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1

The nutritive value of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) as a feed supplement for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg?1 on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral\\u000a detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in

K. Kandylis; I. Hadjigeorgiou; P. Harizanis

2009-01-01

2

Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry ( Morus indica L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of methanol, acetone and water extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves were examined. Various experimental models including iron (III) reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and in vitro inhibition of ferrous sulphate-induced oxidation of lipid system were used for characterization of antioxidant activity of extracts. The three extracts showed

Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2007-01-01

3

Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves. PMID:23292544

Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2012-12-22

4

?-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry ( Morus alba) leaves on Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brewing time on dry weight content and ?-glucosidase inhibitory active component released from mulberry (Morus alba) tea were studied. Different tea products showed significant differences in inhibitory activity against both sucrase and maltase. The most effective enzyme inhibition was observed when 3 to 5 min brewing time was applied in tea preparation. In a Caco-2 cell culture experiment

Chanida Hansawasdi; Jun Kawabata

2006-01-01

5

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences.

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

6

Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The present study focused on isolation, characterization and evaluation of purified com- pounds from Morus alba against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Methods: The effect of crude extract from M. alba leaves was evaluated against oral pathogens, chiefly S. mutans. MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The compound was purified by employing silica gel chromatography and critically analysed with

Barira Islam; Shahper N. Khan; Irfanul Haque; M. Alam; M. Mushfiq; Asad U. Khan

2008-01-01

7

Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2009-12-01

8

Molecular characterization of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene from mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

The genus Morus consists of trees and shrubs, which are distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. Commonly known as mulberry, a few of the Morus species are valued for their foliage, which constitutes the chief feed for mulberry silkworms. Steroids and isoprenoid compounds present in the foliage not only add nutritive factors to the feed but also contribute greatly to silkworm health and silk production. Mevalonate synthesis, which is the first step in isoprenoid biosynthesis, is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoAreductase (HMGR). A genomic clone, Mahmg1, was isolated from Morus alba and its expression characterized in mulberry and transgenic tobacco. In mulberry, Mahmg1 transcripts were highest in young leaves and flowers. The promoter region of the Mahmg1 gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and the fusion introduced into tobacco. In imbibed embryos, GUS expression was limited to the cotyledons, epicotyl, and root elongation zone. Later, GUS staining was observed in floral tissues, guard cells, and the heads of trichomes on the stem and petioles. Mahmg1::GUS activity increased 3-4-fold by treatment with 100 microM abscisic acid and 15-80-fold in dark-grown versus light-grown seedlings. These results show that expression of the Mahmg1 gene is differentially regulated by developmental and environmental cues, suggesting that its HMGR isozyme a may provide a precursor for synthesis of specific isoprenoids during mulberry growth and development. PMID:10809002

Jain, A K; Vincent, R M; Nessler, C L

2000-03-01

9

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

10

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

11

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

12

The emerging role of genomic tools in mulberry ( Morus ) genetic improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus L) is one of the economically important trees that have a long history of extensive cultivation in Asia. Mulberry leaf is\\u000a the sole food for the silkworm Bombyx mori; hence, the sustainability of the sericulture industry is dependent on the continuous supply of nutritious mulberry leaf.\\u000a Genetic improvement of mulberry for leaf yield, leaf nutritional contents, and adaptability

Kunjupillai Vijayan

2010-01-01

13

Influence of auxins, cytokinins, and nitrogen on production of rutin from callus and adventitious roots of the white mulberry tree ( Morus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutin is an economically valuable flavone compound with anticancer activity, dietary effects, and anti-aging activity. In\\u000a this study, callus and adventitious roots were induced from three Morus (mulberry) species. Among the three mulberry species tested for rutin production, roots of the Sugye (M.\\u000a alba L.) had the highest levels (242.2 ?g\\/g fresh tissue) of rutin. In addition, the mature leaves of

Yew Lee; Dong-Eun Lee; Hak-Soo Lee; Seong-Ki Kim; Woo Sung Lee; Soo-Hwan Kim; Myoung-Won Kim

2011-01-01

14

An integrated diagnostic approach to understand drought tolerance in mulberry ( Morus indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four popular mulberry cultivars (Morus indica L. cvs.V-1, MR-2, S-36 and K-2) were assessed for drought tolerance with an integration of selective approaches. The potted plants were subjected to two watering treatments for 75 days: control pots were watered up to 100% field capacity (FC) and stressed pots were maintained at 25–30% FC. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs),

Anirban Guha; Debashree Sengupta; Girish Kumar Rasineni; Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy

2010-01-01

15

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

16

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

17

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-11-14

18

Changes in leaf organisation, photosynthetic performance and wood formation during ex vitro acclimatisation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.).  

PubMed

Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area. PMID:19689776

Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A

2009-09-01

19

Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

2005-01-01

20

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-06-12

21

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

2011-02-08

22

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity  

PubMed Central

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others.

Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

2012-01-01

23

Induction of haploid callus and embryogenesis in in vitro cultured anthers of mulberry (Morus indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthers of Morus indica L., with microspores at the uninucleate stage were cultured; and the influence of temperature and kinetin pretreatment on induction of androgenic calluses was examined. The effects of various pretreatments revealed that 24 h cold pretreatment increased the percentage of cultures inducing callus. First microspore division was observed after 16 to 20 days of culture. Th anthers

A. K. Jain; A. Sarkar; R. K. Datra

1996-01-01

24

A hevein-like protein and a class I chitinase with antifungal activity from leaves of the paper mulberry.  

PubMed

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, syn. Morus papyrifera L.) is a Chinese traditional medicine and its low-molecular-weight extracts are reported to have antifungal activity. In this study, two proteins (PMAPI and PMAPII) with activity against Trichoderma viride were obtained from paper mulberry leaves with a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) unit. The purification protocol employed (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography on FPLC. Molecular masses were 18,798?Da for PMAPI, and 31,178?Da for PMAPII determined by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping fingerprint analysis showed that PMAPI has no peptides similar to PMAPII. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that PMAPI is a hevein-like protein, and PMAPII is a class I chitinase. They both had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1?µg/µL against T. viride. This is the first report of high-molecular-weight extracts with antifungal activity from paper mulberry. PMID:21268047

Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Pan, Ying-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Wen-Xia

2011-01-26

25

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

26

Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: Enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Naoya Wasano; Masatoshi Nakamura

2007-01-01

27

In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry. PMID:22225542

Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-02-22

28

Phenolics and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves depend on cultivar and harvest month in southern china.  

PubMed

To elucidate the effects of cultivar and harvest month on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves, four major phenolics, including chlorogenic acid (ChA), benzoic acid (BeA), rutin (Rut) and astragalin (Ast), were quantified using an HPLC-UV method. Leaves from six mulberry cultivars, collected from April to October, were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HSA) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SSA) assays. The results showed that the total values of the four phenolic compounds ranged from 2.3 dry weight (DW) to 4.2 mg/g DW, with ChA being the major compound. The mean total phenol (TP) content of the six cultivars ranged from 30.4 equivalents (GAE) mg/g DW to 44.7 GAE mg/g DW. Mulberry leaves harvested in May had the highest TP content. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves harvested from April to October differed noticeably. In general, Kq 10 and May were considered to be a better cultivar and harvest month concerning phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. PMID:23443117

Zou, Yuxiao; Liao, Shentai; Shen, Weizhi; Liu, Fan; Tang, Cuiming; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Sun, Yuanming

2012-12-05

29

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Xin-Pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-Yang; Cao, Liang

2013-08-19

30

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb.

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

2013-01-01

31

Protective effect of Morus alba leaves on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Long-term treatment with haloperidol, a typical neuroleptic, induces neurodegeneration caused by excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, which play an important role in the development of orofacial dyskinesia. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to examine the effect of a concomitant treatment of methanol extract of Morus alba Linn. (Moraceae) leaves (100-300 mg/kg, i.p.) and haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on an animal model of tardive dyskinesia. Rats were treated for 21 days with haloperidol and Morus alba extract; vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions were counted. The extract attenuated the increase in vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions induced by haloperidol, which were quantified on day 22. The extract showed a marked effect on behavioral parameters altered by haloperidol treatment. Similar treatment with extract attenuated haloperidol-induced lipid peroxidation and nitrite and normalized superoxide dismutase, catalase, and protein in comparison to the control group. The results suggest a protective effect of Morus alba extract against haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress. PMID:20645751

Nade, V S; Kawale, L A; Yadav, A V

2010-01-01

32

Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry ( Morus nigra ) juice concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating,\\u000a at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes\\u000a of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at\\u000a 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Ghazale Hojjatpanah; Zahra Emam-Djomeh

33

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MIL, a glycosylated jacalin-related lectin from mulberry (Morus indica) latex  

PubMed Central

A quantitatively major protein has been purified from the latex of Morus indica. The purified previously uncharacterized protein, M. indica lectin (MIL), was further shown to be a glycosylated tetramer and belongs to the family of jacalin-related lectins. Crystallization of MIL was also accomplished and the tetragonal crystals diffracted synchrotron X-rays to a resolution of 2.8?Å.

Patel, Ashok K.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bergmann, Ulrich; Jagannadham, Medicherla V.; Kursula, Petri

2011-01-01

34

Protective effects of Morus alba leaves extract on ocular functions of pups from diabetic and hypercholesterolemic mother rats.  

PubMed

Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract. PMID:21697998

El-Sayyad, H I H; El-Sherbiny, M A; Sobh, M A; Abou-El-Naga, A M; Ibrahim, M A N; Mousa, S A

2011-06-04

35

Improvement of quality and antioxidant properties of dried mulberry leaves with combined far-infrared radiation and air convection in Thai tea process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined far-infrared radiation with hot-air convection (FIR–HA) drying was used for improving colour and antioxidant properties of mulberry leaf tea. Antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds of FIR–HA dried mulberry tea were determined and compared with the commercial product and with fresh leaves. We found that a smaller decrease in L and b values of the FIR–HA dried tea than those

Pitchaporn Wanyo; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Naret Meeso

2011-01-01

36

Mulberry improvements via plastid transformation and tissue culture engineering  

PubMed Central

The in vitro tissue culture and micropropagation studies for Morus spp., a pivotal sericulture plant, are well established. The rapid and reproducible in vitro response to plant growth regulator treatments has emerged as an essential complement of transformation studies for this plant species. A major area of study is the use of protoplast culture and fusion techniques where advantages to mulberry improvement can be applied. The advancements in genetic transformation of mulberry are reviewed, and a section on strategy for transforming plastids (chloroplasts) of mulberry is included. A role for mulberry in “molecular farming” is envisioned. The conclusions and future prospects for improvement of this economically important tree species are proposed.

2010-01-01

37

Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

2010-10-15

38

EVALUACIÓN DE LOS FORRAJES DE MORERA Morus alba Y TULIPÁN Hibiscus rosa-sinensis A DIFERENTES EDADES DE CORTE COMO SUPLEMENTO PARA CORDEROS EN PASTOREO Evaluation of white mulberry Morus alba and chinese hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis forage harvested at dierent ages as supplements for grazing lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and metabolic behaviour of grazing lambs supplemented with Morus alba (M) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (T) were evaluated. A total of 32 male crossbreeding lambs (Pelibuey x Dorper or Black Belly) with an average body weight of 18.33±1.56 k were studied during 90 days. The animals were allowed to graze continuously and were supplemented (300 g animal 1 d

PV Obrador-Olán; D Hernández-Sánchez; A Gómez-Vázquez; W Camacho-Chiu

2007-01-01

39

Antioxidant Capacities of Fruit Extracts of Five Mulberry Genotypes with Different Assays and Principle Components Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a basis and principle for developing an integrated antioxidant assay of mulberry. Five genotypes (Miaoli No. 1, 73C020, 46C019, 74H3023, and 68H22024) and three maturity stages (unripe, medium ripe and fully ripe) of mulberry (Morus sp.) fruit were analyzed for their total phenolic contents (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl–scavenging (DPPH-SC) ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical antioxidant

Ran-Juh Wang; Miao-Lin Hu

2011-01-01

40

Comparison of lodging safety factor of untreated and succinic Acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide-treated shoots of mulberry tree.  

PubMed

This study examined the lodging resistance of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv Kenmochi) shoots treated or not treated with succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH). The lodging safety factor, an indicator of lodging resistance, was defined as the ratio of critical lodging load to the leaf fresh weight observed, provided that the distribution of the critical lodging load along the stem was similar to that of the leaf fresh weight observed. The critical lodging load was experimentally estimated by loading weights onto the stems. In the untreated trees, the lodging safety factor was maintained at about 3.2. In the SADH-treated trees, the stem elongation was inhibited to about 80% of that in the untreated trees, and the percentage of shoot dry matter partitioned into the leaves was always larger than that of the untreated trees. This dwarfing of the stem caused by SADH increased the critical lodging load supported by the unit stem dry weight, while this large investment of materials in leaves increased the leaf fresh weight supported by the unit stem dry weight. Since the increments canceled each other, the lodging safety factor of the SADH-treated shoots was similar to that of the untreated ones. These results suggest that the shoot formation of the mulberry tree is controlled to maintain the lodging safety factor at a constant level. PMID:16667232

Tateno, M; Bae, K

1990-01-01

41

Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity.

Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

2013-01-01

42

Comparison of Lodging Safety Factor of Untreated and Succinic Acid 2,2-Dimethylhydrazide-Treated Shoots of Mulberry Tree 1  

PubMed Central

This study examined the lodging resistance of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv Kenmochi) shoots treated or not treated with succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH). The lodging safety factor, an indicator of lodging resistance, was defined as the ratio of critical lodging load to the leaf fresh weight observed, provided that the distribution of the critical lodging load along the stem was similar to that of the leaf fresh weight observed. The critical lodging load was experimentally estimated by loading weights onto the stems. In the untreated trees, the lodging safety factor was maintained at about 3.2. In the SADH-treated trees, the stem elongation was inhibited to about 80% of that in the untreated trees, and the percentage of shoot dry matter partitioned into the leaves was always larger than that of the untreated trees. This dwarfing of the stem caused by SADH increased the critical lodging load supported by the unit stem dry weight, while this large investment of materials in leaves increased the leaf fresh weight supported by the unit stem dry weight. Since the increments canceled each other, the lodging safety factor of the SADH-treated shoots was similar to that of the untreated ones. These results suggest that the shoot formation of the mulberry tree is controlled to maintain the lodging safety factor at a constant level. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Tateno, Masaki; Bae, Kaesun

1990-01-01

43

The chloroplast genome of mulberry: complete nucleotide sequence, gene organization and comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of mulberry (Morus indica cv. K2) chloroplast genome (158,484 bp) has been determined using a combination of long PCR and shotgun-based approaches. This is the third angiosperm tree species whose plastome sequence has been completely deciphered. The circular double-stranded molecule comprises of two identical inverted repeats (25,678 bp each) separating a large and a small single-copy region of

V. Ravi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Paramjit Khurana

2006-01-01

44

JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry) reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM) but not the leaf extract (LEM) reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

45

Determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat and mulberry by cation exchange HPLC/ESI-Q-MS.  

PubMed

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar first found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) which if used as a dietary supplement or functional food component may reduce the risks of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. As D-fagomine may become increasingly important to the food industry, a reliable analytical method for its determination in natural plant sources and foodstuffs is desirable. We have devised a method to separate D-fagomine from its diastereomers 3-epi-fagomine and 3,4-di-epi-fagomine in a single run by cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection and quantification by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionisation and a simple quadrupole analyser (ESI-Q-MS). The method is validated and applied to the determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat groats (6.7-44 mg kg(-1)), leaves, bran and flour. We show that buckwheat contains 3,4-di-epi-fagomine (1.0-43 mg kg(-1)), which has not previously been reported in this source. The procedure is also applied to mulberry (Morus alba) leaves, which contain D-fagomine and 3-epi-fagomine as minor components. The new method provides a means for convenient and accurate determination of D-fagomine in plant samples and foodstuffs. PMID:22207282

Amézqueta, Susana; Galán, Esther; Fuguet, Elisabet; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Torres, Josep Lluís

2011-12-30

46

Effects of Mulberry Leaf Extract Rich in 1-Deoxynojirimycin on Blood Lipid Profiles in Humans  

PubMed Central

Mulberry leaves are rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. We previously showed that DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract suppressed elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract on plasma lipid profiles in humans. An open-label, single-group study was conducted in 10 subjects with initial serum triglyceride (TG) level ?200 mg/dl. Subjects ingested capsules containing DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract at 12 mg three times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Our findings showed a modest decrease in serum TG level and beneficial changes in the lipoprotein profile following 12-week administration of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract. No significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed during the study period; no adverse events associated with DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract occurred.

Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Hasumi, Keiji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2010-01-01

47

Molecular distinction amongst varieties of Mulberry using RAPD and DAMD profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Mulberry trees are the most important host for rearing mulberry silkworms in sericulture. Improved varieties of mulberry tree have been developed through traditional breeding procedures. Not much work, however, has been carried out on the molecular characterization of these varieties. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) methods based on Polymerase Chain Reaction are important tools to analyze genetic diversity of mulberries. These have been used to determine variation amongst nine varieties of Morus spp. maintained at Banthra Research Station of National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. Results and Discussion The varieties were analyzed using 23 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for RAPD, and 3 minisatellite core sequence primers for DAMD reactions. The RAPD and DAMD band data, (a total of 200 bands), were used to determine the pair wise distances according to Jaccard's algorithm. From these distance values Neighbour Joining (NJ) analyses were carried out separately for the RAPD and the DAMD data. The triploid varieties were found to be most similar to each other using RAPD analysis, while the varieties S13 and S34 were more similar using DAMD analysis. Nearly 85% of the RAPD bands and 91% of the DAMD bands were polymorphic across the nine varieties. Conclusions The mulberry varieties could be distinguished by their RAPD and DAMD profiles. As many as five RAPD primers and one DAMD primer generated profiles that can together differentiate all the nine varieties in terms of unique bands.

Bhattacharya, Esha; Ranade, Shirish Anand

2001-01-01

48

Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.  

PubMed

Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

2013-08-01

49

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1

Xianling Ji; Guobing Lu; Yingping Gai; Huijv Gao; Baoyun Lu; Lingrang Kong; Zhimei Mu

2010-01-01

50

Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

2013-01-01

51

Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.  

PubMed

Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry. PMID:22160463

Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

2011-12-09

52

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Antioxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS). Plants having phenolic contents are reported to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins) of methanolic extracts from Morus alba (locally named as Tut and commonly known as white mulberry) stem barks (TSB), root bark (TRB), leaves (TL) and fruits (TF) to make a statistical correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant potential. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives were evaluated by in vitro standard method using spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay methods. Results Among the extracts, TSB showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by TRB, TF and TL. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, the TSB extract was the most effective one with IC50 37.75 and 58.90 ?g/mL, followed by TRB, TF and TL with IC50 40.20 and 102.03; 175.01 and 114.63 and 220.23 and 234.63 ?g/mL, respectively. The TSB extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation with IC50 145.31 ?g/mL. In addition, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TSB > TRB > TL > TF. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins of TSB was found to be higher than other extractives. Conclusion The results indicate high correlation and regression (p-value <0 .001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts, hence the Tut plant could serve as effective free radical inhibitor or scavenger which may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant-based products. However, further exploration is necessary for effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines.

2013-01-01

53

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

54

The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.  

PubMed

Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root/shoot ratios, root surface areas, specific root areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the young mulberry trees in the DH were all significantly higher than those of the control group (DM). Leaf water potential, instantaneous water use efficiency, and abscisic acid content of DH were all significantly lower than DM. Under different degrees of drought stress, the growth of mulberry trees will be inhibited, but the trees can respond to the stress by increasing the root absorptive area and enhancing capacity for water retention. Mulberry trees demonstrate strong resistance to drought stress, and furthermore drought resistance can be improved by drought hardening during the seedling stage. PMID:23250728

Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

2012-12-19

55

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

PubMed Central

Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent.

2010-01-01

56

Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

57

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat.  

PubMed

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-04-01

58

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

59

Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.  

PubMed

The phytochemical profiles of Morus australis roots, stems and twigs were firstly compared by HPLC analysis. It was found that Morus australis stem extract mainly contained one known tyrosinase inhibitor, oxyresveratrol, while its root and twig extract might contain some unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors. The root extract of Morus australis was further investigated in this study. One new compound, austraone A, together with 21 known compounds, was isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of MS and NMR data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory testing, some of them, such as oxyresveratrol, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O, exhibited stronger tyrosinase inhibitory activities than that of kojic acid. These results suggested the Morus australis root extract as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors with a great potential to be used in foods as anti-browning agents and in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22698714

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Tan, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Mingfu

2012-06-11

60

Planning Studies Report for Mulberry, Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the basic information necessary to the formulation of a Comprehensive Development Plan for Mulberry, Arkansas--a community of 1,100 population. It contains the analyses and projections of the economy, population, and land use to 1990 a...

C. S. Scheck L. A. Godwin

1969-01-01

61

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin.

2010-01-01

62

Comparison of Inhibitory Activities and Mechanisms of Five Mulberry Plant Bioactive Components against ?-Glucosidase.  

PubMed

The ?-glucosidase inhibitory effects of five bioactive components, namely 1-deoxynojirimycin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, resveratrol and oxyresveratrol contained in mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) plants have been compared. Spectroscopy methods were employed to compare their ?-glucosidase inhibitory mechanisms. The results revealed that 1-deoxynojirimycin (competitive), resveratrol and oxyresveratrol (noncompetitive) were stronger inhibitors than acarbose, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (mix competitive and noncompetitive) showed modest activities. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, resveratrol and oxyresveratrol could quench the fluorescence spectra statically by forming stable complexes, while the quenching of cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside belonged to dynamic quenching by the collision of molecules. The interactions between ligands and ?-glucosidase were mainly driven by hydrophobic force, or hydrogen bonding consequently induced conformational changes and reduced surface hydrophobicity. Docking results suggested that they could bind to ?-glucosidase at different sites. This work provides useful information for the understanding of the ligands-?-glucosidase interactions and identifies oxyresveratrol as a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:23909841

He, Hao; Lu, Yan-Hua

2013-08-13

63

Carotenoids of mulberry leaves and of silkworm excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, great attention is being devoted to the search for new cheap sources of carotene [i]. The raw material for this may be certain industrial wastes and, in particular, silkworm excreta (SWE) the complex study of the composition of which has already been carried on over a number of years [2]. In the present communication we present

D. U. Uzakova; A. A. Kolesnik; Yu. L. Zherebin; I. K. Sarycheva

1987-01-01

64

Andalasin A, a new stilbene dimer from Morus macroura  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new stilbene dimer, andalasin A (1), together with the known stilbene oxyresveratrol and the 2-arylbenzofuran glycoside mulberroside C, have been isolated from the wood of Morus macroura. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 shows weak antinematodal and moderate antifungal properties.

Yana M Syah; Sjamsul A Achmad; Emilio L Ghisalberti; Euis H Hakim; Muhammad Z. N Iman; Lukman Makmur; Didin Mujahiddin

2000-01-01

65

Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum

66

Oxyresveratrol from Mulberry as a dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(E)-2-(3,5-dihy­droxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]benzene-1,3-diol dihydrate}, C14H12O4·2H2O, a derivative of resveratrol, was isolated from mulberry. The linking C=C double bond has a trans conformation and allows the formation of a conjugated system throughout the mol­ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 9.39?(9)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture through O—H?O hydrogen bonds between hy­droxy groups of oxyresveratrol and solvent water mol­ecules.

