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1

The nutritive value of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) as a feed supplement for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg?1 on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral\\u000a detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in

K. Kandylis; I. Hadjigeorgiou; P. Harizanis

2009-01-01

2

Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves. PMID:23292544

Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2012-12-22

3

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

4

Effect of increasing levels of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba) on ruminal dry matter degradability in lambs.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to estimate dry matter (DM) degradability in the rumen of lambs offered a basal soybean meal and sorghum grain diet with three levels of white mulberry (WM) leaves (Morus alba). Diets consisted of 90% concentrate and 10% sorghum straw, which was incrementally replaced by WM leaves at 0% (control diet, T1), 2.5% (T2), and 5% (T3) of the total ration. Crude protein (CP) in WM was 21.8% (DM basis). Diets had equal CP (14% DM basis) and metabolizable energy (10.8 MJ/kg DM) content. Three non-castrated Pelibuey male lambs fitted with permanent rumen cannula were utilized in a 3?×?3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 10 days of adaptation followed by sampling. DM degradability was determined using the nylon bag technique. Bags contained the experimental diets offered in each period and were incubated in rumen in pairs for 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The potential degradation was higher (P?

Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Castillo-Martínez, Omar; Ramirez-Bribiesca, J Efren; Mellado, Miguel

2011-06-01

5

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) attenuate atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) (Q3MG), on the development of atherosclerotic lesions, in relation to the susceptibility of plasma LDL to oxidative modification, was studied in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. Male mice aged 8 wk were randomly assigned to 4 groups (control, quercetin, Q3MG, and mulberry). The control group was fed an atherogenic-diet containing 3 g cholesterol and 15 g cocoa butter/100 g. The other experimental groups were fed the same atherogenic diet supplemented with 0.05 g quercetin/100 g for the quercetin group, 0.05 g Q3MG/100 g for the Q3MG group, and 3 g dried mulberry-leaf powder/100 g for the mulberry group. The mice were fed their respective diets for 8 wk. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification was significantly decreased in the Q3MG- and mulberry-treated mice, as evidenced by the 44.3 and 42.2% prolongation of the lag phase for conjugated diene formation compared with that of the control mice. The atherosclerotic lesion area in both the Q3MG- and mulberry-treated mice was significantly reduced by 52% compared with that of the controls. However, in the quercetin group, no protective effects were observed against LDL oxidation or atherosclerotic lesion formation. In conclusion, mulberry leaves attenuated the atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLR-/- mice through enhancement of LDL resistance to oxidative modification, and these antioxidative and antiatherogenic protective effects were attributed mainly to Q3MG, the quantitatively major flavonol glycoside in mulberry leaves. PMID:15795425

Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Katsube, Takuya; Kitajima, Keiko; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Yamane, Yosuke

2005-04-01

6

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing.  

PubMed

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-12-01

7

Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The present study focused on isolation, characterization and evaluation of purified com- pounds from Morus alba against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Methods: The effect of crude extract from M. alba leaves was evaluated against oral pathogens, chiefly S. mutans. MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The compound was purified by employing silica gel chromatography and critically analysed with

Barira Islam; Shahper N. Khan; Irfanul Haque; M. Alam; M. Mushfiq; Asad U. Khan

2008-01-01

8

Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2009-12-01

9

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

10

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

11

In Vitro Modification of Sex Expression in Mulberry ( Morus Alba ) by Ethrel and Silver Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a dioecious plant. In vitro sex modification in mulberry by using two chemicals, viz., ethrel and silver nitrate, is described. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethrel) and silver nitrate were filter sterilized and added to Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 5 µM 6-benzyl amino purine (BA). Ethrel applied at different concentrations produced female, male and mixed

T. Dennis Thomas

2004-01-01

12

Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis).  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinformatics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes. PMID:24304637

Ma, Bi; Luo, Yiwei; Jia, Ling; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-09-01

13

Calcium Deposition in Idioblasts of Mulberry Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, rounded idioblasts were observed in adaxial leaves of mulberry plants; they were clearly distinguishable from epidermal, trichome and parenchyma cells. The size and density of idioblasts varied according to leaf age. Cytological features of idioblasts were as follows: the outermost region (‘cap’) of idioblasts was situated on the adaxial surface as a dome-like protrusion; a cylindrical protuberance extended from

YUKIO SUGIMURA; TOMOYO MORI; IKURO NITTA; EIJI KOTANI; TOSHIHARU FURUSAWA; MAKOTO TATSUMI; SHIN-ICHI KUSAKARI; MASAO WADA; YOHJI MORITA

1999-01-01

14

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

15

Purification of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) polyphenol oxidase by affinity chromatography and investigation of its kinetic and electrophoretic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit using a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on native and SDS–poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa. Optimum PPO activity as a function of pH and temperature was determined using

Oktay Arslan; Mahmut Erzengin; Selma Sinan; Ozen Ozensoy

2004-01-01

16

Prediction of the Physicochemical Properties of Spray-Dried Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra ) Juice using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict quality changes of spray-dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) powder. In this study, the effects of inlet-air temperature (110, 130, and 150 °C), compressed air flow rate (400, 600,\\u000a and 800 L\\/h), and concentration of different carrier types such as 6, 9, and 20 dextrose equivalent maltodextrins, and Arabic\\u000a gum (8, 12, and 16%),

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Zahra Emam-Djomeh; Mahmoud Omid; Ahmad Kalbasi-Ashtari

17

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

18

Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45?M ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

Nati?, Maja M; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Papetti, Adele; Fotiri? Akši?, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojevi?, Mirjana; Teši?, Zivoslav Lj

2015-03-15

19

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

2011-06-01

20

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lü, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-07-01

21

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lu, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

22

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

23

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

24

Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Leaves Depend on Cultivar and Harvest Month in Southern China  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the effects of cultivar and harvest month on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves, four major phenolics, including chlorogenic acid (ChA), benzoic acid (BeA), rutin (Rut) and astragalin (Ast), were quantified using an HPLC-UV method. Leaves from six mulberry cultivars, collected from April to October, were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HSA) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SSA) assays. The results showed that the total values of the four phenolic compounds ranged from 2.3 dry weight (DW) to 4.2 mg/g DW, with ChA being the major compound. The mean total phenol (TP) content of the six cultivars ranged from 30.4 equivalents (GAE) mg/g DW to 44.7 GAE mg/g DW. Mulberry leaves harvested in May had the highest TP content. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves harvested from April to October differed noticeably. In general, Kq 10 and May were considered to be a better cultivar and harvest month concerning phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. PMID:23443117

Zou, Yuxiao; Liao, Shentai; Shen, Weizhi; Liu, Fan; Tang, Cuiming; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Sun, Yuanming

2012-01-01

25

In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry. PMID:22225542

Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-03-01

26

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism.  

PubMed

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

27

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism  

PubMed Central

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf.

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

28

Changes in Mulberry Leaf Metabolism in Response to Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the water stress-induced changes in the activities of RuBP carboxylase (RuBPCO) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 activity, and contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch, sucrose, amino acids, free proline, proteins and nucleic acids in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. K-2) leaves. Water stress progressively reduced the activities of RuBPCO and SPS

P. Barathi; D. Sundar; A. Ramachandra Reddy

2001-01-01

29

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes. PMID:22476473

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

30

Suitability of Dyes from Mulberry and Coffee Leaves on Silk Fabrics using Eco-Friendly Mordants  

E-print Network

Abstract- Natural dyes from leaves of mulberry and coffee was extracted by aqueous method and used for dyeing silk using different mordants. The selected eco-friendly mordants used include; iron water, ash water, cow dung and lemon juice. Silk yarn which was not bleached was knitter into small fabrics (8 x 10 cm). The knitted fabric pieces were degummed and bleached by soaking in ash water for 24 hours and heating in a solution containing hydrogen peroxide respectively. Sodium bi-carbonate was used as a catalyst, powder detergent and sodium silicate were used as stabilizing agents. Post-mordanting method was used during the dyeing of the pretreated silk fabrics. It is evident that natural dyes from the leaves of coffee and mulberry can effectively be used for dyeing silk fabrics. This is because good color shades were recorded which varied with the mordant used. More importantly the dyes registered suitable color fastness to washing, heat and light in the range of grades (3) to (4/5) for wash and heat fastness and grade of (4) and (5) for light fastness. The mordant that exhibited the best fastness characteristic is iron water with fastness grades of (4) to (4/5) for wash and heat fastness and grades of (4) and (5) for light fastness. The fastness property of ash water follows that of iron water in the range of (3/4) to (4) for wash and heat with light fastness in range of (4) to (5). Cow dung and lemon juice had inferior fastness property in the range of (3/4) and (3) however the light fastness recorded is between (4) and (5). Iron water and ash water also registered visibly more intense colors on silk fabrics therefore most mordants for dyeing of silk fabrics using these dyes. Index Terms- color fastness, eco-friendly, mordants, , postmordanting,. N

Loum Janani; Drajoru Winifred

31

Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.  

PubMed

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

32

Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics. PMID:20102198

Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

2010-02-24

33

Identification and expression profiling of drought-regulated genes in mulberry ( Morus sp.) by suppression subtractive hybridization of susceptible and tolerant cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry, the backbone of sericulture industry, is a rainfed crop, and its biomass production is affected adversely under\\u000a drought conditions. In this study, genes expressed differentially during drought stress response have been examined by PCR-Select\\u000a subtractive hybridization. The sensitive and tolerant genotypes were identified based on physiological evaluation by determination\\u000a of proline content, electrolyte leakage, and measurement of relative water

Vibha Gulyani; Paramjit Khurana

2011-01-01

34

In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chem- ically treated rice straw (RS) and of RS and grass hay or mulberry leaves (ML). The RS was treated with NaOH, urea, or (NH4)HCO3. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96 h of incubation,

J. X. Liu; A. Susenbeth; K.-H. Sudekum

35

Morphology and oxidative physiology of boron-deficient mulberry plants.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to induce B deficiency symptoms and to relate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of B deficiency in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva-2 plants. Study was undertaken on antioxidant responses, malondialdehyde (MDA) content as an indicator of oxidative damage and ratio of dehydroascorbate (DHA) to ascorbic acid (AsA) as an index of cellular redox environment in B-deficient (0.0 microM) and B-supraoptimal (33 microM) mulberry plants. B deficiency symptoms appeared as upward cupping of the young emerging leaves. Later on, B-deficient plants developed lenticels like cracks on major vein, petiole and stem. B-deficient leaves had higher water potential (Psi) and relative water content (RWC), contained a lower concentration of B, less chloroplastic pigments and high tissue Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations compared to the controls. Hydrogen peroxide was accumulated in leaves of B-deficient and B-supraoptimal plants. B-supraoptimal plants also showed an increased DHA/AsA ratio. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) were increased in B-deficient leaves. The activities of SOD and POD were decreased in B-supraoptimal plants. The results suggest that B deficiency aggravates oxidative stress through enhanced generation of ROS in mulberry plants. PMID:19933494

Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Parma Nand

2010-01-01

36

In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves.  

PubMed

In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chemically treated rice straw (RS) and of RS and grass hay or mulberry leaves (ML). The RS was treated with NaOH, urea, or (NH4)HCO3. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96 h of incubation, and the Gompertz function was used to describe the kinetics of gas production. Treatment with NaOH, urea, and NH4HCO3 increased (P < 0.05) gas production at 48 h by 55, 52, and 37% and the maximum rate of gas production of RS from 0.64 to 1.51, 1.27, and 1.13 mL/h, respectively. The inclusion of treated straws, hay, and ML in a mixture with RS at increasing proportions (25, 50, 75, 100%) elevated cumulative gas production and its rate. Maximum gas production was not different between the RS and its mixtures with the treated straws, but inclusion of hay into RS or NH4HCO3-treated RS increased the maximum gas production. Associative effects were defined as the difference between the observed gas production for the mixtures and the sum of the individual component feeds. The NaOH-treated RS, included at higher proportions, had positive associative effects at all times of incubation < 96 h; effects were negative or absent at 96 h. No effects were observed with mixtures of RS with urea-treated RS. The NH4HCO3-treated RS mixture tended to have negative associative effects at all three levels. Positive associative effects (P < 0.05) were observed for both RS and NH4HCO3-treated RS at almost all inclusion levels of hay or ML after 12 to 96 h of incubation. The response was more pronounced with ML than with hay. Associative effects generally declined with duration of incubation. We conclude that positive associative effects on in vitro gas production occurred more consistently when RS was incubated in mixtures with hay or ML than when incubated in mixtures with chemically treated RS. PMID:11881936

Liu, J X; Susenbeth, A; Südekum, K H

2002-02-01

37

Antioxidant responses to enhanced generation of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in the copper-stressed mulberry plants.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of Cu-deficiency or Cu-excess in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva 2 plants. A study of antioxidative responses, indicators of oxidative damage and cellular redox environment in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess mulberry plants was undertaken. While the young leaves of plants supplied with nil Cu showed chlorosis and necrotic scorching of laminae, the older and middle leaves of plants supplied with nil or 0.1 microM Cu showed purplish-brown pigmented interveinal areas that later turned necrotic along the apices and margins of leaves. The Cu-excess plants showed accelerated senescence of the older leaves. The Cu-deficient plants showed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was strikingly intense in the middle portion of trichomes on Cu-deficient leaves. Though the concentration of total ascorbate increased with the increasing supply of Cu, the ratio of the redox couple (DHA/ascorbic acid) increased in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) increased in both Cu-deficient and Cu-excess plants. The results suggest that deficiency of Cu aggravates oxidative stress through enhanced generation of ROS and disturbed redox couple. Excess of Cu damaged roots, accelerated the rate of senescence in the older leaves, induced antioxidant responses and disturbed the cellular redox environment in the young leaves of mulberry plants. PMID:16292566

Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Parma Nand

2006-05-01

38

Six New Record Species of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infesting Morus alba in China.  

PubMed

To determine the species of whiteflies occurring on mulberry, Morus alba L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in China, we collected samples in more than 87 sites in 16 provinces of China from 2008 to 2011. In total, 10 species, representing seven genera of the subfamily Aleyrodinae, were identified. Of these, six species are newly recorded on mulberry in China, namely, Aleuroclava ficicola Takahashi, Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi), Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana), Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and Pealius machili Takahashi. Information on the taxonomy, distribution, and host plants of the whitefly species found on mulberry in China, along with a brief description and illustrations of each species are provided. PMID:25368095

Wang, Ji-Rui; Song, Zao-Qin; Du, Yu-Zhou

2014-01-01

39

Abundance and Morphology of Japanese Mulberry Trees in Response to the Distribution of Japanese Macaques in Snowy Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the rare documented cases of an antagonistic primate–plant interaction is selective foraging by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on the bark or buds of Japanese mulberry trees (Morus bombycis) in cool-temperate forests. We examined how this selective foraging behavior influences the growth and development of mulberry\\u000a trees in a large geographic space with different environmental conditions by selecting study

Hiroto Enari; Haruka Sakamaki

2010-01-01

40

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species  

PubMed Central

Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species into distinct clusters. Conclusion We report a total of 188 genomic and genic SSR markers in Morus alba L. A large proportion of these markers (164) were polymorphic both among mulberry species and genotypes. A substantial number of these markers (149) were also transferable to other related species like Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. The extent of polymorphism revealed and the ability to detect heterozygosity among the cross pollinated mulberry species and genotypes render these markers an invaluable genomic resource that can be utilized in assessing molecular diversity as well as in QTL mapping and subsequently mulberry crop improvement through MAS. PMID:24289047

2013-01-01

41

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mulberry MAPK gene family.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in regulating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Although MAPKs have been identified and characterized in a few model plants, there is little information available for mulberry Morus sp. L., one of the most ecologically and economically important perennial trees. This study identified 47 mulberry Morus notabilis MAPK (MnMAPK) family genes: 32 MnMAPKKK, five MnMAPKK and ten MnMAPK genes, and cloned ten MnMAPK cDNA genes based on a genome-wide analysis of the morus genome database. Comparative analysis with MAPK gene families from other plants suggested that MnMAPKs could be divided into five subfamilies (groups A, B, C, D and E) and they could have similar functions in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. MnMAPK gene expression analysis of different stresses (high/low temperature, salt and drought) and signal molecules (ABA, SA, H2O2 and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)) revealed that all ten MnMAPK genes responded to high/low temperature, salt and drought stresses, and that nine of the ten MnMAPKs (MnMAPK7 excepted) could be induced by ABA, SA, H2O2 and MeJA, which suggested that MnMAPKs may play pivotal roles in signal transduction pathways. Our results indicated that almost all of the MnMAPKs may be involved in environmental stress and defense responses, which provides the basis for further characterization of the physiological functions of MnMAPKs. PMID:24583344

Wei, Congjin; Liu, Xueqin; Long, Dingpei; Guo, Qing; Fang, Yuan; Bian, Chenkai; Zhang, Dayan; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

2014-04-01

42

Large-Scale Intersubspecific Recombination in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Is Associated with the Host Shift to Mulberry  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Schuenzel, Erin L.; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-01-01

43

In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

44

In vivo hypoglycaemic effect and inhibitory mechanism of the branch bark extract of the mulberry on STZ-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

45

Leaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

Jones, Robyn L.

2011-01-01

46

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

47

Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from pakistan.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

48

Mulberry leaf polyphenols delay aging and regulate fat metabolism via the germline signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaves are an important ingredient in some traditional Chinese medicinal formulas and has been developed for use in functional food products. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaf extract has been reported to have beneficial effects on diseases in vitro; however, it is not clear which components in mulberry leaf extracts have these functions. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of these ingredients have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we extracted total mulberry leaf polyphenols (MLP) and identified its 13 phenolic monomers. Our results, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, indicated that MLPs delayed aging, improved oxidative stress resistance, and reduced fatty acid storage in vivo. Subsequent genetic screens and gene expression analyses demonstrated that the functions of MLP mainly depended on the germline signaling pathway, thus influencing the activities of downstream transcription factors (DAF-12, DAF-16, PHA-4, and NHR-80) as well as the expression levels of their target genes (fat-6, lipl-4, sod-3, unc-51, and fard-1). Our study determined that diverse modes of action on longevity were promoted by MLP exposure. These observations provide the first insight into MLP's multifaceted functions on aging, fat accumulation, and reproduction in vivo and indicate a specific model for the mechanism of action of MLP. This is a significant finding that lends support to the hypotheses that mulberry leaf extracts can have an impact on human health. PMID:25323576

Zheng, Shanqing; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao; Qu, Zhi; Shen, Weizhi; Shi, Ying

2014-12-01

49

Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

Liu, Xueming

2004-01-01

50

Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 ?U/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 ?U/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 ?M methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds. PMID:22145117

Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Khaled M.; Mostafa, Ashraf M.

2011-01-01

51

Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.  

PubMed

The phytochemical profiles of Morus australis roots, stems and twigs were firstly compared by HPLC analysis. It was found that Morus australis stem extract mainly contained one known tyrosinase inhibitor, oxyresveratrol, while its root and twig extract might contain some unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors. The root extract of Morus australis was further investigated in this study. One new compound, austraone A, together with 21 known compounds, was isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of MS and NMR data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory testing, some of them, such as oxyresveratrol, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O, exhibited stronger tyrosinase inhibitory activities than that of kojic acid. These results suggested the Morus australis root extract as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors with a great potential to be used in foods as anti-browning agents and in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22698714

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Tan, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Mingfu

2012-09-01

52

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

2010-01-01

53

Consequences of microwave irradiation on the different breeds of mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous reports of microwave effects on biological objects are readily available. It is therefore indicated that one should study the nature of this process. The results of an investigation show that the mulberry in embryo is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Two breeds of the mulberry were subjected to low-intensity EMR-irradiation. The microwave EMR action during a period of 30

N. I. Ronkina; L. M. Chepel; V. G. Shakhbzsov; S. P. Sirenko

2001-01-01

54

Polyphenols from the stems of Morus alba and their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. Microglial cells, the main immune cells of the central nervous system, represent a target of interest to search for naturally occurring anti-inflammatory products. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols obtained from the stems of Morus alba. This edible species, known as white mulberry, is frequently studied because of its traditional use in Asian medicine and its richness in different types of polyphenols, some of which are known to be phytoalexins. One new coumarin glycoside, isoscopoletin 6-(6-O-?-apiofuranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) (1) was mainly isolated by CPC (centrifugal partition chromatography) from this plant, together with seven known polyphenols (2-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including extensive 2D NMR studies. The eight isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. The absence of cell toxicity is checked by a MTT assay. PMID:24912117

Rivière, Céline; Krisa, Stéphanie; Péchamat, Laurent; Nassra, Merian; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Axel; Badoc, Alain; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2014-09-01

55

Influence of Three Morus Species Extracts on ?-Amylase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases and its type II is the major form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases worldwide. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as ?-amylase can be an important strategy in the control of blood glucose levels in patients with type II diabetes. In this investigation, three Morus species, M.

