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1

Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

2

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

3

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing.  

PubMed

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-12-01

4

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing  

PubMed Central

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-01-01

5

Effect of extractions on dynamic mechanical properties of1 white mulberry (Morus alba L.)2  

E-print Network

1 Effect of extractions on dynamic mechanical properties of1 white mulberry (Morus alba L.)2: anisotropy, damping coefficient, DMA, extractives, vibrational properties, white14 mulberry wood (Morus alba. In this study white23 mulberry (Morus alba L.), the main material for long-necked lutes in Iran, was extracted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

7

Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.)  

E-print Network

Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) T. Suzuki decapitation, lateral shoot growth of mulberry coppice (Morus alba L.) from low-pruned stumps has an extremely. Materials and Methods Rooted hardwood cuttings of Morus alba L. cv. Shin-ichinose were grown in a light clay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

???????????????????????????????? ??? ??????????????? Study on Peel Morphology and Stomata of Mulberry (Morus spp.) Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus spp.) can be grown well in temperate and tropical regions. The mulberry fruit contains 0.21% calcium, vitamin B 6 930 mg.\\/kg, and folic acid 6.87 mg\\/kg. The fruit is in high demand for the world market for fresh consumption and for producing wine. However, after harvest, mulberry fruit loses water quickly and disease occurs. It has a short

David W. Turner; Kasawan Phaphom; Naul-anong Narkkong; Sucharit Suanphairoch; Sathaporn Wongareonwanakit

2006-01-01

9

Sorption isotherms and drying characteristics of mulberry ( Morus alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying characteristics of Mulberry (M. alba) including sorption isotherms and drying kinetics were investigated. Adsorption and desorption isotherms at 10, 20 and 30 °C and isosteric heats of sorption were determined. At higher water activities, as the temperature was increased, a crossing of the isotherm curves was detected. Some hysteresis effect decreasing with higher temperature was observed. Mulberry was dried

Medeni Maskan; Fahrettin Gö?ü?

1998-01-01

10

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

11

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

12

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

13

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

2014-01-01

14

Prediction of the Physicochemical Properties of Spray-Dried Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra ) Juice using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict quality changes of spray-dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) powder. In this study, the effects of inlet-air temperature (110, 130, and 150 °C), compressed air flow rate (400, 600,\\u000a and 800 L\\/h), and concentration of different carrier types such as 6, 9, and 20 dextrose equivalent maltodextrins, and Arabic\\u000a gum (8, 12, and 16%),

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Zahra Emam-Djomeh; Mahmoud Omid; Ahmad Kalbasi-Ashtari

15

Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 ?M ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

Nati?, Maja M; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Papetti, Adele; Fotiri? Akši?, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojevi?, Mirjana; Teši?, Živoslav Lj

2015-03-15

16

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats.  

PubMed

The phytochemical constituents of a freeze-dried powder of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit (MFP) were determined. The hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of the MFP as a dietary supplement were evaluated in rats who were fed 4 weeks of either a high-fat or a normal diet supplemented with 5% or 10% MFP. Administration of MFP to rats on a high-fat diet resulted in a significant decline in levels of serum and liver triglyceride, total cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a decrease in the atherogenic index, while the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased. In addition, the serum and liver content of thiobarbituric acid related substances, a lipid peroxidation product, significantly decreased, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) of red blood cell and liver, as well blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities significantly increased. No significant changes in lipid profile in the serum and liver were observed in rats on a normal diet supplemented with MFP, but blood and liver antioxidant status improved, as measured by SOD and GSH-Px activity, and lipid peroxidation was reduced. These beneficial effects of MFP on hyperlipidaemia rats might be attributed to its dietary fiber, fatty acids, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins and trace elements content. PMID:20561945

Yang, Xiaolan; Yang, Lei; Zheng, Haiying

2010-01-01

17

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity  

PubMed Central

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

2012-01-01

18

Seasonal ultrastructural alterations in the plasma membrane produced by slow freezing in cortical tissues of mulberry ( Morus bombyciz Koidz. cv. Goroji)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal alterations in the ultrastructure of the plasma membrane produced by slow freezing were examined in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry twigs (Morus bombyciz Koidz. cv. Goroji) grown in northern Japan. In freezing-sensitive summer, freezing produced distinct aparticulate domains with accompanying inverted hexagonalII (HII) phase transitions in the plasma membrane. In autumn and spring, during cold acclimation and deacclimation, freezing

Scizo Fujikawa

1994-01-01

19

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lü, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

20

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

21

Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1?) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food. PMID:24120956

Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il

2013-11-01

22

White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7?g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7?g/Kg?DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7?g/Kg?DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

2014-01-01

23

White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).  