Deng, Hui; He, Xixin; Xu, Yujuan; Hu, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

67

Shotgun proteomic analysis of mulberry dwarf phytoplasma  

PubMed Central

Background Mulberry dwarf (MD), which is caused by phytoplasma, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of mulberry. Phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases in several hundred plant species. The inability to culture phytoplasmas in vitro has hindered their characterization at the molecular level. Though the complete genomes of two phytoplasmas have been published, little information has been obtained about the proteome of phytoplasma. Therefore, the proteomic information of phytoplasmas would be useful to elucidate the functional mechanisms of phytoplasma in many biological processes. Results MD phytoplasmas, which belong to the 16SrI-B subgroup based on the 16S DNA analysis, were purified from infected tissues using a combination of differential centrifugation and density gradient centrifugation. The expressed proteome of phytoplasma was surveyed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and nanocapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 209 phytoplasma proteins were unambiguously assigned, including the proteins with the functions of amino acid biosynthesis, cell envelope, cellular processes, energy metabolism, nucleosides and nucleotide metabolism, replication, transcription, translation, transport and binding as well as the proteins with other functions. In addition to these known function proteins, 63 proteins were annotated as hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins. Conclusions Taken together, a total of 209 phytoplasma proteins have been experimentally verified, representing the most extensive survey of any phytoplasma proteome to date. This study provided a valuable dataset of phytoplasma proteins, and a better understanding of the energy metabolism and virulence mechanisms of MD phytoplasma.

2010-01-01

68

20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

69

Oxyresveratrol from Mulberry as a dihydrate.  

PubMed

The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(E)-2-(3,5-dihy-droxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]benzene-1,3-diol dihydrate}, C(14)H(12)O(4)·2H(2)O, a derivative of resveratrol, was isolated from mulberry. The linking C=C double bond has a trans conformation and allows the formation of a conjugated system throughout the mol-ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 9.39?(9)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture through O-H?O hydrogen bonds between hy-droxy groups of oxyresveratrol and solvent water mol-ecules. PMID:22590220

Deng, Hui; He, Xixin; Xu, Yujuan; Hu, Xiaopeng

2012-04-06

70

Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, João F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

2013-07-09

71

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1  

PubMed Central

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees.

Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

1999-01-01

72

Two Distinct Jacalin-Related Lectins with a Different Specificity and Subcellular Location Are Major Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Bark of the Black Mulberry Tree1  

PubMed Central

Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research.

Van Damme, Els J.M.; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rouge, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J.

2002-01-01

73

Construction of fingerprinting and genetic diversity of mulberry cultivars in China by ISSR markers.  

PubMed

The ISSR fingerprintings of 24 mulberry cultivars were constructed. Totally 80 bands were produced using 17 primers selected from 20 primers. Of them, 40 bands showed polymorphism. From the bands amplified, there were three independent ways to identify the mulberry varieties, such as unique ISSR markers, unique band patterns and a combination of the band patterns provided by different primers. ISSRs were very effective in differentiating the mulberry varieties. The mean genetic similarity coefficient, the mean Nei's gene diversity (h), and the mean Shannon's Information index (I) of mulberry cultivars were 0.8731, 0.1210, and 0.1942, respectively. This suggests that the genetic diversity of mulberry cultivars was low and the genetic base was narrow. Both UPGMA cluster and PCA (Principal Coordinates Analysis) analysis showed clear genetic relationships among the 24 mulberry cultivars. The major clusters were related to known pedigree relationships. PMID:16980132

Zhao, Wei-Guo; Miao, Xue-Xia; Zang, Bo; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Yi-Le; Huang, Yong-Ping

2006-09-01

74

Efecto de la propagación asexual y prolongación del período vegetativo de Morus alba en la producción de capullos de seda  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. Pelicano, M. Divo de Sesar, N. Zamuner, J. L. Danelón, and M. Yoshida. 2007. The effect of asexual propagation and persistence of the vegetative growth of Morus alba on silk cocoon production. Cien. Inv. Agr. 34 (2):81-89. The goal of this work was to establish an effi cient protocol for vegetative propagation of Morus alba. At the same time

Alicia Pelicano; Marta Divo de Sesar; Norma Zamuner; José Luis Danelón; Miriam Yoshida

2007-01-01

75

Isolation and characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ripe mulberries in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study.

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-01-01

76

Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).  

PubMed

Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation. PMID:21859372

Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

2011-08-23

77

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Morus bombycis Koidzumi on CCl 4-induced liver damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity and liver protective effect of Morus bombycis Koidzumi were investigated. Aqueous extracts of M. bombycis Koidzumi had higher superoxide radical scavenging activity than other types of extracts. The aqueous extract at a dose of 100mg\\/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activity when compared with that of a standard agent. The biochemical results were confirmed by histological observations indicating that

Ying-Shan Jin; Jae-Hoon Sa; Tae-Heum Shim; Hae-Ik Rhee; Myeong-Hyeon Wang

2005-01-01

78

Habitat differentiation and the ecological costs of hybridization: the effects of introduced mulberry (Morus alba) on a native congener (M. rubra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The effects of hybridization on the abundance of parental taxa depends on their relative frequency, the viability of hybrid offspring and the degree of ecological differ- entiation among parental and hybrid taxa. Habitat overlap can facilitate competition for suitable sites and threaten the persistence of parental taxa, especially those in small populations. 2 Here we examine ecological differentiation

KEVIN S. BURGESS; BRIAN C. HUSBAND

2006-01-01

79

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion.  

PubMed

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential, fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori are immunologically inert and invoke minimal immune response. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by these fibroin proteins both in solution and in the form of films assayed in terms of nitric oxide and TNFalpha production showed comparable stimulation as in collagen. Kinetics of adhesion of L929 murine fibroblasts, for biocompatibility evaluation, monitored every 4 h from seeding and studied over a period of 24 h, reveal A. mylitta fibroin film to be a better substrate in terms of rapid and easier cellularization. Cell viability studies by MTT assay and flow cytometric analyses indicate the ability of fibroin matrices to support cell growth and proliferation comparable to collagen for long-term culture. This matrix may have potential to serve in those injuries where rapid cellularization is essential. PMID:18322779

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-03-06

80

DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

81

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Mulberry, Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials.

Zou, Tang-Bin; Wang, Min; Gan, Ren-You; Ling, Wen-Hua

2011-01-01

82

Comparing the rheology of mulberry and "wild" silkworm spinning dopes.  

PubMed

Lepidoperan silks provide a superb opportunity for comparative studies of spinning and fiber characteristics. Comparing the four species, Bombyx mori (China), Actias selene (India), Antheraea yamamai (Japan), Gonometa postica (Africa), allows us to examine differences on the family, species, and race levels. Measured rheological properties were consistent with phylogenetic relationships and in the context of resource allocation and gland morphology. We propose that the thorough domestication of the mulberry silkworm B. mori for high silk yield has resulted in a compensatory optimization for spinning efficiency. This is in stark contrast to the wild silkworms, where Saturnids appear to minimize their energetic input toward silk output and G. postica seems to balance both. We conclude that comparative studies provide valuable baseline information for future biomimetic applications and modeling, as well as illuminating biologically important details of silk processing. PMID:22161905

Holland, C; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

2011-12-09

83

Evaluating molecular and behavioural sexing methods for the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of molecular methods for avian sex identification has revolutionised the study of sexual differences in behaviour, morphology, life-history traits and conservation management. We implemented the recom- mendations of a recent review of DNA-based sex-identification by (1) verifying the sex-specificity and (2) estimating the accurac y of different sex-assignment methods in an apparently monomorphic seabird, the Australasian gannet (Morus

Claire Daniel; Craig D. Millar; Stefanie M. H. Ismar; Brent M. Stephenson; Mark E. Hauber

2007-01-01

84

Hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and vascular protective effects of Morus alba L. in rats fed an atherogenic diet.  

PubMed

Morus alba L. has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and almost all parts of this plant are useful in cardiovascular, liver and spleen disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of a water extract from Morus alba L. (WMA) on vascular dysfunction in rat models fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of food with 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg WMA, for 14 weeks. Chronic treatment with low (100 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/day/kg) doses of WMA markedly attenuated hypertension and the impairments of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic rings in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA reduced intima/media thickness in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA improved plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but did not affect blood glucose levels. Interestingly, WMA suppressed increased cell adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in the aorta. Taken together, these results suggested that Morus alba L. could improve an atherogenic diet-induced hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and vascular dysfunction through inhibition of cell adhesion molecules expression and induction of vascular relaxation. PMID:21213397

Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Kwon, Tae Oh; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2011-01-01

85

Mulberry Fruit (Moris fructus) Extracts Induce Human Glioma Cell Death In Vitro Through ROS-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibits Glioma Tumor Growth In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry has been reported to contain wide range of polyphenols and have chemopreventive activity. However, little has been known regarding the effect of mulberry fruit extracts on cell viability in vitro in human glioma cells and the anticancer efficacy in vivo. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of mulberry fruit (Moris fructus; MF) extracts on cell viability in

Ji Cheon Jeong; Sang Won Jang; Thae Hyun Kim; Chae Hwa Kwon; Yong Keun Kim

2010-01-01

86

33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.280 James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry...

2010-07-01

87

33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.280 James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry...

2009-07-01

88

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) as a commensal model for human mobility in Oceania: anthropological, botanical and genetic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.) was one of the most widely distributed crop species in prehistoric Oceania, occurring from continental East Asia to the Polynesian islands. Its broad distribution is largely due to human-mediated dispersal during colonization of the islands of Near and Remote Oceania. We explore the potential for analyses of genetic variation in paper mulberry and the

D Seelenfreund; AC Clarke; N Oyanedel; R Piña; S Lobos; EA Matisoo-Smith; A Seelenfreund

2011-01-01

89

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

90

Cell cycle events during the development of the silk glands in the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silk glands of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori are long and paired structures originating from the labial region and are anatomically and physiologically divided into three major compartments, the anterior, middle and posterior silk glands. The silk gland morphogenesis is complete by 8 days post egg laying. Extensive growth of silk glands during the larval stages is due to increase in

Sangeeta Dhawan; K. P. Gopinathan

2003-01-01

91

[Effects of mulberry/soybean intercropping on the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbial number and enzyme activities].  

PubMed

A root separation experiment was conducted to investigate the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbes and enzyme activities in a mulberry/soybean intercropping system. As compared with those in plastic barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments, the plant height, leaf number, root length, root nodule number, and root/shoot ratio of mulberry and soybean in non-barrier treatment were significantly higher, and the soybean's effective nodule number was larger. The available phosphorous content in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean in no barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments was increased by 10.3% and 11.1%, and 5.1% and 4.6%, respectively, as compared with that in plastic barrier treatment. The microbial number, microbial diversity, and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean were higher in the treatments of no barrier and nylon mesh barrier than in the treatment of plastic barrier. All the results indicated that there was an obvious interspecific synergistic effect between mulberry and soybean in the mulberry/soybean intercropping system. PMID:24015565

Hu, Ju-Wei; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Li, Xin; Yue, Bing-Bing; Sun, Guang-yu

2013-05-01

92

Mulberry leaf powder prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Mulberry is commonly used to feed silkworms. Here we examined whether a dietary intake of mulberry leaf (ML) could affect atherogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed either normal chow (control group) or a diet containing 1% ML powder (ML group) from 6 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The susceptibility of plasma lipoprotein to oxidation was assessed using diene formation. A significant increase in the lag time of lipoprotein oxidation was detected in the ML group compared with the control group. Furthermore, the ML group showed a 40% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortae compared with the control. We also examined the direct anti-oxidative activity of ML in vitro. Aqueous extract of ML had a strong scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and inhibited lipoprotein oxidation. These results confirm that ML contains anti-oxidative substances that might help prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:17506985

Harauma, Akiko; Murayama, Toshinori; Ikeyama, Kazuyuki; Sano, Hideto; Arai, Hidenori; Takano, Ryo; Kita, Toru; Hara, Saburo; Kamei, Kaeko; Yokode, Masayuki

2007-05-07

93

An Evolutionary Perspective of Pierce's Disease of Grapevine, Citrus Variegated Chlorosis, and Mulberry Leaf Scorch Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on a growing list of economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated\\u000a and evolved is important for disease prevention and management. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships\\u000a of X. fastidiosa strains from citrus, grapevine, and mulberry through the analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and conserved\\u000a 16S rDNA genes. RAPD

Jianchi Chen; John S. Hartung; Chung-Jan Chang; Anne K. Vidaver

2002-01-01

94

Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds as estimated through TNF alpha release indicates its potential as future biopolymeric graft material. Rat bone marrow cells cultured on scaffolds for 28 days under static conditions in osteogenic and adipogenic media respectively led to induction of differentiation. Proliferation and spreading of fibroblasts and bone marrow cells on silk scaffolds were observed to be dependent on scaffold porosity as revealed through confocal microscopic observations. Histological analysis shows osteogenic differentiation within silk scaffolds resulting in extensive mineralization in the form of deposited nodules as observed through intense Alizarin Red S staining. Similarly, adipogenesis was marked by the presence of lipid droplets within scaffolds on staining with Oil Red O. Real-time PCR studies reveal higher transcript levels for osteopontin (Spp1), osteocalcin (Bglap2) and osteonectin (Sparc) genes under osteogenic conditions. Similarly, upregulated adipogenic gene expression was observed within A. mylitta and B. mori scaffolds under adipogenic conditions for Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipocyte binding protein (aP2) genes. The results suggest suitability of silk fibroin protein 3D scaffolds as natural biopolymer for potential bone and adipose tissue engineering applications. PMID:19577292

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-07-03

95

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

96

Response of the Morus bombycis growing season to temperature and its latitudinal pattern in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in leaf phenology lengthen the growing season length (GSL, the days between leaf budburst and leaf fall) under the global warming. GSL and the leaf phenology response to climate change is one of the most important predictors of climate change effect on plants. Empirical evidence of climatic effects on GSL remains scarce, especially at a regional scale and the latitudinal pattern. This study analyzed the datasets of leaf budburst and fall phenology in Morus bombycis (Urticales), which were observed by the agency of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1953 to 2005 over a wide range of latitudes in Japan (31 to 44° N). In the present study, single regression slopes of leaf phenological timing and air temperature across Japan were calculated and their spatial patterns using general linear models were tested. The results showed that the GSL extension was caused mainly by a delay in leaf fall phenology. Relationships between latitude and leaf phenological and GSL responses against air temperature were significantly negative. The response of leaf phenology and GSL to air temperature at lower latitudes was larger than that at higher latitudes. The findings indicate that GSL extension should be considered with regards to latitude and climate change.

Doi, Hideyuki

2012-09-01

97

Response of the Morus bombycis growing season to temperature and its latitudinal pattern in Japan.  

PubMed

Changes in leaf phenology lengthen the growing season length (GSL, the days between leaf budburst and leaf fall) under the global warming. GSL and the leaf phenology response to climate change is one of the most important predictors of climate change effect on plants. Empirical evidence of climatic effects on GSL remains scarce, especially at a regional scale and the latitudinal pattern. This study analyzed the datasets of leaf budburst and fall phenology in Morus bombycis (Urticales), which were observed by the agency of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1953 to 2005 over a wide range of latitudes in Japan (31 to 44° N). In the present study, single regression slopes of leaf phenological timing and air temperature across Japan were calculated and their spatial patterns using general linear models were tested. The results showed that the GSL extension was caused mainly by a delay in leaf fall phenology. Relationships between latitude and leaf phenological and GSL responses against air temperature were significantly negative. The response of leaf phenology and GSL to air temperature at lower latitudes was larger than that at higher latitudes. The findings indicate that GSL extension should be considered with regards to latitude and climate change. PMID:21947335

Doi, Hideyuki

2011-09-27

98

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

99

Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) bioconsortia mediates induction of defense-related proteins against infection of root rot pathogen in mulberry plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Pf1 and Py15 and Bacillus subtilis isolate 16 (Bs16) was found to protect mulberry plants from root rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Induction of defense-related proteins and chemicals by the mixture of Pf1, Py15 and Bs16 against challenge inoculation with M. phaseolina in mulberry were studied. The activity of defense enzymes peroxidase (PO),

P. Ganeshamoorthi; T. Anand; V. Prakasam; M. Bharani; N. Ragupathi; R. Samiyappan

2008-01-01

100

Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.  

PubMed

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program. PMID:21128372

2010-12-01

101

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-08-06

102

ST2B1-2: Appropriate Waste Water Treatment System in Pulp and Paper Mill of Paper Mulberry ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of pulping and paper making waste water for a small plant was studied. The pilot scale treatment system was simulated for a continuous 1,000 pcs\\/day paper mulberry making plant at Nongmungkai District, Phare Province. The 8.69 m3\\/d waste water with 13,371 mg\\/l COD and 1,251 mg\\/l BOD was treated by biochemical anaerobic process. Subsequently it is was passed through

Nusara Sinbuatong; Pramote Siriroj; Prisnar Siriacha; Bussarin Khongseri

103

ST1A-1-3: Effects of Spacings on Growth and Yields of Paper Mulberry at Different Harvesting Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate spacing of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) planted for making hand-made papers. Field investigation was carried out at Wangchin district of Phrae province in northern Thailand. Five spacings were considered as treatments varying from 1x1 m, 1x2 m, 2x2 m, 2x4 m, and 4x4 m together with 3 replications. Fifteen sample

Bunvong Thaiutsa; Ladawan Puangchit

104

Enzymatic properties of ?-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes  pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the ?-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and ?-amylase activity was assayed using

Elham Yezdani; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Arash Zibaee; Mohammad Ghadamyari

2010-01-01

105

Silk fibroin film from non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworms: A novel substrate for in vitro fibroblast culture.  

PubMed

The silk protein fibroin, isolated from the cocoon of the domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is used extensively in biomaterial design and in cell and tissue culture. We report here for the first time the potential application of fibroin obtained from the cocoon of non-mulberry tropical silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, as a substrate for in vitro cell culture. The mechanical strength of A. mylitta silk fibers indicates a stronger thread composition. The contact angle of A. mylitta fibroin films suggests that it has lower hydrophilicity and lower solubility in organic solvents compared to B. mori fibroin films. Retention of a secondary structure of fibroin in both A. mylitta and B. mori films is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The adherence, growth and proliferation patterns of feline fibroblast cells on A. mylitta fibroin films suggest that this kind of film has a greater ability to support cell growth than B. mori fibroin films and is comparable to that of control. This study demonstrates that, as well as being non-toxic to dermal fibroblast cells, non-mulberry fibroin might be a useful alternative substrate to the more common B. mori fibroin for a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:18676188

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-07-18

106

Non-mulberry silk gland fibroin protein 3-D scaffold for enhanced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteocytes.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds of wild non-mulberry tropical tasar silk gland fibroin protein as substratum for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The novelty of the study lies in the fabrication of scaffolds from non-bioengineered silk fibroin directly extracted from the glands of non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworms using sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolution protocol and its osteogenic application using single- and double-seeding methods. The scaffolds were mechanically robust and showed homogenous pore distribution within the scaffold. hMSCs were seeded on the scaffolds and were cultured for up to 28days under static conditions in osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on fibroin scaffolds resulted in extensive mineralization with the formation of large calcium nodules, higher alkaline phosphatase activity and intense von Kossa staining. Real-time studies revealed higher transcript levels for osteopontin (OS) and bone sialoprotein (IBSP) under double-seeded conditions as compared to single-seeded scaffolds. Histological analysis showed the development of osteoblastic cells and large calcified nodules. The development and spreading of nuclei and actin filaments on fibroin matrices were revealed through confocal studies. The results suggest the suitability of non-mulberry silk-fibroin protein 3-D scaffolds as natural biomaterial for potential in vitro bone-tissue engineering applications. PMID:19345621

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

2009-03-05

107

Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population has increased considerably over the past century, both in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1980, the population in Australian waters has increased threefold, from 6,600 breeding pairs to approximately 20,000 pairs in 1999-2000, a rate of 6% per year. Reasons for the increase in the Australasian gannet population are poorly understood; here we consider

A. Bunce; F. Norman; N. Brothers; R. Gales

2002-01-01

108

Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Results Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Conclusions A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells.

2013-01-01

109

Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from mulberry and identification of anthocyanins in extract using HPLC-ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruits, vegetables, and plants. This study aims to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions of anthocyanins from mulberry (M. atropurpurea Roxb.) using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken experiment was employed in this regard. Methanol concentration, microwave power, and extraction time were chosen as independent variables. The optimized conditions of MAE were as follows: 59.6% acidified methanol, 425 W power, 25 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 132 s time. Under these conditions, 54.72 mg anthocyanins were obtained from 1.0 g mulberry powder. Furthermore, 8 anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in mulberry extract. The results showed that cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside are the major anthocyanins in mulberry. In addition, in comparison with conventional extraction, MAE is more rapid and efficient for extracting anthocyanins from mulberry. PMID:22260102

Zou, Tangbin; Wang, Dongliang; Guo, Honghui; Zhu, Yanna; Luo, Xiaoqin; Liu, Fengqiong; Ling, Wenhua

2011-11-10

110

Non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices for potential biotechnological applications.  

PubMed

This study reports a novel biopolymeric matrix fabricated by chemically cross-linking poly (vinyl alcohol) with silk sericin protein obtained from cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta. Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent with hydrochloric acid acting as an initiator. The matrices were biophysically characterized and the cytocompatibility of the matrices was evaluated for their suitability as biomaterials. The surface morphology was assessed using atomic force microscopy while the changes taking place after cross-linking were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced thermal stability of the constructs was assessed by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that sericin was chemically cross-linked with poly (vinyl alcohol) using glutaraldehyde. Silk sericin protein demonstrated a favorable effect on animal cell culture by successfully improving the adhering and spreading of cells on the poorly adhering surface of poly (vinyl alcohol). Confocal microscopy revealed cell spreading and actin filament development in sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices. These findings prove the potential of non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices to be used as biocompatible and biopolymeric material for tissue-engineering and biotechnological applications. PMID:21549749

Mandal, Biman B; Ghosh, Borna; Kundu, S C

2011-04-28

111

Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133?mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333?mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133?mg MLE and 67?mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333?mg MLE and 167?mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity. PMID:24000381

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

2013-09-02

112

Gut colonization by an ice nucleation active bacterium, Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas reduces the cold hardiness of mulberry pyralid larvae.  

PubMed

To evaluate the suitability of using ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria for the biological control of insect pests, the supercooling point (SCP) of larvae of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes duplicalis, and silkworm, Bombyx mori, ingesting INA strains of Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas and Pseudomonas syringae was determined. Mean SCP of the guts of silkworm larvae ingesting INA strains of E. ananas ranged from -2.5 to -2.8 degrees C, being 5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. Similarly, mean SCP of mulberry pyralid larvae ingesting INA strain of E. ananas, which can grow well in the gut, was -4.7 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, being 6.5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. On the other hand, mean SCP of the larvae-ingesting INA strain of P. syringae, which cannot grow in the gut, was -9.0 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, rising by only 2.5 degrees C higher than that in the control treatments. In addition, more than 80% of the larvae of mulberry pyralid ingesting the INA strain of E. ananas froze and eventually died when exposed to -6 degrees C for 18 h, while only 36% of the larvae ingesting the INA strain of P. syringae, or approximately 20% of the control larvae, froze and died. Thus, the gut colonization by INA strains of E. ananas reduced remarkably the cold hardiness of the insects. These findings suggest that INA strains of E. ananas could be effective as a potential biological control agent of insect pests. PMID:10413571

Watanabe, K; Sato, M

1999-06-01

113

Preparation of mulberry branch biomass char and its usage in wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Biomass char was prepared from mulberry branches by physical activation. An examination by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the functional groups of Si-O were mostly burnt out, significantly decreasing the ash content Analysis of data from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test also revealed increased surface roughness and pore structure, which improved the adsorption capacity of biomass char after preparation. The optimum conditions for preparation were found to be pyrolysis at 700 degrees C for 30 minutes, and then activation at 750 degrees C for one hour, with 3.4% steam content for the activating agent. The prepared biomass char was then employed to adsorb ammonium, copper(II) actetate [Cu(II)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in a solution. The results indicated that the prepared biomass char had a better adsorptive performance than the raw material. Moreover, the removal of determinands increased along with the dosage, and the highest adsorption efficiency of ammonium, copper(II) acetate [Cu(II)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were found to be 20%, 100% and 50%, respectively. The adsorptions of ammonium and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] can be simulated by a pseudo-second order model, while the adsorption of copper(II) acetate [Cu(II)] is better simulated by a pseudo-first order model. The adsorption isotherms of copper(II) acetate [Cu(II)] by biomass char were also investigated, and the Langmuir isotherm was found to best describe the adsorption process. PMID:23356022

Wu, Dong Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing Hui; Fu, Hao; Lv, Xiao Shu; Xu, Xin Hua

2012-11-01

114

Look at Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

Science Netlinks;

2002-02-14

115

Forms of Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent issue of NATURE, in the discussion on the forms of leaves, Mr. Henslow seems to doubt the assertion of Sir John Lubbock that the holly produces prickly leaves on the lower branches, and smooth leaves without spines above; but this is a fact which may easily be verified in numerous localities (selected gardens varieties are of course

R. A. Rolfe

1885-01-01

116

Leaves: Extracting Pigments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun, hands-on autumn activity, learners experiment to discover whether the colored substances in leaves can be separated from the leaves. Learners crush leaves and other natural materials and soak them in different liquids. They then carry out the technique of chromatography to separate out the pigments for observation. The activity is broken into three parts and includes follow-up and background information.