Bahman Nickavar; Golboo Mosazadeha

56

20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

57

[Emergy analysis of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China].  

PubMed

Mulberry-silkworm ecosystem is one of the important agro-ecosystems in China. Based on the principles and methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the interior structure of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem and its relationship with exterior environment and economy. Some emergy indices for this ecosystem were quantitatively calculated, and compared with those of the agro-ecosystem in China. The results showed that the emergy investment ratio, emergy yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and emergy sustainability index was 3.78, 4.68, 0.18 and 26.0, respectively, suggesting the low environmental pressure and good ecological benefit in mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China. Hi-technology was required to further decrease the labor force input and enhance the comprehensive utilization of sericultural resources. PMID:16706044

Chen, Mingang; Jin, Peihua; Huang, Lingxia; Lu, Xingmeng

2006-02-01

58

An Efficient Preparation of Mulberroside A from the Branch Bark of Mulberry and Its Effect on the Inhibition of Tyrosinase Activity  

PubMed Central

A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 µmol/L and 0.12 µmol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 µmol/L and 0.926 µmol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 µmol/L and 0.662 µmol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 µmol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 µmol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics. PMID:25299075

Wang, Shu; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

59

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1  

PubMed Central

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees. PMID:10364399

Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

1999-01-01

60

Mulberry leaf phenolics ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Abstract To investigate the effect of phenolics in mulberry leaves (mulberry leaf phenolics; MLP) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in HepG2 cells; we treated HepG2 with glucose [5.5 (N-Glc) or 50?mmol/L (Hi-Glc)] with or without MLP at 10 or 100?µmol/L gallic acid equivalents and assessed level of reactive oxidant species (ROS), ??m, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activation. Hi-Glc-induced oxidative damage was demonstrated by a series of increase in superoxides (560%, 0.5?h), MDA (400%, 24?h), NF-?B activation (474%, 4?h) and a wild fluctuation of ??m relative to the control cells (p???0.05). MLP treatments ameliorate Hi-Glc-induced negative effects by a 40% reduction in ROS production, 34-44% reduction in MDA production, over 35% inhibition of NF-?B activation, as well as exert protective effect on HepG2 cells from change in ??m. Our data show that MLP in vitro can protect hepatoctyes from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damages. PMID:25026091

Zou, Yu-Xiao; Shen, Wei-Zhi; Liao, Sen-Tai; Liu, Fan; Zheng, Shan-Qing; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

2014-12-01

61

Cloning and expression analyses of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in mulberry plants.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are natural food colorants produced by plants that play important roles in their growth and development. Mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are the most important active components of mulberry and have many potentially beneficial effects on human health. The study of anthocyanin biosynthesis will bring benefits for quality improvement and industrial exploration of mulberry fruits. In the present study, nine putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants were identified and cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the mulberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were conserved and had counterparts in other plants. Spatial transcriptional analysis showed detectable expression of eight of these genes in different tissues. The results of expression and UPLC analyses in two mulberry cultivars with differently colored fruit indicated that anthocyanin concentrations correlated with the expression levels of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis including CHS1, CHI, F3H1, F3'H1, and ANS during the fruit ripening process. The present studies provide insight into anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants and may facilitate genetic engineering for improvement of the anthocyanin content in mulberry fruit. PMID:24748075

Qi, Xiwu; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Hu; Fan, Li; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

2014-10-01

62

Larval Legs of Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori Are Prototypes for the Adult Legs  

E-print Network

LETTER Larval Legs of Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori Are Prototypes for the Adult Legs Amit Singh,1; silkworm; limb development; lepidoptera; imaginal disc; drosophila INTRODUCTION During evolution there has during pupal metamorphosis to give rise to adult derivatives (Cohen, 1993). The mulberry silkworm Bombyx

Singh, Amit

63

LEAVE POLICIES LEAVE REPORTING  

E-print Network

of medical appointments in advance. BEREAVEMENT LEAVE With prior Director approval, employees may be granted up to 40 work hours of bereavement leave to attend the funeral service and memorials of an immediate

64

Statistical modeling of process parameters for the recovery of polysaccharide from Morus alba leaf.  

PubMed

A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, particle size of mulberry leaf, number of extraction and water to the mulberry leaf ratio on extraction yield of mulberry leaf crude polysaccharides (MLCP). The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant quadratic regression equation with high R(2) (=0.9782) was successfully fitted for extraction yield of MLCP as function of independent variables. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of extraction time 5h, extraction temperature 85 °C, particle size of mulberry leaf (mesh) 40, number of extraction 4 and water to mulberry leaf ratio 18. At this optimum point, extraction yield of MLCP was 12.0017±0.42%. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found between the actual and predicted (11.6286±0.19) values. The results demonstrated that MLCP had strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, MLCP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. PMID:23987414

Samavati, Vahid; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeed

2013-10-15

65

Habitat differentiation and the ecological costs of hybridization: the effects of introduced mulberry (Morus alba) on a native congener (M. rubra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The effects of hybridization on the abundance of parental taxa depends on their relative frequency, the viability of hybrid offspring and the degree of ecological differ- entiation among parental and hybrid taxa. Habitat overlap can facilitate competition for suitable sites and threaten the persistence of parental taxa, especially those in small populations. 2 Here we examine ecological differentiation

KEVIN S. BURGESS; BRIAN C. HUSBAND

2006-01-01

66

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Mulberry, Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials. PMID:21686165

Zou, Tang-Bin; Wang, Min; Gan, Ren-You; Ling, Wen-Hua

2011-01-01

67

Macro-micro structure, antibacterial activity, and physico-mechanical properties of the mulberry bast fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the mulberry fibers were successfully obtained by a new pretreatment named alkali-assisted microwave plus biological\\u000a enzymatic technique (AMBET). The morphology, microstructure, physico-mechanical and antibacterial properties of the mulberry\\u000a bast fibers were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR), differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), instron tensile tester and antibacterial

Caixin Qu; Shudong Wang

2011-01-01

68

Partial biochemical characterization of alpha- and beta-glucosidases of lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lep.: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis, is an important pest of mulberry. This pest feeds on mulberry leaves, and causes some problems for the silk industries in the north of Iran. The study of digestive enzymes is highly imperative to identify and apply new pest management technologies. Glucosidases have an important role in the final stages of carbohydrate digestion. Some enzymatic properties of alpha- and beta-glucosidases from midgut and salivary glands of G. pyloalis larvae were determined. The activities of alpha- and beta-glucosidase in the midgut and salivary glands of 5th instar larvae were obtained as 0.195, 1.07, 0.194 and 0.072 micromol(-1) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. Activity of alpha- and beta-glucosidase from whole body of larval stages was also determined. Data showed that the highest activity of alpha- and beta-glucosidase was observed in the 5th larval stage, 0.168 and 0.645 micromol(-1) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively and the lowest activity in the 2nd larval stage, 0.042 and 0.164 micromol(-1) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. Results showed that the optimal pH for alpha- and beta-glucosidase activity in midgut and salivary glands were 7.5, 5.5, 8-9 and 8-9 respectively. Also, the optimal temperature for alpha- and beta-glucosidase activity in the midgut was obtained as 45 degrees C. The addition of CaCl(2) (40 mM) decreased midgut beta-glucosidase activity whereas alpha-glucosidase activity was significantly increased at this concentration. The alpha-glucosidase activity, in contrast to beta-glucosidase, was enhanced with increasing in concentration of EDTA. Urea (4 mM) and SDS (8 mM) significantly decreased digestive beta-glucosidase activity. Characterization studies of insect glucosidases are not only of interest for comparative investigations, but also understanding of their function is essential when developing methods of insect control such as the use of enzyme inhibitors and transgenic plants to control insect pest. PMID:20338537

Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Sharifi, Mahbobe

2010-03-01

69

Conjunctival aspergilloma with multiple mulberry nodules: a case report.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old healthy female presented with a 1-year history of chronic mucous discharge, tearing, and irritation in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed severe papillary and follicular reaction surrounding a movable subconjunctival mass on the left upper tarsal conjunctiva. Incision and curettage were performed to establish the diagnosis. Multiple peculiar black mulberry nodules were obtained. The clumps of septate hyphae seen with periodic acid-Schiff stain were characteristic of fungus ball (aspergilloma). The patient's symptoms improved significantly after surgery without any antifungal therapy. Although rarely reported, aspergillus is a common fungus in the conjunctiva that may seed into the subconjunctiva. We present this case to remind ophthalmologists of such a rare cause of recalcitrant conjunctival inflammation in immunocompetent patients. PMID:16035573

Chen, Jiunn-Liang; Wang, Cheng-Chiang; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Yeh, Tzy-Ing

2005-06-01

70

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

71

Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenisation processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200 MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1 min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the anthocyanins, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, and a unknown hydroxycinnamic acid) and quercetin aglycone contents, as well as ORAC value were observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, whereas all reductions above during UHPH processing could be inhibited by adding ascorbic acid to mulberry juice. Besides, no significant change (p>0.05) in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, but showed a 14% reduction in mulberry juice processed by thermal pasteurisation. PMID:24491708

Yu, Yuanshan; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Fu, Mangqin; Zhang, Yousheng

2014-06-15

72

Chemical constituents of Morus alba L. and their inhibitory effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaf, an important traditional Chinese medicine, possesses many biological activities, including effects of anti-obesity. However, which constituents of mulberry leaf are responsible for its anti-adipogenic action is unclear. This study primarily investigated the chemical constituents from mulberry leaf and their bioactivity on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A new flavane derivative, (2S)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxy-8-prenylflavan (1), together with twelve known compounds including three flavanes (2-4), three chalcones (5-7), two flavones (8-9), two benzofurans (10-11) and two coumarin (12-13) was isolated from mulberry leaf. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including UV, HR-ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and CD. The results of activity screening showed that compound 2, 6 and 7 inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PMID:25128426

Yang, Yongyu; Yang, Xiding; Xu, Bing; Zeng, Guangyao; Tan, Jianbing; He, Xi; Hu, Changping; Zhou, YingJun

2014-10-01

73

Biotransformation of mulberroside A from Morus alba results in enhancement of tyrosinase inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberroside A, a glycosylated stilbene, was isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of the roots of Morus alba. Oxyresveratrol, the aglycone of mulberroside A, was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of mulberroside A using the commercial\\u000a enzyme Pectinex®. Mulberroside A and oxyresveratrol showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 53.6 and 0.49 ?M, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity

Jeong-Keun Kim; Mijin Kim; Ssang-Goo Cho; Myung-Kyoo Kim; Suhng Wook Kim; Young-Hee Lim

2010-01-01

74

Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

75

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

76

Factors Influencing the Success of One Tambon One Product Mulberry Paper Enterprises in Chiang Mai Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purposes of this study are to 1) identify the factors that influence the success of OTOP mulberry paper enterprises in Chiang Mai province ; and 2) compare the factors that influence the success in terms of groups of stars, number of sales amounts, number of products and export amounts. This study was exploratory research. The instrument used in

Kanchana Sura

2008-01-01

77

The role of marginal agricultural land-based mulberry planting in biomass energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass energy is the main energy source in rural China. The low per capita cropland in China makes it impractical to convert cropland to energy crop cultivation as in other countries; development of energy crops must not compete with food and other cash crops for prime cropland. Mulberry planted on marginal lands like land risers, land boundaries and waste slopelands

Li Lu; Ya Tang; Jia-sui Xie; Yuan-liang Yuan

2009-01-01

78

Changes in chemical composition of a red wine aged in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak wood barrels.  

PubMed

Aging in wooden barrels is a process used to stabilize the color and enrich the sensorial characteristics of wine. Many compounds are released from wood into the wine; oxygen permeation through the wood favors formation of new anthocyanin and tannin derivatives. Recently, polyphenols and volatile compounds released from acacia, chestnut, cherry, mulberry, and oak wood used in making barrels for spirits and wine aging were studied. Here, changes in volatile and polyphenolic compositions of a red wine aged for 9 months in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak barrels are studied. Mulberry showed significant decreases of fruity-note ethyl esters and ethylguaiacol and a great cession of ethylphenol (horsey-odor defect). Cherry promoted the highest polyphenol oxidation, making it less suitable for long aging. LC/ESI-MS(n) showed the relevant presence of cis- and trans-piceatannol in mulberry-aged wine, a phytoalexin with antileukemia and antimelanoma activities. PMID:19196157

De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Stella, Laura; Flamini, Riccardo

2009-03-11

79

[Effects of mulberry/soybean intercropping on the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbial number and enzyme activities].  

PubMed

A root separation experiment was conducted to investigate the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbes and enzyme activities in a mulberry/soybean intercropping system. As compared with those in plastic barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments, the plant height, leaf number, root length, root nodule number, and root/shoot ratio of mulberry and soybean in non-barrier treatment were significantly higher, and the soybean's effective nodule number was larger. The available phosphorous content in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean in no barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments was increased by 10.3% and 11.1%, and 5.1% and 4.6%, respectively, as compared with that in plastic barrier treatment. The microbial number, microbial diversity, and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean were higher in the treatments of no barrier and nylon mesh barrier than in the treatment of plastic barrier. All the results indicated that there was an obvious interspecific synergistic effect between mulberry and soybean in the mulberry/soybean intercropping system. PMID:24015565

Hu, Ju-Wei; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Li, Xin; Yue, Bing-Bing; Sun, Guang-yu

2013-05-01

80

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

81

Anti-hyperglycemic effect of bilberry, blackberry and mulberry ultrasonic extracts on diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Small fruits like bilberry, blackberry and mulberry are rich sources of anthocyanins and other phenols, compounds with a certified antioxidant activity and spectacular effects in some chronic diseases. Romanian bilberry, blackberry and mulberry extracts were tested as anti-hyperglycemic agents on diabetic rats. Anthocyanins extraction was carried out with 80 % acidified ethanol in ultrasonically conditions at 23?±?2 °C and 40 kHz. Monomeric anthocyanins content was determined by pH differential method and varied between 1200 and 2800 mg/L. The analyses of anthocyanins were achieved using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Phenolics content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and values varied between 2320 and 4250 mg/L gallic acid. Antioxidant activities of extracts were estimated by DPPH scavenging method and the values varied between 8 and 16 miliequivalents Trolox. In order to evaluate the toxicology of the extracts, the heavy metals concentration and pesticides content were analyzed. The extracts were administrated to diabetic rats in drinking water for five weeks. The administration of bilberry extract offered no satisfactory results. Treatment with blackberry extract determined a significant decrease of glucose level from 360 to about 270 mg/dL (p?mulberry extract administration determined a significant decrease of glucose level from 252 mg/dL at the start day to 155 mg/dL at the final of experiment (p?

Stef?nu?, Mariana N; C?ta, Adina; Pop, Raluca; T?nasie, Cristian; Boc, Daniel; Iena?cu, Ioana; Ordodi, Valentin

2013-12-01

82

Ectopic expression of FaDREB2 enhances osmotic tolerance in paper mulberry.  

PubMed

Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are a subfamily of AP2/ERF transcription factors that have been shown to improve tolerance to osmotic stresses in plants. To improve the osmotic stress tolerance of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent), an economically important tree, we transformed it with a plasmid carrying tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) FaDREB2 under the control of CaMV 35S. The ectopic expression of FaDREB2 did not cause growth retardation, and the paper mulberry seedlings expressing FaDREB2 showed higher salt and drought tolerance than wild-type plants (WT). After 13 d of withholding water, or 15 d in the presence of 250 mM NaCl, all the WT plants died, while the plants expressing FaDREB2 survived. The FaDREB2 transgenic plants had higher leaf water and chlorophyll contents, accumulated more proline and soluble sugars, and had less membrane damage than the WT plants under high salt and water-deficient conditions. Taken together, the results indicate the feasibility of improving tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry seedlings via genetic engineering, by introducing FaDREB2, which promotes the increased accumulation of osmolytes (soluble sugars and proline), to counter osmotic stresses caused by abiotic factors. PMID:22067051

Li, Mei-Ru; Li, Yan; Li, Hong-Qing; Wu, Guo-Jiang

2011-12-01

83

Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.  

PubMed

Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550?molmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy. PMID:24938741

Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

2014-08-01

84

Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract.  

PubMed

Antivenom therapy is the current best therapy available for the treatment of fatal snake envenomation. However, the antivenom offers less or no protection against local effects such as extensive edema, hemorrhage, dermo-, myonecrosis and inflammation at the envenomed region. Viperidae snakes are highly known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation Morus alba plant leaf extract has been studied against the Indian Vipera/Daboia russelii venom induced local and systemic effects. The extract completely abolished the in vitro proteolytic and hyaluronolytic activities of the venom. Edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic activities were also neutralized efficiently. In addition, the extract partially inhibited the pro-coagulant activity and completely abolished the degradation of Aalpha chain of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract processes potent antisnake venom property, especially against the local and systemic effects of Daboia russelii venom. PMID:19235141

Chandrashekara, K T; Nagaraju, S; Nandini, S Usha; Kemparaju, K

2009-08-01

85

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

86

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

87

Improvement of paper mulberry tolerance to abiotic stresses by ectopic expression of tall fescue FaDREB1.  

PubMed

Dehydration-responsive element binding/C-repeat-binding factors (DREB/CBF) control the activity of multiple stress response genes and therefore represent attractive targets for genetic improvement of abiotic stress tolerance. Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent) is well known for its bark fibers and high levels of chalcone and flavonoid derivatives. Transgenic paper mulberry plants expressing a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) FaDREB1 gene under the control of CaMV 35S were produced to examine the potential utility of FaDREB1 to increase the tolerance of paper mulberry plants to abiotic stress. The overexpressing FaDREB1 plants showed higher salt and drought tolerance than the wild-type plants (WT). After 13 days of withholding water, or 15 days in the presence of 250 mM NaCl, all the WT plants died, while the over-expressing FaDREB1 plants survived. The FaDREB1 plants had higher leaf water and leaf chlorophyll contents, accumulated more proline and soluble sugars, and had less ion leakage (which reflects membrane damage) than the WT plants had under high salt- and water-deficient conditions. The 35S promoter-driven expression of FaDREB1 did not cause growth retardation under normal growth conditions. Therefore, improved tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry might be achieved via genetic engineering through the ectopic expression of an FaDREB1 gene. PMID:22170439

Li, Meiru; Li, Yan; Li, Hongqing; Wu, Guojiang

2012-01-01

88

[Effects of mulberry-soybean intercropping on carbon-metabolic microbial diversity in saline-alkaline soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the characteristics that mulberry-soybean intercropping could alleviate the damage of saline-alkaline soil, Biolog technique was adopted to study the effects of this intercropping on the diversity of carbon-metabolic microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Under mulberry-soybean intercropping, the average well color development (AWCD) symbolizing the metabolic activity of soil microbes was obviously higher, as compared with that under mulberry or soybean monocropping, being the lowest under mulberry monocropping. The McIntosh index was also higher under intercropping than under monocropping, but the Shannon index and Simpson index had less difference between intercropping and monocropping, indicating that intercropping changed the composition and enhanced the diversity of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the carbon source utilization mode of the soil microbial community differed between intercropping and monocropping, and the main carbon sources were carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and polymers. Soil pH and salinity were the main factors limiting the diversity of the microbial community in saline-alkaline soil, and intercropping could effectively decrease the soil pH and salinity and promote the improvement of soil microbial community diversity. PMID:23173455

Li, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Yue, Bing-Bing; Jin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

89

Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adaptogenic property of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of methanol extract of Morus alba roots against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). Materials and Methods: Rats were exposed to stress procedure for 21 days. The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered for 1 h once daily for 21 days. Rats were administered with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o) 1 h before footshock for 21 days and behavioral parameters were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction and depression using elevated plus maze and despair swim test, respectively. On day 21, rats were sacrificed immediately after stress and blood was collected for biochemical estimation. The adrenal gland and spleen were dissected for organ weight and the stomach was dissected for ulcer score. Results: CS significantly induced cognitive deficit, mental depression and hyperglycemia and increased blood corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations and adrenal gland weight, but decreased the splenic weight. Pre-treatments with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the CS-induced perturbations. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the standard antistress drug. Conclusion: The results indicate that M. alba possesses significant adaptogenic activity, indicating its possible clinical utility as an antistress agent. PMID:20407553

Nade, Vandana S.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Naik, Rashmi A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

2009-01-01

90

Protective enzyme activity and physiological properties of four mulberry varieties affected by drought stress in the Panxi Region of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the effects of drought stress on protective enzyme activity and physiological properties, four mulberry\\u000a varieties, i.e.,‘Nanye-1’, ‘Yunsang-1’, ‘Xinyizhilai’ and ‘Husang-32’ in the Panxi Region of Sichuan Province, China, were\\u000a selected. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in four mulberry varieties was determined.\\u000a Soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, net photosynthetic rate and

Ying-hong Ren

2009-01-01

91

Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

2010-04-01

92

Habitat use by the golden-cheeked warbler in Texas  

E-print Network

grandidentatum), Texas mountain laurel (Sophora secundiflora). poison ivy (Rhus toxicondendron), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), grape (Vitis spp.), black haw (Viburnum rufidulum), springherald (Forestieria pubescens), and Texas mulberry (Morus... grandidentatum), Texas mountain laurel (Sophora secundiflora). poison ivy (Rhus toxicondendron), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), grape (Vitis spp.), black haw (Viburnum rufidulum), springherald (Forestieria pubescens), and Texas mulberry (Morus...