PubMed

Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7?g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7?g/Kg?DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7?g/Kg?DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

2014-01-01

24

Biochemical responses to drought stress in mulberry ( Morus alba L.): evaluation of proline, glycine betaine and abscisic acid accumulation in five cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five popularly grown mulberry cultivars (K-2, MR-2, TR-10, BC2-59 and S-13) were subjected to drought stress by withholding\\u000a irrigation, to obtain leaf water potentials (?w) ranging from ?0.75, ?1.50 and ?2.25 MPa. Accumulation of proline, glycine betaine and abscisic acid (ABA) were quantified\\u000a in control and water stressed mulberry leaves. The activities of enzymes involved in proline accumulation including glutamate\\u000a dehydrogenase

Kolluru Viswanatha Chaitanya; Girish Kumar Rasineni; Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy

2009-01-01

25

Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

26

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes. PMID:22476473

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

27

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism  

PubMed Central

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

28

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Indian mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2: a time-phased screening strategy.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of transgenic plants was developed for Morus indica cv. K2 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The hypocotyls, cotyledon, leaf and leaf callus explants precultured for 5 days on regeneration medium were co-cultivated with a bacterial suspension at 10(9) cells/ml for 3 days in the dark. Infectivity of A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was more than that of strains GV2260 and A281, and among the various plasmids tried, pBI121 and pBI101:Act1 transformed nearly 100% of the explants followed closely by p35SGUSINT. About 90-100% of the explants tested positive in the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay performed after 3 days of co-cultivation. This high level of transient expression, however, decreased to 20-25% after 15 days. Gus activity was most stable in the callus explants, which emerged as the explant of choice for transformation. The transformed explants were selected on 50-75 mg/l kanamycin for 1 month, and 25-50% of the explants developed adventitious buds. On the basis of kanamycin-resistant shoots produced from the total number of explants inoculated, the transformation efficiency was 44%. After 1 month, 40% of these shoots displayed high gus activity as assessed by the GUS fluorometric assay. On a selection-free root induction medium, 80% of the shoots developed roots and 90% of the potted plantlets acclimatized to the growth room conditions. The 3-month-old regenerates showed gus and nptII(neomycin phosphotransferase II) gene activity as assayed by the GUS fluorometric assay and nptII enzyme assay, followed by PCR polymerase chain reaction (54.5%) analysis after 6-months. Transgene integration into the nuclear genome of 1-year-old regenerates was confirmed in 10 of the 18 transformants tested by Southern analysis. The transformation efficiency as defined by the number of transgenic plants produced from the total number of explants co-cultivated was 6%. PMID:12789417

Bhatnagar, S; Khurana, P

2003-03-01

29

Involvement of histaminergic system in the anxiolytic-like activities of Morus alba leaves in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the effects of 85% methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves (EMA), which is a traditional herb, in mice. The effects of EMA on the anxiolytic-like behaviour were studied using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole-board test. To elucidate the mode of action of the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA, the mice were subjected to the co-administration of EMA (200?mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) and either antagonist. EMA (at 200 or 400?mg/kg) significantly increased the percentages of time-spent in the open arms and entries into the open arms of the EPM versus vehicle-treated control group (p<0.05). Moreover, in the hole-board test, EMA (200 and 400?mg/kg) significantly increased the number of head-dips versus vehicle-treated control group (p<0.05). However, there were no changes in the locomotor activity and myorelaxant effects in any group compared with the vehicle-treated control group. In addition, the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA were abolished by thioperamide (10?mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), which is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, results from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) also revealed that the amygdalal histidine decarboxylase mRNA expression levels in EMA (200?mg/kg)-treated group were significantly higher than those in the vehicle-treated controls (p<0.05). These results suggest that EMA might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent and that EMA acts via the histaminergic system in central nerve system. PMID:23965748

Lee, Seungheon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ji Hye; Ko, Eun Seong; Oh, Won Bo; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jung, Ji Wook

2013-01-01

30

Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P?=?0.743), ADG (P?=?0.425), DMI (P?=?0.642), or ADG/DMI (P?=?0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P?=?0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P?=?0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P?=?0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P?=?0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

31

Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract. PMID:21697998

El-Sayyad, H.I.H.; El-Sherbiny, M.A.; Sobh, M.A.; Abou-El-Naga, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.A.N.; Mousa, S.A.