Education Development Center, Inc.

2010-01-01

117

Beyond Leave No Trace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leave No Trace (LNT) has become the official education and outreach policy for managing recreational use in parks and wilderness areas throughout the United States. It is based on seven core principles that seek to minimize impacts from backcountry recreational activities such as hiking, climbing, and camping. In this paper, we review the history and current practice of Leave No

Gregory L. Simon; Peter S. Alagona

2009-01-01

118

The Effect of Supplementation of Dried Mulberry Leaf Meal on the Growth and Carcass Characteristics of young Boer and Crossbred Boer Goats in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve growing male goats (6 Boers and 6 crossbred Boers), 3-4 months old with mean initial body weight of 18.29 ± 1.98 kg, were used to evaluate the effect of supplementation with mulberry leaf meal (MLM) on body weight, growth rate (ADG), body measurements, carcass yield and non-carcass components. The kids were matched by weight and randomly assigned to 2

David Miller; Delroy McDonald; Francis Asiedu

119

Mulberry 1-Deoxynojirimycin Pleiotropically Inhibits Glucose-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration by Activation of AMPK/RhoB and Down-regulation of FAK.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, has been reported to help prevent diabetes mellitus and suppress lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry DNJ has pleiotropic effects on the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which mulberry DNJ might inhibit migration of A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic conditions mimicking diabetes were investigated. The antimigratory effects of DNJ on VSMCs were assessed by Western blot analysis of migration-related proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton. Two pathways of DNJ-mediated inhibition of VSMC migration were identified. The first involved AMPK activation to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Akt activity and then RhoB activation to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP) activity. The second involved inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras, and RhoA activity leading to inhibition of F-actin activity. PMID:24050301

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-10-02

120

Different plants produce different leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

121

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

122

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students pondered the mechanics of leaves' solar-collecting abilities, they began to understand plant behavior in a meaningful way.

Isabelle, Aaron D.; De Groot, Cornelis

2009-02-01

123

Leaving work to smoke.  

PubMed

Work-place smoking bans have not only reduced work-day cigarette consumption but also been associated with going outside to smoke during working hours. We examined the extent of "exiled smoking", estimated how much work-day cigarette consumption can be attributed to it, and examined proximal predictors of both these two variables. Some 794 smokers from 42 medium-sized work-places were surveyed as the baseline for an intervention study. A self-completed questionnaire assessed smoking behaviour on work and non-working days, leaving work to smoke, and beliefs and opinions about smoking and smoking bans. Multiple regressions were used to examine predictors of leaving work to smoke, and of the amount smoked when doing so. Smokers reported consuming an average of 5.4 cigarettes during work breaks, 3.5 of which were associated with deliberately seeking opportunities to smoke; 39% reported leaving work to smoke one or more times per day during non-break periods. Indices of addiction were significant predictors of both leaving work to smoke and of cigarette consumption while doing so. Leaving work to smoke is in part an activity of addicted smokers, presumably to maintain blood nicotine levels. There is the potential to further reduce rates of cigarette consumption associated with work-place smoking bans if this "exiled smoking" can be reduced. This may be easier to achieve in light smokers. PMID:9489053

Borland, R; Cappiello, M; Owen, N

1997-10-01

124

Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

2010-10-27

125

The Movements of Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRITZ MUELLER has sent me some additional observations on the movements of leaves, when exposed to a bright light. Such movements seem to be as well developed and as diversified under the bright sun of Brazil, as are the well-known sleep or nyctitropic movements of plants in all parts of the world. This result has interested me much, as I

Charles Darwin

1881-01-01

126

Paper Chromatography with Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

Society, American C.

2010-01-01

127

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

128

Starch mobilization in leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch mobilization is well understood in cereal endosperms, but both the pathway and the regulation of the process are poorly characterized in other types of plant organs. Arabidopsis leaves offer the opportunity for rapid progress in this area, because of the genomic resources available in this species and the ease with which starch synthesis and degradation can be monitored and

Alison M. Smith; Samuel C. Zeeman; David Thorneycroft; Steven M. Smith

2010-01-01

129

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

130

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

131

A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

2009-01-01

132

Molecular cloning, expression, and enzymatic activity of a novel endogenous cellulase from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari.  

PubMed

A novel endogenous beta-1,4-endoglucanase (Ag-EGase III) gene belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 5 was cloned from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari. The Ag-EGase III gene spans 1061 bp and consists of a single exon coding for 325 amino acid residues. The Ag-EGase III showed 89% protein sequence identity to another beetle, Psacothea hilaris, cellulase belonging to GHF 5. The Ag-EGase III has the potential proton donor and nucleophile amino acids conserved in GHF 5 and two putative N-glycosylation sites. Northern blot and Western blot analyses showed that Ag-EGases were expressed in the gut; Ag-EGase III and Ag-EGase I were expressed in three gut regions, and no Ag-EGase II was found in hindgut, indicating that the foregut and midgut are the prime sites for cellulase synthesis in A. germari larvae. The cDNA encoding Ag-EGase III was expressed as a 47-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells and the enzyme activity of the purified recombinant Ag-EGase III was approximately 1037 U per mg of recombinant Ag-EGase III. The enzymatic property of the purified recombinant Ag-EGase III showed the highest activity at 55 degrees C and pH 6.0, and was stable at 60 degrees C at least for 10 min. In addition, the N-glycosylation of Ag-EGase III was revealed by treatment with tunicamycin of recombinant virus-infected insect Sf9 cells and with endoglycosidase F of purified recombinant Ag-EGase III, demonstrating that the carbohydrate moieties are not necessary for enzyme activity. PMID:16945565

Wei, Ya Dong; Lee, Kwang Sik; Gui, Zhong Zheng; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kim, Iksoo; Zhang, Guo Zheng; Guo, Xijie; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

2006-07-25

133

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

134

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

135

Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2009-01-01

136

Family Leave: It's the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives employees the right to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for medical or family reasons. Provides key provisions of FMLA as they apply to schools and advises districts to consult school attorneys to help ensure compliance with the act and with the interim regulations issued last summer. (MLF)|

Arnold, Jean B.

1993-01-01

137

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract.

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

138

Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

139

5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

2013-01-01

140

5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01...Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs...1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank...

2013-01-01

141

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1205 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Intermittent...including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C....

2013-01-01

142

Phenylalanine Hydroxylase from Spinach Leaves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spinach leaves contain an enzyme system which catalyses the hydroxylation of L-beta-phenylalanine to tyrosine. The crude active extract has been partially purified by fractional precipitation with acetone, adsorption on DEAE-cellulose, and with calcium ph...

P. M. Nair L. C. Vining

1964-01-01

143

Maternity Leave: Tips for Returning to Work  

MedlinePLUS

... use only. Maternity leave: Tips for returning to work By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Maternity leave: Tips for returning to work Maternity leave passes quickly. Find out what you ...

144

Family Medical Leave Act: ready or not!  

PubMed

Many employers already have policies in place that grant job leaves for a variety of reasons. It is no longer optional for employers to grant job leaves; appropriate leave is now the law. PMID:8710322

Westerfield, J; Rini, A G

1996-04-01

145

The politics of family leave.  

PubMed

There are many who would insist that the best laws from Washington, D.C., are those that aren't passed. A singular problem with many of the laws that are placed on the books is that their intended achievements are frequently largely overcome by unintended results. Such may be the case with the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. For all the good this law has done for those who need to take leaves of absence, it has added greatly to the woes of those who remain behind, the author says. Managers, she insists, will have to work diligently with the reactions of those who must accept additional workloads to accommodate the leaves of their colleagues. PMID:10139605

Kennedy, M M

1995-01-01

146

75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reflected in the regulatory text. We are therefore addressing that oversight in these regulations. One agency believed it is too generous to allow up to 104 hours (13 days) of advanced sick leave for an employee's own medical, dental or optical...

2010-12-03

147

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT LEAVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most leaves appear simple at first sight and they consist of only a few cell types. Despite that, many developmental processes are involved in leaf ontogeny, including positioning and initiation of leaf primordia, specification of leaf identity, establishment of dorsiventrality, the control of cell ...

148

Carbon Dioxide Diffusion inside Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves are beautifully specialized organs that enable plants to intercept light necessary for photosynthesis. The light is dispersed among a large array of chloroplasts that are in close proximity to air and yet not too far from vascular tissue, which supplies water and exports sugars and other metabolites. To control water loss from the leaf, gas exchange occurs through pores

John R. Evans; Susanne von Caemmerer

1996-01-01

149

A novel method for dissolution and stabilization of non-mulberry silk gland protein fibroin using anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

The importance of silk protein has increased because of its potential use as a natural biopolymer for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. In this report we show a novel and ecofriendly method for dissolution of gland silk protein fibroin. Non-mulberry silk fibroin from mature fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta was found to be optimally soluble in 1% (w/v) anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Regenerated fibroin showed distinct bands of approximately 395 and 197 kDa on electrophoresis in non-reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Enhanced fibroin dissolution via internalization of hydrophobic amino groups inside a hydrophilic amino acid core in the form of micelles was observed. Prolonged storage stability without gelation of SDS-extracted fibroin was seen. Atomic force microscopy showed micellar aggregation with mean micellar aggregation size of 8 nm. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed predominantly helical conformation due to surfactant addition with internal protein conformational changes as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopic studies. PMID:17969177

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

2008-04-15

150

5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Section 630.1117 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...

2013-01-01

151

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

MedlinePLUS

... FMLA Wage and Hour Division (WHD) Family and Medical Leave Act Overview The FMLA entitles eligible employees ... unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage ...

152

Gas transfer in floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized gas transport with flow rates of 1.1 to 1.81 gas h-1 plant-1 have been detected in the floating-leaved aquatic macrophyte Euryale ferox on sunny days. The younger leaves gave the highest pressurization, but the gas flow was initiated mainly by the middle-aged leaves of the plants. The gas through-flow was shown to be highly beneficial for floating-leaved plants. It

W. Große; C. Bauch

1991-01-01

153

Pregnancy, Teaching, and Leaving before Year's End.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay highlights one pregnant middle school teacher's experiences with taking a mid-year leave. She used entries from her personal diary to reflect on how she felt about her leave, while her students wrote letters and notes expressing their anxieties about her leaving. The discussion of planning a pregnancy and the stages of pregnancy, along…

Abdulrashid, Jamila

154

Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.  

PubMed

Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n?=?57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n?=?57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40?L-NEG and 33?L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32?L-NEG and 34?L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P?

Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

2011-04-25

155

Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity  

PubMed Central

“Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care.

McSherry, James

1986-01-01

156

A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1?:?1?:?1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6?g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75?g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

2012-01-01

157

Proteases of Senescing Oat Leaves  

PubMed Central

Two proteases active in the senescing first leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa cv. Victory) have been purified approximately 500-fold by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on hemoglobin-Sepharose, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. The enzymes show pH optima of 4.2 and 6.6 with denatured hemoglobin as substrate, and the molecular weights of both are about 76,000. Their optimum temperatures are close to 50 C. Small amounts of a third enzyme, active at pH 3.5, may also be present. The enzyme active at pH 6.6 shows evidence of a sulfhydryl residue in the active site. Images

Drivdahl, Rolf H.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1977-01-01

158

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

159

Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: in vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was used to assess the difference in epidermal absorbance (EAbs). EAbs increased with increasing solar irradiance intercepted for the three species. This epidermal localisation of UV-absorbers was confirmed by the removal of the epidermis. It was possible to simulate EAbs as a linear combination of major phenolic compounds (Phen) identified in leaf methanol extracts by HPLC-DAD. Under UV-free radiation conditions, shaded leaves of M. nigra accumulated chlorogenic acid. Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives greatly increased with increasing PAR irradiance under the low UV-B conditions found in the greenhouse. These traits were also observed for the HCA of the two other species. Flavonoid (FLAV) accumulation started under low UV-A irradiance, and became maximal in the adaxial epidermis of sun-exposed leaves outdoors. A decrease in the amount of HCA was observed concomitantly to the intense accumulation of FLAV for both leaf sides of the three species. Judging from the logFER, under low UV-B conditions, larger amounts of HCA are present in the epidermis in comparison to FLAV for the three species. Upon transition from the greenhouse to full sunlight outdoors, there was a decrease in leaf-soluble HCA that paralleled FLAV accumulation in reaction to increasing solar UV-B radiation in the three species. In M. nigra, that contains large amounts of HCA, the logFER analysis showed that this decrease occurred in the adaxial epidermis, whereas the abaxial epidermis, which is protected from direct UV-B radiation, continued to accumulate large amounts of HCA. PMID:17720509

Bidel, L P R; Meyer, S; Goulas, Y; Cadot, Y; Cerovic, Z G

2007-07-18

160

Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis.

E. Talla; D. Djamen; D. R. Djouldé; L. Tatsadjeu; D. Tantoh; J. T. Mbafor; Z. T. Fomum

2002-01-01

161

Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts.  

PubMed

Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:12234581

Talla, E; Djamen, D; Djouldé, D; Tatsadjeu, L; Tantoh, D; Mbafor, J T; Fomum, Z T

2002-07-01

162

Efficient and low cost devices for solar energy conversion: Efficiency and stability of some natural-dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells, named by us Dye-Cells, are one of the most promising devices for solar energy conversion due to their reduced production cost and low environmental impact, especially those sensitized by natural dyes. The efficiency and stability of devices based on natural sensitizers such as mulberry (Morus alba Lam), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Lam), and jaboticaba's skin (Mirtus cauliflora Mart)

A. O. T. Patrocínio; S. K. Mizoguchi; L. G. Paterno; C. G. Garcia; N. Y. Murakami Iha

2009-01-01

163

Characterization and safety evaluation of the traditional Greek fruit distillate “Mouro” by flavor compounds and mineral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouro is the spirit beverage that comes from the distillation of fermented fruits of the mulberry tree (Morus nigra L.). Mouro is also the Greek common name of this fruit. Usually, it is used for the production of syrups, jams and jellies. In Greece it is also used for the production of the traditional aromatic mouro distillate. As far as

E. H Soufleros; Ageliki S Mygdalia; P Natskoulis

2004-01-01

164

Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup

2010-01-01

165

Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

Waters, Megan.

166

A photoacoustic study of water infiltrated leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoacoustic measurements of photosynthetic energy storage were conducted on water infiltrated pea and sugar maple leaves. The samples were vacuum infiltrated with pure water or with a suitable buffer. The use of such methodology permitted an accurate determination of the energy storage parameter at low modulation frequencies, where in non-infiltrated leaves oxygen evolution dominates the photoacoustic signal and does not

Shmuel Malkin; Marc Charland; Roger M. Leblanc

1992-01-01

167

Retention of Leaves by Deciduous Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE retention of leaves by beechen hedges referred to by your correspondent in NATURE, April 10, is by no means confined to those on elevated ground. It may commonly be observed in hedges of this tree whatever their situation. In Northumberland the beech is not infrequently used as a hedge, and always retains its leaves throughout the winter. Young beech

G. W. Bulman

1902-01-01

168

Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.  

PubMed

The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

Pabuçcuo?lu, A; Kivçak, B; Ba?, M; Mert, T

2003-09-01

169

State Maternity/Family Leave Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress has newly enacted the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. The Federal law requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide workers with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for the birth or adoption of a child, or for the foster care of...

1993-01-01

170

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

171

Temporal variation in endophyte assemblages of Plumeria rubra leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal pattern of endophyte infection in the leaves of Plumeria rubra, a tropical deciduous tree, was studied by sampling the leaves of an individual tree for a period of one year. Endophytes could be isolated from the leaves throughout the study period. Older leaves were more densely colonised than the younger leaves. Hyphomycetes dominated the endophyte assemblage of the

T. S. Suryanarayanan; S. Thennarasan

172

25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employees to take such vacation time. (b) Leave...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal...

2010-04-01

173

25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employees to take such vacation time. (b) Leave...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal...

2009-04-01

174

25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employees to take such vacation time. (b) Leave...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal...

2013-04-01

175

Glutamine Synthetase in Spinach Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DEAE Sephacel, and hydroxyapatite chromatography, one form of glutamine synthetase has been identified in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Monstrueux de Viroflay) leaves. It is localized only inside the chloroplast. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and specific antibodies against the protein were raised by immunization of rabbits. The intracellular localization of glutamine synthetase in spinach leaves was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on thin-sectioned spinach leaves. It has been demonstrated that the enzyme is specifically associated with the chloroplasts of parenchymatous cells. Images

Hirel, Bertrand; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Suzuki, Akira; Vidal, Jean; Gadal, Pierre

1982-01-01

176

Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.  

PubMed

The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643

Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

2012-12-01

177

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

178

The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)|

Chemecology, 1997

1997-01-01

179

The family and medical leave act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexities of the federal Family and Medical Leave Act can pose administrative headaches and legal liability for managers unaware of its provisions. Worse, managers have no legal precedents to guide their FMLA decisions.

David C. Wyld

1995-01-01

180

ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF JUSTICIA BEDDOMEI  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract

Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

2007-01-01

181

Herbicide Uptake by Leaves and Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.

182

Autotrophy in Maize Husk Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The natural abundance of carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition, expressed as a ?13C value of plant dry matter and cellulose in the hypsophylls (husk leaves) of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured and compared with that of leaves and cobs. The ?13C values of outer hypsophylls were usually 2 to 3%‰ more negative than leaves or other tissues, and became more negative with increasing chlorophyll content, indicating significant local C3 pathway fixation of CO2 in the outer hypsophylls. The ?D values indicated a significant part of hypsophyll cellulose was derived from heterotrophic sources (sucrose from C4 photosynthesis in other tissues). Isotopic mass balance calculations allowed quantitative estimation of these carbon sources and, in the samples examined, about 16% of hypsophyll cellulose was derived from local C3 photosynthesis, about 62% from local C4 photosynthesis, and about 22% from sucrose imported from other leaves.

Yakir, Dan; Osmond, Barry; Giles, Larry

1991-01-01

183

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of...

2013-07-01

184

29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825...OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer...employer to determine whether the leave qualifies under the Act. If the employee fails...

2013-07-01

185

Nodulation of rooted leaves in leguminous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Root formation was obtained on the petioles of detached leaves of several leguminous plants, particularly on the primary leaves\\u000a of bean. Root formation is easily obtained in artificial light at a temperature of 22 to 24°C. In the greenhouse it is optimal\\u000a in early spring and late autumn. During hot summer seasons no roots but callus was formed on the

T. A. Lie

1971-01-01

186

Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost a quarter of entering public-school teachers leave teaching within their first three years. High attrition would be particularly problematic if those leaving were the more able teachers. The goal of this paper is estimate the extent to which there is differential attrition based on teachers' value-added to student achievement. Using data for New York City schools from 2000–2005, we

Donald Boyd; Pamela Grossman; Hamilton Lankford; Susanna Loeb; James Wyckoff

2008-01-01

187

Peroxisomal enzyme activities in attached senescing leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it has been demonstrated that detached leaves show glyoxysomal enzyme activities when incubated in darkness for several days. In this report glyoxylate-cycle enzymes have been detected in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum durum L.) from either naturally senescing or dark-treated plants. Isolated peroxisomes of rice and wheat show isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1), malate synthase (EC

Laura Pistelli; Luigi De Bellis; Amedeo Alpi

1991-01-01

188

Leave requirements under the Family and Medical Leave Act: a trap for the unwary.  

PubMed

The old adage "ignorance of the law is no defense," is certainly true when dealing with the Family Medical leave Act. That is, lack of knowledge does not excuse the failure of the employer to properly designate the leave. Therefore, as an employer, one must be sure to know and follow the Family Medical Leave Act requirements. Not doing so may be a costly mistake. PMID:10169014

Mackarey, J A

1997-06-01

189

The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

2013-08-01

190

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occasional basis for medical appointments, or leave taken several days at a time spread over a period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for...

2013-07-01

191

The Importance and Potential Uses of Olive Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this study, the importance of olive leaves is

Zafer Erbay; Filiz Icier

2010-01-01

192

Colonization of Japanese beech leaves by phyllosphere fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the colonization of living leaves from buds and twigs by phyllosphere fungi of Japanese beech, the mycobiota were investigated on buds and twigs and on leaves covered with well-ventilated bags before budbreak. Ten phyllosphere fungi were isolated from rolled-up leaves within buds, bud scales, and twigs. However, frequencies of phyllosphere fungi on expanded leaves were reduced markedly when

Takashi Osono; Akira Mori

2003-01-01

193

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2013-07-01

194

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2010-07-01

195

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2009-07-01

196

Family and medical leave: evidence from the 2000 surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven years after the Family and Medical Leave Act, more employees are taking leave for family or medical reasons, and fewer report that they need leave, but are unable to take it; many employers offer leave over and above that required by the Act, and most report no adverse effects on their business

Jane Waldfogel

2001-01-01

197

An Assessment of Family and Medical Leave Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Family and Medical Leave Act (Public Law 103-3, or 29 CFR 825) and similar policies throughout the world, such as maternity leave policies (PL507 Rev 4) in the UK, or Maternity and Parental leave in Canada, are policies that require employers to provide an employee with a period of leave for the birth or adoption of a child,

Stefanie Wilde

2006-01-01

198

The effect of state maternity leave legislation and the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act on employment and wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, President Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Similar to the 12 states that already had maternity leave mandates, the FMLA guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave for eligible mothers. I evaluate the effects of maternity leave legislation on employment and wages, taking advantage of variation created by state legislation and the FMLA. My results show

Charles II Baum

2003-01-01

199

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

200

Practical Approaches for Teaching Leave No Trace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As participation in outdoor recreation grows, natural resources suffer a variety of environmental and social impacts. A minimum-impact back country educational program first developed during the 1970s, Leave No Trace (LNT), has been revitalized by the National Outdoor Leadership School, six federal agencies, and members of the outdoor products…

Attarian, Aram

201

Does butchering fish leave cut marks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that fish are a common component of coastal and other aquatic archaeological sites, cut marks are rarely reported on archaeological fish remains. To assess whether butchering practices leave cut marks on fish bones, we butchered 37 fish using stone tools and a metal knife following methods provided in ethnographic accounts and by modern fish processors. In contrast

Lauren M. Willis; Metin I. Eren; Torben C. Rick

2008-01-01

202

Investigations on heat resistance of spinach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of spinach plants to high temperature (35° C) increased the heat resistance of the leaves by about 3° C. This hardening process occurred within 4 to 6 h, whereas dehardening at 20°\\/15° C required 1 to 2 days. At 5° C dehardening did not take place. Hardening and dehardening occurred in both the dark and the light. The hardiness

Kurt A. Santarius; Mechthild Mfiller

1979-01-01

203

[Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L].  

PubMed

Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:2069701

Chen, L

1991-01-01

204

MATERNITY LEAVE: WHERE WE STAND COMPARED  

Microsoft Academic Search

1) . There are essentially two basic types: financial instruments (tax deductions, credits, benefits, etc.) and formal, non-financial instruments (such as social recognition of the importance of motherhood and par- enthood). One of the first policy provisions that families with children encounter is maternity leave (ML) and the financial assistance that accompanies it. This policy provision combines both aspects: for-

205

Cardanols from leaves of Rhus thyrsiflora.  