Newnam, John Calvin

2009-05-15

93

CSU Leave Program Types of Leave Programs  

E-print Network

· Bereavement Leave · Organ Donor Leave (ODL) · Jury Duty #12;Sick Leave · Full-time employees earn 8 hours per or roommates) ­ Bereavement in the case of death of a person in the immediate family (when bereavement leave

de Lijser, Peter

94

[Phenolic constituents from stem bark of Morus wittiorum and their anti-inflammation and cytotoxicity].  

PubMed

To search for the chemical constituents possessing anti-inflammatory or cytotoxic activities from plants, Morus wittiorum was investigated for the first time. The stem bark of M. wittiorum was extracted with 95% EtOH. The EtOH extract was fractionationed on silica gel by eluting with petroleum ehter, CHCl3 and EtOAc successively. The further isolation and purification of the EtOAc fraction of 95% EtOH extract was performed by various column chromatography such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatography and so on. The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of spectral analysis such as NMR, MS etc. As a result, nine compounds were isolated including six flavonoids and three stilbenoids and elucidated as quercetin (1), 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone (2), norartocarpanone (3), dihydrokaempferol (4), euchrenone a7 (5), morachalcone A (6), resveratrol (7), oxyresveratrol (8), 4'-prenyloxyresveratrol (9). Compounds 1-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time, among which compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities, respectively. Wherein compounds 6 and 8 showed inhibition to the release of beta-glucuronidase from rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNs) induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) at a concentration of 10(-5) mol x L(-1). The inhibitory ratios were 76.8%, 94.2% individually. Compounds 2 and 8 exhibited selective cytotoxicity agaist human ovarian cancer (A2780) and human gastric cancer (BGC-823) with IC50 values as 0.66, 1.31 micromol x L(-1) individually. PMID:21246822

Tan, Yongxia; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruoyun

2010-10-01

95

Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-?-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR ? DNA binding in 50??g/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation. PMID:24371453

Chao, P.-Y.; Lin, K.-H.; Chiu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Huang, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

2013-01-01

96

Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease.  

PubMed

The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants. PMID:24946736

Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

2014-01-01

97

UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS -FAMILY FRIENDLY LEAVE (FLOWCHART) Maternity Leave Paternity Leave Adoption Leave Family Leave  

E-print Network

Adoption Leave Family Leave All female employees. To qualify, a member of staff must have completed 26 of childbirth. Employees whose partner is pregnant or adopting. Provided service conditions met then employees or placed (adoption) up to 8 weeks from that date in either a block of 2 weeks or 2 separate blocks of 1

Brierley, Andrew

98

Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.  

PubMed

The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress. PMID:25231943

Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-12-01

99

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-10-15

100

Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.  

PubMed

Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 ?g g(-1)) than any other MT chars. PMID:23567680

Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

2013-05-01

101

LEAVES (for detailed explanation of leave title, refer to Faculty Handbook) Abbreviation Full Name of Leave  

E-print Network

Leave public service or military SAB Leave sabbatical SPL Leave special SJL Leave special junior STL Leave special triennial TLA Leave triennial (one term only) WOS Leave without salary WOY Leave without Yale salary (unpaid leave-individual has obtained outside money) MOR Morse SFF Senior Faculty

102

Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity. PMID:24000381

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

2013-10-01

103

Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE) has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts) as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde) in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg) diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. PMID:24644381

Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Zal, Fatemeh; Jafarian, Aida; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

2014-01-01

104

Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Results Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Conclusions A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells. PMID:23433072

2013-01-01

105

Effects of Morus alba L. and Natural Products Including Morusin on In Vivo Secretion and In Vitro Production of Airway MUC5AC Mucin  

PubMed Central

Background It is valuable to find the potential activity of regulating the excessive mucin secretion by the compounds derived from various medicinal plants. We investigated whether aqueous extract of the root bark of Morus alba L. (AMA), kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, and morusin significantly affect the secretion and production of airway mucin using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods Effect of AMA was examined on hypersecretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced acute bronchitis in rats. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, or morusin for 30 minutes and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 hours. The MUC5AC mucin secretion and production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results AMA stimulated the secretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis rat model; aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G and morusin inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that extract of the root bark and the natural products derived from Morus alba L. can regulate the secretion and production of airway mucin and, at least in part, explains the folk use of extract of Morus alba L. as mucoregulators in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

Lee, Hyun Jae; Ryu, Jiho; Park, Su Hyun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Kim, A Ryun; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Ju-Ock; Hong, Jang-Hee

2014-01-01

106

Identification and Partial Characterization of Midgut Proteases in the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50° C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5– 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 ± 2.0 µM and 116.06 ± 1.96 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H.; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

2013-01-01

107

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22934597

Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

2012-01-01

108

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22938037

Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S.; Anuradha, Chebba M.; Kumar, Chitta S.

2012-01-01

109

Separation and identification of anthocyanin extracted from mulberry fruit and the pigment binding properties toward human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Purple pigments were isolated from mulberry extracts using preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified by ESI-MS/MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The solvent system containing methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (10:30:10:50:0.05; %, v/v) was developed in order to separate anthocyanins with different polarities. Cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-galactopyranoside) (also known as keracyanin) is the major component present in mulberry (41.3%). Other isolated pigments are cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) and petunidin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside. The binding characteristics of keracyanin with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that HSA fluorescence quenched by keracyanin follows a static mode. Binding of keracyanin to HSA mainly depends on van der Waals force or H-bonds with average binding distance of 2.82 nm. The results from synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra show that adaptive structure rearrangement and decrease of ?-helical structure occur in the presence of keracyanin. PMID:24930424

Sheng, Feng; Wang, Yuning; Zhao, Xingchen; Tian, Na; Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia

2014-07-16

110

Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) for control of broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in mulberry.  

PubMed

A study on 12 entomopathogenic fungi for controlling broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)) in mulberry found that Metarhizium anisopliae CKM-048 was the most virulent strain in controlling both larvae and adult broad mites at the concentration of 2 x 10(8) conidia/ml. There was no ovicidal effect when tested with broad mite eggs. Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of M. anisopliae in killing larvae and adults were 8.7 x 10(6) and 1.3 x 10(7 )conidia/ml, respectively. Median lethal times (LT(50)) of larvae and adults were 2.4 and 3.8 days, respectively, at the concentration of 2 x 10(8) conidia/ml. The fungus was found to produce protease and chitinase. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies were done to monitor the infection steps of the fungus on broad mites. A greenhouse test on mulberry trees revealed that M. anisopliae could reduce the broad mite population within 4 days after treatment. However, after 7 days, its efficacy was decreased significantly. PMID:18483792

Maketon, Monchan; Orosz-Coghlan, Patricia; Sinprasert, Jittranon

2008-12-01

111

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

112

Graphing Fall Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology lab extension, student will have already collected leaves from the playground and surrounding school areas and sorted them into categories according to leaf properties. Students will use the leave classifications/ sorts to graph the properties of the leaves.

Depeel, Bonnie

113

Why Leaves Turn Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are plant pigments found in leaves, flowers and fruits. Most strikingly, they color autumn leaves red. Over more than a century, biologists have proposed a variety of hypotheses for why colorful autumn foliage should exist, but experiments over the last decade are finally yielding definitve explanations. Anthocyanins protect leaves from damage in at least two ways---by directly shielding chloroplasts

David Lee; Kevin Gould

2002-01-01

114

Look at Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

Science Netlinks;

2002-02-14

115

HR Department ADOPTION LEAVE  

E-print Network

HR Department ADOPTION LEAVE JANUARY 2004 Approved by the Executive Board 27-Jan-04 Updated to adoption leave. Please contact your Human Resources Officer for further advice and information. Employees who become adoptive parents after 6 April 2003 are entitled to adoption leave and to receive Statutory

Doran, Simon J.

116

[Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

117

Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  

PubMed

This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

2014-08-01

118

Amygdalin in Prunus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin was found for the first time in the leaves of mature trees of several Prunus taxa: P. serotina and P. virginiana cv. Schubert of subg. Padus and P. ilicifolia and P. lyonii of subg. Laurocerasus. Leaves of other taxa in both subgenera contained only the monoglucoside prunasin. Amygdalin production was inherited in hybrids between P. padus

Frank S. Santamour

1998-01-01

119

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

120

Problematising Early School Leaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is…

Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

2013-01-01

121

Developmental time and fecundity of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), on potato, kiwi and mulberry hosts in Iran.  

PubMed

The white peach scale (WPS), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is a world wide polyphagous scale insect. It is widely distributed in north of Iran, near the Caspian Sea areas, where it is the main pest of mulberry and kiwi trees. The development and fecundity of P. pentagona were examined at different temperatures and on different hosts in the laboratory. The longevity of WPS decreased with a rise in temperature. At 25 degrees C the largest number of crawlers (76.1 crawlers/female) was observed. The development time of WPS was generally longer on kiwi than mulberry or potato; fecundity was higher on potato than on other hosts, potato tubers and kiwi trees. PMID:19090130

Abbasipour, Habib

2007-09-15

122

Repeated ingestion of the leaf extract from Morus alba reduces insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of diet containing the leaf extract from a Morus alba (LEM) maintains the postprandial hypoglycemic response and suppresses the progression of insulin resistance in high-sucrose diet-fed KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This hypothesis is based on our previous studies where LEM competitively inhibited intestinal disaccharidases and suppressed the elevation of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. Ten KK-Ay mice in each group were raised on 0%, 3%, or 6% LEM powder-containing high-sucrose diets for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels at weeks 2, 4, and 7 after the start of feeding. Urinary glucose excretion was monitored as a parameter of insulin resistance in 3-day intervals. Fasting plasma glucose level and urinary glucose excretion were significantly lower in both 3% and 6% LEM groups compared with the control group throughout the experiment. The plasma insulin of the 6% LEM group was significantly lower compared with the 3% LEM and control groups. Maintenance of low blood glucose and insulin delayed the onset time of urinary glucose excretion and were reflected by the ratio of additional LEM to sucrose in the diet. We observed the suppressive effects on the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet. Namely, repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet reduces insulin resistance and may delay the appearance of DM, especially type 2 DM. Therefore, daily intake of LEM may be suitable for the prevention of obesity and DM. PMID:22118756

Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2011-11-01

123

Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:24755250

2014-01-01

124

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

2014-02-01

125

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia capillaris [corrected] improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with these events. Mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks exhibited increases in body weight gain and adipose tissue mass compared with mice fed a low fat diet. However, feeding a high-fat diet supplemented with Ob-X significantly reduced these effects. Ob-X treatment also decreased the circulating levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation. Ob-X supplementation was found to increase the hepatic mRNA levels of PPARalpha target enzymes responsible for fatty acid beta-oxidation. Moreover, Ob-X elevated the endogenous expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing three copies of a PPAR response element (PPRE) in NMu2Li liver cells. These data demonstrate that Ob-X regulates body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and lipid metabolism in part through changes in the expression of hepatic PPARalpha target genes. PMID:18023310

Lee, Jinmi; Chae, Kyungsil; Ha, Juran; Park, Byung-Young; Lee, Hee Suk; Jeong, Sunhyo; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

2008-01-17

126

PERSONAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY  

E-print Network

PERSONAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence and to obtain the Personal Leave Request Form, visit the Human Resources website at http://hr.ucf.edu 3. Submit the completed Personal Leave Request

Wu, Shin-Tson

127

MILITARY LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY  

E-print Network

MILITARY LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your Supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence, and to obtain the Military Leave Request Form Responsibilities and Instructions for Completion of Military Leave Request Form" which is part of the Request form

Wu, Shin-Tson

128

PAYROLL/PERSONNEL SABBATICAL LEAVE / SPECIAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE  

E-print Network

FURLOUGH 16 FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE WITH PAY 06 GOV'T/PUBLIC SERVICE 11 MILITARY 17 TEMPORARY LAYOFF 07 OF WORK WHILE ON LEAVE LEAVEOF ABSNCE 18. UC COMPENSATION WHILE ON LEAVE NO SALARY FULL SALARY OTHER % 19

Healy, Kevin Edward

129

FMLA: Family & Medical FLA: Family Leave Act  

E-print Network

Leave FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Who is · Faculty (9 month" in order to be eligible for up to 15 days of unpaid leave per deployment) · Women who take leave due FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Leave Restrictions · Runs

Borenstein, Elhanan

130

Falling for Clay Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

Kernan, Christine

2002-01-01

131

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

132

Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the ? phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in ? phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the ?-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized ? alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the ? fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity. The microstructure of the U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy obtained by induction melting method is composed of dendrites, supersatured in the alloys elements, in the as-cast state being necessary to implement homogenization heat treatment. Heat treatment at 1000 °C for 5 h followed by quenching in water was effective to homogenize the alloy (elimination the dendritic structure) and to retain the cubic structure at room temperature. Induction melting followed by casting and homogenization heat treatment with quenching in water, produced a moderate texture with the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. The cold rolled U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy leads to the emergence of a fiber (0 0 1), with higher intensity, unusual in BCC metals and ? (1 1 1) with moderate intensity. These textures confer isotropic mechanical properties which is very important for a nuclear fuel.

Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

2014-06-01

133

Leave of Absence STUDENT INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Phone#: PersonalE-MailAddress: Home College: Department: Class: Semester of Leave (circle one): Fall Spring SummerLeave of Absence STUDENT INFORMATION Student's Reasons for Leave: Expected Semester/Year of Return Comments/Requirements Governing Return: Date Student Began Leave Procedure: / / W Grade(s) Assigned? Yes

Nagle, John F.

134

MILITARY LEAVE WORKSHEET PERSONAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

MILITARY LEAVE WORKSHEET PERSONAL INFORMATION Name Agency Name Address Agency Number Emergency MILITARY LEAVE NOTIFICATION · I have been ordered to military duty effective . Attached is a copy of my orders. Official verbal notification was received from . MILITARY LEAVE WITH PAY · MILITARY LEAVE

Swaddle, John

135

Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

2011-01-01

136

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

137

Bemoans, Belittles, and Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I examine Lynn Truss's book of punctuation rules and faux pas, "Eats, Shoots & Leaves," contemplating the complex relationships among class, academics, and language snobbery. I don't refute Truss's lessons on punctuation. Instead, I use her text as a jumping-off point for discussion of the social issues embedded in her guide and…

Lynch-Biniek, Amy

2005-01-01

138

Leave Payout Operating Procedure  

E-print Network

) system by the employee's department no later than two weeks following the termination date.2.1 Running a biweekly query identifying all regular position employees with a termination date and a leave.1 Department Termination of Employment.....................................3 4.2 Human Resources Employment

Meyers, Steven D.

139

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

140

Paper Chromatography with Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

Society, American C.

2010-01-01

141

Classify the trees/Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

Walsh, Mary

142

Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

1989-01-01

143

Fathers' Participation in Parental Leave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized are findings from an investigation of Swedish parents, who were studied to discover barriers to fathers taking time off from work to care for a newborn. Discussion focuses on: (1) fathers' participation in parental leave; (2) parents who take leave, and why; (3) barriers to fathers' participation in parental leave; (4) the potential of…

Haas, Linda

1987-01-01

144

Parental leave and child health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there

Christopher J. Ruhm

2000-01-01

145

Enzymatic properties of alpha-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the alpha-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and alpha-amylase activity was assayed using the dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The activity of alpha-amylase in the MG and the SG were 0.011 and 0.0018 micromol/min, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase were 9 for MG at 37-40 degrees C and 10 for SG at 37 degrees C respectively. Various concentrations of compounds (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), Urea, EDTA, SDS and CaCl(2)) had differential effects on the enzyme activity. Plant amylase inhibitors may play an important role against insect pests. Hence, the characterization of digestive enzymes and the examination of their inhibitors may be a useful tool in future management of this important mulberry pest. PMID:20176331

Yezdani, Elham; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zibaee, Arash; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

2010-01-01

146

Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking  

PubMed Central

We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time-span is one during which parental leave legislation expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive examination of employment and leave-taking by fathers of infants. Our main finding is that leave expansions are associated with increased leave-taking by both mothers and fathers. The magnitudes of the changes are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline for men and much greater for college-educated or married mothers than for their less-educated or single counterparts. PMID:19090048

Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2009-01-01

147

Request for Overtime Leave Payment Employee Name: _______________________________________________________  

E-print Network

: _________________________________________ Pay Overtime Leave Balance As Of: _______________________________ I request payment for the overtime leave balance is requested. ____ Payment of partial overtime leave balance is requested. Please indicateRequest for Overtime Leave Payment Employee Name

Acton, Scott

148

Effect of Kuwanon G Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus alba on Ovalbumin-induced Allergic Response in a Mouse Model of Asthma.  

PubMed

The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10?mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7?days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25116225

Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

2014-11-01

149

Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.  

PubMed

Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions. PMID:20616300

Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

2010-08-01

150

Parental Leave Guidelines.doc PARENTAL LEAVE GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

leave is a right for parents to take time off work to look after a child or make arrangements for a child's welfare. Parents can use it to spend time with their children and balance the demands of work Parental leave is not intended to cover emergencies involving children, which is covered by different

Subramanian, Sriram

151

Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2009-01-01

152

Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.  

PubMed

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC?? and LC?? values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC?? treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC?? treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC?? dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC?? was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

153

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

154

See the Colors in Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

155

ST2B2-1: Development of Mosquito Repellent from Paper Mulberry Woody Core and Citronella Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product yields of the main raw materials of woody core from Saa stem, citronella, bergamot leaves, and tangerine were 36.42%, 26.97%, 35.23% and 20.68%, respectively. An optimum formula was developed composed of a ground woody core from Saa stem (32.50%), citronella (16.25%), bergamot leaves (16.25%), tangerine peels (4.80%), pre-gelatinized starch (14.75%), bong (14.75%), and sodium benzoate as preservative (0.50%). Green

Wuttinan Kongtud; Vichai Haruthaithanasan

156

Fathers and Parental Leave: Attitudes and Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined parental leave-taking behaviors and attitudes of 550 men whose wives/partners were pregnant. Fathers' mean length of leave time was five days; 91% of fathers took some leave. Employer's policy regarding length of leave was significant predictor of length of leave taken. Fathers holding egalitarian sex role attitudes and high in family…

Hyde, Janet Shibley; And Others

1993-01-01

157

Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures  

E-print Network

Certificate of Admission or Certificate of Enrollment For Academic Research Abroad Request for Leave Medical Certificate Other than those above* Request for Leave of Absence: Please contact the respective #12;Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures

Sano, Masaki

158

Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures  

E-print Network

Certificate of Admission or Certificate of Enrollment For Academic Research Abroad Request for Leave Certificate Other than those above* Request for Leave of Absence: Please contact the respective Department #12;Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures

Sano, Masaki

159

Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.  

