMID:27018258

  20. Human collective reactions to threat.

    PubMed

    Dezecache, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    A common assumption regarding mass emergency situations is that individuals in such contexts behave in a way that maximizes their likelihood to escape, at the expense, or with little concern for, the welfare and survival of their neighbors. Doing so, they might even compromise the effectiveness of group evacuation. This conception follows the views of early works on crowd psychology, a tradition born with Gustave Le Bon's The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind, first published in 1895, and which has had a tremendous impact on scientific representations of people's behavior in mass emergency contexts. Indeed, this work has greatly contributed to the idea that, in such situations, people revert to a primitive, impulsive, irrational, and antisocial nature, causing the breakdown of social order. However, more empirically oriented studies have consistently reported little collective panic, as well as a great deal of solidarity and pro-social behavior during mass emergency situations. Because of institutional barriers, such views have remained largely unknown to cognitive psychologists. Yet these are important results in that they show that human individual and collective reactions to threat are primarily affiliative. Indeed, far from leading to the breakdown of the social fabrics, the presence of a common threat can strengthen social bonds. PMID:26263225

  1. Defensive Physiological Reactions to Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that rejection automatically elicits defensive physiological reactions in people with low self-esteem (SE) but that attentional control moderates this effect. Undergraduates (N = 67) completed questionnaire measures of SE and attentional control. Their eye-blink responses to startle probes were measured while they viewed paintings related to rejection and acceptance themes. The stimuli also included positive-, negative-, and neutral-valence control paintings unrelated to rejection. As predicted, compared with people high in SE, those low in SE showed stronger startle eye-blink responses to paintings related to rejection, but not to negative paintings. Paintings related to acceptance did not attenuate their physiological reactivity. Furthermore, attentional control moderated their sensitivity to rejection, such that low SE was related to greater eye-blink responses to rejection only among individuals who were low in attentional control. Implications of the role of attentional control as a top-down process regulating emotional reactivity in people with low SE are discussed. PMID:17894606

  2. Local reactions to tick bites.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Elena; Caputo, Valentina; Morello, Vincenza; Tomasino, Rosa Maria

    2008-06-01

    A retrospective histological and immunohistochemical study has been carried out in 25 cases of tick bites recorded in our Departments. The samples that included an attached tick showed a cement cone anchoring the mouthparts to the skin and a blood-soaked, spongiform appearance of the superficial dermis, with a mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltration. The vessels displayed a loose multilayered endothelial proliferation, with plump endothelia, permeated with erythrocytes. A few of them were severed, allowing copious blood extravasation. The established lesions included the following: erythema chronicum migrans-like cases, foreign body granulomas-sometimes containing remnants of the mouthparts-cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, either of the T-cell or the B-cell type, and tick-bite alopecia. In both the T-cell and B-cell pseudolymphomas, several vessels showed concentric endothelial and perithelial proliferation similar to that seen in the acute lesions. In the tick-bite alopecia, a lymphocytic infiltrate attacked the permanent portion of the hair follicles, whose reaction was a noticeable hyperplasia of the fibrous sheaths, although only a minority of the hairs was destroyed. The observed alterations are specific in the acute lesions and in the alopecia, where they directly arise as a result of the interactions between the host's tissues and the antihemostatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory chemicals contained in the tick saliva. In the other lesions, the changes seem less characteristic, although the fragments of mouthparts and the special vascular changes provide a clue to their etiology. PMID:18496425

  3. 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia M. Friend

    2006-03-14

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Ventura Beach Marriott, Ventura California from February 13, 2005 through February 18, 2005. The Conference was well-attended with 124 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  4. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  5. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  6. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  7. Demisable Reaction-Wheel Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell; Ahronovich, Eliezer; Davis, Milton C., III

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the concept of a demisable motor-drive-and-flywheel assembly [reaction-wheel assembly (RWA)] used in controlling the attitude of a spacecraft. Demisable as used here does not have its traditional legal meaning; instead, it signifies susceptible to melting, vaporizing, and/or otherwise disintegrating during re-entry of the spacecraft into the atmosphere of the Earth so as not to pose a hazard to anyone or anything on the ground. Prior RWAs include parts made of metals (e.g., iron, steel, and titanium) that melt at high temperatures and include structures of generally closed character that shield some parts (e.g., magnets) against re-entry heating. In a demisable RWA, the flywheel would be made of aluminum, which melts at a lower temperature. The flywheel web would not be a solid disk but would have a more open, nearly-spoke-like structure so that it would disintegrate more rapidly; hence, the flywheel rim would separate more rapidly so that parts shielded by the rim would be exposed sooner to re-entry heating. In addition, clearances between the flywheel and other components would be made greater, imparting a more open character and thus increasing the exposure of those components.