PubMed

A mixture of 3-substituted alkyl- and alkenylphenols including nine new compounds (cardanols) was isolated from leaves of the Yemenian plant Rhus thyrsiflora (Anacardiaceae) and identified by GC-MS. The position of the double bond in the compounds bearing a monolefinic side chain was determined by their typical MS fragmentation patterns after hydroxylation and trimethylsilylation. PMID:11488469

Franke, K; Masaoud, M; Schmidt, J

2001-07-01

206

PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHIC STUDIES ON ABIES WEBBIANA LEAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abies webbiana Lindl. (Pinaceae), commonly called Talispatra in Bengali and Hindi, Talispatram in Sanskrit and Indian Silver Fir in English, is a large evergreen tree found in the Himalayan region from Kashmir to Assam in India. In India, this plant has been traditionally used as a drug for several ailments. The leaves of this plants have different indications in Ayurveda,

Ashoke Kumar Ghosh; Sanjib Bhattacharya

207

Family background and leaving the parental home  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the influence of the family background on the transition to leaving parental home for the first time is studied. The focus lies on the influences of a number of explanatory determinants in the field of family structure and family characteristics and on the differences in these effects for men and women. A distinction is made between individuals

Marjolein Blaauboer; Clara H. Mulder

208

Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

Tomley, David

1983-01-01

209

Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)|

Tomley, David

1983-01-01

210

The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

Gill, John; And Others

1988-01-01

211

Understanding the Family and Medical Leave Act.  

PubMed

In April 1995 final regulations for the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 were issued. The act is very detailed, complicated, and difficult to implement for home care agencies. Agencies need to gain a good working understanding of the FMLA to avoid inadvertent violations. PMID:10166264

Zink-Pearson, E A

1997-03-01

212

Photosynthesis of Leaves of some Eucalyptus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the diurnal rhythms, severance from the root system, photosynthetic capacity, light and carbon dioxide responses of single leaves of E. fastigata, E. robertsonii, and the hybrid E. fastigata × E. robertsonii arc presented. Diurnal rhythms are not conspicuous. Severance from the root system makes subsequently measured rates of photosynthesis erratic. The light climate under which seedlings are grown

E. G. Brittain; R. J. Cameron

1973-01-01

213

Leave administration in flexible working time models  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Flexible working times become common in shift-work and have sincere implications on the treat- ment of leave in working time accounting. Consider, for example, a working time arrangement where the hours to be worked on a specific day cannot be given in advance. If an employee gets sick, it is unclear how many hours should be credited to

Johannes Gärtner; Karin Hörwein; Sabine Wahl

214

Youth leaving care: how do they fare?  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes recent Canadian and international research on the outcomes for youth after they age out of the child welfare system. It paints a disturbing picture for this small and vulnerable population. Youth leaving care face many challenges in making the transition from state care to independence and adulthood. They bear the emotional scars of childhood neglect or abuse. They do not have a family support network, have limited or no financial resources, are often lacking in life skills, and usually have not completed school. Despite these setbacks, we expect them to function independently once they reach age eighteen. Research shows that once youth leave care, they do not fare as well as their peers. They are at much greater risk of relying on social assistance, becoming homeless, engaging in substance abuse, becoming single parents, experiencing mental health problems, or coming into contact with the criminal justice system. Some youth aging out, however, have more successful transitions. These typically have completed high school, have role models, have access to postsecondary opportunities, refrain from alcohol or drug use, and obtain life skills and independent living training. Having stable placements while in care is also critical in ensuring more positive outcomes. Canada does not have the capacity to track the outcomes of youth as they leave the child welfare system, nor can it identify the types of interventions showing the most promise in helping them achieve better outcomes. Canadian governments need to improve their transitional planning for youth in care who are approaching the age of majority. Some recommendations include extending the age for services and financial assistance to age twenty-four, developing standards to prepare youth for leaving care, and exploring ways to enable youth to pursue higher education or training. Finally, Canada should develop a national longitudinal survey to monitor the outcomes of youth after they leave care. PMID:17523520

Tweddle, Anne

2007-01-01

215

Metabolic regulation in diseased leaves. I. The respiratory rise in barley leaves infected with powdery mildew.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic and respiratory activities have been measured in leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. var. Manchuria (barley) after infection with Erysiphe graminis var. hordei (powdery mildew). Two isogenic lines, one resistant to infection and the other highly susceptible, were examined.These isogenic lines showed very different physiological responses following infection. Photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content of resistant leaves was unaffected by infection. Respiration increased slightly and this was accompanied by small increases in activities of enzymes of glycolysis, the pentose-P pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.The infection of susceptible leaves resulted in a slight increase in photosynthesis 48 hours after inoculation, but subsequently there was a progressive decrease in the photosynthesis of these leaves compared with that of noninfected leaves. The capacity of infected leaves for partial reactions of photosynthesis such as the Hill reaction and the photoreduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(1)) decreased during the later stages of infection. The levels of chlorophyll, NADPH-diaphorase and aldolase also declined. There was no detectable difference in the respiration of infected and noninfected leaves until 48 hours after inoculation. After this time, the infected leaves showed a higher respiration, the maximum difference occurring about 144 hours after inoculation. The respiratory increase was not accompanied by significant changes in the levels of enzymes of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with the exception of malate dehydrogenase which was lower in infected leaves. In contrast, the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase showed changes similar to that observed for respiration.The respiration and the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase did not increase in infected leaves of etiolated plants, even when excellent growth of the fungus was established by growing the plants in White's basal medium supplemented with sucrose. The respiration of a susceptible mutant barley (the yellow-green virescent mutant of the variety Himalaya) when grown in the light at 11 degrees was not changed by infection although the characteristic respiratory rise occurred in plants grown at 15 degrees . At the lower temperature chloroplasts fail to develop in this mutant, although development is normal at 15 degrees .It is suggested that the pathogen is not directly responsible for the increase in respiration in green leaves, rather that this is a response in the host cells to a loss of photosynthetic capacity. PMID:16656253

Scott, K J; Smillie, R M

1966-02-01

216

A complex case of simple leaves: indeterminate leaves co-express ARP and KNOX1 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutually exclusive relationship between ARP and KNOX1 genes in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia in simple leaved plants such as Arabidopsis has been well characterized. Overlapping expression domains of these genes in leaf primordia have been described for many\\u000a compound leaved plants such as Solanum lycopersicum and Cardamine hirsuta and are regarded as a characteristic of compound

Kanae Nishii; Michael Möller; Catherine Kidner; Alberto Spada; Raffaella Mantegazza; Chun-Neng Wang; Toshiyuki Nagata

2010-01-01

217

Chemical constituents from leaves of Evodia lepta.  

PubMed

To explore the alternative material for the stems of Evodia lepta used in clinic, the leaves extract of E. lepta was chemically investigated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC and the structures of the compounds were identified mainly by spectroscopic methods. Ten known compounds 4-hydroxy-4, 7-dimethyl-1-tetralone (1), (6R, 7E) -4, 7-megastigmadien-3, 9-dione (2), 4-megastigmen-3, 9-dione (3), formononetin (4), daidzein (5), oroxylin A (6), wogonin (7), 5, 7-dihydroxy-3, 4'-dimethoxyflavone (8), N-trans-coumaroyltyranine (9) and (E) -p-hydroxycinnamic acid (10), have been obtained and identified. All these compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. The results revealed that there is a considerate chemical difference between the stems and leaves of E. lepta. PMID:23944034

Wei, He-Lin; Zhou, Si-Xiang; Jiang, Yong; Song, Yue-Lin; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

2013-04-01

218

Family medical leave--management strategies.  

PubMed

Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor. PMID:15635929

Morris, Judy A; Strasser, Patricia B

2004-12-01

219

Inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis from Lawsonia inermis leaves.  

PubMed

Ten phenolic compounds (1-10) were isolated from a methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves including two new ones, lawsoniasides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR and FTICRMS) in combination with acid hydrolysis and GC analyses. Compounds 4 and 5 showed a significant inhibition on receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone-marrow macrophages. PMID:20634065

Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Dat, Nguyen Tien; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Huong, Le Mai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Won, Ji-Hee; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Young Ho

2010-06-25

220

Inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis from Lawsonia inermis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten phenolic compounds (1–10) were isolated from a methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves including two new ones, lawsoniasides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR and FTICRMS) in combination with acid hydrolysis and GC analyses. Compounds 4 and 5 showed a significant inhibition on receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand-induced osteoclast formation in

Nguyen Xuan Cuong; Nguyen Xuan Nhiem; Nguyen Phuong Thao; Nguyen Hoai Nam; Nguyen Tien Dat; Hoang Le Tuan Anh; Le Mai Huong; Phan Van Kiem; Chau Van Minh; Ji-Hee Won; Won-Yoon Chung; Young Ho Kim

2010-01-01

221

Developmental studies on microbodies in wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves, the development of the microbody enzymes catalase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, and glycolate oxidase was specifically stimulated by short treatments of the seedlings with red light, although the increases were less than observed after treatment with continuous white light. A comparison of the effects of short red and far-red exposures indicated the involvement of phytochrome.2.Continuous

J. Feierabend

1975-01-01

222

Inactive Photosystem II Complexes in Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The flash-induced electrochromic shift, measured by the amplitude of the rapid absorbance increase at 518 nanometers (?A518), was used to determine the amount of charge separation within photosystems II and I in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The recovery time of the reaction centers was determined by comparing the amplitudes of ?A518 induced by two flashes separated by a variable time interval. The recovery of the ?A518 on the second flash revealed that 20% of the reaction centers exhibited a recovery half-time of 1.7 ± 0.3 seconds, which is 1000 times slower than normally active reaction centers. Measurements using isolated thylakoid membranes showed that photosystem I constituted 38% of the total number of reaction centers, and that the photosystem I reaction centers were nearly fully active, indicating that the slowly turning over reaction centers were due solely to photosystem II. The results demonstrate that in spinach leaves approximately 32% of the photosystem II complexes are effectively inactive, in that their contribution to energy conversion is negligible. Additional evidence for inactive photosystem II complexes in spinach leaves was provided by fluorescence induction measurements, used to monitor the oxidation kinetics of the primary quinone acceptor of photosystem II, QA, after a short flash. The measurements showed that in a fraction of the photosystem II complexes the oxidation of QA? was slow, displaying a half-time of 1.5 ± 0.3 seconds. The kinetics of QA? oxidation were virtually identical to the kinetics of the recovery of photosystem II determined from the electrochromic shift. The key difference between active and inactive photosystem II centers is that in the inactive centers the oxidation rate of QA? is slow compared to active centers. Measurements of the electrochromic shift in detached leaves from several different species of plants revealed a significant fraction of slowly turning over reaction centers, raising the possibility that reaction centers that are inefficient in energy conversion may be a common feature in plants.

Chylla, Roger A.; Whitmarsh, John

1989-01-01

223

Nurses’ intentions to leave nursing in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. We examined how factors related to wage, work, job satisfaction\\/dissatisfaction,\\u000a and workplace or demographic factors were associated with nurses’ intentions to switch from health care to non-health-care\\u000a roles. Wage and share of income from shift work were negatively and statistically significantly related to nurses’ intention\\u000a to leave the health care

T. Kankaanranta; P. Rissanen

2008-01-01

224

Unusual cyclolanostanes from leaves of Pandanus boninensis.  

PubMed

Two unusual triterpenoids, (24S)-24-methyl-25,32-cyclo-5alpha-lanosta-9(11)-en-3beta-ol and (24S)-24-methyl-25,32-cyclo-cycloartane-3beta-ol, were isolated from leaves of Pandanus boninensis along with known triterpenoids and lignans. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods and X-ray analysis. PMID:16229870

Inada, Akira; Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Murata, Hiroko; Inatomi, Yuka; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Bhattacharyya, Kinkini; Kar, Tanusree; Bocelli, Gabriele; Cantoni, Andrea

2005-10-14

225

Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression.Pre-treatment of water extract (300mg\\/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation

B. V. Ghule; G. Murugananthan; P. D. Nakhat; P. G. Yeole

2006-01-01

226

Triterpenoids from the leaves of Nerium oleander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new triterpenoids have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide and 3?,22?,28-trihydroxy-25-nor-lup-1 (10),20(29)-dien-2-one. Elucidation of the structures was based on spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (COSY-45, NOESY and J-resolved).

Sabira Begum; Razia Sultana; Bina S. Siddiqui

1997-01-01

227

Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves  

PubMed Central

The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks.

Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre

1992-01-01

228

Carbon fluxes in mature peach leaves.  

PubMed

The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using (14)C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

Moing, A; Carbonne, F; Rashad, M H; Gaudillère, J P

1992-12-01

229

Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms.

Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

1997-01-01

230

5 CFR 630.404 - Requesting sick leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for sick leave within such time limits as the agency may require. The employee must request advance approval for sick leave for the purpose of receiving medical, dental, or optical examination or treatment and, to the extent possible, for...

2013-01-01

231

46 CFR 502.72 - Petition for leave to intervene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.72 Petition for leave to intervene. (a) A petition for leave to intervene may be...

2011-10-01

232

Worse Outcomes Seen When Patients Leave Hospital Against Medical Advice  

MedlinePLUS

... Worse Outcomes Seen When Patients Leave Hospital Against Medical Advice Large study found more readmissions, higher death ... HealthDay News) -- Patients who leave the hospital against medical advice are more likely to be readmitted or ...

233

Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

Furbish, Dale S.

2009-01-01

234

WHO GETS MATERNITY LEAVE?: THE CASE OF MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates a maternity leave policy designed to reduce gender inequality in the labor market. It examines the extent to which Malaysia's paid maternity leave policy provides working women with leave as a condition of their employment. Since all women are not the same, a policy may benefit some women and not others. Using data from the Second Malaysian

ALEXANDRA BERNASEK; JULIE HAGEN GALLAWAY

1997-01-01

235

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...son, daughter, or parent with a serious health...son, daughter, or parent is a military member...any employee's first FMLA leave under...FMLA leave at any time in the fixed...period would begin the first time FMLA leave is...

2013-07-01

236

Parental leave: from perception to first-hand experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Paid parental leave for both mothers and fathers has fed countless debates. Four years after the implementation of a new parental leave policy in Quebec, this paper aims to assess how parental leave is perceived in the workplace. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using data from employee surveys carried out in a municipal police service, the paper employs analysis of variance

Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay; Emilie Genin

2010-01-01

237

MEASUREMENT OF RADIOCARBON CONTENT IN LEAVES FROM SOME JAPANESE SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured radiocarbon contents in leaves collected from 15 sites in Japan, including mountain areas and big city areas for last three years. Comparing the radiocarbon contents in various areas, high 14C concentrations (80- 100‰ as ?14C) are seen for the leaves from the mountain and country sites. On the contrary, low concentrations (5-40‰) were observed for the leaves

Yasushi Muraki; Kimiaki Masuda; Hiroaki Toyoizumi; Masataka Kato; Yukiko Naruse; Takuya Murata; Tohru Nishiyama

238

77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department...certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15...to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the FMLA made by the...

2012-04-16

239

Leaving Paradise: Dropping Out of the Federal Depository Library Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

After nearly twenty years of participating in the Federal Depository Library Program as a selective depository library, Suffolk University Law Library chose to leave the program. The authors examine the rationales behind the decision to leave, including a balancing of the expense of participating in the program versus the costs of replacing materials upon leaving the pro- gram. They also

Elizabeth M. McKenzie; Elizabeth Gemellaro; Caroline Walters

240

Heat transfer coefficients for leaves on orchard apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coefficient for heat transfer from apple tree leaves was measured from the energy balance of leaves which were prevented from transpiring by applying ‘Vaseline’ (petroleum jelly). Vaseline had negligible effect on the absorption of short-wave radiation by the leaves. The Nusselt number (Nu) describing heat flux from a leaf in terms of its average temperature was related to Reynolds

M. R. Thorpe; D. R. Butler

1977-01-01

241

Assessing Carotenoid Content in Plant Leaves with Reflectance Spectroscopy¶  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral reflectance of maple, chestnut and beech leaves in a wide range of pigment content and composition was investigated to devise a nondestructive technique for total carotenoid (Car) content estimation in higher plant leaves. Reciprocal reflectance in the range 510 to 550 nm was found to be closely related to the total pigment con- tent in leaves. The sensitivity of

Anatoly A. Gitelson; Yoav Zur; Olga B. Chivkunova; Mark N. Merzlyak

2002-01-01

242

Risk analysis of sick leave among Dutch farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture can be seen as an occupational sector in which the workers are exposed to many health risks that may result in sick leave and working disability. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the problem of sick leave among Dutch farmers. A risk analysis of sick leave was performed in the agricultural branches to address the

E. Hartman

2004-01-01

243

Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

Furbish, Dale S.

2009-01-01

244

Nutritional and haemolytic properties of eggplants ( Solanum macrocarpon) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum macrocarpon (eggplant) leaves are used as soup condiment in Nigeria either in their processed or unprocessed forms. In this study, fresh leaves of eggplant were subjected to different conventional food processing techniques: soaking, blanching, abrasion with or without salt. The nutrients, antinutrients (phytate and cyanide), minerals (Ca and Zn), zinc bioavailability and haemolytic properties of the leaves were subsequently

G. Oboh; M. M. Ekperigin; M. I. Kazeem

2005-01-01

245

An Update on the Family Medical Leave Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been little litigation since the Family Medical Leave Act's inception in 1993. This article highlights FMLA's scope of coverage, leave requirements, notice and verification, special rules for employees and local education agencies, employment and leave entitlements, and enforcement. Employers violating the FMLA may have to reinstate and…

Russo, Charles J.; Massucci, Joseph D.

1998-01-01

246

The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

When the detached first leaves of green or etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv. Victory) seedlings senesce in the dark, their oxygen consumption shows a large increase, beginning after 24 hours and reaching a peak of up to 2.5 times the initial rate by the 3rd day. This effect takes place while the chlorophyll of green leaves, or the carotenoid of etiolated leaves, is steadily decreasing. Kinetin, at a concentration which inhibits the decrease in pigment, completely prevents the respiratory rise; instead, the oxygen consumption drifts downwards. Lower kinetin concentrations have a proportional effect, 50% reduction of respiration being given by about 0.1 mg/l. About one-fifth of the respiratory rise may be attributed to the free amino acids which are liberated during senescence; several amino acids are shown to cause increases of almost 50% in the oxygen consumption when supplied at the concentrations of total amino acid present during senescence. A smaller part of the rise may also be due to soluble sugars liberated during senescence, largely coming from the hydrolysis of a presumptive fructosan. The remainder, and the largest part, of the increase is ascribed to a natural uncoupling of respiration from phosphorylation. This is deduced from the fact that dinitrophenol causes a similar large rise in the oxygen consumption of the fresh leaves or of leaf segments kept green with kinetin, but causes only a very small rise when the oxygen consumption is near its peak in senescent controls. The respiration of these leaves is resistant to cyanide, and 10 mm KCN even increases it by some 30%; in contrast, etiolated leaves of the same age, which undergo a similar rise in oxygen consumption over the same time period, show normal sensitivity to cyanide. The respiratory quotient during senescence goes down as low as 0.7, both with and without kinetin, though it is somewhat increased by supplying sugars or amino acids; glucose or alanine at 0.3 m bring it up to 1.0 and 0.87, respectively. N6-Benzylaminopurine and ?-2-isopentenylaminopurine act similarly to kinetin in repressing the respiratory rise, the former being five times as active as kinetin, while the latter has only 1% of the activity of kinetin. Zeatin also powerfully prevents senescence. Because the repression of the respiratory rise is shown by each cytokinin at the concentration at which it inhibits senescence, the action is ascribed in both cases to the maintenance of a tight coupling between respiration and phosphorylation. It is pointed out that such an effect would explain many features of cytokinin action. A change in the methodology of the senescence experiments is described and compared with the method previously used, and the influence of temperature and age of the plants on the course of leaf senescence are presented in detail.

Tetley, Richard M.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1974-01-01

247

Antifungal amide from leaves of Piper hispidum.  

PubMed

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) yielded a new pyrrolidine amide, N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine 1, in addition to two known amides N-[5-(3', 4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E)-pentadienoyl] pyrrolidine and N-[2-(3', 4'-methylenedioxy-6'-methoxyphenyl)-2(Z)-propenoyl]pyrrolidine. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of spectral data, including ES-MS. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:9599264

Alécio, A C; da Silva Bolzani, V; Young, M C; Kato, M J; Furlan, M

1998-05-01

248

Neolignans from leaves of Miliusa mollis.  

PubMed

From the leaves of Miliusa mollis Pierre (Annonaceae), five new dihydrobenzofuran neolignans, namely miliumollin, 7-methoxymiliumollin, 3'-methoxymiliumollin, 4'-O-methylmiliumollin and miliumollinone, and a new 8-O-4' neolignan named miliusamollin were isolated, and their structures were elucidated through analysis of spectroscopic data. Miliumollin, 3'-methoxymiliumollin, miliumollinone and decurrenal exhibited weak cytotoxicity against KB, MCF7 and NCI-H187 cells. Miliumollinone possessed weak inhibitory effects against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. None of the isolates displayed inhibitory activity against avian influenza H5N1 neuraminidase. PMID:23305777

Sawasdee, Kanokporn; Chaowasku, Tanawat; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Dufat, Thi-Hanh; Michel, Sylvie; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

2013-01-08

249

Antioxidant lignoids from leaves of Ribes nigrum.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Ribes nigrum resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds, including four 7,7'-epoxylignans, three tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignans, and a spirocyclic dilignan. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and by chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using superoxide anion scavenging assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Ribesin D and ribesin G showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with EC50 values of 1.24 and 1.12?M, respectively, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. PMID:23958345

Sasaki, Tatsunori; Li, Wei; Zaike, Shinnosuke; Asada, Yoshihisa; Li, Qin; Ma, Fenghua; Zhang, Qingbo; Koike, Kazuo

2013-08-16

250

[Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].  

PubMed

To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis. PMID:19408685

Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

2009-02-01

251

[Flavonoids from leaves of Epimedium pubescens].  

PubMed

Eleven compounds were isolated from the leaves of Epimedium pubescens by means of various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, MCI, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as anhydroicaritin (1), icariside II (2), 2'''-O-rhamonosyl-icariside II (3), desmethylanhydroicaritin (4), baohuosaide II (5), epimedokoreanin B (6), acuminatin (7), tricin(8), kaempferol (9), daidzein (10) and 4-hydroxy ethyl benzoate (11) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them, compound 11 was isolated from Epimedium species for the first time, and other compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:24066589

Zhang, Hong-Fei; Yan, Li-Hu; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

2013-06-01

252

Dibenzocycloheptanoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium.  

PubMed

Five dibenzocycloheptatrienes (1-3, 5, and 6) and one dibenzocycloheptadiene (8) together with 16 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium. Application of HPLC-SPE-NMR to a selected fraction afforded two additional dibenzocycloheptatrienes (4, 7). The glycosides 2-7 comprise two diastereomers because of the chiral glycosyl moiety and the axial chirality of the biphenyl system. Their structures were elucidated via ECD and 2D NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Subavenosides D (5) and E (6) showed moderate inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with IC?? values of 50.7 and 19.0 ?M, respectively. PMID:23025417

Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

2012-10-01

253

Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-06-01

254

Antibacterial compounds from Siraitia grosvenorii leaves.  

PubMed

Luo Han Guo (LHG) fruits (Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle) have been used as traditional medicine in China for centuries to treat sore throats and coughs. However, LHG leaves are seldom used and minimal scientific information is available on them. In our recent study on the leaves of S. grosvenorii, the bioactive compounds ?-amyrin (2), aloe emodin (5), aloe-emodin acetate (6), 5?,8?-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (7) and p-hydroxyl benzyl acid (8), accompanied by n-hexadecaoic acid (1), 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4) and daucosterol (9) were first obtained. Their structures have been identified on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The activities of these compounds were evaluated in vitro against the growth of oral bacterial species Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and the yeast Candida albicans, and their minimum inhibition concentrations were determined. Furthermore, the activity against S. mutans is likely to be due to the inhibition of glucosyltransferase. The experimental data provide important information on bioactive phytochemicals in the leaf of S. grosvenorii, which shows that the leaf can be a new resource as an antibacterial agent. PMID:21547839

Zheng, Yan; Huang, Wen; Yoo, Jae-Gil; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Huang, Chifu Brad

2011-05-01

255

Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.  