PubMed

This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719?g/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26?g/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5?g/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219?g/g dry weight), morin (101±68?g/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42?g/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-?+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-?/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

2013-06-01

160

Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4?mg/100?g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30?min before and 1?h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1?h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30?min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvao; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

2013-01-01

161

Planned Giving: Leaving a Legacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a wonderful surprise when an executor calls to inform that one's college has been remembered in an individual's estate, either for a future gift or one that is being distributed. Leaving this legacy often enriches the final years of a donor's life. But too often, these opportunities are left to chance because community college development…

Edwards, Joan

2010-01-01

162

Why Are Programs Leaving CEDA?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all 38 current members of the (newly formed) National Educational Debate Association investigated why these directors opted to drop their Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) programs. Responses were received from 20 directors. The use of excessive speed in CEDA debate was mentioned as a reason for leaving CEDA by more of the…

Horn, Gary

163

??????????????????????????? Botanical Pesticides from Neem Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica A.Juss var. simensis (Thai neem), Azadirachta indica A.Juss (Indian neem) and Azadirachta excelsa Jack (Tiam) are in Meliaceae family. Fresh leaves of these neem trees were extracted by hydrodistillation. Chemical constituents of the volatile oil were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry technique, comparing the mass spectrum with standard compounds and library spectrum. Neem

Rattanaporn Promsattha

164

Allelochemicals from Pilocarpus goudotianus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on germination, shoot, and root growth by bergapten, xanthotoxin, imperatorin, xanthyletin, xanthoxyletin, luvangetin, donatin and alloxanthoxyletol fromPilocarpus goudotianus leaves, onLactuca sativa var. nigra seedlings has been evaluated. A structure-activity correlation is discussed based on the bioassay results. Furanocoumarins appear to be the most active compounds in comparison with pyrano- and simple coumarins. The presence of an oxygenated function

Francisco A. Macías; J. C. G. Galindo; G. M. Massanet; F. Rodriguez-Luis; Eva Zubia

1993-01-01

165

Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

2005-10-01

166

Gas transfer in floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized gas transport with flow rates of 1.1 to 1.81 gas h-1 plant-1 have been detected in the floating-leaved aquatic macrophyte Euryale ferox on sunny days. The younger leaves gave the highest pressurization, but the gas flow was initiated mainly by the middle-aged leaves of the plants. The gas through-flow was shown to be highly beneficial for floating-leaved plants. It

W. Große; C. Bauch

1991-01-01

167

cDNA cloning, expression, and characterization of an arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein, AgeHex2, from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari.  

PubMed

An arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein, AgeHex2, cDNA was cloned from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), larval cDNA library. The complete cDNA sequence of AgeHex2 is comprised of 2,088 bp encoding 696 amino acid residues. The AgeHex2 had four potential N-glycosylation sites. The AgeHex2 contained the highly conserved two larval storage protein signature motifs. The deduced protein sequence of AgeHex2 showed high homology with A. germari hexamerin1 (51% amino acid identity), Tenebrio molitor hexamerin2 (49% amino acid identity), T. molitor early-staged encapsulation inducing protein (43% amino acid identity), and Leptinotarsa decemlineata diapause protein1 (43% amino acid identity). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the AgeHex2 is more closely related to coleopteran hexamerins than to the other insect storage proteins. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the AgeHex2 showed fat body-specific expression. The cDNA encoding AgeHex2 was expressed as a 75-kDa protein in the baculovirus-infected insect cells. Furthermore, N-glycosylation of the recombinant AgeHex2 was revealed by tunicamycin to the recombinant virus-infected Sf9 cells, demonstrating that the AgeHex2 is N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal antiserum against recombinant AgeHex2 indicated that the AgeHex2 corresponds to a 75-kDa storage protein present in the A. germari larval hemolymph. PMID:15146541

Kim, Seong Ryul; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Park, Nam Sook; Lee, Sang Mong; Je, Yeon Ho; Jin, Byung Rae; Sohn, Hung Dae

2004-06-01

168

APPLICATION FOR LEAVE *Without pay only. Required  

E-print Network

Leave Vacation Sick (Employee) Sick (Family) Workplace Injury Leave (First 40 hours of work if used during the same period of absence ( e.g., 6 hours of vacation and 2 hours of sick leave). PLEASE treatment Death in immediate Family (USPS and TEAMS only) Extraordinary circumstances (Must be authorized

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

169

Why Leaves Aren't Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physical Review Focus article describes the controversy over the structure of networks that optimize transport of nutrients through the veins in leaves. Images show how vein networks in leaves can provide protection against damage to part of the network. Also, videos show how colored dye moves through the veins of the leaves.

2010-07-30

170

Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal\\/family, career, and school satisfaction reasons influenced their decisions. Their reasons are

Jennifer L. Cuddapah; Mary Ellen Beaty-OFerrall; Frank J. Masci; Monica Hetrick

2011-01-01

171

Parental Leave and Productivity. Current Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of papers, commissioned by the Family Work Institute, by expert policy makers in the area of parental leave. The report consists of eight papers: (1) "The Impact of Childbearing on Employment" (James T. Bond); (2) "Fathers and Parental Leave: A Perspective" (Joseph H. Pleck); (3) Parental Leave and Productivity: The…

Friedman, Dana E., Ed.; And Others

172

University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE  

E-print Network

1/07 University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE Employee Information Name: Empl ID #: Home Address: City: ST: ZIP: Email Address: Phone: Type of Military Leave Dates of Leave Annual Reservist Training Military Duty Begin Date Expected End Date _____/_____/_____ _____/_____/_____ Certification

Provancher, William

173

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association); Cathee Johnson Phillips (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

174

A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1?:?1?:?1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6?g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75?g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D. PMID:22474520

Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

2012-01-01

175

Why are nurses leaving nursing?  

PubMed

The causes of nurses' exodus from acute health care delivery practice may lie more in intrinsic factors rather than the heretofore overtly expressed reasons. This article examines bureaucratic factors, issues related to the medical profession and medical/scientific discourse, and factors within the nursing profession itself that may contribute to a nurse's unhappiness and dissatisfaction that causes him or her to leave. Nursing as emotional work and the implications for the individual nurse, and nursing as moral and moral distress are discussed. Suggestions to facilitate retention are made for changing the work environment to feel valued for their skillfully applied humanness. PMID:12765108

Sumner, Jane; Townsend-Rocchiccioli, Judith

2003-01-01

176

Medical Certification For Family and Medical Leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act for 1993  

E-print Network

Medical Certification For Family and Medical Leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act for 1993 ________________________________________________ _________________________________ Complete this section if the FMLA Leave to care for a Family Member. State the care you will provide and an estimate of the periods during which the care will be provided, including a schedule if leave

177

5 CFR 630.704 - Granting shore leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting shore leave. 630.704 Section 630.704 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.704 Granting shore leave. (a) Authority. (1) An...

2010-01-01

178

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

179

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEAVE OF ABSENCE REQUEST FORM  

E-print Network

approved leave will be considered a voluntary resignation and will result in termination of my employment@caltech.edu if you have any questions. Employee Information Name: Personal E-mail: Address during leave: LeaveType&LeaveDates Phone during leave: Cell Phone: EmployeeAcknowledgmentApprovals By requesting the above leave of absence

Faraon, Andrei

180

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

181

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

... 2014-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2014-01-01

182

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2011-01-01

183

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2013-01-01

184

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2012-01-01

185

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2010-01-01

186

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

187

Characteristics of the pigments from anthocyan-containing food plants, raw material for production of bioflavonoid dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the composition of anthocyans of the fruits and pulp of the food plants bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L), high-bush cranberry (Viburnum opulus L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Mill.), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.), cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris Pers.), currant (Ribes nigrum L.), and mulberry (Morus nigra L.) growing in the Ukraine. The anthocyan pigments differ qualitatively

E. N. Kananykhina; I. V. Pilipenko

2000-01-01

188

Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: in vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was used to assess the difference in epidermal absorbance (EAbs). EAbs increased with increasing solar irradiance intercepted for the three species. This epidermal localisation of UV-absorbers was confirmed by the removal of the epidermis. It was possible to simulate EAbs as a linear combination of major phenolic compounds (Phen) identified in leaf methanol extracts by HPLC-DAD. Under UV-free radiation conditions, shaded leaves of M. nigra accumulated chlorogenic acid. Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives greatly increased with increasing PAR irradiance under the low UV-B conditions found in the greenhouse. These traits were also observed for the HCA of the two other species. Flavonoid (FLAV) accumulation started under low UV-A irradiance, and became maximal in the adaxial epidermis of sun-exposed leaves outdoors. A decrease in the amount of HCA was observed concomitantly to the intense accumulation of FLAV for both leaf sides of the three species. Judging from the logFER, under low UV-B conditions, larger amounts of HCA are present in the epidermis in comparison to FLAV for the three species. Upon transition from the greenhouse to full sunlight outdoors, there was a decrease in leaf-soluble HCA that paralleled FLAV accumulation in reaction to increasing solar UV-B radiation in the three species. In M. nigra, that contains large amounts of HCA, the logFER analysis showed that this decrease occurred in the adaxial epidermis, whereas the abaxial epidermis, which is protected from direct UV-B radiation, continued to accumulate large amounts of HCA. PMID:17720509

Bidel, L P R; Meyer, S; Goulas, Y; Cadot, Y; Cerovic, Z G

2007-09-25

189

Resilience and Young People Leaving Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

Stein, Mike

2008-01-01

190

LEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

: Employee ID Home Phone Current Mailing address: Department/College Name Classification Campus Phone Student teaching, as required, for employees enrolled in credential programs Family care or medical leaveLEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One Washington Square

Eirinaki, Magdalini

191

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN PARENTAL LEAVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

for parents to take time off work to look after a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare. Parents rules apply for parents of children born, or placed for adoption, before 14 December 1999. You partner. Where a child is disabled* parental leave allows for a total of 18 weeks of unpaid leave, up

Siddharthan, Advaith

192

Violaxanthin de-epoxidase in etiolated leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In etiolated leaves the occurrence of the enzymatic violaxanthin de-epoxidation to zeaxanthin is shown. The carotenoid transformation is provoked by the infiltration of whole leaves with ascorbate at pH 5 and is susceptible to DTT. Identification of the de-epoxidase activity is achieved by in vivo spectroscopy and pigment analysis (TLC).

Erhard Pfündel; Reto J. Strasser

1988-01-01

193

A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

Sallee, Margaret W.

2008-01-01

194

Shaping an Effective Parental-Leave Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As increasing numbers of women and two-career couples enter the work force, parental leave provisions are becoming a routine business practice. Companies are beginning to recognize parental leave as a cost-effective strategy for retaining employees and maintaining productivity. (JOW)

Meiers, Margaret E.

1989-01-01

195

Entering and Leaving School Administrative Positions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing survey data from 457 students in 29 U.S. school administration programs, examines the relative importance of factors influencing decisions to enter and leave the profession and the canonical correlation between reasons for leaving and reasons for staying. Self-actualization, esteem, and affiliation influenced entry decisions; salary…

Shen, Jianping; Cooley, Van E.; Ruhl-Smith, Connie D.

1999-01-01

196

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave...agreement is not required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with the...

2010-07-01

197

Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1984-01-01

198

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

199

Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.  

PubMed

To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice. PMID:9769679

Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

1998-09-01

200

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

1983-01-01

201

Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.  

PubMed

Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted. PMID:24310173

Moore, D; Hotch, D F

1981-02-01

202

A Response to Arguments against Mandated Parental Leave: Findings from the Connecticut Survey of Parental Leave Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes arguments against mandated parental leave: that many firms voluntarily provide parental leave; that child care is what parents want; and that mandated parental leave will raise business costs. Presents data showing that less than 15 percent of Connecticut firms provided job-guaranteed parental leave and that most firms dealt with leaves

Trzcinski, Eileen; Finn-Stevenson, Matia

1991-01-01

203

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to...

2010-04-01

204

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to...

2012-04-01

205

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to...

2011-04-01

206

A flavonol glycoside from Embelia schimperi leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-galactosyl (1 ? 2) rhamnoside, has been isolated from the leaves of Embelia schimperi. The known compounds quercetin 3-rutinoside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, myricetin and quercetin were also identified from this plant.

Lawrence O. Manguro Arot; Lawrence A. D. Williams

1997-01-01

207

Female journalists more likely to leave newspapers  

E-print Network

A survey of 715 U.S. newspaper journalists reveals women report higher levels of exhaustion and lower levels of professional efficacy than do men. Among women 27 and younger, 30 percent say they intend to leave the field.

Reinardy, Scott

2009-01-01

208

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

209

Herbicide Uptake by Leaves and Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.

210

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

MedlinePLUS

... spouse, son, daughter, or parent is a covered military member on “covered active duty;” or Twenty-six ... spouse, son, daughter, parent, or next of kin (military caregiver leave). Key News The U.S. Department of ...

211

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2011-10-01

212

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2013-10-01

213

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2012-10-01

214

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2010-10-01

215

Leave of Absence Please refer to the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) Leave of Absence Policy and Leave of Absence and Withdrawal, and Failure  

E-print Network

and medical certificate where applicable. Attach additional pages if more space is required. #12;2/2 Leave1/2 Leave of Absence Please refer to the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) Leave of Absence Policy and Leave of Absence and Withdrawal, and Failure to Register sections of the SGS website. Graduate students

Woodgett, Jim

216

Maternity leaves and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.  

PubMed

More than 50% of mothers in the United States work. An important issue facing working women is maternity leave and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA). The nurse should recognize the childbearing-related problems the working woman may encounter and initiate appropriate referrals. Understanding both maternity leaves and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act will enhance the nurse's ability to provide appropriate counseling and referral. PMID:6556373

Brucker, M C; Reedy, N J

1983-01-01

217

Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost a quarter of entering public-school teachers leave teaching within their first three years. High attrition would be particularly problematic if those leaving were the more able teachers. The goal of this paper is estimate the extent to which there is differential attrition based on teachers' value-added to student achievement. Using data for New York City schools from 2000–2005, we

Donald Boyd; Pamela Grossman; Hamilton Lankford; Susanna Loeb; James Wyckoff

2008-01-01

218

Characteristics of photosynthesis in peach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal photosynthetic patterns of Loring peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) leaves were monitored throughout the 1974 growing season. Using leaves on detached branches, CO2 exchange was measured under controlled light and temperature conditions. Net photosynthesis rate varied from 9 to 12.4 mg CO2 dm-2 leaf area h-1 and was correlated with fruit development, with the highest values occurring during the

C. E. Crews; S. L. Williams; H. M. Vines

1975-01-01

219

Leave-taking Rituals in Mourning Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic leave-taking rituals are a short-term strategic form of mourning therapy. These rituals consist of three phases: a) preparatory-in which the therapist explains how performing a ritual might help in taking leave of the deceased; b) reorganization-in which the client carries out certain tasks, such as writing daily entries in a 'continuous letter' to the deceased; and c) finalization-which is

Onno van der Hart; Frits A Goossens

1987-01-01

220

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2010-10-01

221

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2011-10-01

222

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2013-10-01

223

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2012-10-01

224

More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

McCain, D C; Markley, J L

1989-08-01

225

Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave (http://handbook.unc.edu/medical.html)  

E-print Network

1 Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs, Graduate School, CB 4010, 203 Bynum Hall. Date of application: __________________________________________ and academic department: ___________________________________________ Graduate School Parental Leave Application

Crews, Stephen

226

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

...false Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military...310 Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military... (a) Required information from health care provider. When leave is taken...

2014-07-01

227

["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].  

PubMed

Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave. PMID:12339587

Munz, R

1984-01-01

228

Evaluation of leaves as a litter material.  

PubMed

The suitability of leaves for use as broiler litter was evaluated in four 49-d floor pen trials of 150 Avian x Avian female chickens each. In each trial, 25 broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to one of six pens at a density of 1.2 m2 per bird. There were two replicates of each of the following three treatments: 1) pine wood shaving (control), 2) a mix of 50% pine wood shaving and 50% leaves, and 3) leaves. Litter materials had no significant (P > or = 0.05) influence on live weight, feed conversion, breast blisters, dressed carcass weight, carcass yield percentage, or mortality. Mortality of birds reared on leaves tended to be higher than the other treatments, but it was found to be nonsignificant at the P < 0.05 level. No significant differences were observed for percentage litter moisture among treatments. Body weight gain was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher for the broilers reared on the leaf litter. Leaves alone or mixed with wood shavings have potential as an alternate litter material without compromising production or processing parameters at a low placement density. PMID:9251143

Willis, W L; Murray, C; Talbott, C

1997-08-01

229

Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1  

PubMed Central

In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, Maria Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

2002-01-01

230

BENEFITS AND PRIVILEGES APM -740 Leaves of Absence/Sabbatical Leaves  

E-print Network

military leave g. Credit accrual not lost by intercampus transfer h. Credit not accrued during certain. For appointees, see Charts at end of APM - 740 b. One year at full salary limitation 740-18 Compensation During Sabbatical Leave a. Definition of "regular" salary b. Funding from two or more sources c. Additional salary

Squire, Larry R.

231

1. Sick Leave (See Eligible Benefits Chart) Eligibility for Sick Leave  

E-print Network

to a maximum of 60 days. Fixed term employees receive annual sick leave at the onset of their contract (9 month shall receive 13 days (pro- rated for part-time) effective on their first day of employment. Those hired-time). Employees on a paid/unpaid leave of absence (including short-term disability) on January 1st will receive

232

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determine with any certainty how many hours the employee would otherwise have...leave), a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the beginning of the leave period (including any hours for which the employee took...

2010-07-01

233

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determine with any certainty how many hours the employee would otherwise have...leave), a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the beginning of the leave period (including any hours for which the employee took...

2011-07-01

234

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determine with any certainty how many hours the employee would otherwise have...leave), a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the beginning of the leave period (including any hours for which the employee took...

2012-07-01

235

University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

2013-01-01

236

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

...occasional basis for medical appointments, or leave taken several days at a time spread over a period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for...

2014-07-01

237

The Importance and Potential Uses of Olive Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this study, the importance of olive leaves is

Zafer Erbay; Filiz Icier

2010-01-01

238

Revised 11/2013 Request for UF Paid Parental Leave  

E-print Network

from any balance of accrued sick and/or vacation leave or any other payment owed by the University employment with the University, any remaining balance of hours used for paid parental leave will be deducted. If the paid parental leave taken exceeds the available balance of unused leave at the time of separation, I

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

239

5 CFR 630.703 - Computation of shore leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of shore leave. 630.703 Section 630.703 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.703 Computation of shore leave. (a) An employee earns shore...

2010-01-01

240

Division of Human Resources DONATION OF SICK LEAVE  

E-print Network

sick leave donations. Such requests should be informal and without pressure. Unacceptable behavior includes repeated contacts that exert pressure, play on people's emotions or leave a feeling of guiltDivision of Human Resources DONATION OF SICK LEAVE Human Resources/Attendance and Leave Donation

Meyers, Steven D.

241

FIN/ADOPTION OCT 13 ADOPTION/SURROGACY LEAVE  

E-print Network

FIN/ADOPTION ­ OCT 13 ADOPTION/SURROGACY LEAVE NOTIFICATION FORM 1. This form is for University of Sheffield staff to provide notification of an upcoming period of Adoption Leave (also available to intended). 2. Please read the Adoption Leave Policy and Procedure, available via the HR Family Leave website

Barker, Jon

242

MILITARY LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type or Write Legibly  

E-print Network

MILITARY LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type or Write Legibly Check one: New Leave of Absence #: ____________________ Cell Phone#:________________________ Reason for Leave: Active Duty Military Leave Military Training (active or inactive duty) A copy of your military order(s) must be submitted no later than 30 days after

Wu, Shin-Tson

243

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2010-07-01

244

The geometry of unfolding tree leaves  

PubMed Central

Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

1998-01-01

245

Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.  