  8. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  9. [Stathmokinetic reaction reversibility in malignantly transformed cells].

    PubMed

    Aspiz, M E; Starosvetskaia, N A

    1980-08-01

    The statmokinetic reaction of malignant-transformed cells of a hamster tumor (CHT-1) was induced by colcemid. The reversibility of the reaction is primarily related to the repolymerization of spindle microtubules from the tubuline pool of the precursors. The character of the statmokinetic reaction reversibility in the test cells evidences the activity of polymerization processes in them. The course of these processes in the presence of copper ions did not differ from that in nonmalignant-transformed cells. PMID:7407396

  10. Calculation of reaction probabilities using wavepackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Steven M.; Carrington, Tucker

    1997-03-01

    The cumulative reaction probability for a bimolecular chemical reaction is expressed in terms of a set of Fourier transforms of scaler wavepacket correlation functions. The formulae are derived from the quantum mechanical trace formalism of W.H. Miller and co-workers obtained from a correlation function analysis. The technique is applied to the three-dimensional H+H2 reaction and the computer memory required is compared with recent developments in this area.

  11. Reaction-diffusion waves in biology.

    PubMed

    Volpert, V; Petrovskii, S

    2009-12-01

    The theory of reaction-diffusion waves begins in the 1930s with the works in population dynamics, combustion theory and chemical kinetics. At the present time, it is a well developed area of research which includes qualitative properties of travelling waves for the scalar reaction-diffusion equation and for system of equations, complex nonlinear dynamics, numerous applications in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine. This paper reviews biological applications of reaction-diffusion waves. PMID:20416847

  12. Advances in tandem reactions with organozinc reagents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Ko, Young Ok; Bouffard, Jean; Lee, Sang-gi

    2015-04-21

    The design and implementation of tandem reactions provides organic chemists with numerous challenges, in particular that of undesired cross-reactivity between substrates. Among organometallics, the use of organozinc reagents in tandem reactions provides several advantages as a result of their broad functional group tolerance and compatibility with transition metals. This review highlights prominent examples of recent advances in tandem reactions with organozinc reagents that illustrate their potential in organic synthesis. PMID:25708795

  13. AMSD Reaction Structure Cryo Deformation Test Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ron; Hraba, John; Thornton, Gary; Baker, Mark; Haight, Harlan; Hadaway, James; Blackwell, Lisa; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The method developed for measuring both in-plane & out-of-plane cryo deformations of AMSD reaction structures at the XRCF will be presented. For in-plane measurements, a theodolite is used to track the positions of several (up to ten) targets on the reaction structure. For out-of-plane measurements, the Leica ADM is used to measure the change in distance to several (up to ten) corner cubes attached to the reaction structure.

  14. The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2007-03-01

    The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy without significant radiation or radioactivity. Edmund K Storms, The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in press (2006). Also see: http://www.lenr-canr.org/StudentsGuide.htm .

  15. Catalytic reactions in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomeitsev, E. E. Tomasik, B.

    2012-06-15

    We discuss a new type of reactions of a {phi}-meson production on hyperons, {pi}Y {yields} {phi}Y and antikaons -KN {yields} {phi}Y. These reactions are not suppressed according to Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and can be a new efficient source of {phi} mesons in a nucleus-nucleus collision. We discuss how these reactions can affect the centrality dependence and the rapidity distributions of the {phi} yield.

  16. Hydrazones as substrates for cycloaddition reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belskaya, N. P.; Eliseeva, A. I.; Bakulev, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The [2+2]-, [4+2]- and [3+2]-cycloaddition reactions of hydrazones and 1,2-diazabuta-1,3-dienes, azomethine imines, nitrile imines and azomethine ylides formed upon hydrazone transformations with dienophiles, dipolarophiles and dienes are considered. The principal issues of structure and reactivity of active substrates and the influence of the reaction conditions and catalysts on the reaction regioselectivity and efficiency are discussed. The bibliography includes 288 references.

  17. PHYSICAL ORGANIC STUDIES OF ORGANOMETALLIC REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Robert G.

    1980-09-01

    The mechanisms of reactions of organotransition metal complexes have only begun to be understood in detail during the last ten years. The complementary interaction of techniques and concepts developed earlier in studies of organic reaction mechanisms, with those commonly used in inorganic chetnistry, has played a crucial role in helping to elucidate organor.1etall.ic reaction mechanisms. A few systems in which this interaction has proved especially fruitful are discussed in this article.