PubMed

Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259

Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

2009-03-01

256

Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

2010-04-01

257

Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Pre-treatment of water extract (300 mg/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation of humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells by ethanolic and water extracts (150-300 mg/kg) is evidenced by increase in antibody titres in mice. A dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Oral administration of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica leaves, at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in mice, dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Immunomodulatory activity was also assessed by serological and haematological tests. Capparis zeylanica extracts prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide drug. The study comprised the acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol and water extracts. PMID:16766150

Ghule, B V; Murugananthan, G; Nakhat, P D; Yeole, P G

2006-11-24

258

Amino Acid Metabolism of Pea Leaves  

PubMed Central

In the young leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants, there was a diurnal variation in the levels of amino acids. In the light, total amino nitrogen increased for the first few hours, then stabilized; in the dark, there was a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery. Asparagine, homoserine, alanine, and glutamine accounted for much of these changes. The incorporation of 15N into various components of the young leaves was followed after supply of 15N-nitrate. 15N appeared most rapidly in ammonia, due to reduction in the leaf, and this process took place predominantly in the light. A large proportion of the primary assimilation took place through the amide group of glutamine, which became labeled and turned over rapidly; labeling of glutamic acid and alanine was also rapid. Asparagine (amide group) soon became labeled and showed considerable turnover. Slower incorporation and turnover were found for aspartic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, and homoserine. Synthesis and turnover of all of the amino acids continued at a low rate in the dark. ?-Aminobutyric acid was the only compound found to label more rapidly in the dark than in the light.

Bauer, Alfred; Urquhart, Aileen A.; Joy, Kenneth W.

1977-01-01

259

Azocoll-digesting Proteinases in Soybean Leaves  

PubMed Central

Two different endopeptidases which digest the chromogenic substrate Azocoll were found in soybean leaves. Azocollase A has a molecular weight of 17,500 and a pI of 6.0. Azocollase B has a molecular weight of 52,000 and a pI of 9.0. Both digest Azocoll optimally at pH 9.0. Azocollase A is inhibited by 3 millimolar ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and azocollase B by 100 micromolar parachloromercuribenzoate. Studies on whole plants grown in the greenhouse and in the field show that total azocollase activity gradually increased during leaf maturation when leaf protein and chlorophyll increased, and then declined again during leaf senescence. Young leaves which are still expanding contain mostly azocollase B and little azocollase A. Leaf maturation was associated with a dramatic increase in azocollase A (40- to 50-fold), while azocollase B activity increased more slowly. This increase in azocollase A occurred in the 2- to 3-week period following leaf expansion. Azocollase A, separated from other proteinases by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, digested denatured leaf protein and casein, resulting in the release of free ?-amino groups. Break-down of leaf proteins by autodigestion of extracts at pH 9.0 resulted in the release of free ?-amino groups and endopeptidic cleavage of polypeptides. However, polypeptide cleavage was not inhibited by parachloromercuribenzoate or EDTA indicating that the azocollases do not play a major role in the hydrolysis of leaf proteins in crude extracts. Images

Ragster, La Verne; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

1979-01-01

260

Antihistaminic effect of Bauhinia racemosa leaves.  

PubMed

Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves have been used in the treatment of asthma traditionally and we therefore undertook this study to scientifically validate its benefit in asthma using suitable animal models. Antihistaminic principles are known to be useful in the treatment of asthma; hence, in the present work, the antihistaminic activity of an ethanol extract of B. racemosa (at a dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using clonidine-induced catalepsy and haloperidol-induced catalepsy in Swiss albino mice. The results showed that the ethanol extract inhibits clonidine-induced catalepsy but there is no effect on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. This suggests that the inhibition is through an antihistaminic action and that there is no role of dopamine. Hence, we concluded that the ethanol extract has significant antihistaminic activity. The polar constituents in the ethanol extract of leaves of B. racemosa may be responsible for the antihistaminic activity and B. racemosa may therefore have a role in the treatment of asthma. PMID:21731358

Nirmal, Sa; Laware, Rb; Rathi, R A; Dhasade, Vv; Kuchekar, Bs

2011-04-01

261

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory constituents of henna leaves.  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.; syn. Lawsonia alba L.) leaves resulted in the isolation of seven compounds; three have been isolated for the first time from the genus, namely p-coumaric acid, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and apiin, along with the previously isolated compounds: lawsone, apigenin, luteolin, and cosmosiin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was based upon their physical, chemical as well as spectroscopic characters. Their immuomodulatory profile was studied using an in vitro immunoassay, the lymphocyte transformation assay. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], free radical scavenging assay depicted that all isolated compounds exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. PMID:15813363

Mikhaeil, Botros R; Badria, Farid A; Maatooq, Galal T; Amer, Mohamed M A

262

Leaving and entering a career in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

2013-03-01

263

Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves  

SciTech Connect

Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

1986-01-01

264

Acylated flavonol pentaglycosides from Baphia nitida leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new acylated flavonol pentaglycosides were isolated from the butanolic extract of Baphia nitida leaves by Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Structural elucidation of kaempferol 3-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-(4-O-E-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?2))[?-d-glucopyranosyl(1?6)]-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-(4-O-Z-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?2))[?-d-glucopyranosyl(1?6)]-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) was achieved using UV, NMR, and mass spectrometry, indicating the presence of trans or cis isomers of p-coumaric acid moiety in these novel structures. The antioxidant activity of the

Mehdi Chaabi; Philippe Chabert; Catherine Vonthron-Sénécheau; Bernard Weniger; Modibo Ouattara; Hugo Corstjens; Ilse Sente; Lieve Declercq; Annelise Lobstein

2010-01-01

265

Family and medical leave act: unresolved issues.  

PubMed

The United States' Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 was an effort to provide national support for families attempting to balance the demands of the workplace and the need to care for a new child, one's own health, or an ill child, spouse, or parent. It is seriously limited, however, in terms of its accessibility for many workers. We briefly compare the FMLA to the substantially broader policies of Western European countries. We highlight its reported benefits to workers but document disparities in employees' use of the FMLA by gender, race, and income level. We evaluate whether employers' fears of higher costs were justified. We point out current challenges that may limit the FMLA further. We close by examining the range of alternative policies in effect at the state level and proposals that would address the current limitations of the FMLA and broaden its coverage. PMID:17208739

Pyle, Jean L; Pelletier, Marianne S

2003-01-01

266

Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood  

PubMed Central

Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums.

Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

2013-01-01

267

Changes in cytokinin levels of Phalaenopsis leaves at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high temperatures on cytokinin levels in Phalaenopsishybrida leaves was investigated. Endogenous cytokinins were identified and quantified in Phalaenopsis leaves grown under high temperature conditions (30\\/25 °C day\\/night) using high performance liquid chromatography, bioassay and gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry. After 5 and 20 d of low temperature (25\\/20 °C day\\/night), zeatin, zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin levels in the leaves were

Chin Chih Chou; Wen-Shaw Chen; Kuang-Liang Huang; Hsiao-Ching Yu; Li-Jen Liao

2000-01-01

268

Learning to live with the Family and Medical Leave Act.  

PubMed

Many issues surround the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Employer concerns focus on eligibility, lost work hours, and the conditions of granting leave. Employees would like to know what their new rights are, how the Act affects their benefits, and what documentation they must present to demonstrate a need for leave. Both agency administrators and home care workers will find clarification here. PMID:10132665

White, J D

1994-03-01

269

Ethnic Differences in Leaving Home: Timing and Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative\\u000a data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999–2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving\\u000a home for union formation, to live independently, and to share with others. Migrant youth, and particularly Turkish and Moroccan\\u000a youth, leave home

Aslan Zorlu; Clara H. Mulder

2011-01-01

270

Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization of tree leaves and manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers in developing countries cannot afford inorganic fertilizers. Multipurpose tree leaves or livestock manure are major\\u000a sources of nutrients for soil fertility replenishment. Nutrient release from these organic inputs depends on their chemical\\u000a composition and on soil properties. This study determined the chemical composition of leaves of four African browse species\\u000a and manure from goats fed leaves as protein supplements,

P. L. Mafongoya; P. Barak; J. D. Reed

2000-01-01

271

Detergent extraction of enzymes from tobacco leaves varying in maturity.  

PubMed

Enzyme activities of tobacco leaves were compared in detergent extracts. Highest levels of chlorogenic acid oxidase, malate-NAD oxidoreductase, and acid phosphatase were obtained from bud tissues. Peroxidase activity was least in young leaves and highest in senescent leaves yellowed with Ethrel. Peroxidase zymograms obtained by means of disc electrophoresis showed differences in isozyme composition among all five samples examined. Although protease was found in material extracted from buds, upper, middle, and lower leaf positions, none could be demonstrated in Ethrel-treated mature leaves. PMID:16658253

De Jong, D W

1972-12-01

272

Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.  

PubMed

Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers. PMID:19353982

Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2009-01-01

273

Benzo[ a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba×matsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15–20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over

Jeremy A. Rentz; Pedro J. J. Alvarez; Jerald L. Schnoor

2005-01-01

274

Effect of leaf ration on dietary water budget of the larvae of silkworm Bombyx mori and eri silkworm Philosamia ricini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary water intake in penultimate two instars of silkwormBombyx mori and eri silkwormPhilosamia ricini fedad libitum on mulberry leafMorus alba and castor leafRicinus communis respectively at 26±2°C is reported. The lower ration level results in accumulation of water content in the body of insects.\\u000a The water retention efficiency (per cent of absorbed water retained in the body) increases with the

M R Delvi; P G Radhakrishna; Noor Pasha

1988-01-01

275

Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats  

PubMed Central

Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.

Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

2011-01-01

276

Work-Family Balance After Childbirth: The Association Between Employer-Offered Leave Characteristics and Maternity Leave Duration.  

PubMed

Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

2013-03-16

277

Recycling of urea associated with the host plant urease in the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea concentration and urease activity in the midgut content were compared between larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori fed an artificial diet and those fed fresh mulberry leaves. A considerable amount of urea was found in the midgut content of the both larvae, however it was significantly lower in the larvae fed fresh mulberry leaves than in the larvae fed

Chikara Hirayama; Masahiro Sugimura; Hiroshi Shinbo

1999-01-01

278

Protein Metabolism in Senescing Wheat Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L.) at the moment of their maximum expansion were detached and put in darkness. Their protein, RNA and DNA contents, as well as their rates of protein synthesis and degradation, were measured at different times from 0 to 5 days after detachment. Rates of protein synthesis were measured by incorporation into proteins of large amounts of [3H]leucine. Fractional rates of protein degradation were estimated either from the difference between the rates of synthesis and the net protein change or by the disappearance of radioactivity from proteins previously labeled with [3H]leucine or [14C]proline. Protein loss reached a value of 20% during the first 48 hours of the process. RNA loss paralleled that of protein, whereas DNA content proved to be almost constant during the first 3 days and decreased dramatically thereafter. Measurements of protein synthesis and degradation indicate that, in spite of a slowdown in rate of protein synthesis, an increased rate of protein breakdown is mainly responsible for the observed rapid protein loss.

Lamattina, Lorenzo; Lezica, Rafael Pont; Conde, Ruben D.

1985-01-01

279

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

Weber, Andreas P.M.

2008-04-25

280

Mechanisms underlying CO2 diffusion in leaves.  

PubMed

Plants provide an excellent system to study CO(2) diffusion because, under light saturated conditions, photosynthesis is limited by CO(2) availability. Recent findings indicate that CO(2) diffusion in leaves can be variable in a short time range. Mesophyll CO(2) conductance could change independently from stomata movement or CO(2) fixing reactions and it was suggested that, beside others, the membranes are mesophyll CO(2) conductance limiting components. Specific aquaporins as membrane intrinsic pore proteins are considered to have a function in the modification of membrane CO(2) conductivity. Because of conflicting data, the mechanism of membrane CO(2) diffusion in plants and animals is a matter of a controversy vivid debate in the scientific community. On one hand, data from biophysics are in favor of CO(2) diffusion limiting mechanisms completely independent from membrane structure and membrane components. On the other, there is increasing evidence from physiology that a change in membrane composition has an effect on CO(2) diffusion. PMID:22300606

Kaldenhoff, Ralf

2012-01-31

281

First Grade Collecting Leaves with the book Leaf Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.

282

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

283

The Features of Cotyledon Leaves of Buckwheat's Species Fagopyrum tataricum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledon leaves of 81 samples of world gene pool of tartary buckwheat were investigated. Their linear parameters were measured; their morphological description was submitted. High positive corre­ lation was established between linear parameters of cotyledon leaves and weight of 1000 grains. The distribution of samples on groups was conducted on the basis of these parameters.

Andriy V. Nikitchuk; Elena S. Alexeeva

284

Tagetitoxin affects plastid development in seedling leaves of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the mode of action of tagetitoxin, a nonhost-specific phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Hellmers) Young, Dye and Wilkie, which causes chlorosis in developing — but not mature — leaves. Tagetitoxin has no effect on the growth rate or morphology of developing leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Its cytological

J. H. Lukens; R. D. Durbin

1985-01-01

285

Chicoric acid found in basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was

Jungmin Lee; Carolyn F. Scagel

2009-01-01

286

Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

2012-01-01

287

Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

2000-01-01

288

Retention of quality characteristics of dehydrated green leaves during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green leafy vegetables are the most underexploited class of vegetablesdespite high nutritional value. Reports on nutritional composition andstorage of some of the fresh leaves are available but the storage behaviorof dehydrated leaves apparently has not been studied. Therefore, in thepresent study, two green leafy vegetables, savoy beets (Beta vulgarisvar. bengalensis) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) were dehydrated in a low temperature

P. S. Negi; S. K. Roy

2001-01-01

289

Interaction of Salmonella enterica with basil and other salad leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminated salad leaves have emerged as important vehicles for the transmission of enteric pathogens to humans. A recent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) in the United Kingdom has been traced to the consumption of contaminated basil. Using the outbreak strain of S. Senftenberg, we found that it binds to basil, lettuce, rocket and spinach leaves showing a

Cedric N Berger; Robert K Shaw; Derek J Brown; Henry Mather; Simon Clare; Gordon Dougan; Mark J Pallen; Gad Frankel

2009-01-01

290

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

291

Parental Leave and Equal Opportunities: Experiences in Eight European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1996, the EU directive on parental leave came into force. A major consideration in the introduction of this directive was its advantages for the reconciliation of work and family life. However, there is little systematic knowledge about the practical significance of parental leave arrangements in the European Union for equal opportunities policy. Given this situation, the main focus

Gwennaële Bruning; Janneke Plantenga

1999-01-01

292

Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from

Ann E. Hagerman

1988-01-01

293

The impact of the family and medical leave act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses data from employer surveys and the March Current Population Survey to investigate the impact of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on coverage, leave-taking, employment, and earnings. The variation in state laws prior to the FMLA and the variation in coverage under the FMLA provides a “natural experiment” in which the effect of the law can

Jane Waldfogel

1999-01-01

294

Policy Watch: The Family and Medical Leave Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act, its possible effects on labor markets, and the resulting changes in the ability of workers to take leave. The author concludes that the actual provisions of the act are quite modest and have yielded neither large benefits to workers nor imposed significant costs on employers. One reason for

Christopher J Ruhm

1997-01-01

295

Flavonoid variation in the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genistein, pinocembrin, prunetin, 6-prenylnaringenin, licoflavanone and wighteone were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra collected on the west coast of Anatolia, whereas lupiwighteone was found only in the leaves of G. glabra growing in middle or east Anatolia. The G. glabra plants growing in different areas of Turkey could be classified into two types according to the occurrence of

Hiroaki Hayashi; Miyako Yasuma; Noboru Hiraoka; Yasumasa Ikeshiro; Hirobumi Yamamoto; Erdem Ye?ilada; Ekrem Sezik; Gisho Honda; Mamoru Tabata

1996-01-01

296

Occurrences of Unplanned Leave and Overtime Expenditures: A Descriptive Study,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study addresses the questions of 'What is the frequency and trend of unplanned leave by nursing staff on weekends'. 'What is the associated overtime cost for for such leave'. 'Is a recommendation for Saturday premium pay justified'. The occurrences of...

S. C. McCracken

1987-01-01

297

The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070

Maclean, Johanna Catherine

2013-07-31

298

Parental Leave: Estimated Costs of H.R. 925, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report responds to a request for a cost estimate of H.R. 925, The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1987, as amended. The bill permits employees to take up to 10 weeks of unpaid leave over a 2-year period upon the birth, adoption, or serious illness of ...

1987-01-01

299

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

Sharkey, Thomas D

2012-05-03

300

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

Thomas D. Sharkey

2010-01-28

301

Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes  

PubMed Central

Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2013-01-01

302

Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the dose–response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one prospective cohort study. A distinction was made between duration, frequency and intensity of physical activity. The outcome measure was the number of days of sick leave. Analyses of variance were used to compare sick leave (in days) for workers with different amounts of physical activity, in particular workers meeting the physical activity recommendations v those who did not. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to obtain effect estimates in the prospective cohort study, with the generalised estimating equation (GEE) method. Results No relation was found between moderate physical activity and sick leave. In two databases, workers meeting the recommendation of vigorous physical activity (active at a vigorous level for at least three times a week) had significantly less sick leave: more than one day over two months and more than four days over a year. The duration of vigorous physical activity was not associated with sick leave. Conclusion Physical activity at a vigorous intensity level for at least three times a week, as in the CDC/ACSM recommendation, has a positive effect on sick leave.

Proper, K I; van den Heuvel, S G; De Vroome, E M; Hildebrandt, V H; Van der Beek, A J

2006-01-01

303

Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, work-related and organizational factors. Odds ratios for job loss were calculated in logistic regression models. Results: Job loss during sick leave is associated with mental disorder, a history of sick leave due to these disorders, lack of co-worker and supervisor support, job insecurity and working as a civil servant or a teacher. Associations vary for gender and for company size. Conclusions: Job loss during sick leave is associated with medical, work-related, organizational and socio-demographic factors. The findings of this study might help the OHP or other health professionals involved in the management of employees on sick leave to identify those employees who are at risk for job loss during sick leave, and might help policymakers to decide on priorities in prevention and treatment. Future studies should have a longitudinal, prospective design and include information about the type of contract, possible causes for job loss, severity and treatment of the disorder causing the sick leave. Implications for Rehabilitation The labor market moves to more and more flexible and temporary contracts. This leads to more precarious types of employment. The risk of job loss during sick leave is associated with medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors. Occupational health physicians and other professionals in the field of work rehabilitation should be aware of these associations to prevent job loss due to these factors. PMID:23350763

Flach, Peter A; Groothoff, Johan W; Bültmann, Ute

2013-01-25

304

LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

305

A Flying Start? Maternity Leave Benefits and Long Run Outcomes of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the impact on children of increasing maternity leave benefits using a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave in Norway in July 1977. Mothers giving birth before this date were eligible only for 12 weeks of unpaid leave, while those giving birth after were entitled to 4 months of paid leave and 12 months of unpaid leave.

Pedro Carneiro; Katrine V. Loken; Kjell G. Salvanes

2011-01-01

306

[Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].  

PubMed

According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

2007-11-01

307

How to work with FMLA and ADA when granting leave.  

PubMed

There is much confusion among employers on how to interpret rights and responsibilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). In many cases, the guidelines seem contradictory. Labor attorney Christopher J. Collins says that the ADA is basically a civil rights act, designed to protect the disabled from discrimination, while FMLA is a labor standards and leave law. Commonly-asked questions are answered, including the amount of leave an employee is entitled to, the amount of information that can be requested from an employee, and the options for dealing with employees who cannot perform assigned tasks. PMID:11365955

Collins, C J; Neuman, A B

1998-10-16

308

Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

1997-03-01

309

Transcriptome phase distribution analysis reveals diurnal regulated biological processes and key pathways in rice flag leaves and seedling leaves.  

PubMed

Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological processes and key functional pathways in rice. PMID:21407816

Xu, Wenying; Yang, Rendong; Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

2011-03-02

310

Why leaves turn red in autumn. The role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves of red-osier dogwood.  

PubMed

Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated that red-senescing leaves absorbed more light of blue-green to orange wavelengths (495-644 nm) compared with yellow-senescing leaves. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, we observed that maximum photosystem II (PSII) photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered from a high-light stress treatment, whereas yellow-senescing leaves failed to recover after 6 h of dark adaptation, which suggests photo-oxidative damage. Because no differences were observed in light response curves of effective PSII photon yield for red- and yellow-senescing leaves, differences between red- and yellow-senescing cannot be explained by differences in the capacities for photochemical and non-photochemical light energy dissipation. A role of anthocyanins as screening pigments was explored further by measuring the responses PSII photon yield to blue light, which is preferentially absorbed by anthocyanins, versus red light, which is poorly absorbed. We found that dark-adapted PSII photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered rapidly following illumination with blue light. However, red light induced a similar, prolonged decrease in PSII photon yield in both red- and yellow-senescing leaves. We suggest that optical masking of chlorophyll by anthocyanins reduces risk of photo-oxidative damage to leaf cells as they senesce, which otherwise may lower the efficiency of nutrient retrieval from senescing autumn leaves. PMID:11598230

Feild, T S; Lee, D W; Holbrook, N M

2001-10-01

311

Effect of microbial fermentation on caffeine content of tea leaves.  

PubMed

Caffeine is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For safety concerns, natural caffeine is preferred over synthetic products despite of its high cost. To explore more economical methods of acquiring natural caffeine, we adopted a microbial fermentation technique to increase the caffeine content of tea leaves. Our studies showed that the caffeine content in tea leaves increased reasonably after treating leaves with microorganisms for a period of time (i.e. orthodox pile-fermentation), and the amount of caffeine content increase varied significantly between black and green teas (27.57% and 86.41%). These results suggested that the change of caffeine content in tea leaves during the pile-fermentation depended not only on the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also on the tea composition. PMID:16131136

Wang, Xiaogang; Hu, Shuxia; Wan, Xiaochun; Pan, Caiyuan

2005-09-01

312

Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030

Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

2010-01-01

313

Modified limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape.  

PubMed

Three trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins A, B and C, were isolated from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape and their structures, which are related to capensolactones, were elucidated by a detailed 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. PMID:14629998

Ismail, Intan S; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu; Taniguchi, Shoko; Yoshida, Takashi

2003-12-01

314

5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...member. (6) Rest and recuperation. To spend time with a...short-term, temporary, rest and recuperation leave during the period of deployment. Eligible...each instance of rest and recuperation. (7)...

2013-01-01

315

Greenhouse and Field Fertilization of Thin-Leaved Huckleberry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nitrogen had a greater effect than potassium or phosphorus on thin-leaved huckleberry seedling growth in greenhouse nutrient experiments, with high levels providing the best growth. Fertilization of wild huckleberry fields with ammonium sulfate stimulated...

E. A. Nelson

1974-01-01

316

Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

317

Morphogenesis of Simple and Compound Leaves: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves.

Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

2010-01-01

318

The Decision of Elderly Persons to Leave Their Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviewed 990 urban elderly Canadians to examine factors influencing the desire for different housing. Results showed that housing conditions, living with children, and sickness influenced the wishes of the elderly to leave home, while functional impairment was not related. (JAC)|

Beland, Francois

1984-01-01

319

A geranylacetophenone from the leaves of Melicope ptelefolia.  

PubMed

The leaves of Melicope ptelefolia (Rutaceae) afforded a new acetophenone named 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone. The structure of the compound was established by mass and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:16644538

Shaari, Khozirah; Safri, Suryati; Abas, Faridah; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, D A

2006-05-10

320

Family and medical leave. Office of Personnel Management. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to ensure that both employees' and agencies' rights are protected and their responsibilities fulfilled. PMID:11010688

2000-05-01

321

5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103 Section 630.1103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103...