PubMed

From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries PMID:17385479

Jordan, Claire

2007-01-01

246

BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave  

E-print Network

BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave CPT Comp time taken MTH Military Leave-Temp DNO Organ Donation-Temp-Salary MTS Military Leave-Temp-Salary DNR Organ Donor-Regular OCE On Call Earned DNA Organ Donor-Salary OCH On Call Hours-Paid DNT Organ

Barrash, Warren

247

CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE DUTY  

E-print Network

CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE that you submit a timely, complete, and sufficient certification to support a request for FMLA leave due to a qualifying exigency: 2. A complete and sufficient certification to support a request for FMLA leave due

Gleeson, Joseph G.

248

The effect of state maternity leave legislation and the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act on employment and wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, President Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Similar to the 12 states that already had maternity leave mandates, the FMLA guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave for eligible mothers. I evaluate the effects of maternity leave legislation on employment and wages, taking advantage of variation created by state legislation and the FMLA. My results show

Charles II Baum

2003-01-01

249

FAMILY LEAVE FOR AAUP FACULTY AT URI  

E-print Network

for health benefits for leaves beyond one year. PartTime Active Service with Reduced Workload: As specified beyond one year. For the first year, if the workload is at least half-time, health benefits shall be continued at the employer's expense. No health benefits shall be granted if the workload is less than one

Rhode Island, University of

250

Reason for Leaving Diploma/Degree Earned  

E-print Network

: Student Aid Program) Do you have an ISO Work Permit? [ ] N/A EDUCATION Type Schools Attended From Year To Year Circle Last Grade Completed High School Fresh Soph Jr Trade/Business School College or UniversityY / N EDUCATION Sr Reason for Leaving Diploma/Degree Earned Sr NAME LSUID Rev 05/10 STUDENT

Harms, Kyle E.

251

[Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L].  

PubMed

Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:2069701

Chen, L

1991-01-01

252

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind  

E-print Network

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

Northern British Columbia, University of

253

A flavonol glycoside from Myrsine africana leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myricetin 3-(3?,4?-diacetylrhamnoside), a novel flavonol glycoside together with myricetin 3-rhamnoside, myricetin 7-rhamnoside, myricetin 3-xyloside, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, 3?-O-methylquercetin 3-glucoside, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and gallic acid have been isolated from a methanolic extract of Myrsine africana leaves.

Lawrence O. Manguro Arot; Jacob Ogweno Midiwo; Wolfgang Kraus

1996-01-01

254

Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).  

PubMed

The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

2000-12-01

255

The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

Gill, John; And Others

1988-01-01

256

Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

2000-01-01

257

Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

Barnes, Tracy; And Others

258

Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22

DeWayne Moore; Deborah F. Hotch

1981-01-01

259

Compartmentation of storage compounds in peach leaves  

E-print Network

Compartmentation of storage compounds in peach leaves J.P. Gaudillère1 J. Schaeffer2 A. Moing A de Bordeaux /, 33405 Talence Cedex, France Introduction High leaf photosynthesis is achieved when into the phloem and exported to other parts of the plant. The study of interactions be- tween photosynthesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

EXPLORING WHY CONSUMERS LEAVE WEBSITES BEFORE BUYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Businesses engaged in retailing over the Internet face many challenges. Most, if not all, of these businesses realize that a crucial point in the selling-purchasing process is the final phase - completion of purchase. Businesses must be able to close the sale before customers leave their website. This study intends to explore why consumers, who visit websites with intentions of

Chuleeporn Changchit; Robert Cutshall

261

What Limits Nitrate Reduction in Leaves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation that even drastic over- or underexpression of nitrate reductase (NR) has little effect on biomass production suggests that nitrate reduction in situ and extractable NR activity are not strictly coupled. Rates of nitrate reduction in detached spinach leaves are often, but not always, much lower than NR activity measured in leaf extracts under substrate (nitrate and NADH) saturation.

Werner M. Kaiser; Maria Stoimenova; Hui-Min Man

262

Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

Tomley, David

1983-01-01

263

Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that at- tract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. lhe release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3

Ursula S. R. Rose; Ara Manukian; Robert R. Heath; James H. Tumlinson

264

Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010…

Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

2012-01-01

265

MATERNITY LEAVE: WHERE WE STAND COMPARED  

Microsoft Academic Search

1) . There are essentially two basic types: financial instruments (tax deductions, credits, benefits, etc.) and formal, non-financial instruments (such as social recognition of the importance of motherhood and par- enthood). One of the first policy provisions that families with children encounter is maternity leave (ML) and the financial assistance that accompanies it. This policy provision combines both aspects: for-

266

University of Virginia Time Management Form Shift Hours Worked Code Payroll Elements Leave  

E-print Network

University of Virginia Time Management Form ­ Shift Hours Worked Code Payroll Elements ­ Leave FP Family Personal Leave (VSDP) FS Family Sick Leave (Personal)* H Holiday OL Overtime Leave RL Recognition Leave S Sick Leave (Personal) SL School / Volunteer Leave VS Sick Leave (VSDP) MA Military Active

Acton, Scott

267

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...after the birth of a healthy child or placement of a...

2012-07-01

268

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...after the birth of a healthy child or placement of a...

2013-07-01

269

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...after the birth of a healthy child or placement of a...

2011-07-01

270

Effective handling of health-related leaves of absence.  

PubMed

This article will address the legal obligations of employers in non-union settings toward employees who request pregnancy leave, parental or medical leave, workers' compensation leave, and other forms of disability leave. Specifically, this article will address the legal standards set forth under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, various state pregnancy and family leave acts, workers' compensation retaliatory discharge authority, and the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. In addition, this article will provide practical guidance for employers in formulating effective leave policies that provide the maximum amount of operational flexibility while at the same time minimizing the risk of costly and excessive litigation. PMID:10171028

Connell, D S; Schwartz, F L

1992-01-01

271

Family medical leave--management strategies.  

PubMed

Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor. PMID:15635929

Morris, Judy A; Strasser, Patricia B

2004-12-01

272

Nurses’ intentions to leave nursing in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. We examined how factors related to wage, work, job satisfaction\\/dissatisfaction,\\u000a and workplace or demographic factors were associated with nurses’ intentions to switch from health care to non-health-care\\u000a roles. Wage and share of income from shift work were negatively and statistically significantly related to nurses’ intention\\u000a to leave the health care

T. Kankaanranta; P. Rissanen

2008-01-01

273

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from leaves of Excoecaria agallocha.  

PubMed

A new oleanane-type triterpenoid (1) and five known pentacyclic triterpenoids (2-6) were isolated from the leaves of Excoecaria agallocha. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The new compound was characterized as 3beta-[(2E,4E)-5-oxo-decadienoyloxy]-olean-12-ene (1). Compounds 1-6 were found inactive in vitro against several human cancer cell lines. PMID:16755073

Zou, Jian-Hua; Dai, Jungui; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Jing-Quan

2006-06-01

274

Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

2011-10-01

275

'Dew nucleation' by hygroscopic particles on leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical explanations of dew formation usually consider a pure, plain surface and do not include any contributions of hygroscopic material present on this surface. A significant amount of hygroscopic material, however, is present on most real leaves, due to accumulated deposited aerosols, salt exudations, leached ions, or agricultural sprays. Similarly to cloud nucleation, hygroscopic material on leaves leads to a significant reduction of saturation vapor pressure and enables 'dew nucleation', where the condensation of minute amounts of water is still too small to be visible without a microscope. This may happen at humidities far below saturation, dependent on the composition and deliquescence point of the particles; additionally plant transpiration often raises the humidity on the leaf surface. While the amounts of water involved are not significant in terms of the energy or water balance, the ecological consequences of such condensation mechanisms on leaves may be considerable. Highly concentrated but mobile solutions are formed by the deliquescence of hygroscopic particles, which may provide important nutrients for the plant. Their chemistry differs considerably from dilute solutions. When viewed by an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), oscillating humidity led to the expansion of salts even on hydrophobic leaf surfaces. This may lead to the ’hydraulic activation of stomata (HAS)’, a process leading to the extension of liquid water films into the plant and subsequent transport of liquid water and solutes on the stomatal pathway, a meanwhile well-proven contradiction to previous concepts. Apart from the nutritional aspects, hygroscopic substances on leaves will interact with plant water relations. Depending on the degree of stomatal activation, this may trigger useful hydraulic signaling or provoke deleterious wicking and reduced drought tolerance of the plant.

Burkhardt, J.; Hunsche, M.; Pariyar, S.

2010-07-01

276

Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves  

PubMed Central

The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre

1992-01-01

277

Isocitrate Lyase in Green Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) has been demonstrated in crude dialyzed extracts of healthy spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves from commercial sources and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) leaves stored in darkness in the cold room for 1 week. The products of the reaction were identified as glyoxylate and succinate, the former by its phenylhydrazone, and the latter traced by isotopic labeling and cochromatography. Fresh spinach extracts contain a mixture of at least two endogenous inhibitors of isocitrate lyase activity and one of them is proteinaceous. The endogenous inhibitor(s) is thermostable and retains 50% of its inhibitory effect even after boiling for 10 minutes. Dark starvation of the leaves removes the inhibition, due possibly to autolysis of the inhibitor(s). The inhibitor(s) can also be removed by filtration through Sephadex gels. The crude extract from spinach shows double pH optima in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. The apparent Km at pH 7.4 was 0.1 mm. Oxaloacetate, dl-malate, succinate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and glycolate at 10 mm concentration inhibited, but ribulose 1,5-diphosphate activated enzymic activity. Images PMID:16658428

Godavari, H. R.; Badour, S. S.; Waygood, E. R.

1973-01-01

278

CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Leave of Absence Form  

E-print Network

, and Bereavement). Sick day balance must be used prior to commencing an unpaid personal medical leave of absence taken for bereavement, parenting for foster care, or family illness not covered as FMLA leave

Rollins, Andrew M.

279

Before You Leave the Department of Chemistry Name ________________________________________ UIN ___________________________________  

E-print Network

Before You Leave the Department of Chemistry Name ________________________________________ UIN to the Graduate Student Services Coordinator before departmental approval form will be granted and Certificate of Committee Approval forms will be signed. The items below should be completed before you leave

Zimmerman, Steven C.

280

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(2) Multiply the ratio obtained in paragraph (b)(1) of this section by the number of hours of annual leave transferred by each leave donor eligible for restoration under paragraph (a) of this section;...

2010-01-01

281

REQUEST FOR LEAVE NAME__________________________College of Charleston ID# (CWID#)________________  

E-print Network

of spouse, parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, brothers, sisters, children, grandchildren and great Without Pay 12. Other ____________________ Does This Leave Qualify Under the Family and Medical Leave Act, children, mother, father, sister, brother, grandparents, legal guardian and grandchildren (when

Kasman, Alex

282

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

E-print Network

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation Li An Angela G. Mertig Jianguo Liu Michigan State University To disclose the interplay between psychosocial between psychosocial factors and biodiversity con- servation. KEY WORDS: leaving parental home; Structural

An, Li

283

Want to Stay Slim? Leave the Car at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Want to Stay Slim? Leave the Car at Home Driving to work, rather than walking, ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 20, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Leaving the car at home and getting to work by walking, ...

284

LEAVE OF ABSENCE UNDERGRADUATE and SECOND BACHELOR'S DEGREE STUDENTS  

E-print Network

be resubmitted when appropriate documentation is attached. Download form that follows: Request for Leave __________________________ Street _________________________________________________ City, State, Zip Code

de Lijser, Peter

285

Three essays on maternity and parental leave policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the impact of maternity and parental leave policy on women's labour market outcomes. The first chapter uses the variation in mandated unpaid job-protected leave allowances across provinces to identify the effect of provincial leave policy on employment rates of women with young children. A difference-in-differences model provides evidence that maternity and parental leave policy reduced the gap

Adrienne E ten Cate

2007-01-01

286

Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

Furbish, Dale S.

2009-01-01

287

OFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE 2015/2016  

E-print Network

of Applicant Date HEAD: My signature certifies that I approve the Professional Development Leave requestOFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE � 2015/2016 The Professional Development Leave not receive FDL will count as FDLs. Department heads who have completed a full term of service and who are so

Bermúdez, José Luis

288

The essential oil of the leaves of Citrus limonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give the results of an investigation of the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from the leaves of the Meyer lemon. The leaves were collected in the period of the forced dormancy of plants growing in Sukhumi. The amount of essential oil in the leaves was 0.32%. The components of the essential oil were identified

N. A. Kekelidze; I. I. Dzhanikashvili

1982-01-01

289

Urea retention and uptake by avocado and apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution retention by avocado (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) and apple (Mallus domestica Burkh. cv. Anna) leaves was measured by weight gain of detached leaves after dipping them in solutions of two surfactants and by analysis of various concentrations of urea retained at zero time on surfaces of attached leaves. Linear regression equations were calulated, relating leaf area and retention of

Isaac Klein; Shmuel Zilkah

1986-01-01

290

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves , L. Mahadevan*  

E-print Network

. Although photosynthesis, rather than water loss, is the desideratum of living leaves, the sharedOptimal vein density in artificial and real leaves X. Noblin* , L. Mahadevan*§ , I. A. Coomaraswamy. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks

Mahadevan, L.

291

Original article The effect of light acclimation of single leaves  

E-print Network

model / photosynthesis / acclimation / shade leaves / Alnus glutinosa Résumé ­ Effets de lOriginal article The effect of light acclimation of single leaves on whole tree growth tree species, widespread but always restrict- ed to wet habitats. Because no sun and shade leaves can

Boyer, Edmond

292

Plant physiology Reduction of photosynthesis in sun leaves  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Reduction of photosynthesis in sun leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L under conditions (Received 20 December 1992; accepted 30 April 1993) Summary — Attached sun leaves of cotton (Gossypium in Amax was most severe at 1 800 ?mol photons m-2s-1 and 20°C. The leaves exposed to these conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

2002-01-01

294

Parents' Workplace Situation and Fathers' Parental Leave Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how the workplace situation of both parents affects fathers' parental leave use. We used parental leave-taking register data from Statistics Sweden for dual-earner couples who resided in Stockholm and had children in 1997 (n=3,755). The results indicate that fathers shorten their parental leave if their workplaces are such that…

Bygren, Magnus; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

2006-01-01

295

Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Leave for Active Military Duty Form questions: (813) 974-5717 Rev. 04/2010 Overview - Faculty, Administration, and Staff employees who are ordered to active military service (not active duty training

Meyers, Steven D.

296

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employee is requesting leave to care; (2) The relationship...employee is requesting leave to care; (3) Whether the covered...Forces receiving medical care as outpatients (such as a medical hold or warrior transition unit), and the name...

2013-07-01

297

The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

When the detached first leaves of green or etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv. Victory) seedlings senesce in the dark, their oxygen consumption shows a large increase, beginning after 24 hours and reaching a peak of up to 2.5 times the initial rate by the 3rd day. This effect takes place while the chlorophyll of green leaves, or the carotenoid of etiolated leaves, is steadily decreasing. Kinetin, at a concentration which inhibits the decrease in pigment, completely prevents the respiratory rise; instead, the oxygen consumption drifts downwards. Lower kinetin concentrations have a proportional effect, 50% reduction of respiration being given by about 0.1 mg/l. About one-fifth of the respiratory rise may be attributed to the free amino acids which are liberated during senescence; several amino acids are shown to cause increases of almost 50% in the oxygen consumption when supplied at the concentrations of total amino acid present during senescence. A smaller part of the rise may also be due to soluble sugars liberated during senescence, largely coming from the hydrolysis of a presumptive fructosan. The remainder, and the largest part, of the increase is ascribed to a natural uncoupling of respiration from phosphorylation. This is deduced from the fact that dinitrophenol causes a similar large rise in the oxygen consumption of the fresh leaves or of leaf segments kept green with kinetin, but causes only a very small rise when the oxygen consumption is near its peak in senescent controls. The respiration of these leaves is resistant to cyanide, and 10 mm KCN even increases it by some 30%; in contrast, etiolated leaves of the same age, which undergo a similar rise in oxygen consumption over the same time period, show normal sensitivity to cyanide. The respiratory quotient during senescence goes down as low as 0.7, both with and without kinetin, though it is somewhat increased by supplying sugars or amino acids; glucose or alanine at 0.3 m bring it up to 1.0 and 0.87, respectively. N6-Benzylaminopurine and ?-2-isopentenylaminopurine act similarly to kinetin in repressing the respiratory rise, the former being five times as active as kinetin, while the latter has only 1% of the activity of kinetin. Zeatin also powerfully prevents senescence. Because the repression of the respiratory rise is shown by each cytokinin at the concentration at which it inhibits senescence, the action is ascribed in both cases to the maintenance of a tight coupling between respiration and phosphorylation. It is pointed out that such an effect would explain many features of cytokinin action. A change in the methodology of the senescence experiments is described and compared with the method previously used, and the influence of temperature and age of the plants on the course of leaf senescence are presented in detail. PMID:16658877

Tetley, Richard M.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1974-01-01

298

Fathers' rights to paid parental leave in the Nordic countries: consequences for the gendered division of leave  

Microsoft Academic Search

European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers

Linda Haas; Tine Rostgaard

2011-01-01

299

Chapter 16 Leave of Absence 16.10 Paternity Leave FMLA, WFMLA, and Contract/Admin code  

E-print Network

Chapter 16 Leave of Absence 16.10 Paternity Leave FMLA, WFMLA, and Contract/Admin code Employees. The six month leave without pay provision under the contract or Admin Code is the most generous benefit and administrative code for unrepresented classified employees. First six weeks: Employee would receive six weeks

Sheridan, Jennifer

300

Adoption Leave Agreement 1 The University's adoption leave agreement provides benefits at a higher level than the  

E-print Network

Adoption Leave Agreement 1 The University's adoption leave agreement provides benefits at a higher level than the legal minimum, and so some of the requirements of the University's adoption leave Resources. 2 An adopter is a person who has been matched with a child for adoption or, if a couple have been

Greenaway, Alan

301

Antioxidant lignoids from leaves of Ribes nigrum.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Ribes nigrum resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds, including four 7,7'-epoxylignans, three tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignans, and a spirocyclic dilignan. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and by chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using superoxide anion scavenging assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Ribesin D and ribesin G showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with EC50 values of 1.24 and 1.12 ?M, respectively, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. PMID:23958345

Sasaki, Tatsunori; Li, Wei; Zaike, Shinnosuke; Asada, Yoshihisa; Li, Qin; Ma, Fenghua; Zhang, Qingbo; Koike, Kazuo

2013-11-01

302

Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.  

PubMed

Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259

Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

2009-03-01

303

Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-06-01

304

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

2011-11-01

305

5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2010-01-01

306

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2013-01-01

307

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2014-01-01

308

5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2011-01-01

309

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2012-01-01

310

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mid-way through a shift, such as where...otherwise work 40 hours a week takes off...up to a total of 12 workweeks of leave...weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the...period (including any hours for which the...

2013-07-01

311

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves.  