2011-01-01

32

Protective effects of Morus alba leaves extract on ocular functions of pups from diabetic and hypercholesterolemic mother rats.  

PubMed

Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract. PMID:21697998

El-Sayyad, H I H; El-Sherbiny, M A; Sobh, M A; Abou-El-Naga, A M; Ibrahim, M A N; Mousa, S A

2011-01-01

33

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MIL, a glycosylated jacalin-related lectin from mulberry (Morus indica) latex  

PubMed Central

A quantitatively major protein has been purified from the latex of Morus indica. The purified previously uncharacterized protein, M. indica lectin (MIL), was further shown to be a glycosylated tetramer and belongs to the family of jacalin-related lectins. Crystallization of MIL was also accomplished and the tetragonal crystals diffracted synchrotron X-rays to a resolution of 2.8?Å. PMID:21543873

Patel, Ashok K.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bergmann, Ulrich; Jagannadham, Medicherla V.; Kursula, Petri

2011-01-01

34

Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics. PMID:20102198

Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

2010-02-24

35

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, leaf yield and phosphorus uptake in mulberry (Morus alba L.) under rainfed, lateritic soil conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal association in mulberry saplings var. S1, together with two levels of phosphate, on growth characters, leaf yield and phosphorus uptake. The experiment was conducted\\u000a in the period 1995 to 1997 at the Technical Service Centre, Kashipur, Purulia (West Bengal) under rainfed, lateritic soil\\u000a conditions. Pooled data analysis revealed

G. C. Setua; R. Kar; J. K. Ghosh; K. K. Das; S. K. Sen

1999-01-01

36

Mulberry improvements via plastid transformation and tissue culture engineering  

PubMed Central

The in vitro tissue culture and micropropagation studies for Morus spp., a pivotal sericulture plant, are well established. The rapid and reproducible in vitro response to plant growth regulator treatments has emerged as an essential complement of transformation studies for this plant species. A major area of study is the use of protoplast culture and fusion techniques where advantages to mulberry improvement can be applied. The advancements in genetic transformation of mulberry are reviewed, and a section on strategy for transforming plastids (chloroplasts) of mulberry is included. A role for mulberry in “molecular farming” is envisioned. The conclusions and future prospects for improvement of this economically important tree species are proposed. PMID:20495352

2010-01-01

37

Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

2010-10-15

38

SUSTITUCIÓN DE ALIMENTO CONCENTRADO, CON MORERA FRESCA (Morus alba), EN LA DIETA DE VACAS LECHERAS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substitution of concentrate feed with fresh mulberry (Morus alba), in the diet of dairy cattle. This experiment compared four balanced diets in which different percentages of 84-day-old fresh mulberry dry matter (0%, 20%, 40% and 60%) substituted its equivalent of dry matter in the concen- trate. The total intake of dry matter varied between 3.12% and 3.24% in relation to

Carlos Boschini

39

Morphological and molecular variation of Morus laevigata in India.  

PubMed

Morus spp., commonly known as mulberry, is significantly associated with human civilization and spread of silk-culture from Asia to Europe, Africa and Latin America. One of its species, Morus laevigata, traditionally well known for its timber value, forage use and silkworm's feed, is widely distributed in India extending from Himalayan foothill to Andaman islands. The variability occurring for 12 morpho-biochemical parameters and RAPD profiles, generated with 13 selected RAPD primers, for M. laevigata accessions from six different zones were investigated. Analyses revealed high degree of genotypic similarity of collection from Himalayan foothill (West Bengal) with those from Andaman Islands. Specific accessions from central India and south India also revealed genotypic similarities with specific accessions from north-east India. These observations are discussed in the context of clonal propagation of mulberry and evolutionary perspective of dispersal of this species, through human activities PMID:15330113

Chatterjee, S N; Nagaraja, G M; Srivastava, P P; Naik, G

2004-06-01

40

Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.  