2013-01-01

322

QUALITY PARAMETERS OF CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS LEAVES DURING AMBIENT STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of storage in different packages on the essential oil content and humidity of Brazilian lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves were studied. Lemon grass leaves were dried at 50°C to moisture content of 11% (d.b.) and stored for one year in three different plastic and paper packages. Oil content and its principal compounds were isolated by the hydro-distillation method

A. P. Martinazzo; E. C. Melo; A. Barbosa; F. F. Soares; R. P. Rocha; L. L. Randuz; P. A. Berbert

323

Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in spinach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular and subcellular volumes in mature leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. US Hybrid 424) were determined stereologically from light and electron micrographs. Forty-nine-day-old leaves of spinach\\u000a with a total leaf volume of 1177 ?L per mg chlorophyll (Chl) were found to be composed of 3% epidermis, 58% mesophyll, 1%\\u000a vascular tissue, 5% apoplasm and 32% gas space. In the

Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

1994-01-01

324

Parental Leave: An Important Employee Right, But an Organizational Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

While parental leave is considered an important right for employees, its application in different work environments is not\\u000a always straightforward. It is worthwhile to study the implementation in the workplace of the parental leave policy introduced\\u000a in Québec, especially since this policy has unique characteristics not found anywhere else in North America. We chose to carry\\u000a out our study in

Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay; Émilie Genin

325

Regeneration of plants from primary leaves of cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants were regenerated from the in vitro cultured explants of primary leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Primary leaves, including the intact petiole, were excised from three-day-old seedlings and cultured on Gamborg's B5 basal medium containing 8×10-7 M 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1×10-2 M L-glutamine and 1×10-4 M adenine sulfate. Callus formed at the petiole end. Prolific shoot regeneration occurred when

B. Muthukumar; M. Mariamma; A. Gnanam

1995-01-01

326

Leaving the parental home in post-war Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaving home is a key life event in the transition to adulthood, but it has been relatively less explored in demographic studies of contemporary Japan. This paper examines the relationship between home-leaving intensities of young adults and the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that took place in post-World War II Japan. By using event-history analysis, the study focuses on

Setsuya Fukuda

2009-01-01

327

Reddish spring colouring of deciduous leaves: a sign of ecotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several deciduous woody plant species produce anthocyanins during leaf development in spring and again during leaf senescence\\u000a in autumn. The leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) commonly exhibit transient reddening in juvenile leaves under northern growing conditions, with the intensity\\u000a of the red colour varying among individual trees. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that

Kari Taulavuori; Henna Pihlajaniemi; Satu Huttunen; Erja Taulavuori

2011-01-01

328

Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate Crystals Using Cells of Plant Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals were synthesized by using the leaves of the plant Scindapsus aureum. The resultant CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The biomolecules of Scindapsus aureum was confirmed by using UV-vis analysis. The results showed that the elongated rhombohedral calcite crystals were produced in the cells of Scindapsus aureum leaves.

Long Chen; Xiaoping Fang; Shineng Zhang; Xiayu Wu; Jingjing Wu; Qinqin Cui; Liqi Yu; Qingqing Wang

2010-01-01

329

Managing overlapping federal FMLA and state leave regulations.  

PubMed

The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management. PMID:11859539

Grebowski, Lucinda S

2002-03-01

330

Does Chewing Coca Leaves Influence Physiology at High Altitude?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andean Indians have used coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca and related species) for centuries to enhance physical performance. The benefits and disadvantages of using coca leaf have\\u000a been a subject of many political debates. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chewing coca leaves on biochemical\\u000a and physiological parameters. Cutaneous microdialysis catheters were used to estimate systemic

V. Casikar; E. Mujica; M. Mongelli; J. Aliaga; N. Lopez; C. Smith; F. Bartholomew

2010-01-01

331

Can sanitizers reduce microbial load of coriander leaves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of NaOCl and KMnO4 at two levels in reducing the microbial load of coriander leaves. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Fresh coriander leaves procured from various markets were intensively sampled and administered to wash treatments with tap water and sanitizers at two levels. Hi media pre plated plates were used for

Sujoya Sukul; Mini Sheth

2012-01-01

332

Optical Properties of Leaves: Modelling and Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the interpretation of leaves spectra following an approach based on modelling and laboratory studies.\\u000a First, the leaves structure and principal constituents are described together with the way they interact with light. The effects\\u000a of growth, senescence and environmental factors on the leaf optical properties are summarised. A laboratory study conducted\\u000a on drought stress of maize (Zea

Jean Verdebout; Stephane Jacquemoud; Guido Schmuck

333

Stress Induction of Mitochondrial Formate Dehydrogenase in Potato Leaves1  

PubMed Central

In higher plants formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2.) is a mitochondrial, NAD-dependent enzyme. We previously reported that in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) FDH expression is high in tubers but low in green leaves. Here we show that in isolated tuber mitochondria FDH is involved in formate-dependent O2 uptake coupled to ATP synthesis. The effects of various environmental and chemical factors on FDH expression in leaves were tested using the mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase as a control. The abundance of FDH transcripts is strongly increased under various stresses, whereas serine hydroxymethyltransferase transcripts decline. The application of formate to leaves strongly enhances FDH expression, suggesting that it might be the signal for FDH induction. Our experiments using glycolytic products suggest that glycolysis may play an important role in formate synthesis in leaves in the dark and during hypoxia, and in tubers. Of particular interest is the dramatic accumulation of FDH transcripts after spraying methanol on leaves, as this compound is known to increase the yields of C3 plants. In addition, although the steady-state levels of FDH transcript increase very quickly in response to stress, protein accumulation is much slower, but can eventually reach the same levels in leaves as in tubers.

Hourton-Cabassa, Cecile; Ambard-Bretteville, Francoise; Moreau, Francois; de Virville, Jacques Davy; Remy, Rene; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine

1998-01-01

334

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves  

PubMed Central

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated.

Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

2008-01-01

335

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.  

PubMed

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

2008-09-16

336

[SPAD prediction of leave based on reflection spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Handheld SPAD meter is often used to measure chlorophyll content of plant and nitrogen level for some species. For plant production automation, however, it loses its popularity due to its point-by-point checking. The authors need to monitor the growing conditions of plant remotely, instantly and nondestructively. In the test, we examined optical fiber reflection spectroscopy used to measure chlorophyll content of some plant leaves, or for their SPAD prediction. The authors picked 120 leaves randomly from our campus ground or trees, among which 70 samples were chosen as calibration set and others as verification set. Each sample was water-cleaned and air-dried. To locate each measuring point precisely when using SPAD meter and spectrometer, the authors drew a circle with a diameter of 10 mm on each leave to be measured. By comparing the spectral curves of various leaves, the authors found that the spectral band between 650-750 nm was significant for SPAD modeling since this range of spectral data of leaves with the same SPAD reading was close to each other. It was showed that leave color was an unnecessary factor for SPAD prediction by reflection spectroscopy. Besides, the authors discovered that LED's narrow spectral range used by SPAD meter should be concerned because optical fiber spectrometer has much more wide spectral range. Based on this awareness, the authors designed an adjustment factor of light to linearly rebuild spectrometer's reflective intensity so that it reached zero outside the band 650-750 nm. Moreover, leave thickness was another influential factor for SPAD prediction since the light of SPAD meter goes through the leave while the reflective spectrometer does not. First, an equation for SPAD prediction was built with uncertain parameters. Then, a standard genetic algorithm was designed with Visual Basic 6.0 for parameter optimization. As a result, the optimal reflection band was narrowed within 683.24-733.91 nm. The result showed that leave thickness strongly affects the precision of SPAD prediction. Through the modification of leave thickness, the regression coefficient (R2) of calibration set and verification set reached 0.865 8 and 0.916 1 respectively. The test showed that optical fiber reflection spectroscopy is useful for SPAD prediction and can be used to develop remote SPAD sensor. PMID:19810542

Yang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Jian-Song; He, Yong

2009-06-01

337

Expanding leaves of mature deciduous forest trees rapidly become autotrophic.  

PubMed

Emerging leaves in evergreen tree species are supplied with carbon (C) from the previous year's foliage. In deciduous trees, no older leaves are present, and the early phase of leaf development must rely on C reserves from other tissues. How soon developing leaves become autotrophic and switch from being C sinks to sources has rarely been studied in mature forest trees, and simultaneous comparisons of species are scarce. Using a canopy crane and a simple (13)CO(2)-pulse-labelling technique, we demonstrate that young leaves of mature trees in three European deciduous species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) start assimilating CO(2) at a very early stage of development (10-50% expanded). One month after labelling, all leaves were still strongly (13)C enriched, suggesting that recent photosynthates had been incorporated into slow turnover pools such as cellulose or lignin and thus had contributed to leaf growth. In line with previous studies performed at the same site, we found stronger incorporation of recent photosynthates into growing tissues of T. platyphyllos compared with F. sylvatica and Q. petraea. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations analysed for one of the three study species (F. sylvatica) showed that sugar and starch pools rapidly increased during leaf development, suggesting that newly developed leaves soon produce more NSC than can be used for growth. In conclusion, our findings indicate that expanding leaves of mature deciduous trees become C autonomous at an early stage of development despite the presence of vast amounts of mobile carbohydrate reserves. PMID:20688879

Keel, Sonja G; Schädel, Christina

2010-08-05

338

Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium  

SciTech Connect

Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

1987-11-01

339

Proteomic analysis of strawberry leaves infected with Colletotrichum fragariae.  

PubMed

Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes. To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection, proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification. Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (>1.5-fold, p<0.05) in mock- and C. fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point. Notably, 2-DE analysis revealed that C. fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves, and western blotting confirmed the induction of ?-1,3-glucanase and a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C. fragariae infection. During the late phase of infection, proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression. The abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogen-responsive protein network in C. fragariae-infected strawberry leaves. Together, these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, especially those found in non-model plant species. PMID:22634039

Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Xin, Ya; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Yu, Hong; Liu, Hui; Xiao, Wenfei; Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Guizhen; Liu, Hongbo; Jin, Liang; Ma, Huasheng; Ruan, Songlin

2012-05-23

340

[Phytochemical investigation of Juniper rufescens leaves and fruits].  

PubMed

Seven species of juniper grow in Azerbaijan. The examination of leaves and fruits of Juniperus oxycedrus L. growing in Azerbaijan was conducted. It was found that Juniperus oxycedrus L is widespread in Azerbaijan. The biologically active substances of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves have been studied. It was found that the main biologically active substances in leaves are flavonoids -1,61% and lipids -57,8%; in fruits - ethereal oil 1,2%. The flavonoid composites include luteolin, kaempferol, quercetine, izoquercitrin, rutin. They also possess the diuretic and anti-inflammation effects. Ethereal oil of fruits consist of 20 components, prevailing are alpha-beta-pinen, alpha-fellandren, alpha-terpineol and it also possesses high antimicrobial and antibacterial effect. Lipoid fraction includes tokoferols, karotinoids, xlorofils and lipoid acids: linol, linolen, olein, stearin and palmithin. There are also macroelements K,Ca, Mg,Na,and mikroelements Si, Fe, Al. It was found that the period of maximum accumulation of flavonoids in leaves and ethereal oil in fruit is in Autumn in the period of fruit maturation and ripening. Juniperus oxycedrus L is a good material for new antiseptic remedy. Flavonoids from the leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus L have anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect; fungicide, antimicrobial and antibacterial characteristics. PMID:19359735

Dzharullaeva, S Sh

2009-03-01

341

Assessing carotenoid content in plant leaves with reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Spectral reflectance of maple, chestnut and beech leaves in a wide range of pigment content and composition was investigated to devise a nondestructive technique for total carotenoid (Car) content estimation in higher plant leaves. Reciprocal reflectance in the range 510 to 550 nm was found to be closely related to the total pigment content in leaves. The sensitivity of reciprocal reflectance to Car content was maximal in a spectral range around 510 nm; however, chlorophylls (Chl) also affect reflectance in this spectral range. To remove the Chl effect on the reciprocal reflectance at 510 nm, a reciprocal reflectance at either 550 or 700 nm was used, which was linearly proportional to the Chl content. Indices for nondestructive estimation of Car content in leaves were devised and validated. Reflectances in three spectral bands, 510+/-5 nm, either 550+/-15 nm or 700+/-7.5 nm and the near infrared range above 750 nm are sufficient to estimate total Car content in plant leaves nondestructively with a root mean square error of less than 1.75 nmol/cm2. PMID:11950093

Gitelson, Anatoly A; Zur, Yoav; Chivkunova, Olga B; Merzlyak, Mark N

2002-03-01

342

Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa. PMID:17610142

Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

2007-07-04

343

Computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545

Tang, Ying; Wu, Dong-Yan; Fan, Jing

2013-02-25

344

Falling Leaves, Flapping Flight, and Making a Virtual Insect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects are fascinating to watch but difficult to catch, so are falling leaves. The diverse maneuver executed by insects and the flutter and tumbling motion of leaves are manifestations of complex interactions between the moving surfaces and the surrounding unsteady air. Despite the long tradition in fluid dynamics, relatively few quantitative descriptions and basic mechanisms are known about these two everyday phenomena. In this talk, I will describe some of the lessons we learned by analyzing them. In particular, I will show 1)a basic two dimensional mechanism of insect hovering and the associated vortical flow and forces, 2) the use of drag in insect hovering, in contrast to helicopter,3) the rise of falling leaves and the lift mechanism which is responsible for the center of mass elevation, 4) a model of fluid forces, different from the classical theory, for falling objects in fluid, and 5) computer experiments of three dimensional elastic flapping wings driven by muscles.

Wang, Z. Jane

2004-03-01

345

An event history analysis of union joining and leaving.  

PubMed

This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562

Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D

2007-05-01

346

Biosynthesis of s-methylcysteine in radish leaves.  

PubMed

Investigation on the biosynthesis of S-methyl-L-cysteine in radish leaves has shown that it is formed by the methylation of cysteine. This conclusion is based on: A) the relatively high recovery of radioactivity in methylcysteine sulfoxide after the administration of cysteine or methyl-labeled methionine to radish leaves; B) the nearly complete recovery of label from methyl-labeled methionine in the methyl group of methylcysteine sulfoxide; and C) the similarity in the ratio of tritium to (14)C in methylcysteine sulfoxide and in its methyl group to this ratio in the methyl group of methionine given to radish leaves. Direct evidence for the synthesis of methylcysteine in radishes was obtained for the first time.Conclusive evidence against the formation of methylcysteine from serine and a thiomethyl group from methionine as suggested for garlic was the more efficient incorporation of the methyl group of methionine as compared to the sulfur atom into methylcysteine sulfoxide. PMID:16656400

Thompson, J F; Gering, R K

1966-10-01

347

Fluoride content in khat (Catha edulis) chewing leaves.  

PubMed

Khat (qat) leaves are chewed for their psychostimulative effects; there is an unconfirmed suggestion that they contain a high concentration of fluoride (F). Khat samples from Yemen were suspended in deionized water, spun, and the supernatants exposed to a chelator that decomplexes F, which was assayed with an F(-)-electrode coupled to an ion analyser. F released into whole saliva after chewing khat for 15 min and from khat suspended in stimulated whole saliva for 1.5 h in vitro was measured also. Total F in dried khat leaves and their ash was assayed by the acid-hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method. All methods demonstrated negligible amounts of F in or from khat leaves (<0.02 microg F/ml leached into water or saliva; 0.06 microg F/ml in saliva after chewing; 0.93 microg total F/g in dried leaf, 2.07 microg total F/g in ash). PMID:10761879

Hattab, F N; Angmar-Månsson, B

2000-03-01

348

Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves.

Wu, Dong-Yan

2013-01-01

349

Government clarifies rules for family and medical leave.  

PubMed

The Labor Department issued its final regulations to clarify the interplay between the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. The regulations clarify leaves of absences, the employee's rights to return to work after a leave, and confidentiality of medical records. Other ADA-related aspects of the FMLA regulations state that when an employer violates both the FMLA and ADA, an employee may be able to recover under either or both statutes but may not be awarded double relief for the same loss; and FMLA does not modify or affect any law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability, as does the ADA. Final FMLA regulations become effective April 6, 1995. A comparative list of ADA and FMLA laws is provided. More information can be obtained by consulting the Federal Register for Jan 6. PMID:11362276

1995-04-01

350

Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated

Margaret Pierce; Klaus Raschke

1980-01-01

351

Sick leave and depression — Determining factors and clinical effect in outpatient care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared

Isaac Bermejo; Levente Kriston; Frank Schneider; Wolfgang Gaebel; Ulrich Hegerl; Mathias Berger; Martin Härter

2010-01-01

352

Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving

Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

1999-01-01

353

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: An Overview and Implications for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies new federally mandated employee leave provisions to institutions. Schools must formulate leave policies, communicate them to all staff, and document all FMLA-related actions. Offers a guide to planning and implementing FMLA leave. (MLF)|

Miles, Albert S.; And Others

1994-01-01

354

Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

355

Nutritive value of oak ( Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves in pashmina kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the nutritive value of oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves, native to temperate and humid Himalayan ranges (29°25?N and 79°35?E), containing (% DM basis) 9.49, CP; 94.86, OM; 4.07, EE; 64.20, NDF; 50.60, ADF; 1.60, Ca; 0.2, P and 4.40, tannins; four male pashmina kids (5–6 months age and 12.9±1.39 kg body weight) were fed freshly lopped green-leaves

P Singh; A. K Verma; N. N Pathak; J. C Biswas

1998-01-01

356

[Chemical constituents from twigs and leaves of Melodinus hemsleyanus].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents in the twigs and leaves of Melodinus hemsleyanus. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Fourteen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of M. hemsleyanus. Their structures were identified as 11-hydroxytabersonine (1), venalstonid (2), sandine (3), oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), betulin (6), (+)-pinoresinol (7), (-)-syringaresinol (8), 8-hydroxypinoresinol (9), (-)-latifolin (10), cirsilineol (11), loganin (12), dibutylterephthalate (13), and beta-sitosterol (14). Compounds 4-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:23947135

Zhang, Jian; Yang, Ting-Ting; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

2013-05-01

357

[Chemical constituents from twigs and leaves of Melodinus hemsleyanus].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents in the twigs and leaves of Melodinus hemsleyanus. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Fourteen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of M. hemsleyanus. Their structures were identified as 11-hydroxytabersonine (1) , venalstonid (2), sandine (3), oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), betulin (6) , (+)-pinoresinol (7), (-)-syringaresinol (8), 8-hydroxypinoresinol (9), (-)-latifolin (10) , cirsilineol (11) , loganin (12) , dibutylterephthalate (13) , and beta-sitosterol(14). Compounds 4-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:23944075

Zhang, Jian; Yang, Ting-Ting; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

2013-05-01

358

Synthesis of Oxalic Acid by Enzymes from Lettuce Leaves  

PubMed Central

A rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves is described. The kinetics of both enzymes are reported in relation to their possible roles in the production of oxalate. Lettuce lactate dehydrogenase behaves like mammalian dehydrogenase, catalyzing the dismutation of glyoxylate to glycolate and oxalate. A model is proposed in which glycolate oxidase in the peroxisomes and lactate dehydrogenase in the cytosol are involved in the production of oxalate. The effect of pH on the balance between oxalate and glycolate produced from glyoxylate suggests that in leaves lactate dehydrogenase may function as part of an oxalate-based biochemical, pH-stat.

Davies, David D.; Asker, Hassan

1983-01-01

359

Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †  

PubMed Central

Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (?4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition.

Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

1987-01-01

360

Study on N behaviour of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plant growth and N behaviour %Ndfs and %Ndff of main Xinjiang legume forage crops could be observed when its of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa and main gramineous forage grasses in monoculture and mixed culture were investigated in potting and pastu...

Zhu Shuxiu

1994-01-01

361

Factors influencing women's decision to leave an organization following childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons why college-educated women leave organizations after childbirth. Results from 228 women who participated in a study of intention to work following childbirth indicated specific work and family factors that differentiated mothers who returned to work from mothers who stayed home after childbirth. Comparisons were also made between women who had

Eileen Kaplan; Cherlyn S. Granrose

1993-01-01

362

A fungitoxic principle from the leaves of lawsonia inermis lam.  

PubMed

During antifungal screening of higher plants, the leaves of Lawsonia inermis were found to exhibit strong fungitoxicity. On chemical investigation, the antifungal factor was found to be 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone). The minimum effective dose against test organism was found to be 1000 ppm. Lawsone was found to exhibit fungicidal activity, wide fungitoxic spectrum and nonphytotoxicity. PMID:620734

Tripathi, R D; Srivastava, H S; Dixit, S N

1978-01-15

363

A fungitoxic principle from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During antifungal screening of higher plants, the leaves ofLawsonia inermis were found to exhibit strong fungitoxicity. On chemical investigation, the antifungal factor was found to be 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone). The minimum effective dose against test organism was found to be 1000 ppm. Lawsone was found to exhibit fungicidal activity, wide fungitoxic spectrum and nonphytotoxicity.

R. D. Tripathi; H. S. Srivastava; S. N. Dixit

1978-01-01

364

5 CFR 630.1207 - Notice of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reasonable effort to schedule medical treatment so as not to disrupt...that an employee reschedule medical treatment, subject to the...regardless of how far in advance the leave is being requested...foreseeableâe.g., a medical emergency or the...

2013-01-01

365

Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)|

Koman, Michael

2003-01-01

366

When the Leader Leaves: Sustaining Success at Romero High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study asks readers to consider what leadership actions might help to sustain success for immigrant students in a small urban high school when the leader leaves. Principal Michael Perez, the founding principal of Romero High School, has been recruited to become the superintendent of a first-ring suburban district with rapidly changing…

Johnson, Lauri; Sillman, Kathryn

2012-01-01

367

Morphogenesis of simple and compound leaves: a critical review.  

PubMed

The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves. PMID:20435903

Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

2010-04-30

368

Loss of nuclear DNA in leaves of rye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear DNA content of rye leaf cells was cytophotometrically determined. At the commencement of differentiation nuclei in rye leaves remain standing at G1 phase. With further differentiation a remarkable diminution of nuclear DNA content occurs in diploid cells. The largest number of cells showing a loss of nuclear DNA content were found in the top of the leaf. The

C. U. Hesemann; G. Schröder

1982-01-01

369

Why Some Students Leave College during Their Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during…

Hunt, Patricia F.; Boyd, Vivian S.; Gast, Linda K.; Mitchell, Alice; Wilson, Wendy

2012-01-01

370

Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study

Roland Pieruschka; Andres Chavarria-Krauser; Ulrich Schurr; Siegfried Jahnke

2009-01-01

371

All's well that ends well: arresting cell proliferation in leaves.  

PubMed

The transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion is critical for determining leaf size. Andriankaja et al. (2012) demonstrate that in leaves of dicotyledonous plants, a basal proliferation zone is maintained for several days before abruptly disappearing, and that chloroplast differentiation is required to trigger the onset of cell expansion. PMID:22264727

Lenhard, Michael

2012-01-17

372

Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

Vartak, Rehka

2006-01-01

373

CO2 Inhibits Respiration in Leaves of Rumex crispus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Curly dock(Rumexcrispus L.)wasgrownfromseedina glasshouse atanambient CO2partial pressure ofabout 35pas- cals. Apparent respiration rate(CO2efflux inthedark) of expanded leaves wasthenmeasured atambient CO2partial pressure of5to95pascals. Calculated intercellular CO2partial pressure wasproportional toambient CO2partial pressure in theseshort-term experiments. TheCO2level strongly affected

J. S. Amthor; G. W. Koch; A. J. Bloom

1992-01-01

374

Two new limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape.  

PubMed

Two new andirobin-type limonoids, named sandoripin A and sandoripin B, were isolated from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape collected in Thailand. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, as well as by comparison with reported data of closely related compounds. PMID:19140068

Pancharoen, Orasa; Pipatanapatikarn, Anchalee; Charles Taylor, Walter; Bansiddhi, Jaree

2009-01-01

375

Supreme Court Upholds Cal. Law Requiring Maternity Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent United State Supreme Court ruling upheld a California law requiring employers to grant female employees up to four months of unpaid maternity leave and make reasonable efforts to reinstate them when they return to work. The decision and its implications are discussed. (MSE)

Fields, Cheryl M.

1987-01-01

376

Spermidine biosynthesis as affected by osmotic stress in oat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new assay for the evaluation of spermidine (Spd) synthase activity was developed. It involves a coupled reaction and avoids the use of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine, which is unstable and not easily available. This assay was applied to assess changes in enzyme activity in oat leaves subjected to osmotic stress in the dark. The results indicate that osmotically-induced putrescine (Put) accumulation

A. F. Tiburcio; R. Kaur-Sawhneyz; A. W. Galston

1993-01-01

377

Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

2010-01-01

378

LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

379

Total phenol concentrations in coffee tree leaves during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetables have a natural defense against external factors synthesizing phenolic compounds, which depends on the maturity stage and on the climate. Total phenol grades were extracted from mature and young coffee leaves and were analyzed in relation to yield, phenology and climate. The climatic conditions were described by air temperature, global radiation and daily insolation. Evaluations were made on height,

Paula Rodrigues Salgado; José Laércio Favarin; Roseli Aparecida Leandro; Oscar Fontão de Lima Filho

2008-01-01

380

[Constituents of the leaves of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot].  