PubMed

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves growing in Dehra Dun (India) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and showed the presence of sixty-six compounds. Such a study has not been done earlier on the Indian oil. Thirty-five compounds, constituting 74.96% of the oil, were identified. The main compounds are viridiflorol (19.55%), beta-caryophyllene (16.59%), sabinene (12.07%), 4-terpineol (9.65%), gamma-terpinene (2.21%), caryophyllene oxide (1.75%), 1-oceten-3-ol (1.59%), and globulol (1.05%). Viridiflorol is being reported for the first time in the oil of Vitex species. PMID:17260284

Singh, V; Dayal, R; Bartley, J P

1999-08-01

312

Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

The ATP content of 7-day-old Avena sativa leaves during senescence in dark and in light, and after treatment with cytokinins and other reagents, has been determined by the luciferin-luciferase method. Special care was taken to avoid decomposition of the ATP, and a detailed procedure is presented for ATP analysis at the picomole level. Preliminary experiments with several inhibitors of photophosphorylation suggest, though not conclusively, that the delaying effect of light on senescence is mediated by photophosphorylation. The ATP values of the leaves senescing in darkness are found to increase in parallel with the large increase in respiratory rate, and kinetin prevents this increase just as completely as it prevents the respiratory rise. It is concluded that the respiratory increase in senescence cannot be simply due to uncoupling. In light the ATP level also rises, though more slowly, and again kinetin prevents this rise. l-Serine, which promotes dark senescence, does not significantly modify the dark ATP level, but both arginine and kinetin, which antagonize the action of serine on senescence, greatly lower the ATP level below that on serine alone. Cycloheximide has a similar effect, and the combination of cycloheximide and kinetin lowers the ATP level drastically. Fusicoccin, which opens stomata in the dark, correspondingly maintains the ATP at a low level. Thus, in general, a low level of ATP is associated with the prevention of dark senescence, i.e. probably with ATP utilization, and the ATP level at any time may thus be determined more by the rate of utilization than by the efficiency of respiratory coupling. PMID:16661296

Malik, Nasir S. A.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1980-01-01

313

[Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents, twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 1-undecanol (3), 1-eicosanol (4), daucosterol (5), 6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6), 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7), rhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11), hyperoside (12), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13), astragalin (14), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 6)-[alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside] (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), quercetin (19), kaempferol (20), dehydronuciferine (21), roemerine (22), stigmast-7-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (24), and benzene-1,2-diol (25) on the basis of spectral data analysis. Compounds 1, 6, 7, 8, 24 and 25 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 15-18 were isolated from the leaves for the first time. Compounds 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 showed inhibitory activities against beta amyloid (1-42) by A-beta aggregation method with inhibition rates of (63.99 +/- 24.29)%, (79.61 +/- 4.49)%, (49.96 +/- 12.61)%, (101.19 +/- 8.19)%, (88.41+/-6.76)% and (72.48 +/- 8.97)%, respectively. PMID:23724680

Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jing, Wen-Guang; Liu, An

2013-03-01

314

Limitations to photosynthesis in coffee leaves from different canopy positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations to photosynthesis were explored in leaves from four canopy positions of field-grown, unshaded coffee (Coffea arabica L.), a tropical tree species classified as shade-obligatory. Overall, compared to shade (lower) leaves, sun (upper) leaves had higher net carbon assimilation rate (A) (4.5 against 2.0?molm?2s?1 at most) associated with higher electron transport rate (due to a greater irradiance availability) but unrelated

Wagner L. Araujo; Paulo C. Dias; Gustavo A. B. K. Moraes; Elaine F. Celin; Roberto L. Cunha; Raimundo S. Barros; Fábio M. DaMatta

2008-01-01

315

Parental Leave and Gender Equality: Lessons from the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of European Union parental leave policy and its impact on mothers'and fathers'access to parental leave in the individual nations that make up the union. Cross-national variations in parental leave policy are described and analyzed. Although the 15 countries belonging to the EU in 2002 are concerned about helping working parents reconcile employment and family responsibilities,

LINDA HAAS

2003-01-01

316

The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

1989-01-01

317

Leaf life span of floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic capacity of floating-leaved plants is relatively high comparable with terrestrial herbaceous plants, though floating-leaved plants have a much smaller biomass with a leaf area index seldom exceeding 2m2m-2. Their rather small biomass accumulation is related to higher turnover of leaf biomass or shorter leaf life span. Life span of floating leaves reported in the literature ranged mostly from 13

T. Tsuchiya

1991-01-01

318

Dept/Fund Account LEAVE Report for Faculty and Professional Staff  

E-print Network

Earnings Codes Regular Salary JTS ­ Job Injury-Sick JRS ­ Jury Duty MLS ­ Military Leave SCS ­ Sick leave SMS ­ Sick Leave Family SRS ­ Sick Bereavement VCS - Vacation Earnings Codes Temporary Salary JHS ­ Job Injury-Sick JUS ­ Jury Duty MTS ­ Military Leave SIS ­ Sick Leave SFS ­ Sick Leave Family SHS

Barrash, Warren

319

Succession of microfungal communities on decaying leaves of Castanopsis fissa.  

PubMed

A total of 38 fungal taxa were identified on senescent untreated and autoclaved Castanopsis fissa leaves during a 4-month study period. Seventy-six percent of the fungal genera found in this survey have not previously been recorded from Castanopsis. Frequency and time of occurrence of fungal taxa occurring on untreated senescent leaves were clustered into four groups when analyzed by cluster analysis, suggesting the replacement of microfungi in stages of succession on naturally senescent leaves. Autoclaved leaves revealed significantly different fungal communities, with only 26% of overlap with the natural ones and no clear patterns of replacement of fungal communities. Factors regulating the rates of decomposition are also discussed. PMID:16333336

Tang, Alvin M C; Jeewon, Rajesh; Hyde, Kevin D

2005-11-01

320

Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

None

2012-01-01

321

Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.  

PubMed

Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

2014-01-01

322

Request for Leave of Absence Form PLEASE COMPLETE AND RETURN THIS FORM TO YOUR SUPERVISOR 30 DAYS IN ADVANCE OF LEAVE IF POSSIBLE  

E-print Network

) ­ Only for Nurses under UC/CNA labor contract ° ° Provide the Date of Birth or Placement of Child (if or when employee is ineligible for other leaves) Personal Leave (Non-Medical Reason) Union Business Leave

Leistikow, Bruce N.

323

Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

2013-02-01

324

Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division. PMID:15161195

Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

2004-06-01

325

Measuring surface potential changes on leaves.  

PubMed

We provide here a detailed protocol for studying the changes in electrical surface potential of leaves. This method has been developed over the years by plant physiologists and is currently used in different variants in many laboratories. The protocol records surface potential changes to measure long-distance electrical signals induced by diverse stimuli such as leaf wounding or current injection. This technique can be used to determine signaling speeds, to measure the connectivity between different plant organs and-by exploiting mutant plants-to identify transporters and ion channels involved in electrical signaling. The approach can be combined with the analysis of mRNA expression and of metabolite concentrations to correlate electrical signaling to specific physiological events. We describe how to use this protocol on Arabidopsis, looking at the effects of leaf wounding; however, it is broadly applicable to other plants and can be used to study other aspects of plant physiology. After wound infliction, surface potential recording takes ?20 min per plant. PMID:25058646

Mousavi, Seyed A R; Nguyen, Chi Tam; Farmer, Edward E; Kellenberger, Stephan

2014-08-01

326

31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Credit Must Be Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. ...separated for retirement as of June 30, 1997, Federal Benefit Payments include credit...separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused sick leave is creditable...

2010-07-01

327

Photosynthetic strategies in leaves and stems of Egeria densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic mechanisms have been compared in leaves and, separately, in stems of Egeria densa Planch. In order to correlate the structural and functional characteristics of the two organs (1) the ultrastructural features of leaves and stems have been studied and (2) their photosynthetic activity has been evaluated by measuring in vivo both oxygen evolution and the kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence.

Nicoletta Rascio; Paola Mariani; Emanuela Tommasini; Maria Bodner; Walter Larcher

1991-01-01

328

5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...paragraph (c) of this section, an employee who has had a break in service is entitled to a recredit of sick leave (without...District of Columbia before October 1, 1987, who has had a break in service is entitled to a recredit of sick leave...

2010-01-01

329

Photosynthetic energy storage in aquatic leaves measured by photothermal deflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of photosynthetic energy storage efficiency (ES), the adaxial surface of the leaves of Vallisneria americana exhibited the highest ES values (22%) of the four aquatic plants examined. V. americana leaves have a dispersed structure and it was possible to measure the energy storage properties of the epidermal cells independently of the rest of the leaf. The abaxial

John Sinclair; Charles E. Hall

1995-01-01

330

The Family and Medical Leave Act. Final rule.  

PubMed

This Final Rule amends certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (the FMLA or the Act) to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the Act made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the servicemember's deployment; defines those deployments covered under these provisions; extends FMLA military caregiver leave for family members of current servicemembers to include an injury or illness that existed prior to service and was aggravated in the line of duty on active duty; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries or illnesses. This Final Rule also amends the regulations to implement the Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act, which establishes eligibility requirements specifically for airline flight crewmembers and flight attendants for FMLA leave and authorizes the Department to issue regulations regarding the calculation of leave for such employees as well as special recordkeeping requirements for their employers. In addition, the Final Rule includes clarifying changes concerning the calculation of intermittent or reduced schedule FMLA leave; reorganization of certain sections to enhance clarity; the removal of the forms from the regulations; and technical corrections to the current regulations. PMID:23476974

2013-02-01

331

Some pharmacognostical characteristics of moringa oleifera lam. Leaves.  

PubMed

The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556759

Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

1996-04-01

332

Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

Dern, Daniel P.

1997-01-01

333

LSUHSC Department of Genetics Request for Leave Graduate Students  

E-print Network

Death in family Care for an immediate family member with a serious health condition Personal leave not accrue vacation or sick leave. Therefore, this document serves as an advisory for students requesting laboratory work, coursework or other school duties must get prior approval from their advisor

334

Usage of parental leave by fathers in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fathers' participation in childcare is not only important in promoting gender equality but can be also important for the child's better upbringing. To promote fathers' involvement and participation in childcare, in the 1990s Norway and other Scandinavian countries have evolved their parental leave schemes such that employed fathers may have equal access to paid parental leave as mothers.

Ghazala Naz

2010-01-01

335

THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Medical Leave Statute 2007  

E-print Network

Discrimination Act 9 15 Discipline Rules and serious health conditions 9 16 Effect of cancellation of enrolment, psychological or allied health practitioner; medical leave means leave of absence from the University taken the University or to pursue or study a program or course, that: #12;3 (i) is likely to physically endanger

Botea, Adi

336

Personal Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University  

E-print Network

. If the employee withdraws from the program of study at a date in advance of the termination of the leave, hePersonal Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University Employee Name: ______________________________________________________________________________ Last Name First Name MI Employee Id: _______________ Title:____________________ Department

Hutcheon, James M.

337

Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

2000-01-01

338

Fungi, leaves, and the theory of island biogeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species dynamics of fungi (filamentous fungi and yeasts) on apple leaves were studied within the framework of the theory of island biogeography by following “immigration” and “extinction” patterns on individual apple leaf “islands” over time. Total fungi were censused on unmanipulated leaves collected throughout two seasons; filamentous fungi only were monitored additionally for several weeks in one season on newly

John H. Andrews; Linda L. Kinkel; Flora M. Berbee; Erik V. Nordheim

1987-01-01

339

Why Do New Teachers Leave? How Could They Stay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article posits that some teachers leave the profession because they entered it with unrealistic expectations, and that the reality of multiple preparations, unpaid orientation sessions, and large student loads is overburdening.for new teachers. Many new teachers leave their positions because of the dissonance between their…

Simos, Elaine

2013-01-01

340

GRADUATE STUDENT FALL-SPRING INTERNSHIP LEAVE APPROVAL FORM  

E-print Network

GRADUATE STUDENT FALL-SPRING INTERNSHIP LEAVE APPROVAL FORM Instructions: This form should to participate in a fall or spring internship; (3) want to continue their Graduate Student Assistant (GSA) health of the internship semester. See Graduate School Policies and Procedures, Chapter 5, section on Internship Leave

Collins, Gary S.

341

Extracts of ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves produce reversible inhibition of rat brain monoamine oxidase (MAO). Both MAO-A and -B types were inhibited to a similar extent. The MAO inhibitory compound(s) were present in dried or fresh Ginkgo biloba leaves as well as in commercially available capsules of Ginkgo biloba and appear to be heat stable with relatively low molecular weight. MAO

Helen L. White; Philip W. Scates; Barrett R. Cooper

1996-01-01

342

Stomatal Characterization of Grass Leaves by Four Preparation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four leaf preparation techniques (air drying, tetramethylsilane air drying, critical point drying, and freeze substitution) used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated with respect to the degree of cellular distortion they produce in stomatal guard cells of leaves of Dactylis glomerata and Elymus canadensis. Surface morphological distortion and cuticle disruption in the air-dried and tetramethylsilane air-dried leaves, and cuticle

Joyce Phillips Hardy; Val Jo Anderson; John S. Gardner

1995-01-01

343

University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay  

E-print Network

family relationship but is not an immediate relative. This includes a male or a female in a same sex Statutory Paternity Pay 5 7. Return to work dates 6 8. Antenatal care 6 9. Pension arrangements during paternity leave 6 10. Work during paternity leave and keeping in touch 8 11. Sickness prior to or during

Sussex, University of

344

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

345

Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

346

Pregnant Staff and Parental Leave: Policies and Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews health concerns and considerations for pregnant child care staff and discusses elements to include when developing or revising parental leave policies and procedures. Summarizes the elements of an exemplary comprehensive leave policy and supports the positions presented with the related federal legislation. (AA)

Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla Jo

1995-01-01

347

Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in willow leaves under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll fluorescence of leaves of a willow (Salix sp.) stand grown in the field in northern Sweden was measured on several occasions during the growing season of 1987. For leaves that received mostly full daylight, the FV\\/FP ratio declined roughtly 15% in the afternoon on cloudless days in July (FP is the fluorescence at the peak of the induction curve

Erling Ögren

1988-01-01

348

The relationship between phosphate status and photosynthesis in leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning and intracellular distribution of orthophosphate (Pi) in barly (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves were measured in plants grown with either 25, 1 or 0 mmol· 1-1 nutrient phosphate supply. Phosphate deficiency resulted in a significant decrease in the leaf Pi, diminished rates of photosynthesis and a decrease in the sucrose\\/starch ratio in the leaves. Changes in the cytoplasmic

C. Foyer; C. Spencer

1986-01-01

349

Available starch pools in mature soybean leaves. [Glycine max  

SciTech Connect

Soybeans, Glycine max, were grown in the greenhouse and in the field under conditions that varied CO/sub 2/ levels, irradiance, and photosynthetic period. Photosynthesis, sucrose export rate, starch accumulation, and starch mobilization were measured in mature leaves and compared to expansion of developing leaves two nodes above. Measurements were made daily over a twelve day period. Measured parameters in mature leaves varied daily with night expansion of the growing leaves. Starch accumulation and photosynthesis were affected by the environmental factors while sucrose export rate and starch mobilization were affected only if growth of the expanding leaves changed. The data indicated that influence of night expansion of developing leaves and influence of the environmental factors on photosynthesis caused two pools of starch to be formed in mature leaves. Concentration of each starch pool was calculated. The pool associated with night growth of expanding leaves was positively correlated with photosynthesis and sucrose export rate. The other pool, a storage, was negatively correlated with these parameters. Starch mobilization was comprised of starch from either pool, depending on the plant's environment or it was comprised of starch from both pools.

Highsmith, M.

1987-04-01

350

Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models  

E-print Network

Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models Jonathan Chang Jordan Boyd-Graber Sean, Blei Reading Tea Leaves #12;Topic Models in a Nutshell From an input corpus words to topics Forget Red Light, Green Light: A 2-Tone L.E.D. to Simplify Screens Corpus Chang, Boyd-Graber, Wang, Gerrish

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

351

Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

2013-01-01

352

Leaving the Parental Home: Patterns in Six Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used mid-1970s World Fertility Survey cross-sectional data to analyze sociodemographic determinants of home-leaving by young Latin American adults (N=68,534). Found marriage as major reason for home-leaving and sex, urban/rural residence, education, and work as other important determinants. Noted international differences. (Author/CM))

De Vos, Susan

1989-01-01

353

The 'Leaving School Early' Students: Characteristics and Opinions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Toronto School Board runs a Leaving School Early (L.S.E.) program, which allows students under age 16 legally to leave school and get jobs. A group of 392 students registered in the program were surveyed by telephone in order to collect information about their characteristics and opinions. The data were to be used by administrators, trustees…

Larter, Sylvia; Eason, Gary

354

HR & Payroll 05.16.2011 LEAVE OPTIONS @ MASON  

E-print Network

is intended for use when an individual is unable to work due to illness, injury, or disability due to medical by either working or having paid leave to cover the scheduled work shift on the work day before and the work of the death of an immediate family member. ·Sick leave may be used if the employee is in the traditional sick

355

Emergency Preparation 1. If possible, never leave your animals behind  

E-print Network

left behind can easily get injured, lost, or killed. If animals are tied to something, their chanceEmergency Preparation 1. If possible, never leave your animals behind during an evacuation. Animals in leaving your horses behind risking their safety and survival. 5. If you do not have a trailer, make

Selmic, Sandra

356

Light-dependent modification of Photosystem II in spinach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dark-adapted spinach leaves approximately one third of the Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers are impaired in their ability to transfer electrons to Photosystem I. Although these ‘inactive’ PS II centers are capable of reducing the primary quinone acceptor, QA, oxidation of QA- occurs approximately 1000 times more slowly than at ‘active’ centers. Previous studies based on dark-adapted leaves

Kevin Oxborough; Ladislav Nedbal; Roger A. Chylla; John Whitmarsh

1996-01-01

357

Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave  

E-print Network

Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Relationship of covered military member to you

Sheridan, Jennifer

358

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35  

E-print Network

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35 Applies to: Faculty and staff The Ohio State/25/1994 Revised: 06/17/2002 Edited: 11/15/2006 Faculty and staff are eligible for military leave benefits military pay. Calendar year - the year beginning on the first day of January and ending on the last day

Jones, Michelle

359

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35  

E-print Network

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty and staff POLICY Issued: 10/01/1973 Edited: 04/15/2014 Faculty and staff are eligible for military leave military pay. Calendar year The year beginning on the first day of January and ending on the last day

Howat, Ian M.

360

Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

2014-01-01

361

Autumn Leaves: Excellence in Design Development Using Draping Techniques, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to make a gown that glorifies the colors and shapes of fall leaves. The plan was to exhibit replica leaves of fabric by sandwiching them between layers of satin and tulle. The top layer of tulle was necessary to inhibit the abrasion of the raw fabric edges and to create the composite fabric. Inspiration

Carolyn Schactler

2010-01-01

362

Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Pers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kalanchoe pinnata Pers. is naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India. Juice of the fresh leaves is used very effectively for the treatment of jaundice in folk medicines of Bundelkhand region of India. The juice of the leaves and the ethanolic extract of the marc left after expressing the juice were studied in rats against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The

N. P Yadav; V. K Dixit

2003-01-01

363

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa  

PubMed Central

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-01-01

364

Early effects of the san francisco paid sick leave policy.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined employers' responses to San Francisco, California's 2007 Paid Sick Leave Ordinance. Methods. We used the 2009 Bay Area Employer Health Benefits Survey to describe sick leave policy changes and the policy's effects on firm (n?=?699) operations. Results. The proportion of firms offering paid sick leave in San Francisco grew from 73% in 2006 to 91% in 2009, with large firms (99%) more likely to offer sick leave than are small firms (86%) in 2009. Most firms (57%) did not make any changes to their sick leave policy, although 17% made a major change to sick leave policy to comply with the law. Firms beginning to offer sick leave reported reductions in other benefits (39%), worse profitability (32%), and increases in prices (18%) but better employee morale (17%) and high support for the policy (71%). Many employers (58%) reported some difficulty understanding legal requirements, complying administratively, or reassigning work responsibilities. Conclusions. There was a substantial increase in paid sick leave coverage after the mandate. Employers reported some difficulties in complying with the law but supported the policy overall. PMID:24432927

Colla, Carrie H; Dow, William H; Dube, Arindrajit; Lovell, Vicky

2014-12-01

365

Length of Leave Requested Requested FROM: Date Requested TO  

E-print Network

______________________________ Or email support documentation FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Request Approved Effect Date of Leave of Absence ____________ Student # Date of Birth DD/MM/YYYY Last Name Telephone # - - First Name E-mail (required) @unbc.ca Reason the period of leave. � In order to process the request, this form must be submitted two weeks before

Northern British Columbia, University of

366

The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.  