PubMed

Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. PMID:25529706

Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

2015-05-01

41

Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Morus alba L. leaves (MAE) have been used in fork medicine for the treatment of beriberi, edema, diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. However, underlying mechanism of MAE on cardiovascular protection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated whether MAE affect platelet aggregation and thrombosis. Materials and Methods. The anti-platelet activity of MAE was studied using rat platelets. The extent of anti-platelet activity of MAE was assayed in collagen-induced platelet aggregation. ATP and serotonin release was carried out. The activation of integrin ?IIb?3 and phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including MAPK and Akt, were investigated with cytofluorometer and immunoblotting, respectively. The thrombus formation in vivo was also evaluated in arteriovenous shunt model of rats. Results. HPLC chromatographic analysis revealed that MAE contained rutin and isoquercetin. MAE dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. MAE also attenuated serotonin secretion and thromboxane A2 formation. In addition, the extract in vivo activity showed that MAE at 100, 200, and 400?mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently attenuated thrombus formation in rat arterio-venous shunt model by 52.3% (P < 0.001), 28.3% (P < 0.01), and 19.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions. MAE inhibit platelet activation, TXB2 formation, serotonin secretion, aggregation, and thrombus formation. The plant extract could be considered as a candidate to anti-platelet and antithrombotic agent. PMID:24701244

Rhee, Man Hee; Sung, Yoon-Young; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Kim, Ho-Kyoung

2014-01-01

42

Antihyperglycemic, Antioxidant and Antiglycation Activities of Mulberry Leaf Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Chronic Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, beverages containing mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) are believed to promote good health, especially in people with diabetes. We examined the effects of long-term administration\\u000a of an ethanolic extract of mulberry leaf (MA) on blood glucose, oxidative damage, and glycation in streptozotocin-induced\\u000a diabetic rats. Daily administration of 1 g\\/kg MA for six weeks decreased blood glucose by 22%, which

Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Patchareewan Pannangpetch; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Bunkerd Kongyingyoes; Upa kukongviriyapan

2009-01-01

43

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species  

PubMed Central

In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)–(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)–(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%–(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin B3) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)–(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±.22)–(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)–(576±7.37), (260±3.86)–(280±3.50), and (24±3.51)–(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

2010-01-01

44

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species.  

PubMed

In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)-(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)-(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%-(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and niacin (vitamin B(3)) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)-(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)-(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)-(576±7.37), (260±3.86)-(280±3.50), and (240±3.51)-(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

2010-12-01

45

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients. PMID:19602243

Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2009-01-01

46

Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China  

PubMed Central

Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

2012-01-01

47

Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

2013-01-01

48

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species  

PubMed Central

Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species into distinct clusters. Conclusion We report a total of 188 genomic and genic SSR markers in Morus alba L. A large proportion of these markers (164) were polymorphic both among mulberry species and genotypes. A substantial number of these markers (149) were also transferable to other related species like Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. The extent of polymorphism revealed and the ability to detect heterozygosity among the cross pollinated mulberry species and genotypes render these markers an invaluable genomic resource that can be utilized in assessing molecular diversity as well as in QTL mapping and subsequently mulberry crop improvement through MAS. PMID:24289047

2013-01-01

49

The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoid content of mulberry leaves of 19 varieties of species, determined spectrophotometrically in terms of rutin equivalent, varied from 11.7 to 26.6mgg?1 in spring leaves and 9.84 to 29.6mgg?1 in autumn leaves. Fresh leaves gave more extract than air-dried or oven-dried ones. HPLC showed that mulberry leaves contain at least four flavonoids, two of which are rutin and quercetin. The

Jia Zhishen; Tang Mengcheng; Wu Jianming

1999-01-01

50

Influence of plant growth stage and season on the release of root phenolics by mulberry as related to development of phytoremediation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolics released by red mulberry (Morus rubra L.) roots at different growth stages within a season were quantified and the makeup of phenols analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The data show that total phenols released into the soil solution increased continuously from an early vegetative stage to leaf senescence, indicating their accumulation in the rhizosphere. From

Ramesh S. Hegde; John S. Fletcher

1996-01-01

51

Effects of Mulberry Leaf Extract Rich in 1-Deoxynojirimycin on Blood Lipid Profiles in Humans  

PubMed Central

Mulberry leaves are rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. We previously showed that DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract suppressed elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract on plasma lipid profiles in humans. An open-label, single-group study was conducted in 10 subjects with initial serum triglyceride (TG) level ?200 mg/dl. Subjects ingested capsules containing DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract at 12 mg three times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Our findings showed a modest decrease in serum TG level and beneficial changes in the lipoprotein profile following 12-week administration of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract. No significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed during the study period; no adverse events associated with DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract occurred. PMID:20838571

Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Hasumi, Keiji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2010-01-01

52

Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.  