  18. A Lewis acid-promoted Pinner reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Dominik; Nemecek, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Summary Carbonitriles and alcohols react in a Lewis acid-promoted Pinner reaction to carboxylic esters. Best results are obtained with two equivalents of trimethylsilyl triflate as Lewis acid. Good yields are achieved with primary alcohols and aliphatic or benzylic carbonitriles, but the straightforward synthesis of acrylates and benzoates starting with acrylonitrile and benzonitrile, respectively, is similarly possible. Phenols are not acylated under these reaction conditions. The method has been used for the first total synthesis of the natural product monaspilosin. In the reaction of benzyl alcohols variable amounts of amides are formed in a Ritter-type side reaction. PMID:23946857

  19. Chemical reactions in low-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Facemire, B. R.

    1978-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz flight experiment, 'Chemical Foams' demonstrated that foams and air/liquid dispersions are much more stable in low-gravity than on the ground. It thus should be possible to conduct unique chemical reactions in space foams. The low-g results and subsequent ground work on the formaldehyde clock reaction indicate that the reaction is strongly influenced by (1) dissociated and undissociated solution species being adsorbed at solid/liquid and gas/liquid surfaces and (2) chemical reaction rates apparently being affected by long-range forces determined by the liquid mass and the extent and nature of all surface interfaces.

  20. Method of integral transforms to calculate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efros, V. D.

    2014-03-01

    A method to calculate reactions in quantum mechanics is outlined. It is advantageous, in particular, in problems with many open channels of various nature, i.e., when energy is not low. In the difference with more conventional approaches the dynamics calculations to be performed are bound-state type-calculations. Continuum spectrum states never enter the game. In the course of calculations there is no need to consider reaction channels, as well as reaction thresholds. Reaction channels and thresholds come into play at merely the kinematics level and only after a dynamics calculation is done.

  1. Chemical-reaction model for Mexican wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-05-01

    We present a chemical-reaction model to describe the Mexican wave ( La Ola) in football stadia. The spectator's action is described in terms of chemical reactions. The model is governed by three reaction rates k 1, k 2, and k3. We study the nonlinear waves on one- and two-dimensional lattices. The Mexican wave is formulated as a clockwise forwardly propagating wave. Waves are growing or disappear, depending on the values of reaction rates. In the specific case of k1= k2= k3=1, the nonlinear-wave equation produces a propagating pulse like soliton.

  2. Nuclear structure in deep-inelastic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concentrates on recent deep inelastic experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory and the nuclear structure effects evident in reactions between super heavy nuclei. Experiments indicate that these reactions evolve gradually from simple transfer processes which have been studied extensively for lighter nuclei such as /sup 16/O, suggesting a theoretical approach connecting the one-step DWBA theory to the multistep statistical models of nuclear reactions. This transition between quasi-elastic and deep inelastic reactions is achieved by a simple random walk model. Some typical examples of nuclear structure effects are shown. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Carvill, Brian Thomas; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.

  4. Thermodynamics in the limit of irreversible reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorban, A. N.; Mirkes, E. M.; Yablonsky, G. S.

    2013-03-01

    For many complex real physicochemical systems, the detailed mechanism includes both reversible and irreversible reactions. Such systems are typical in homogeneous combustion and heterogeneous catalytic oxidation. Most complex enzyme reactions include irreversible steps. Classical thermodynamics has no limit for irreversible reactions, whereas kinetic equations may have such a limit. We represent systems with irreversible reactions as the limits of fully reversible systems when some of the equilibrium concentrations tend to zero. The structure of the limit reaction system crucially depends on the relative rates of this tendency to zero. We study the dynamics of the limit system and describe its limit behavior as t→∞. If the reversible systems obey the principle of detailed balance then the limit system with some irreversible reactions must satisfy the extended principle of detailed balance. It is formulated and proven in the form of two conditions: (i) the reversible part satisfies the principle of detailed balance and (ii) the convex hull of the stoichiometric vectors of the irreversible reactions does not intersect the linear span of the stoichiometric vectors of the reversible reactions. These conditions imply the existence of the global Lyapunov functionals and allow an algebraic description of the limit behavior. Thermodynamic theory of the irreversible limit of reversible reactions is illustrated by the analysis of hydrogen combustion.