PubMed

Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results. PMID:24135861

Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

2013-12-01

367

Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

G. J. Kenagy

1972-01-01

368

Child Care for Families Leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program in 1996, the welfare rolls have decreased by more than 40 percent. While unemployment and poverty rates have declined, families who leave welfare generally earn low wages and remain below the poverty level. Because families leaving welfare are mostly single mothers with young children,

Rebecca L. Scharf; Sujatha Jagadeesh Branch; Cynthia Godsoe; Sherry Leiwant; Roslyn Powell; Cary LaCheen

2001-01-01

369

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

370

Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the

Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

2007-01-01

371

Optical Parameters of Leaves of 30 Plant Species 1  

PubMed Central

Optical parameters (absorption coefficient k, infinite reflectance R?, scattering coefficient 8) are tabulated for seven wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for 30 plant species. The wavelengths are: 550 nm (green reflectance peak), 650 nm (chlorophyll absorption band), 850 nm (infrared reflectance plateau), 1450 nm (water absorption band), 1650 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1450 nm), 1950 nm (water absorption band), and 2200 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1950 nm). Thick, complex dorsiventral (bifacial mesophyll) leaves such as rubber plant, begonia, sedum, and privet had lower R? values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, peach, bean, rose) or essentially centric (undifferentiated mesophyll) sorghum and corn leaves. Infinite reflectance was negatively correlated with leaf thickness (?0.734**). Thick, complex dorsiventral leaves (crinum, oleander, privet, rubber plant, sedum) had higher (p 0.01) k values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, rose, peach) or essentially centric sorghum, sugarcane, and corn leaves. A coefficient of 0.718** was obtained for the correlation of k values with leaf thickness values. Complex dorsiventral oleander, orange, and crinum leaves had higher (p 0.01) 8 values than less complex dorsiventral (i.e., onion, begonia, banana) or centric leaves (i.e., corn and sugarcane). The scattering coefficient was not correlated with leaf thickness. PMID:16658499

Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.

1973-01-01

372

The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070

Maclean, Johanna Catherine

2013-09-01

373

Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves.  

PubMed

The epiphytic bacterial communities colonising roots and leaves have been described for many plant species. In contrast, microbiologists have rarely considered flowers of naturally growing plants. We identified bacteria isolated from the surface of petals and leaves of two plant species, Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae). The bacterial diversity was much lower on petals than on leaves of the same plants. Moreover, the bacterial communities differed strongly in composition: while Pseudomonadaceae and Microbacteriaceae were the most abundant families on leaves, Enterobacteriaceae dominated the floral communities. We hypothesise that antibacterial floral volatiles trigger the low diversity on petals, which is supported by agar diffusion assays using substances emitted by flowers and leaves of S. officinalis. These results suggest that bacteria should be included in the interpretation of floral traits, and possible effects of bacteria on pollination are proposed and discussed. PMID:21972888

Junker, R R; Loewel, C; Gross, R; Dötterl, S; Keller, A; Blüthgen, N

2011-11-01

374

Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.

Viskelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

2014-01-01

375

Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.  

PubMed

A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, ?ukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

2014-09-01

376

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

Sharkey, Thomas D

2012-05-03

377

The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

378

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

Thomas D. Sharkey

2010-01-28

379

Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes  

PubMed Central

Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2013-01-01

380

Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.  

PubMed

Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2013-01-01

381

Acetaldehyde and Ethanol Biosynthesis in Leaves of Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N2 and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N2, all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation. PMID:16665585

Kimmerer, Thomas W.; MacDonald, Robert C.

1987-01-01

382

Photosynthesis of individual field-grown cotton leaves during ontogeny.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic characteristics of field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves were determined at several insertion levels within the canopy during the growing season. Single-leaf measurements of net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance to CO2 (gs·CO2), substomatal CO2, leaf area expansion, leaf nitrogen, and light intensity (PPFD) were recorded for undisturbed leaves within the crop canopy at 3-4 day intervals during the development of all leaves at main-stem nodes 8, 10, and 12. Patterns of Pn during leaf ontogeny exhibited three distinct phases; a rapid increase to maximum at 16-20 days after leaf unfolding, a relatively short plateau, and a period of linear decline to negligible Pn at 60-65 days. Analysis of the parameters which contributed to the rise and fall pattern of Pn with leaf age indicated the primary involvement of leaf area expansion, leaf nitrogen, PPFD, and gs·CO2 in this process. The response of Pn and gs·CO2 to incident PPFD conditions during canopy development was highly age dependent. For leaves less than 16 days old, the patterns of Pn and gs·CO2 were largely controlled by non-PPFD factors, while for older leaves Pn and gs·CO2 were more closely coupled to PPFD-mediated processes. Maximum values of Pn were not significantly different for any of the leaves monitored in this study, however, those leaves at main-stem node 8 did possess a significantly diminished photosynthetic capacity with age compared to upper canopy leaves. This accelerated decline in Pn could not be explained by age-related variations in gs·CO2 since all leaves showed similar changes in gs·CO2 with leaf age. PMID:24421058

Wullschleger, S D; Oosterhuis, D M

1990-02-01

383

Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.  

PubMed

RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid. PMID:16665768

Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

1987-11-01

384

Photoinactivation of photosystem II in leaves.  

PubMed

Photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PS II), the light-induced loss of ability to evolve oxygen, inevitably occurs under any light environment in nature, counteracted by repair. Under certain conditions, the extent of photoinactivation of PS II depends on the photon exposure (light dosage, x), rather than the irradiance or duration of illumination per se, thus obeying the law of reciprocity of irradiance and duration of illumination, namely, that equal photon exposure produces an equal effect. If the probability of photoinactivation (p) of PS II is directly proportional to an increment in photon exposure (p = kDeltax, where k is the probability per unit photon exposure), it can be deduced that the number of active PS II complexes decreases exponentially as a function of photon exposure: N = Noexp(-kx). Further, since a photon exposure is usually achieved by varying the illumination time (t) at constant irradiance (I), N = Noexp(-kI t), i.e., N decreases exponentially with time, with a rate coefficient of photoinactivation kI, where the product kI is obviously directly proportional to I. Given that N = Noexp(-kx), the quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II can be defined as -dN/dx = kN, which varies with the number of active PS II complexes remaining. Typically, the quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II is ca. 0.1micromol PS II per mol photons at low photon exposure when repair is inhibited. That is, when about 10(7) photons have been received by leaf tissue, one PS II complex is inactivated. Some species such as grapevine have a much lower quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II, even at a chilling temperature. Examination of the longer-term time course of photoinactivation of PS II in capsicum leaves reveals that the decrease in N deviates from a single-exponential decay when the majority of the PS II complexes are inactivated in the absence of repair. This can be attributed to the formation of strong quenchers in severely-photoinactivated PS II complexes, able to dissipate excitation energy efficiently and to protect the remaining active neighbours against damage by light. PMID:16049752

Chow, Wah Soon; Lee, Hae-Youn; He, Jie; Hendrickson, Luke; Hong, Young-Nam; Matsubara, Shizue

2005-06-01

385

Personal Leave Guidelines for Senior Research Associates and Research Associates (Limited Term)  

E-print Network

of religious holidays, professional appointments, moving, supplementing a bereavement leave, and attending entitlements under the Primary Caregiver Leave or Parental Leave policies.) #12;2 c) Bereavement Leave Senior Research Associates and Research Associates (Limited Term) may take paid bereavement leave in the event

Toronto, University of

386

The Paternity Leave Act in Iceland: implications for gender equality in the labour market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Icelandic Act on Maternity\\/Paternity and Parental Leave (2000) introduced some major changes. The leave was extended from 6 to 9 months, and parents who were active in the labour market were paid 80% of their average salaries during the leave. The 9 months' leave was distributed so that mothers could take 3 months' leave, fathers could take 3 months'

Bjorn Thor Arnarson; Aparna Mitra

2010-01-01

387

Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Cultivated Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated\\u000a and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified\\u000a as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03–16.33 mg\\/g).

Jing Z. Dong; Da Y. Lu; Y. Wang

2009-01-01

388

Cytokinins in the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba1  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin conjugates of zeatin, ribosylzeatin, and their respective dihydro derivatives tentatively have been identified as the major cytokinins present in mature Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Ribosylzeatin was present in higher levels than zeatin and dihydrozeatin. No evidence could be found that 6-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutylamino)purine occurs as a metabolite in the mature leaves. From the available evidence, it is concluded that cytokinin conjugates are probably the major metabolites formed in the leaves of this deciduous gymnosperm. PMID:16663198

Van Staden, Johannes; Hutton, Margaret J.; Drewes, Siegfried E.

1983-01-01

389

APPLICATION FORM FOR PARENTAL LEAVE FORM PL/1 Please refer to the University of Sheffield Policy on Parental Leave before completing this  

E-print Network

attach a copy of evidence* that I am entitled to take Parental Leave for this child. Yes/No (*For exampleAPPLICATION FORM FOR PARENTAL LEAVE FORM PL/1 Please refer to the University of Sheffield Policy on Parental Leave before completing this form. An application for Parental Leave should be made to the Head

Barker, Jon

390

Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

1997-03-01

391

Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of Red-Osier Dogwood1  

PubMed Central

Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated that red-senescing leaves absorbed more light of blue-green to orange wavelengths (495–644 nm) compared with yellow-senescing leaves. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, we observed that maximum photosystem II (PSII) photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered from a high-light stress treatment, whereas yellow-senescing leaves failed to recover after 6 h of dark adaptation, which suggests photo-oxidative damage. Because no differences were observed in light response curves of effective PSII photon yield for red- and yellow-senescing leaves, differences between red- and yellow-senescing cannot be explained by differences in the capacities for photochemical and non-photochemical light energy dissipation. A role of anthocyanins as screening pigments was explored further by measuring the responses PSII photon yield to blue light, which is preferentially absorbed by anthocyanins, versus red light, which is poorly absorbed. We found that dark-adapted PSII photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered rapidly following illumination with blue light. However, red light induced a similar, prolonged decrease in PSII photon yield in both red- and yellow-senescing leaves. We suggest that optical masking of chlorophyll by anthocyanins reduces risk of photo-oxidative damage to leaf cells as they senesce, which otherwise may lower the efficiency of nutrient retrieval from senescing autumn leaves. PMID:11598230

Feild, Taylor S.; Lee, David W.; Holbrook, N. Michele

2001-01-01

392

Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

DeLucia, Evan H.

393

Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

DeLucia, Evan H.

394

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.  

PubMed

An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

2014-01-01

395

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2012-07-01

396

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2011-07-01

397

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2013-07-01

398

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2010-07-01

399

A flavonoid glycoside from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucofuranoside, mp 243?6°, was isolated from leaves ofPolygonum sachalinense Fr. Schm. and characterized on the basis of its spectral data. This is the second report of its occurrence in nature.

Sam Sik Kang; Won Sick Woo

1982-01-01

400

Biophysical Limitation of Cell Elongation in Cereal Leaves  

PubMed Central

Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall?yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

FRICKE, WIELAND

2002-01-01

401

Functional transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis leaves by biolistic bombardment  

E-print Network

Functional transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis leaves by biolistic bombardment Shoko, reproducible and relatively simple methodology for transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis tissues of its complete genome sequence and wealth of genetic genomic tools and resources, which include

Citovsky, Vitaly

402

A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2011-10-05

403

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...120 Section 825.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1)...

2012-07-01

404

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...120 Section 825.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1)...

2013-07-01

405

29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor,...

2013-07-01

406

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...120 Section 825.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1)...

2011-07-01

407

Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from Terminalia catappa leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts were prepared from green, yellow fallen and red fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) and their antioxidant activity, scavenging and chelating abilities were evaluated. Aqueous extracts from three different leaves showed high antioxidant activities and moderate scavenging abilities on hydroxyl radicals at 1mg\\/ml. EC50 values in antioxidant activity were 0.549–0.557mg\\/ml whereas those in scavenging ability on hydroxyl

Charng-Cherng Chyau; Pei-Tzu Ko; Jeng-Leun Mau

2006-01-01

408

Effect of light intensity on ammonia assimilation in maize leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of light on the metabolism of ammonia was studied by subjecting detached maize leaves to 150 or 1350 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR during incubation with the leaf base in 2 mM 15NH4Cl. After up to 60 min, leaves were extracted. Ammonia, glutamine, glycine, serine, alanine, and aspartate were separated by isothermal distillation and ion exchange chromatography. 15N enrichments

Ruth E. Klaus; Michael G. Berger; Heinrich P. Fock

1985-01-01

409

Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. • Methods Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. • Key Results Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves <1 mm long, then proliferate basipetally in the midrib. Lamina druses appear in the distal marginal teeth of leaves 3 cm long; from here they proliferate basipetally and towards midrib along major veins. In about two-thirds-grown leaves (6–9 cm length) druses are all adaxial to veins of most orders; a shift occurs then to formation of prisms, which appear first abaxial to, then all around, veins. Mature leaves have virtually all prisms encrusting all major veins, more sparsely along smaller minor veins. Late season leaves form epitactic crystals on existing prismatics. • Conclusions The developing and mature macropattern of P. serotina is almost the reverse of the pattern described previously in P. virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of organization that must be integrated with the anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches that have been dominant so far. PMID:16513655

LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

2006-01-01

410

Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple phenolic acids, 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, 4-O-methylpyridoxine and polyprenols. In the commercially important Ginkgo extracts some of these compound classes are no

Teris A van Beek

2002-01-01

411

Fathers and Parental LeaveAttitudes and Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the parental leave-taking behaviors and attitudes of a sample of 550 U.S. men whose wives\\/partners were pregnant, in a longitudinal design that assessed them during the middle trimester of pregnancy, 1 month after the birth, and 4 months after the birth. Identity theory provided the theoretical framework. The fathers' mean length of leave was 5 days, with

JANET SHIBLEY HYDE; MARILYN J. ESSEX; FRANCINE HORTON

1993-01-01

412

Physiological role of anthocyanin accumulation in common hazel juvenile leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common hazel (Corylus avellana L., Fusca rubra Dipp.) juvenile leaves from the periphery of the canopy and thus subjected to high fluxes of solar radiation are characterized\\u000a by red coloration due to anthocyanin accumulation disappearing in mature leaves. To elucidate the physiological role of anthocyanin\\u000a accumulation, the interrelations between anthocyanin content, a degree of attenuation by the pigments of the

A. E. Solovchenko; O. B. Chivkunova

2011-01-01

413

Optical Properties of Leaves: Modelling and Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the interpretation of leaves spectra following an approach based on modelling and laboratory studies.\\u000a First, the leaves structure and principal constituents are described together with the way they interact with light. The effects\\u000a of growth, senescence and environmental factors on the leaf optical properties are summarised. A laboratory study conducted\\u000a on drought stress of maize (Zea

Jean Verdebout; Stephane Jacquemoud; Guido Schmuck

414

The relationship between phosphate status and photosynthesis in leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown in hydroponic culture with varying levels of orthophosphate (Pi). When leaves were fed with 20 mmol·l-1 Pi at low CO2 concentrations, a temporary increase of CO2 uptake was observed in Pi-deficient leaves but not in those from plants grown at 1 mmol·l-1 Pi. At high concentrations of CO2 (at

K.-J. Dietz; C. Foyer

1986-01-01

415

Plant regeneration from leaves of sweet and sour cherry cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves excised from shoot cultures of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Burlat’, ‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Napoleon’ and ‘Schneiders’ and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cv. ‘Beutal Spacher Rexelle’ and ‘Morellenfeuer’ developed shoots on Lloyd and McCown woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 2mgl?1 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5–1mgl?1 ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). After cutting the leaves into three segments perpendicular to the midrib

Haoru Tang; Zhenglong Ren; Göts Reustle; Gabi Krczal

2002-01-01

416

Nutritional Value of Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina L.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritive value of Momordica balsamina L. leaves by analysing their proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral constituents. The results showed that the plant leaves had high moisture content (71.00±0.95% fresh weights). The concentration of estimate d crude protein and available carbohydrates on dry weight (DW) basis were 11.29 0.07% and

2006-01-01

417

Non-Represented Staff Other Leaves of Absence/Time Off Personal Day  

E-print Network

to their immediate supervisor and must include an outline as to the purpose of such leave. Bereavement Leave When, the employee will be allowed three days bereavement leave to attend the funeral or service and make

418

5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.  

...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. (a) When an employee leaves...or her civilian position to enter the military service, the employing agency...

2014-01-01

419

5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. (a) When an employee leaves...or her civilian position to enter the military service, the employing agency...

2010-01-01

420

Ultradian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in microgravity.  

PubMed

Ultradian movements of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves were discovered and studied under microgravity conditions in space. Weightlessness revealed new facets of these movements. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) was used in a long-term white-light, light-darkness (LD; 16 : 8 h) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Leaves reacted with slow up or down movement (time constant several hours) after transitions to darkness or light, respectively. Superimposed movements with periods of c. 80-90 min and small-amplitude pulsed movements of 45 min were present in the light. Signal analysis (fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis) revealed several types and frequencies of movements. Identical phase coupling was observed between the 45-min movements of the leaves of one plant. In darkness, movements of c. 120-min period were recorded. The EMCS allowed 0-g to 1-g transitions to be created. Leaves on plants germinated in microgravity started a negative gravitropic reaction after a delay of c. 30 min. Leaves grown on a 1-g centrifuge reacted to the same transition with an equal delay but had a weaker gravitropic response. The experiments provide unequivocal demonstrations of ultradian, self-sustained rhythmic movements in A. thaliana rosette leaves in the absence of the effect of gravity. PMID:19538548

Solheim, B G B; Johnsson, A; Iversen, T-H

2009-01-01

421

Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves  

SciTech Connect

The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period and with nocturnal leaf respiration. Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined.

Hendrix, D.L. (Dept. of Agriculture, Phoenix, AZ (United States)); Grange, R.I. (Inst. of Horticultural Research, Sussex (United Kingdom))

1991-01-01

422

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.  

PubMed

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

2008-01-01

423

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves  

PubMed Central

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

2008-01-01

424

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your leave application can be processed.  

E-print Network

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your Aid Officer Faculty member other than your advisor Family Dean Athletic Coach Resident Advisor or Head

Devoto, Stephen H.

425

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your leave application can be processed.  

E-print Network

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your Advisor Financial Aid Officer Faculty member other than your advisor Family Dean Athletic Coach Resident

Devoto, Stephen H.

426

Sucrose transporter1 functions in phloem loading in maize leaves  

PubMed Central

In most plants, sucrose is exported from source leaves to carbon-importing sink tissues to sustain their growth and metabolism. Apoplastic phloem-loading species require sucrose transporters (SUTs) to transport sucrose into the phloem. In many dicot plants, genetic and biochemical evidence has established that SUT1-type proteins function in phloem loading. However, the role of SUT1 in phloem loading in monocot plants is not clear since the rice (Oryza sativa) and sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) SUT1 orthologues do not appear to function in phloem loading of sucrose. A SUT1 gene was previously cloned from maize (Zea mays) and shown to have expression and biochemical activity consistent with a hypothesized role in phloem loading. To determine the biological function of SUT1 in maize, a sut1 mutant was isolated and characterized. sut1 mutant plants hyperaccumulate carbohydrates in mature leaves and display leaf chlorosis with premature senescence. In addition, sut1 mutants have greatly reduced stature, altered biomass partitioning, delayed flowering, and stunted tassel development. Cold-girdling wild-type leaves to block phloem transport phenocopied the sut1 mutants, supporting a role for maize SUT1 in sucrose export. Furthermore, application of 14C-sucrose to abraded sut1 mutant and wild-type leaves showed that sucrose export was greatly diminished in sut1 mutants compared with wild type. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SUT1 is crucial for efficient phloem loading of sucrose in maize leaves. PMID:19181865

Slewinski, Thomas L.; Meeley, Robert; Braun, David M.

2009-01-01

427

Unmet expectations: why nursing home staff leave care work.  