PubMed

From the chloroform part of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot, leaves five constituents were isolated: tyrosol, esculetine, kempferol-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetine-3-O-glucoside, and quercetine. Further six constituents (probably malvidine, two secoiridoid glycosides, caffeic acid monosaccharide ester, quercetine monoglycoside (no hyperoside), and quercetine diglycoside (no rutinoside)) were isolated from the methanolic part of above mentioned drug. PMID:11797198

Nagy, M; Baróniková, S; Grancai, D; Mucaji, P

2001-11-01

381

Radiative properties of hardwood leaves to ultraviolet irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral reflectance and transmittance of leaves to ultraviolet irradiation were determined under laboratory conditions for seven species of hardwood trees, namely red oak ( Quercus rubra, L), black oak ( Q. velutina, Lamarch), white oak ( Q. alba, L.), sugar maple ( Acer saccharum), Norway maple ( A. plantanoides), hickory ( Carya tomemtosa), sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua), and black oak

Xiusheng Yang; Gordon M. Heisler; Michael E. Montgomery; Joseph H. Sullivan; Edward B. Whereat; David R. Miller

1995-01-01

382

Radiative properties of hardwood leaves to ultraviolet irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral reflectance and transmittance of leaves to ultraviolet irradiation were determined under laboratory conditions for seven species of hardwood trees, namely red oak (Quercus rubra, L), black oak (Q. velutina, Lamarch), white oak (Q. alba, L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), Norway maple (A. plantanoides), hickory (Carya tomemtosa), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and black oak litter. The experimental system consisted of a

Xiusheng Yang; Gordon M. Heisler; Michael E. Montgomery; Joseph H. Sullivan; Edward B. Whereat; David R. Miller

1995-01-01

383

Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

Thomas D. Sharkey

1984-01-01

384

33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No vessel shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any,...

2009-07-01

385

33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No vessel shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any,...

2010-07-01

386

Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge

J. E. VOGELMANN; B. N. ROCK; D. M. MOSS

1993-01-01

387

50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO CURTIS BAY, MARYLAND. PRIOR TO CONVERSION TO NEW HOISTING SYSTEM, 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

388

Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education…

Mulcahy, D. G.

2012-01-01

389

Beyond survival: reclaiming self after leaving an abusive male partner.  

PubMed

Research on the process of leaving an abusive male partner has focused on surviving abuse and the crisis of leaving. Little is known about the experience of women who have left abusive male partners and not gone back. In this feminist grounded theory study of women leaving abusive partners, the researchers discovered the basic social-psychological process of reclaiming self in which women voyaged through 4 stages: counteracting abuse, breaking free, not going back, and moving on. The focus of this paper is the last stage, moving on, during which women move beyond framing their lives as survivors of an abusive relationship through the processes of figuring it out, putting it in its rightful place, launching new relationships, and taking on a new image. The findings extend our knowledge of the leaving process by delineating the ways in which the abuse experience and the survival process are displaced as the centre of the woman's intra-psychic, interpersonal, and social existence. Questions are raised about how nurses and other health professionals can avoid revictimizing women who have moved on. PMID:11928303

Wuest, J; Merritt-Gray, M

2001-03-01

390

Why Some Students Leave College during Their Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during…

Hunt, Patricia F.; Boyd, Vivian S.; Gast, Linda K.; Mitchell, Alice; Wilson, Wendy

2012-01-01

391

Maternity leave, mother-child interactions, and attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although over 70% of American mothers are part of the workforce, the maternity leave policy in the United States is of twelve unpaid weeks, and only covers about half of the workforce. The amount of time a mother is able to spend with her infant before she negotiates separation and re-entry to work is expected to play a role in

Raquel Plotka

2012-01-01

392

Volatile Constituents of the Leaves of Ocimum sanctum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the volatiles isolated from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum L., Lamiaceae, by capillary GC and GC\\/MS resulted in the identification of 25 components comprising 98.7% of the total oil. Eugenol (53.4%), ?-caryophyllene (31.7%) and ?-elemene (6.2%) were the major components found.

P. M. Raju; Mohamed Ali; Arturo Velasco-Negueruela; María José Pérez-Alonso

1999-01-01

393

Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that ac- cumulate during development and are thought to function as con- stitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita L.) leaves and investigated

Jonathan Gershenzon; Marie E. McConkey; Rodney B. Croteau

2000-01-01

394

Distribution of Peltate Glandular Trichomes on Developing Leaves of Peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of peltate glandular trichome initiation and ontogeny on expanding peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita) leaves was defined by surveying the populations of peltate glands in each of seven developmental stages within sampling areas of leaf apical, mid-, and basal zones for both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. It was shown that new peltate glands continue to form until leaf expansion

Glenn W. Turner; Jonathan Gershenzon; Rodney B. Croteau

2000-01-01

395

Physical aspects of the internal water relations of plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between the water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential, and relative water content have been derived on the basis of 2 simple assumptions. Measurements of these quantities were made on leaves of cotton, sunflower, pepper, and birdsfoot trefoil to test the validity of these relations. Within the precision of the data, the assumption that the osmotic potential is inversely proportional

W. R. Gardner; C. F. Ehlig

1965-01-01

396

Acylated flavonol glycosides from leaves of Planchonia grandis.  

PubMed

Three acylated flavonol glycosides have been identified from leaves of Planchonia grandis Ridley. They possess kaempferol as aglycone and two triglycosidic chains substituting hydroxyl groups at the 3- and 7-positions. The first glycosidic unit of each chain is esterified by a cis or trans p-coumaric acid. Structural elucidation was achieved by means of UV, NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:12943780

Crublet, Marie-Laure; Long, Christophe; Sévenet, Thierry; Hadi, Hamid A; Lavaud, Catherine

2003-09-01

397

Acylated flavonol glycosides from leaves of Planchonia grandis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three acylated flavonol glycosides have been identified from leaves of Planchonia grandis Ridley. They possess kaempferol as aglycone and two triglycosidic chains substituting hydroxyl groups at the 3- and 7-positions. The first glycosidic unit of each chain is esterified by a cis or trans p-coumaric acid. Structural elucidation was achieved by means of UV, NMR and mass spectrometry.

Marie-Laure Crublet; Christophe Long; Thierry Sévenet; Hamid A Hadi; Catherine Lavaud

2003-01-01

398

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To disclose the interplay between psychosocial antecedents of adolescents' deci- sions to leave their parental home in an ecologically sensitive region, we used struc- tural equation modeling to analyze data from in-person interviews of members of 220 households in Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas (China). We further divided our data into two sub-samples by gender to test the hypothesis

Angela G. Mertig; Jianguo Liu

2003-01-01

399

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To disclose the interplay between psychosocial antecedents of adolescents' decisions to leave their parental home in an ecologically sensitive region, we used structural equation modeling to analyze data from in-person interviews of members of 220 households in Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas (China). We further divided our data into two sub-samples by gender to test the hypothesis that model

Li An; Angela G. Mertig; Jianguo Liu

2003-01-01

400

New and rare flavonol glycosides from leaves of Syzygium samarangense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated and characterised from leaves of Syzygium samarangense. One is the rare mearnsitrin (1) while the second, 2?-C-methyl-5?-O-galloylmyricetin-3-O-a-l-rhamnopyranoside (2), is new. Detailed spectral data are provided for both.

A. G. R Nair; S Krishnan; C Ravikrishna; K. P Madhusudanan

1999-01-01

401

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Co- toneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), dif- fering in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus

Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova; Alexei E. Solovchenko; K. Razi Naqvi

2008-01-01

402

Fluoride content in khat ( Catha edulis) chewing leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khat (qat) leaves are chewed for their psychostimulative effects; there is an unconfirmed suggestion that they contain a high concentration of fluoride (F). Khat samples from Yemen were suspended in deionized water, spun, and the supernatants exposed to a chelator that decomplexes F, which was assayed with an F?-electrode coupled to an ion analyser. F released into whole saliva after

Faiez N Hattab; Birgit Angmar-Månsson

2000-01-01

403

Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa.  Here, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves in two novel

Ping Lou; Hongju He; Corrie Hanhart; Dunia Pino Del Carpio; Ruud Verkerk; Jan Custers; Maarten Koornneef; Guusje Bonnema

2008-01-01

404

Child health: An underplayed variable in parental leave policy debates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines parental leave policy from the perspective of infant and young child health. Factors assisting the successful integration of breastfeeding and maternal employment are outlined. Health effects of day care attendance are also explored as an integral component of this assessment. It is suggested that the potential health disadvantages associated with lack of, or inability to access, parental

Judith Galtry

2002-01-01

405

Visualization of early stress responses in plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant leaves possess microscopic valves, called stomata, that enable control of transpirational water loss. In case of water shortage, stomata close, resulting in decreased transpirational cooling. The ensuing temperature increase is readily visualized by thermography. Salicylic acid, a central compound in the defense of plants against pathogens, also closes stomata in several species. In previous work, thermography permitted to monitor

Laury Chaerle; Martin J. vande Ven; Roland L. Valcke; Dominique Van Der Straeten

2002-01-01

406

Using Neural Networks Within the Leaves of a Classification Tree.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classification trees and neural networks are widely used individually, yet little is known about the effect of combining these two techniques. Earlier work has shown that using k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) inside the leaves of a tree can increase classificat...

C. Chen

2000-01-01

407

Antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27-0.85?GAE?mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25-7.96?CE?mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC?? and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4-56.2? ?g/ml and 40.1-70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79-4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-02-28

408

Studies of laser induced-breakdown spectroscopy of holly leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIBS spectra of holly leaves produced by Nd:YAG nanosecond laser has been investigated. More than 20 elements and molecules were identified from the spectra. The influence of laser wavelength upon analysis of plant samples via LIBS technique has been investigated. The comparison of LIBS spectra shows that the spectrum for 1064 nm irradiation is more intense than the one

D. C. Zhang; X. Ma; W. Q. Wen; H. P. Liu; P. J. Zhang

2009-01-01

409

The nature and correlates of deterrents to leaving a relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and correlates of perceived deterrents to leaving a relationship were examined in a sample of both partners (N ¼ 314) from gay male, lesbian, and heterosexual couples. Partners rated the extent to which self-identified features of their relationship were regarded as either attractions to the relationship or deterrents to ending that relationship. The deterrents identified included features that

LAWRENCE A. KURDEK

2006-01-01

410

Essential oil of Turnera ulmifolia leaves from Cuba.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia L. (Turneraceae) from Cuba was studied by GC and GC/MS. Sixty-four volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were beta-caryophyllene (21.5%) and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (18.4%). PMID:21213992

Pino, Jorge A

2010-11-01

411

An Inhibitor of Growth Extracted from Pea Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, Stewart, Bergren and Redemann1 and Stewart2 have extracted from the leafy cotyledons of radish seedlings a substance which retards the growth of oat coleoptiles. They extracted by a method devised by van Overbeek3 for extracting auxin, leaving the material in purified other without grinding it up, and then drying the extract by distillation and evaporation; and they tested the

R. Snow

1939-01-01

412

Plant biotechnology: Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine synthase is an enzyme that catalyses the final two steps in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. We have cloned the gene encoding caffeine synthase from young leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), opening up the possibility of creating tea and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants that are naturally deficient in caffeine. Consumers concerned about the possible adverse effects of caffeine consumption will

Misako Kato; Kouichi Mizuno; Alan Crozier; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Hiroshi Ashihara

2000-01-01

413

Leave-K-Out Diagnostics for Time Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors propose diagnostics for ARIMA model fitting for time series formed by deleting observations from the data and measuring the change in the estimates of the parameters. The use of leave-one out diagnostics is a well established tool in regressio...

A. G. Bruce R. D. Martin

1987-01-01

414

New dipyranocoumarin from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum Willd.  

PubMed

A new dipyranocoumarin, ?-hydroxytomentolide A (1) was isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum together with the known compounds friedelin (2), apetalactone (3), inophyllum C (4) and canophyllol (5). The structure of the new compound was established by spectroscopic studies which include (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, NOESY, HetCOSY, COLOC experiments and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:23577701

Joshi, Swati P; Kulkarni, Smita R; Phalgune, Usha D; Puranik, Vedavati G

2013-04-11

415

Remote sensing of chlorophyll concentration in higher plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflectance spectra of higher plant leaves are considered with special reference to remote sensing of chlorophyll concentration. Wavelengths with maximum sensitivity to chlorophyll content were found in the wide spectral range from 530 to 630 nm and near 700 nm. The wavelength of the red edge position of the reflectance spectrum correlated very closely with the reflectance at 550

Anatoly A. Gitelson; Mark N. Merzlyak

1998-01-01

416

Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o., respectively). PMID:12165335

Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Anupam

2002-08-01

417

Chemical constituents from the leaves of Aglaia perviridis.  

PubMed

A new cinnamic acid-derived bisamide 1 and a new oplopanone-type sesquiterpenoid diglycoside 2, together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from the 95% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Aglaia perviridis. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:20390768

Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Yang, Shu-Ming; Tan, Chang-Heng; Luo, Hong-Feng; Zhu, Da-Yuan

2010-03-01

418

Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three…

Devor, Kenneth A.

1979-01-01

419

Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

2011-01-01

420

Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

2008-01-01

421

Fungal Epiphytes and Endophytes of Coffee Leaves ( Coffea arabica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffeaarabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities,

Johanna Santamaría; Paul Bayman

2005-01-01

422

Maternal leave policies and vaccination coverage: a global analysis.  

PubMed

Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. PMID:22196248

Daku, Mark; Raub, Amy; Heymann, Jody

2011-11-29

423

Maintenance Carbon Cycle in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant.

Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.

1985-01-01

424

Mineral composition of peach leaves affected by iron chlorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Fe chlorosis on the mineral composition of field grown peach tree leaves was studied in two different areas. No significant differences in total Fe content were found, whereas 2,2’ bipyridyl extractable Fe, K and the K\\/Ca ratio were significantly affected in both experiments. Phosphorus and the P\\/Fe ratio were significantly affected only in one experiment.

J. Abadía; J. N. Nishio; E. Monge; L. Montañés; L. Heras

1985-01-01

425

The Parental Leave Debate: Implications for Policy Relevant Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislative activity regarding parental and family medical leave has been intense, with heated debate, in both national and state political arenas. Proponents of legislation report that policy is needed because of women's increasing rate of labor force participation and the concomitant shortage of substitute infant care. Benefits of policy are presumed to include women's health and parent-child bonding. However, no

Patricia McGovern; Dwenda K. Gjerdingen; Debra Froberg

1992-01-01

426

Workers' Compensation and Family and Medical Leave Act Claim Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

At $60 billion per year, the workers' compensation system has come under increased scrutiny as firms, insurers, and researchers study the dynamics of claim filing. The Family and Medical Leave Act also covers most workers, and there has been very little research concerning the effects of FMLA legislation on employment. One hitherto neglected research area in both workers' compensation and

Harold H. Gardner; Nathan L. Kleinman; Richard J. Butler

2000-01-01

427

Integrated absence management and the Family and Medical Leave Act.  

PubMed

Intermittent unscheduled absenteeism often challenges employers to meet the needs of their employees, control direct absenteeism costs, and maintain the staff needed to serve customers. Occupational health nurses have opportunities to play an important role in addressing this challenge. Measurable financial impacts have been demonstrated from integrating the management of intermittent FMLA leave with an employer's existing absence management program. PMID:18578187

Morris, Judy A

2008-05-01

428

The Family and Medical Leave Act: Current Legislative Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Congress passed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a means of helping individuals more easily balance their family and work obligations. Over the past few decades, married mothers with young children increasingly have strived to fulfill both workplace and child-rearing obligations. With the enactment of welfare reform legislation, greater numbers of single parents also have had to

Linda Levine

2010-01-01

429

Current compliance with the family and medical leave act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sets out the provisions of the US Family and Medical Leave Act, and summarizes the exceptions clause which defines which employees are excepted from these provisions. Explains how the Act works in practice and the duties it places on the employer. Gives examples from cases brought under the Act to illustrate how it is working in practice. Discusses how the

Andrea Rembold; Brian H. Kleiner

1999-01-01

430

Implications of the Family and Medical Leave Act for organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides a brief overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act and discusses the implications for employees. Considers the problems experienced by employers as they attempt to comply with the act and the reaction of organisations to the extension of this act in relation to unemployment benefit. Gives recommendations for employers to help with some of the administrative problems faced

Sheng Hengst; Brian H. Kleiner

2002-01-01

431

Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men’s caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that as

Ariane Prohaska; John F. Zipp

2011-01-01

432

A Guide to the Family & Medical Leave Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides a summary description of the most important provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act that affect members of the American Federation of Teachers. Twenty-eight chapters examine the details of employer and employee obligations: (1) "General Overview"; (2) "FMLA Checklist"; (3) "Key Definitions"; (4) "How To Apply for…

Abraham, John D.; Strom, David J.; Sloan, Monica; McElroy, Liz

433

Mineral nutrition and caffeine content in coffee leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nutrient supply on the caffeine content of coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) leaves was investigated. Seeds were germinated in nutrient-agar media lacking N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B or Mo. The control treatment contained all essential nutrients. The caffeine concentration was determined seven months after seed sowing when the seedlings have 3 to 4 pair

PAULO MAZZAFERA

1999-01-01

434

Bioactive cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at

Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria

1999-01-01

435

Hysteretic properties of NADP-malic enzyme from sugarcane leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADP-malic enzyme highly purified from sugarcane leaves exhibited hysteretic properties. This behavior resulted in a lag phase during activity measurement of the enzyme preincubated in the absence of substrates. The lag was inversely proportional to the protein concentration during preincubation, which suggests that changes in the aggregational state of the enzyme are responsible for hysteresis. The pH conditions as well

Alberto A. Iglesias; Carlos S. Andreo

1992-01-01

436

Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg\\/kg) on the transfer latency,

H. D Une; V. P Sarveiya; S. C Pal; V. S Kasture; S. B Kasture

2001-01-01

437

Doctors leaving 12 tertiary hospitals in Iraq, 2004–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical doctors leaving less developed countries are now part of a global labour market. This doctor migration has been extensively studied from economic and health systems perspectives. Seldom, however has the specific role of the conflict or the collapsing state been considered as a cause of migration. Using hospital staffing records we measured the changes in numbers of medical specialists

Gilbert M. Burnham; Shannon Doocy

2009-01-01

438

Photochemical oxidants: effect on starch hydrolysis in leaves.  

PubMed

Starch-filled leaves of plants which have been subjected to low dosages of naturally occurring photochemical oxidants, ozone, or peroxyacetyl nitrate hydrolyze their starch more slowly when placed in the dark. Delayed hydrolysis occurs irrespective of whether the oxidants were applied during the light or dark period. Occasionally this effect is evident only in the intervenal areas. PMID:17843593

Hanson, G P; Stewart, W S

1970-06-01

439

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves  

PubMed Central

The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves.

Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

2008-01-01

440

RNA silencing can explain chlorotic infection patterns on plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: RNA silencing has been implicated in virus symptom development in plants. One common infection symptom in plants is the formation of chlorotic tissue in leaves. Chlorotic and healthy tissue co-occur on a single leaf and form patterns. It has been shown that virus levels in chlorotic tissue are high, while they are low in healthy tissue. Additionally, the presence

Marian AC Groenenboom; Paulien Hogeweg

2008-01-01

441

Turnover and intent to leave among speech pathologists.  

PubMed

Sound, large scale and systematic research into why health professionals want to leave their jobs is needed. This study used psychometrically-sound tools and logistic regression analyses to determine why Australian speech pathologists were intending to leave their jobs or the profession. Based on data from 620 questionnaires, several variables were found to be significantly related to intent to leave. The speech pathologists intending to look for a new job were more likely to be under 34 years of age, and perceive low levels of job security and benefits of the profession. Those intending to leave the profession were more likely to spend greater than half their time at work on administrative duties, have a higher negative affect score, not have children under 18 years of age, and perceive that speech pathology did not offer benefits that met their professional needs. The findings of this study provide the first evidence regarding the reasons for turnover and attrition in the Australian speech pathology workforce, and can inform the development of strategies to retain a skilled and experienced allied health workforce. PMID:20497738

McLaughlin, Emma G H; Adamson, Barbara J; Lincoln, Michelle A; Pallant, Julie F; Cooper, Cary L

2010-05-01

442

Why do student nurses leave? Suggestions from a Delphi study.  

PubMed

The high dropout rate of nursing students is a major concern. However, there is little research available about the reasons why students leave. Universities collect some information from 'exit' interviews but, due to ethical sensitivities, it is not made available for research analysis. The purpose of this study was to establish a consensus view of the reasons why student nurses leave their pre-registration education programme. The study was undertaken in two phases. Initially, an exploratory phase using focus groups and one-to-one interviews was used to gather multi-professional views about the reasons why students leave. In the second phase a questionnaire was developed from the themes arising from the data analysis in phase one. The questionnaire was administered to an expert panel of student nurses in the form of a three-round Delphi Study. The consensus level was set at 75%. It is important to clarify that, for reasons stated above, the views expressed in this paper are those of current students about others who had left the programme. From this study, it is apparent that, with the exception of academic failure, there was no single contributing factor that was thought to make students leave. However, there were a number of important issues identified as factors that may result in student nurses leaving. These include communication and operational factors between the university and clinical areas, feelings of not being valued, unmet expectations, and stress. These issues were of concern to students and appeared to have a cumulative effect that led them to question whether they should continue their education programme. On the basis of these findings, several recommendations are made to improve the student nurse experience. PMID:12900194

Last, Lynn; Fulbrook, Paul

2003-08-01

443

Nitrate Reductase Activity in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to determine whether the nitrate flux to the leaves or the nitrate content of the leaves regulated the nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of intact maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings having low water potentials (?w) when other environmental and endogenous factors were constant. In seedlings that were desiccated slowly, the nitrate flux, leaf nitrate content, and NRA decreased as ?w decreased. The decrease in nitrate flux was caused by a decrease in both the rate of transpiration and the rate of nitrate delivery to the transpiration stream. Upon rewatering, the recovery in NRA was correlated with the nitrate flux but not the leaf nitrate content. Recovery depended on protein synthesis, since recovery could be prevented in excised leaves if an inhibitor of protein synthesis was present. However, it also depended on a high nitrate flux, since recovery could be prevented if there was no nitrate flux, despite a relatively high, constant leaf nitrate content, a high ?w, and the absence of an inhibitor of protein synthesis. The synthesis of NRA could be increased at low ?w if seedlings were desiccated in the presence of additional nitrate, which increased the nitrate flux to the leaves. Since the decrease in NRA at low ?w could be relieved by increasing the nitrate flux and recovery also depended on nitrate flux, the inhibition of NRA at low ?3 was not controlled by a direct effect of ?w on protein synthesis nor by alterations in the leaf nitrate content, but rather by a decrease in the nitrate flux that in turn regulated the synthesis of the enzyme.

Shaner, Dale L.; Boyer, John S.

1976-01-01

444

Does Chewing Coca Leaves Influence Physiology at High Altitude?  

PubMed Central

Andean Indians have used coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca and related species) for centuries to enhance physical performance. The benefits and disadvantages of using coca leaf have been a subject of many political debates. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chewing coca leaves on biochemical and physiological parameters. Cutaneous microdialysis catheters were used to estimate systemic biochemical changes. We subjected 10 healthy adult males (local residents) in Cajamarca (Peru, altitude 2700 m) to a standardised exercise routine on a stationary cycle ergometer. The blood pressure, oxygen saturation (digital), pulse, VO2 max and ECG (Holter monitor) were recorded before the exercise. Cutaneous microdialysis catheters were introduced in the forearm. The subjects were given to chew 8 g of coca leaves with a small amount of lime. They were then placed on the cycle ergometer for 20 min. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, pulse, ECG and VO2 max were recorded. Pyruvate, glucose, lactate, glycerol and glutamate levels were estimated. Oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and pulse rate did not show any significant changes between the two groups. Glucose levels showed hyperglycaemic response. Glycerol, Lactate and Pyruvate increased. Glutamate remained unchanged. Similar changes were not seen in the controls. These results suggest that coca leaves have blocked the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation resulting in accumulation of glucose and pyruvate. The energy requirement for exercise is being met with beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The glycerol released was also getting accumulated since its pathway for oxidation was blocked. These experimental findings suggest that chewing coca leaves is beneficial during exercise and that the effects are felt over a prolonged period of sustained physical activity.