  5. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  6. Fear and Reactions to Crime: A Revised Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Lauren B.; Rohe, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the limitations of existing models that explain fear and reactions to crime. Develops and tests three models: avoidance reactions, protective reactions, and collective reactions, which combine elements of the other two. (Author/LHW)

  7. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  8. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  9. Some Concepts in Reaction Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polannyi, John C.

    1972-01-01

    In 1929 London 1 published a very approximate solution of the Schroedinger equation for a system of chemical interest: H3. To the extent that chemistry can be regarded as existing separately from physics, this was a landmark in the history of chemistry, comparable in importance to the landmark in the history of physics marked by the appearance of the Heitler-London equation for H2. The expression for H3, was, of necessity, even less accurate than that for H2, but chemists, like the habitual poor, were accustomed to this sort of misfortune. Together with the physicists they enjoyed the sensation of living in a renaissance. The physicists still could not calculate a great deal that was of interest to them, and the chemists could calculate less, but both could now dream. It would be too easy to say that their dreams were dreams of unlimited computer time. Their dreams were a lot more productive than that. Two years after London published his equation, H. Eyring and M. Polanyi obtained the first numerical energy surface for H3. They infused the London equation with a measure of empiricism to produce an energy surface which, whether or not it was correct in its details, provided a basis for further speculations of an important sort. The existence of a tangible energy surface in 1931 stimulated speculation along two different lines. The following year Pelzer and Wigner used this London-Eyring-Polanyi (LEP) energy surface for a thermodynamic treatment of the reaction rate in H + H2. This important development reached its full flowering a few years later. In these remarks I shall be concerned with another line of development. A second more-or-less distinct category of speculation that began with (and, indeed, in) the 1931 paper has to do with the dynamics of individual reactive encounters under the influence of specified interaction potentials.

  10. Magnetite-supported sulfonic acid: a retrievable nanocatalyst for the Ritter reaction and multicomponent reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetite-sulfonic acid (NanocatFe-OSO3H), prepared by wet-impregnation method, serves as a magnetically retrievable sustainable catalyst for the Ritter reaction which can be used in several reaction cycles without any loss of activity.

  11. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  12. A reusable prepositioned ATP reaction chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luminescence biometer detects presence of life by means of light-emitting chemical reaction of luciferin and luciferase with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that occurs in all living cells. Amount of light in reaction chamber is measured to determine presence and extent of life.

  13. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  14. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  15. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  16. Reaction parameters for heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.W.; Birkelund, J.R.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Hoover, A.D.; Huizenga, J.R.; Schroeder, W.U.; Tubbs, L.E.

    1980-09-01

    These tables present reaction parameters for all combinations of 27 projectile and 16 target nuclei in a laboratory bombarding energy range of 1--50 MeV/u. The reaction parameters are derived from the Fresnel model of heavy-ion scattering, the droplet model, and the rotating liquid-drop model, or from systematics of experimental data.

  17. Big Data and Adverse Drug Reaction Detection.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, R; DuMochel, W; Shah, N H

    2016-03-01

    Big Data holds the promise of fundamentally transforming the manner in which adverse drug reactions can be identified and evaluated. This commentary discusses new data sources that are envisioned to form a Big Data-enabled pharmacovigilance system and the role of these data in powering the future of adverse drug reactions detection. PMID:26575203

  18. Detecting radiation reaction at moderate laser intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Harvey, Chris; Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Rykovanov, Sergey; Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim P.

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new method of detecting radiation reaction effects in the motion of particles subjected to laser pulses of moderate intensity and long duration. The effect becomes sizable for particles that gain almost no energy through the interaction with the laser pulse. Hence, there are regions of parameter space in which radiation reaction is actually the dominant influence on charged particle motion.

  19. Transport model of nucleon-nucleus reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    A simplified model of nucleon-nucleus reaction is developed and some of its properties are examined. Comparisons with proton production measured for targets of Al-27, Ni-58, Zr-90, and Bi-209 show some hope for developing an accurate model for these complex reactions. It is suggested that binding effects are the next step required for further development.

  20. Electrochemically induced chain reactions in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilovaisky, Alexey I.; Merkulova, V. M.; Elinson, Michail N.; Nikishin, Gennady I.

    2012-05-01

    Data on the use of electrochemically induced chain reactions in organic synthesis are considered systematically and generalized. These processes are of particular practical interest in view of the energy saving. Examples are given of the use of electrochemically induced chain reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds under electrolysis conditions. The bibliography includes 123 references.