PubMed

Background.? The shortages of healthcare professionals have been a common topic in care of older people. Aim and objectives.? The aim of the present study was to illuminate what caused the nursing home caregivers to decide to leave their employment. Design.? A two-year intervention study was performed in three nursing homes in Sweden. Method.? This qualitative interview study was conducted with 18 caregivers who decided to leave their employment during the first year. Content analysis was the method used to analyse the interviews. Result.? The caregivers' decisions to leave their work in care of older people could be encompassed in one main category: 'Unmet Expectations'. Their experiences were lack of encouragement and trust and professional development. Feelings of insecurity, different opinions on the care delivered, being disregarded and betrayed followed as did thoughts of leaving work and pursing other opportunities. Conclusion.? The main findings indicated that organizational work pressure with information about pending financial cutbacks caused the caregivers to leave the nursing homes. Relevance to clinical practice.? The study's results show the value of meeting the needs of caregivers, as caregivers consider that they meet the needs of the older people. Optimal use of caregivers' skills, experiences, competence and respect for their aspirations is also likely to result in cost-efficient care. PMID:20925890

Fläckman, Birgitta; Sørlie, Venke; Kihlgren, Mona

2008-03-01

428

Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and pyrophosphorylase of bean leaves.  

PubMed

This report includes results demonstrating the existence of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase in plant leaves. The decarboxylase enzyme, purified 8 fold from leaves of etiolated pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), had a pH optimum of 6.3. It was strongly inhibited by 6-azauridine-5'-phosphate; a concentration of 12 mum decreased the reaction rate 60%. The enzyme was not dependent upon magnesium ions or inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. It was present in other parts of the bean plant and was found in young leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.)The enzyme orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase, which catalyzes the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphate from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, was found in the etiolated bean leaves, and was also present in the leaves of tomato and Canada thistle. It was stimulated by manganous or magnesium ions and had a pH optimum of 7.2. The K(m) value obtained by varying the concentrations of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate was 75 mum, and when orotic acid was varied the resulting K(m) was 3.5 mum. The presence of these 2 enzymes in higher plants, combined with previous results with inhibitors and labeled metabolites, indicates that the normal pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis in higher plants proceeds through orotic acid and OMP. PMID:6040896

Wolcott, J H; Ross, C

1967-02-01

429

Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers.  

PubMed

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of alpha-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S A; Asili, J; Mohagheghi, Z; Hassanzadeh, M K

2007-09-01

430

Effects of epiphyton onPotamogeton crispus L. leaves.  

PubMed

Potamogeton crispus L. grows as a winter producing annual in the shallow lakes of the Pongolo Floodplain, South Africa. Colonization of leaves by algal and bacterial epiphytes, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, followed the established pattern of increasing diversity and density with leaf age. It was apparent from the micrographs that the primary and subsequent colonizers were present even after death of the host leaf. Cross sections of leaves, viewed by transmission electron microscopy, illustrated that bacterial attachment did not damage the surface of young leaves. There was, however, extensive inward swelling and disorganization of the epidermal walls, characteristic of a reaction to invasion by pathogens. In older leaves the swelling was also present in mesophyll cells, while bacteria had invaded and degraded the epidermal cell wall. The bacterial invasion was concomitant with signs of senescence, and in dead leaves the organisms had penetrated and degraded the epidermis and mesophyll cell walls. The epiphyton/ host relationship may therefore be considered necrotrophic with important consequences for the transfer of energy from producers to consumers during decomposition. PMID:24227551

Rogers, K H; Breen, C M

1981-12-01

431

Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa. PMID:17610142

Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

2008-01-01

432

Interaction of Salmonella enterica with basil and other salad leaves.  

PubMed

Contaminated salad leaves have emerged as important vehicles for the transmission of enteric pathogens to humans. A recent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) in the United Kingdom has been traced to the consumption of contaminated basil. Using the outbreak strain of S. Senftenberg, we found that it binds to basil, lettuce, rocket and spinach leaves showing a pattern of diffuse adhesion. Flagella were seen linking S. Senftenberg to the leaf epidermis, and the deletion of fliC (encoding phase-1 flagella) resulted in a significantly reduced level of adhesion. In contrast, although flagella linking S. enterica serovar Typhimurium to the basil leaf epidermis were widespread, deletion of fliC did not affect leaf attachment levels. These results implicate the role of flagella in Salmonella leaf attachment and suggest that different Salmonella serovars use strain-specific mechanisms to attach to salad leaves. PMID:18830276

Berger, Cedric N; Shaw, Robert K; Brown, Derek J; Mather, Henry; Clare, Simon; Dougan, Gordon; Pallen, Mark J; Frankel, Gad

2009-02-01

433

Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

1974-01-01

434

Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.  

PubMed

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

Kenagy, G J

1972-12-01

435

International policies toward parental leave and child care.  

PubMed

The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child. PMID:11712459

Waldfogel, J

2001-01-01

436

29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.201 Leave to care for a parent. (a) General rule...employee is entitled to FMLA leave if needed to care for the employee's parent with a...

2014-07-01

437

Sick leave and depression — Determining factors and clinical effect in outpatient care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared

Isaac Bermejo; Levente Kriston; Frank Schneider; Wolfgang Gaebel; Ulrich Hegerl; Mathias Berger; Martin Härter

2010-01-01

438

Research on the Changes of Near Infrared Spectrum of Leaves Menaced by Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that the near infrared spectrum of leaves of plants starts to change in intravital trees or other vegetation, but there has been little related research on leaves fallen from vegetation and we design a experiment to study this aspect. Because of different water losing rates of leaves, different leaves present different changes. As to the change

Jianhua Ren; Shudong Wang; Qiu Li; Jianli Ding

2006-01-01

439

Living with the Family Leave Act of 1993: Case Studies of Women in Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study examined the effects of the Family Leave Act of 1993 on the maternity leave experiences of women in academe, as well as the effect of pregnancy leave on their career decisions. Case study interviews were conducted with seven women faculty from four universities, and family leave policies at these institutions were reviewed.…

Liston, Delores D.; Griffin, Marlynn M.; Hecker, Jeanette M.

440

State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

441

Ages, Reasons and Sex Differences for Children Leaving Home: Observations From Survey Data for Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overall, daughters leave home when about two years younger than sons, and a higher proportion of daughters leave home for marriage than for other reasons. For each sex, the average age at leaving home is youngest when the reason for leaving is education or a job, and oldest when the reason is marriage. (Author)

Young, C. M.

1974-01-01

442

Paternity Leave: Current Status and Future Prospects. Working Paper No. 157.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines current patterns and trends in the availability and use of parental leave by U.S. fathers. Introductory material focuses on legal and administrative contexts of parental leave and parental leave policies available to employed mothers. The main discussion uses U.S. and Swedish data to explore (1) long-term paid leave at the time…

Pleck, Joseph H.

443

Is there spectral variation in the polarized reflectance of leaves?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

2014-05-01

444

Identification of chemical compounds from the leaves of Leea indica.  

PubMed

Twenty-three known chemical compounds were identified in the leaves of Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (Leeaceae) by GC-MS analysis, spectroscopic techniques and co-TLC with authentic samples. The identified compounds include eleven hydrocarbons, phthalic acid, palmitic acid, 1-eicosanol, solanesol, farnesol, three phthalic acid esters, gallic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Gallic acid was isolated as n-butyl gallate and identified by co-TLC. This seems to be the first report of the presence of gallic acid in the leaves of L. indica. PMID:18515230

Srinivasan, Govindarajapuram Varadarajan; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Vijayan, Kochukaratu Krishnan

2008-06-01

445

Nutritive value of oak ( Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves in pashmina kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the nutritive value of oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves, native to temperate and humid Himalayan ranges (29°25?N and 79°35?E), containing (% DM basis) 9.49, CP; 94.86, OM; 4.07, EE; 64.20, NDF; 50.60, ADF; 1.60, Ca; 0.2, P and 4.40, tannins; four male pashmina kids (5–6 months age and 12.9±1.39 kg body weight) were fed freshly lopped green-leaves

P Singh; A. K Verma; N. N Pathak; J. C Biswas

1998-01-01

446

Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll ÃÂ giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

2000-08-01

447

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

2008-10-01

448

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

449

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

2011-01-01

450

G-MG How many leaves on a tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Amy and Greg are raking up leaves from a large maple tree in their yard and Amy remarks "I'll bet this tree has a million leaves." Greg is skeptical an...

451

Water is allocated differently to chloroplasts in sun and shade leaves.  

PubMed

Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study water allocation in cell compartments of sun and shade leaves. NMR spectra of Acer platanoides were resolved into two peaks that were assigned to chloroplast and nonchloroplast water. Sun leaves contained 1.7 times more water per unit area of surface than shade leaves, and the water was allocated differently. Chloroplasts in sun leaves contained 17% of the total leaf water versus 47% in shade leaves. Comparing equal leaf surface areas, the chloroplasts in shade leaves contained 60% more water than those in sun leaves. PMID:16665860

McCain, D C; Croxdale, J; Markley, J L

1988-01-01

452

C:\\Documents and Settings\\jjennings\\Desktop\\SOM Leave Form 0708.doc Page 1 Procedure for Taking a Leave from the UC Davis School of Medicine  

E-print Network

to pursue research, which is not at UC Davis.) The Non-PELP Leave allows students to suspend School is a student who takes time off to pursue a Ph.D. or MPH degree at UC Davis.) Time-Off Leave is a leave and Non-PELP leaves shall be effective at the start of a new Quarter. If you are part-way into a Quarter

Leistikow, Bruce N.

453

The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.  

PubMed

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

454

The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes  

PubMed Central

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

455

College Policy Statement on Maternity, Adoptive and Paternity Leave Provision for College policy on maternity, adoptive and paternity leave provision for students is as follows  

E-print Network

College Policy Statement on Maternity, Adoptive and Paternity Leave Provision for Students College policy on maternity, adoptive and paternity leave provision for students is as follows: · early; for maternity/adoptive leave, this will normally be for 4 months, but may be less if the individual so wishes

456

RCUK Briefing on Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay This comprehensive briefing provides information relating to Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay from  

E-print Network

RCUK Briefing on Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay This comprehensive briefing provides information relating to Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay from the Terms, paternity and adoption leave and make provision for additional stipend to be paid where appropriate

Berzins, M.

457

Physiological, biochemical, and fluorescence parameters of senescing sugar beet leaves in the vegetative phase of growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase of vegetative growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., single-sprout form) was conditionally subdivided into four periods according to leaf number and size (including already\\u000a withered leaves): (A) 8 ± 1 weeks after seedling emergence (wase) (5–7 leaves); (B) 11 ± 1 wase (10–12 leaves); (C) 14 wase (13–15 leaves); (D) 15 wase (15–18 leaves). It took each

A. K. Romanova; G. A. Semenova; N. S. Novichkova; A. R. Ignat’ev; V. A. Mudrik; B. N. Ivanov

2011-01-01

458

Fungal colonization and decomposition of Castanopsis sieboldii leaves in a subtropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi play a crucial role in the decomposition of lignin in fallen leaves but few studies have examined the functional roles\\u000a of ligninolytic fungi associated with the decomposition of fallen leaves on tropical forest soils. This study examined fungal\\u000a populations responsible for lignin decomposition in Castanopsis sieboldii leaves in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Japan. Fallen leaves of

Takashi Osono; Yukari Ishii; Dai Hirose

2008-01-01

459

Rapid and pervasive occupation of fallen mangrove leaves by a marine zoosporic fungus.  

PubMed

Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (>/=4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition. PMID:16347463

Newell, S Y; Miller, J D; Fell, J W

1987-10-01

460

The Transparent Dead Leaves Model and Y. Gousseau  

E-print Network

, 14, 5] or multiplication for compound Poisson cascades [2, 8]. The proposed model, that we call Poisson point process i (ti,xi,Xi,ai), with i (ti,xi) a homogeneous Poisson point process in (-, 0)Ã?Rd for shot-noise processes [22, 13], union for Boolean models [26, 24], occlusion for dead leaves models [18

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

461

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic constituents from leaves of Sapium baccatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six compounds, namely, Lupeol (1), Betulin (2), ?-Taraxerol (3), Taraxerone (4), Stigmasterol (5) and ?-Sitosterol (6) were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Sapium baccatum based on spectroscopic evidence. Lupeol (1), Betulin (2) and Stigmasterol (5) were isolated for the first time from this plant. The cytotoxic potential of the different solvent extracts (methanol, petroleum ether,

Yunus Ahmed; Sharif M. Al-Reza; Faqir Shahidulla Tareq; Choudhury M. Hasan; M. A. Sattar

2010-01-01

462

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To disclose the interplay between psychosocial antecedents of adolescents' decisions to leave their parental home in an ecologically sensitive region, we used structural equation modeling to analyze data from in-person interviews of members of 220 households in Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas (China). We further divided our data into two sub-samples by gender to test the hypothesis that model

Li An; Angela G. Mertig; Jianguo Liu

2003-01-01

463

Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

Vartak, Rehka

2006-01-01

464

Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C 3 plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll.

John R. Evans

1989-01-01

465

APPLICATION FOR A GRANT OF LEAVE AND BIOMETRIC IMMIGRATION DOCUMENT  

E-print Network

APPLICATION FOR A GRANT OF LEAVE AND BIOMETRIC IMMIGRATION DOCUMENT UNDER TIER 4 (GENERAL) STUDENT In accordance with paragraph 34 of the Immigration Rules, this form is specified for applications made authorised immigration advisor to help you with this application form, you should enter the name

Royal Holloway, University of London

466

Effect of petroleum oils on the respiration of bean leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injurious effect of petroleum oils on plants is a serious objection to their use as insecticides. The exact physiological actions accompanying injury from oil are not well known. Believing that respiration is generally increased when a plant is injured, an attempt has been made in this study to show the injurious effect on the respiration of bean leaves by

J. Green; A. H. Johnson

1931-01-01

467

Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M

1995-06-01

468

"Ya Me Fui" When English Learners Consider Leaving School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines narratives of English learners who have either dropped out or considered dropping out as a result of their experience in high school. This research seeks to determine at which point students left or considered leaving school, which often goes undetected in traditional quantitative data collection methods. The common themes that…

Boone, Jeanmarie Hamilton

2013-01-01

469

Hydraulic design of leaves: insights from rehydration kinetics  

E-print Network

activity requires that leaves be thin, to facilitate light penetration, and porous, to allow CO2 diffusion. The inevitability of evapo- ration during CO2 uptake places tremendous pressure on leaf hydraulic design as seen University, 16 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA and 3 School of Plant Science, University of Tasmania

Holbrook, N. Michele

470

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves  

PubMed Central

The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

2008-01-01

471

Leaving Care: Retrospective Reports by Alumni of Israeli Group Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the retrospective reports of alumni of Israeli group homes on their experiences of leaving care, taking into account possible gender differences as well as associations with their experiences while in care. The reports of 94 alumni (38 men and 56 women) interviewed by phone revealed major difficulties associated with the…

Schiff, Miriam

2006-01-01

472

[Constituents of the leaves of Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maxim].  

PubMed

The paper deals with the isolation of constituents from light petrol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Holodiscus discolor (PURSH) MAXIM., Rosaceae. beta-sitosterol and taraxasterol were isolated from the light petrol extract, luteolin-7-O-glucoside was isolated from the methanol extract. The isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic means and by comparison with authentic samples. PMID:11797197

Haladová, M; Eisenreichová, E; Bud?sínský, M; Ubik, K; Grancai, D

2001-11-01

473

50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO CURTIS BAY, MARYLAND. PRIOR TO CONVERSION TO NEW HOISTING SYSTEM, 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

474

Subcritical water extraction of mannitol from olive leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology in the food and pharmaceutical industry for the separation of mannitol from olive leaves and its results were compared with those of Soxhlet extraction. The effects of temperature, pressure, and flow rate of water and also momentum and mass transfer dimensionless variables such as Reynolds and Peclet Numbers on

S. M. Ghoreishi; R. Gholami Shahrestani

2009-01-01

475

Three new hecogenin glycosides from fermented leaves of Agave americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight steroidal compounds, including three new hecogenin glycosides, agamenosides D–F, were isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. The structures of the new steroidal saponins were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The activity of the isolated compounds on deformations of mycelia germinated from conidia of Pyricularia oaryzae P-2b was evaluated.

Jian-Ming Jin; Xi-Kui Liu; Chong-Ren Yang

2003-01-01

476

Why Some Students Leave College during Their Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during…

Hunt, Patricia F.; Boyd, Vivian S.; Gast, Linda K.; Mitchell, Alice; Wilson, Wendy

2012-01-01

477

Brasenose College Sick leave for Academic and Support Staff  

E-print Network

Brasenose College Sick leave for Academic and Support Staff The Governing Body has decided to adopt of sickness until 12 months have elapsed from the date of the first sickness. Certificates required. For absence caused by sickness or injury, you must complete a self- certificate and give it to the Assistant

Oxford, University of

478

Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85?GAE?mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96?CE?mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2??g/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

479

Ya Me Fui! When English Learners Consider Leaving School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines narratives of English learners who have either dropped out or considered dropping out as a result of their experience in high school. This research seeks to determine at which point students left or considered leaving school, which often goes undetected in traditional quantitative data collection methods. The common themes that emerged in these narratives are examined in

Jeanmarie Hamilton Boone

2011-01-01

480

Students Matter in School Reform: Leaving Fingerprints and Becoming Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our examination of three schools demonstrates how students can be involved in school reform by giving input about problems, helping design the reform, and sharing implementation responsibilities with adult leaders. Their involvement affects both the reform--as students leave their fingerprints on it--and the students themselves, who show signs of…

Osberg, Jerusha; Pope, Denise; Galloway, Mollie

2006-01-01

481

Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids from leaves of Tagetes minuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total extract and fractions with different solvents, obtained from leaves of Tagetes minuta, showed several degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. The same fractions were inactive against Lactobacillus, Zymomonas and Saccharomices species. The major component of the extract: quercetagetin-7-arabinosyl-galactoside, showed significant antimicrobial activity on pathogen microorganisms tested. Correlation results were carried out using chloramphenicol

Mar??a L Tereschuk; Marta V. Q Riera; Guillermo R Castro; Lidia R Abdala

1997-01-01

482

"Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

2012-01-01

483

Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current

NELS R. LERSTEN; HARRY T. HORNER

2006-01-01

484

202 Music PROFESSORS Preston, Rasmussen (Chair), Serghi (on leave Fall  

E-print Network

202 · Music Music PROFESSORS Preston, Rasmussen (Chair), Serghi (on leave Fall 2012). ASSOCIATE Gilman.VISITINGLECTURERMauthe,DIRECTOROFAPPLIED MUSIC Zwelling. ARTS LIBRARIAN DeLaurenti. VISITING AS. The Department of Music is committed to teaching the discipline of music through its interrelated subdisciplines

Lewis, Robert Michael

485

Organizational Ethics and Teachers' Intent to Leave: An Integrative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study focuses on developing a conceptual framework that explores the relationships between teachers' intent to leave and a spectrum of ethics perceptions. The authors argue that these relationships are mediated by organizational commitment (affective and normative). Research Design: Organizational ethics was measured by…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

2009-01-01

486

A New Flavonol Tetraglycoside from Myrsine Africana Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3 - glucosyl (1?? - 4?) rhamnoside - 7 -rhamnosyl (1?? - 6??) glucoside (1) together with known flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3 -rhamnoside (2), quercetin 3 - glucoside (3) and myricetin 3 - galactoside (4) have been isolated from methanolic extract of Myrsine africana leaves and identified on the basis of their spectral data.

Lawrence O. A. Manguro; Jacob Ogweno Midiwo; Wolgang Kraus

1996-01-01

487

COMMUNITY COLLEGE FACULTY JOB SATISFACTION AND PROPENSITY TO LEAVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effects of role ambiguity, role conflict, and 10 job satisfaction factors on propensity to leave for community college faculty located in the 11 southern states served by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Data were gathered through the administration of a survey instrument that was mailed to 900 randomly selected faculty in April 1989. Four hundred

Susan A. McBride; Robert G. Munday; James Tunnell

1992-01-01

488

Chief nursing officer for Scotland leaves a legacy of improvement.  

PubMed

AFTER FOUR years in post, chief nursing officer (CNO) for Scotland Ros Moore is stepping down. Ms Moore, who leaves the job at the end of this year, has been credited with making significant improvements in the fields of nursing and midwifery. PMID:25355108

Nadeem, Beena

2014-10-30