Mujica, E.; Mongelli, M.; Aliaga, J.; Lopez, N.; Smith, C.; Bartholomew, F.

2010-01-01

445

Sick leave and work disability in patients with early arthritis  

PubMed Central

We studied the occurrence of sick leave and work disability, the presence of workplace adaptations and the usage of professional guidance related to working problems in patients with early arthritis. Inclusion criteria were arthritis symptoms of less than 2 years duration and a paid job at the time of diagnosis. Assessments were done in connection with an early arthritis clinic (EAC) at entry into the cohort and 12 months thereafter by means of a questionnaire comprising questions on sick leave (absenteeism from work reported to the employer), work disability (receiving a full or partial work disability pension), unemployment, work adaptations and professional guidance related to working problems. Fifty-seven of the 69 participants (83%) had an arthritis symptom duration of <6 months. The number of patients with sick leave due to arthritis in the past 12 months decreased from 28 (41%) at study entry to 18 (26%) after 12 months of follow-up. The number of patients receiving a work disability pension increased from 5 (7%) at study entry to 13 (19%) after 12 months of follow-up (10 partial and 3 full). Sick leave in the 12 months before study entry appeared to be the most important predictor of the institution or increase in a work disability pension (odds ratio, 16.1; 95%CI, 1.8–142.8). Between study entry and follow-up, the number of patients with workplace adaptations increased from 20 (29%) to 28 (42%), whereas the number of patients receiving vocational guidance decreased from 48 (70%) to 36 (52%). In patients with early arthritis and a paid job, arthritis-related sick leave was common and occurred in part before patients entered the EAC and a diagnosis was made. About 20% of the patients became permanently work disabled, with partial work disability being more common than full work disability. Considerable proportions of patients received workplace adaptations and professional guidance with working problems.

Zirkzee, Elisabeth J. M.; Sneep, Arina C.; de Buck, Petronella D. M.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Peeters, Andreas J.; Ronday, H. Karel; Westedt, Marie Louise; le Cessie, Saskia

2007-01-01

446

Incidence of naturally internalized bacteria in lettuce leaves.  

PubMed

Lettuce is the fresh leafy vegetable most frequently involved in foodborne disease outbreaks. Human bacterial pathogens may be experimentally internalized into lettuce plants, but the occurrence of natural microflora inside lettuce leaves has not been elucidated. To characterize the endophytic microorganism residing in commercial lettuce leaves, two separate studies were conducted. First, a total of 30 and 25 heads of romaine and red leaf lettuce, respectively, served as the source of individual leaves which were surface sterilized, stomached, enriched in BHI broth for 24h and plated onto BHI agar for non-selective isolation of internalized microorganism. In a separate survey, 80 heads of each of the two types of lettuce were similarly processed, except that GN broth and MacConkey agar (MCA) were used for isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Thirty-eight out of 100 leaves were positive for internalized microorganisms, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were the genera most frequently found in both types of lettuce. Members of the genus Erwinia were isolated from romaine lettuce only. In the second study, 21 and 60% of romaine and red leaf lettuce heads, respectively, had internalized bacteria capable of growing on MCA. Among the Gram negative strains, Pseudomonas and Pantoea genera were most frequently isolated. Enterobacter isolates were obtained from three red leaf samples. In summary, spore-forming bacteria and traditional epiphytic bacterial genera were frequently detected in surface-sterilized commercial lettuce leaves. Despite the common occurrence of internalized bacteria, only Enterobacter was related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. PMID:23454817

Hou, Zhe; Fink, Ryan C; Radtke, Christie; Sadowsky, Michael J; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

2013-02-13

447

Family Leave Legislation in the U.S. House: Voting on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A model of roll call voting by House members on the Family and Medial Leave Act (FMLA) of 1990 was tested. Found that support for the FMLA was tied to a range of dispositional and contextual demand variables: conservatism, presidential support, etc. The model accurately predicted 90% of the votes. (RJM)|

Monroe, Pamela A.; And Others

1995-01-01

448

Commentary: what role for the family and Medical Leave Act in long-term care policy?  

PubMed

The Family and Medical Leave Act provides unpaid leave but a key component is its intergenerational structure, permitting employees to take time off from work to care for an infant as well as an ill elderly parent. However, in an effort to provide paid leave, 23 of 28 states dropped the elder care provision in new initiatives introduced between 2000 and 2003. This article argues that in reforming leave policy in the future, the leave should be paid, remain intergenerational, cover more workers, and be adaptable to changing family patterns in an aging society. Also discussed is California's paid leave law, which meets these criteria. PMID:17135096

Wisensale, Steven K

2006-01-01

449

Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes.  

PubMed

The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots. PMID:22232687

Pereira, Caio G; Almenara, Daniela P; Winter, Carlos E; Fritsch, Peter W; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S

2012-01-09

450

Bioactive molecules in Kalanchoe pinnata leaves: extraction, purification, and identification.  

PubMed

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (syn. Bryophyllum pinnatum; family Crassulaceae) is a popular plant used in traditional medicine in many temperate regions of the world and particularly in South America. In Guyana, the leaves are traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic to treat coughs, ulcers, and sores. The purpose of this study was to implement a method for targeting and identifying molecules with antimicrobial activity, which could replace chemical preservatives in cosmetic applications. The leaves were extracted by a method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using different solvents. A study of antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity tests were performed to select the most interesting extract. To isolate one or more active molecules, the selected crude extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and then antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of each fraction were tested under the same procedure. The last step consisted of identifying the main compounds in the most active fraction by LC-MS/MS. PMID:20714893

El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Destandau, Emilie; Toribio, Alix; Elfakir, Claire; Lafosse, Michel; Renimel, Isabelle; André, Patrice; Cancellieri, Perrine; Landemarre, Ludovic

2010-08-18

451

Stable accumulation of Aspergillus niger phytase in transgenic tobacco leaves.  

PubMed Central

Phytase from Aspergillus niger increases the availability of phosphorus from feed for monogastric animals by releasing phosphate from the substrate phytic acid. A phytase cDNA was constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Secretion of the protein to the extracellular fluid was established by use of the signal sequence from the tobacco pathogen-related protein S. The specific phytase activity in isolated extracellular fluid was found to be approximately 90-fold higher than in total leaf extract, showing that the enzyme was secreted. This was confirmed by use of immunolocalization. Despite differences in glycosylation, specific activities of tobacco and Aspergillus phytase were identical. Phytase was found to be biologically active and to accumulate in leaves up to 14.4% of total soluble protein during plant maturation. Comparison of phytase accumulation and relative mRNA levels showed that phytase stably accumulated in transgenic leaves during plant growth.

Verwoerd, T C; van Paridon, P A; van Ooyen, A J; van Lent, J W; Hoekema, A; Pen, J

1995-01-01

452

Diuretic activity of leaves of garcinia cambogia in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. PMID:22303069

Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

2011-03-01

453

Ozone slows the growth rate of silver maple leaves  

SciTech Connect

One-year-old silver maple seedlings were fumigated for 12 hours per day with either 0, 0.1, or 0.2 ppm ozone. As new leaves were formed in the treatment chambers, representative leaves were selected from each treatment having Leaf Plastochron Index values from 0 to 1.5. Dots were placed on each leaf along the midrib at approximately 1-mm intervals. Each leaf was then photographed at the same time on three successive days. Changes in elementary leaf length were determined by measuring the distance of the dots from the leaf tip. Ozone fumigation allowed leaf elongation and hastened leaf maturity. Ozone could retard height and weight increases through these processes because leaf size is often directly correlated with seedling size and weight.

Jensen, K.F.

1981-01-01

454

Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves.  

PubMed

Plants monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature to synchronize their flowering with seasonal changes to maximize fitness. In the Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway, the circadian clock-regulated components, such as FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 and CONSTANS, both of which have light-controlled functions, are crucial to induce the day-length specific expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in leaves. Recent advances indicate that FT transcriptional regulation is central for integrating the information derived from other important internal and external factors, such as developmental age, amount of gibberellic acid, and the ambient temperature. In this review, we describe how these factors interactively regulate the expression of FT, the main component of florigen, in leaves. PMID:23790253

Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

2013-06-18

455

Cyanide-induced death of cells in plant leaves.  

PubMed

Destruction of guard cell nuclei in epidermis isolated from leaves of pea, maize, sunflower, and haricot bean, as well as destruction of cell nuclei in leaves of the aquatic plants waterweed and eelgrass were induced by cyanide. Destruction of nuclei was strengthened by illumination, prevented by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and an electron acceptor N,N,N ,N -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and removed by quinacrine. Photosynthetic O2 evolution by the leaf slices of a C3 plant (pea), or a C4 plant (maize) was inhibited by CN- inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and was renewed by subsequent addition of the electron acceptor p-benzoquinone. PMID:17573713

Vasil'ev, L A; Vorobyov, A A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

2007-05-01

456

Why Do They Leave? Child Care Subsidy Use in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study fills an important gap about child care subsidy participation by exploring why parents leave the subsidy program\\u000a in Oregon. Descriptive analyses using administrative data showed unexpectedly high levels of employment stability and low\\u000a levels of family mobility. Many families appeared to remain eligible after exit based on earnings and participation in other\\u000a means-tested assistance programs. Estimates from a

Deana Grobe; Roberta B. Weber; Elizabeth E. Davis

2008-01-01

457

Photosystem II efficiency in low chlorophyll, iron-deficient leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency (iron chlorosis) is the major nutritional stress affecting fruit tree crops in calcareous soils in the Mediterranean\\u000a area. This work reviews the changes in PS II efficiency in iron-deficient leaves. The iron deficiency-induced leaf yellowing\\u000a is due to decreases in the leaf concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids. However, carotenoids,\\u000a and more specifically lutein and the xanthophylls

Javier Abadía; Fermín Morales; Anunciación Abadía

1999-01-01

458

IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave  

SciTech Connect

When selecting minimum ventilation rates, employers should balance the well-recognized energy costs of providing higher minimum ventilation rates with the expected, but less well quantified, health benefits from a higher ventilation rate. This is a summary of the paper by Milton, et al. that found low employee sick leave associated with high ventilation rates in a set of buildings located in Massachusetts. A simple cost-benefit analysis also is presented.

Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

2002-08-01

459

Essential Oil Composition of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-six components, which constituted 80.4% of the oil, were identified. The major components were ethyl hexadecanoate (24.4%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (11.4%), isocaryophyllene (8.1%), (E)-?-ionone (5.8%) and methyl linolenate (4.1%).

Adebola O. Oyedeji; Olusegun Ekundayo; Wilfried A. Koenig

2005-01-01

460

Resin glycosides from the leaves and stems of Ipomoea digitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hydrolysis of the ether-soluble resin glycoside (jalapin) fraction of the leaves and stems of Ipomoea digitata L. (Convolvulaceae) gave six organic acids, isobutyric, (S)-2-methylbutyric, tiglic, n-decanoic, n-dodecanoic, and cinnamic acids, and two glycosidic acids, quamoclinic acid A and operculinic acid A. Further, a new genuine\\u000a resin glycoside, named digitatajalapin I, was isolated from the jalapin fraction, along with three

Masateru Ono; Hitoshi Fukuda; Hiroko Murata; Kazumoto Miyahara

2009-01-01

461

Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing.\\u000a\\u000aIn twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied

Du Thanh Hang

2007-01-01

462

Effects of epiphyton on Potamogeton crispus L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potamogeton crispus L. grows as a winter producing annual in the shallow lakes of the Pongolo Floodplain, South Africa. Colonization of leaves\\u000a by algal and bacterial epiphytes, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, followed the established pattern of increasing\\u000a diversity and density with leaf age. It was apparent from the micrographs that the primary and subsequent colonizers were\\u000a present even

K. H. Rogers; C. M. Breen

1981-01-01

463

Sick leave and work disability in patients with early arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the occurrence of sick leave and work disability, the presence of workplace adaptations and the usage of professional\\u000a guidance related to working problems in patients with early arthritis. Inclusion criteria were arthritis symptoms of less\\u000a than 2 years duration and a paid job at the time of diagnosis. Assessments were done in connection with an early arthritis\\u000a clinic (EAC)

Elisabeth J. M. Zirkzee; Arina C. Sneep; Petronella D. M. de Buck; Cornelia F. Allaart; Andreas J. Peeters; H. Karel Ronday; Marie Louise Westedt; Saskia le Cessie; Theodora P. M. Vliet Vlieland

2008-01-01

464

The mitochondrial localization of hexokinase in pea leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 80% of total cellular hexokinase (EC 2.1.7.4) activity in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves was found to be associated with particulate fractions. Fractionation on sucrose density gradients showed this particulate activity to be associated exclusively with mitochondria. In the presence of glucose and ATP, the bound mitochondrial hexokinase could support rates of O2 uptake of up to 30%

Ian B. Dry; Diane Nash; Joseph T. Wiskich

1983-01-01

465

Variegation in Arum italicum leaves. A structural–functional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of pale-green flecks on leaves (speckling) is a frequent character among herbaceous species from shady places and is usually due to local loosening of palisade tissue (air space type of variegation). In the winter-green Arum italicum L. (Araceae), dark-green areas of variegated leaf blades are ca. 400 ?m thick with a chlorophyll content of 1080 mg m?2 and a palisade parenchyma

Nicoletta La Rocca; Nicoletta Rascio; Paolo Pupillo

2011-01-01

466

New coumarin glycosides from the leaves of Diospyros crassiflora (Hiern)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new 5-methylcoumarin glycosides named diosfeboside A (1) and B (2) and five known compounds namely kaempferol 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), ursolic acid (4), betulinic acid (5), stigmasterol (6) and stigmasterol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from the leaves of Diospyros crassiflora (Hiern). Their structures were established through interpretation of 1 and 2D NMR, mass spectra analysis and comparison with reported data. In

Carine Mvot Akak; Céline Mbazoa Djama; Augustin Ephrem Nkengfack; Peng-Fei Tu; Lian-Di Lei

2010-01-01

467

The Disabled Young Adult: Ready to Leave Home?  

PubMed Central

The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.

Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal

1986-01-01

468

Some studies on anaerobic decomposition of leucaena leucocephala leaves  

SciTech Connect

Batch type anaerobic decomposition process in leucaena leucocephala plant material (leaves) has been carried out under mesophilic conditions (below 35{degrees}C). The results of studies involving variations in pH, conductivity, temperature, and optical density of digester slurry for four weeks are reported. The gas production rate was also studied which reveals that the use of leucaena leucocephala for biogas production will be helpful.

Torane, J.V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Pawar, S.H. (Energy Studies Lab., Shivaji Univ., Kolhapur (IN))

1990-01-01

469

Antioxidant and protective effects of Sumac Leaves on chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluate in vitro antioxidant and chondroprotective effects of a lyophilised hydroalcholic extract from Sumac leaves. The extract contains many constituents as flavones, tannins, anthocyanins and organic acids with several known biological effects. The antioxidant activity of extract was assayed employing 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method (DPPH). The antioxidative\\/chondroprotective effect was evaluated on the production of key

Annamaria Panico; Venera Cardile; Natale Alfredo Santagati; Rossella Messina

2009-01-01

470

Cadinane sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum.  

PubMed

Four new cadinane sesquiterpenes (1- 4), including a dimeric cadinane derivative (2) and a peroxide cadinane analogue (3), have been isolated from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 4 showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the HCT-8, Bel-7402, and A2780 cancer cell lines. PMID:18620454

He, Lan; Hou, Jing; Gan, Maoluo; Shi, Jiangong; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Williams, Ian D; Sung, Herman H-Y

2008-07-12

471

Abscisic acid in leaves of Hedera helix L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abscisic acid was detected by gas-liquid chromatography of the methyl esters in the acid fraction of extracts from leaves of juvenile and adult Hedera helix L. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data were obtained for the extract of adult tissues and thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data for that of juvenile tissues. An estimation of the amounts of

John R. Hillman; Ian Young; Brian A. Knights

1974-01-01

472

POLYPHENOLS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF Feijoa sellowiana LEAVES AND TWIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phytochemical analysis of the Feijoa sellowiana O. Berg (Myrtaceae) leaves and twigs led to the isolation of a new phenolic compound together with nine known metabolites. Based on chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRESI-MS, the structures were elucidated as 3`-O- methylellagic acid 3-sulphate 1, nilocitin 2, strictinin 3, casuarin 4, castalagin 5,

Siham M. El-Shenawy; Mohamed S. Marzouk; Rabab A. El Dib; Heba E. Abo Elyazed; Nermeen M. Shaffie

2008-01-01

473

A novel sesquiterpenoid from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sesquiterpenoid, subamol ((3-methoxy-5H-9,10-dihydroxybenzo[3,4]cyclohepta[1,2-f])inden-7-yl)methanol)) (1), along with six compounds, including one ionone: (+)-abscisic acid (2); and five benzenoids: syringaldehyde (3), trans-coumaric acid (4), cis-coumaric acid (5), vanillic acid (6), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium Miq (Lauraceae). These compounds were identified and characterized by physical and spectral evidence.

C. Y. Chen; Y. D. Wang

2011-01-01

474

Plant Pot Production from the Leaves of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to find the attributes of the Plant pot production from the leaves of sugarcane. The results show that the suitable weight of components to form the rectangular pot, 150mm. height, 100mm. bottom width and 150mm. diameter are about 1.36kg. The samples cannot be dried for 1 day because the cow dung which was mixed with the sugarcane

S. Phokha; K. Duangaupama; K. Ruangsan

2011-01-01

475

Preliminary pharmacological screening of Bixa orellana L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanol extract of Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) leaves to investigate neuropharmacological, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal activity and effect on gastrointestinal motility. All studies were conducted in mice using doses of 125, 250 and 500mg\\/kg of body weight. In the pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis test, the extract statistically reduced the time for the onset of sleep at

Jamil Ahmad Shilpi; Shaikh Jamal Uddin; Samir Kumar Sadhu; Véronique Seidel

2006-01-01

476

Triterpenes and triterpenoid saponins from the leaves of Ilex kudincha.  

PubMed

One new triterpene, kudinchalactone A (1), and four new triterpenoid saponins, ilekudinchosides A-D (2- 5), were isolated from the leaves of Ilex kudincha C.?J. Tseng along with eight known triterpenoids. These new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and CD spectra. Compounds 2, 3, 12, and 13 showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:21870320

Zuo, Wen-Jian; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hui-Qin; Zhao, You-Xing; Mei, Wen-Li; Li, Xian; Wang, Jin-Hui

2011-08-25

477

Two acetylated megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Ilex paraguariensis.  

PubMed

Two acetylated megastigmane glycosides, matenosides A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the MeOH extract of Ilex paraguariensis leaves, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited human neutrophil elastase (HNE) inhibitory activity with IC(50) values of 50.4 muM and 11.1 microM, respectively. PMID:20361300

Xu, Guang-Hua; Kim, Young-Hee; Choo, Soo-Jin; Ryoo, In-Ja; Yoo, Jae-Kuk; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Yoo, Ick-Dong

2010-03-30

478

Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.  

PubMed

Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. PMID:21892756

Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

2011-09-04

479

Two new tirucallane triterpenoids from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis.  

PubMed

Two new tirucallane triterpenoids, aquilacallanes A-B (1-2), together with 15 known compounds (3-17) were isolated from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines. The known compounds, ursolic acid (7) and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (14), exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against some cells. PMID:23508744

Cheng, Jin Tang; Han, Ya Qiong; He, Juan; De Wu, Xing; Dong, Liao Bin; Peng, Li Yan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qin Shi

2013-03-19

480

Chemical constituents from leaves of Palicourea coriacea (Rubiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

(E)-Methyl-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamate, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate, (Z)-methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate, calycanthine, ursolic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone, 4-methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic\\u000a acid, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and allantoin were isolated from the leaves of Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum. The structures were deduced by spectral data analysis and comparison with literature values.

Virginia Claudia da Silva; Mário Geraldo de Carvalho; Aline Nogueira Alves

2008-01-01

481

Chemical constituents from the leaves of Aglaia odorata.  

PubMed

A new dammarane triterpene, 3-acetoxy aglinin C (1), and a new aglain, 10-oxo-aglaxiflorin D (2), along with five known compounds, 3-7, were isolated from the leaves of Aglaia odorata using chromatographic methods. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Bioactivities of 1-7 against AGZY 83-a (human lung cancer cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells were determined. PMID:23819302

Wang, Dong-Xiao; Yang, Shu-Min

482

Studies on the constituents of Philippine Piper betle leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen volatile components including eight allypyrocatechol analgos were isolated and identified from the essential oil\\u000a and ether soluble fraction of PhilippinePiper betle leaves (Piperaceae). The major constituents of PhilippinePiper betle oil were chavibetol and chavibetol acetate. Capillary GC analysis of the oil showed chavibetol (53.1%), chavibetol acetate\\u000a (15.5%), caryophyllene (3.79%), allypyroacatechol diacetate (0.71%), campene (0.48%), chavibetol methyl ether (=methyl eugenol,

Agnes M. Rimando; Byung Hoon Han; Jeong Hill Park; Magdalena C. Cantoria

1986-01-01

483

Purification and characterization of ?-amylase from poplar leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoamylase (EC 3.2.1.1) from mature poplar leaves (Populus × canadensis Moench “robusta”) was purified 17 700-fold over the crude protein extract to a specific activity of 166 ?mol min?1 mg?1 by (NH4)2SO4-precipitation, treatment with anion exchange resins, affinity chromatography on a starch grain column, and gel filtration. The purified enzyme was classified as ?-amylase by its substrate specificity and by

Wolfgang Witt; Jörg J. Sauter

1996-01-01

484

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Sida rhomboidea leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various organic extracts of Sida rhomboidea leaves were studied for antinociceptive and anti- inflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg\\/kg. Ethyl acetate extract has shown significant (P<0.01) antinociceptive activity. Percentage inhibition of edema by butanolic extract (33.05, P<0.001) is comparable to that of phenylbutazone, 100 mg\\/kg inhibition (38.83%). Phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated the presence of alkaloids, steroids

S Venkatesh; Y. Siva Rami Reddy; B Suresh; B. Madhava Reddy; M Ramesh

1999-01-01

485

The relationship between anatomy and photosynthetic performance of heterobaric leaves.  

PubMed

Heterobaric leaves show heterogeneous pigmentation due to the occurrence of a network of transparent areas that are created from the bundle sheaths extensions (BSEs). Image analysis showed that the percentage of photosynthetically active leaf area (Ap) of the heterobaric leaves of 31 plant species was species dependent, ranging from 91% in Malva sylvestris to only 48% in Gynerium sp. Although a significant portion of the leaf surface does not correspond to photosynthetic tissue, the photosynthetic capacity of these leaves, expressed per unit of projected area (Pmax), was not considerably affected by the size of their transparent leaf area (At). This means that the photosynthetic capacity expressed per Ap (P*max) should increase with At. Moreover, the expression of P*max could be allowing the interpretation of the photosynthetic performance in relation to some critical anatomical traits. The P*max, irrespective of plant species, correlated with the specific leaf transparent volume (lambda(t)), as well as with the transparent leaf area complexity factor ((CF)A(t)), parameters indicating the volume per unit leaf area and length/density of the transparent tissues, respectively. Moreover, both parameters increased exponentially with leaf thickness, suggesting an essential functional role of BSEs mainly in thick leaves. The results of the present study suggest that although the Ap of an heterobaric leaf is reduced, the photosynthetic performance of each areole is increased, possibly due to the light transferring capacity of BSEs. This mechanism may allow a significant increase in leaf thickness and a consequent increase of the photosynthetic capacity per unit (projected) area, offering adaptive advantages in xerothermic environments. PMID:12011354

Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Drossopoulos, Ioannis; Karabourniotis, George

2002-05-01

486

Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Verbena officinalis L. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were\\u000a also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could