PubMed

Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

2013-08-01

53

Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-05-01

54

Large-Scale Intersubspecific Recombination in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Is Associated with the Host Shift to Mulberry  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Schuenzel, Erin L.; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-01-01

55

In vivo hypoglycaemic effect and inhibitory mechanism of the branch bark extract of the mulberry on STZ-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

56

Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits. PMID:25477663

Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?; Pogo?, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

2014-12-01

57

Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24137248

SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

2013-01-01

58

Diels-Alder adducts with PTP1B inhibition from Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Eight Diels-Alder adducts, morbilisins A-H (1-8), a known analogue, chalcomoracin (9), together with eleven known flavonoids and 2-arylbenzofurans, were isolated from the leaves of Morus notabilis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR, MS, and ECD data. Compounds 1, 5, and 7-9 showed inhibition against PTP1B phosphatase activity in vitro. PMID:25457492

Wang, Meng; Gao, Li-Xin; Wang, Jue; Li, Jing-Ya; Yu, Mei-Hua; Li, Jia; Hou, Ai-Jun

2015-01-01

59

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Antioxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS). Plants having phenolic contents are reported to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins) of methanolic extracts from Morus alba (locally named as Tut and commonly known as white mulberry) stem barks (TSB), root bark (TRB), leaves (TL) and fruits (TF) to make a statistical correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant potential. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives were evaluated by in vitro standard method using spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay methods. Results Among the extracts, TSB showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by TRB, TF and TL. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, the TSB extract was the most effective one with IC50 37.75 and 58.90 ?g/mL, followed by TRB, TF and TL with IC50 40.20 and 102.03; 175.01 and 114.63 and 220.23 and 234.63 ?g/mL, respectively. The TSB extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation with IC50 145.31 ?g/mL. In addition, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TSB > TRB > TL > TF. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins of TSB was found to be higher than other extractives. Conclusion The results indicate high correlation and regression (p-value <0 .001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts, hence the Tut plant could serve as effective free radical inhibitor or scavenger which may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant-based products. However, further exploration is necessary for effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines. PMID:23331970

2013-01-01

60

In vitro screening of some plant extracts against fungal pathogens of mulberry (Morus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one plant species were screened in vitro for their fungitoxic properties against four fungal pathogens viz., Phyllactinia corylea (Powdery mildew), Peridiopsora mori (Brown rust) and Pseudocercospora mori (Black leaf spot) by slide germination method and Myrothecium roridum (Brown leaf spot) by poisoned food technique. Conidial germination of P. corylea was significantly reduced in 5% (w\\/v) ethanolic extracts all tested

Manas Dev Maji; Souman Chattopadhyay; Pratheesh Kumar; Beera Saratchandra

2005-01-01

61

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

62

Leaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

Jones, Robyn L.

2011-01-01

63

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

64

Seasonal changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin constituent of the stems of two Morus species ( Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin constituent of Morus nigra L. and Morus alba L. stems were investigated. Stems tissues of these species exhibited different antioxidant activity. Antioxidant action as\\u000a well as anthocyanin constituents of these species reached the highest value in October whereas the lowest in February. Also,\\u000a total phenolic constituents showed the similar pattern.

Aysel Syvacy ´; Münevver Sökmen

2004-01-01

65

Identification of the Conserved and Novel miRNAs in Mulberry by High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous small RNAs. They play vital roles in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress by negatively regulating genes. Mulberry trees are economically important species with multiple uses. However, to date, little is known about mulberry miRNAs and their target genes. In the present study, three small mulberry RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. Results showed 85 conserved miRNAs belonging to 31 miRNA families and 262 novel miRNAs at 371 loci. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed the expression pattern of 9 conserved and 5 novel miRNAs in leaves, bark, and male flowers. A total of 332 potential target genes were predicted to be associated with these 113 novel miRNAs. These results provide a basis for further understanding of mulberry miRNAs and the biological processes in which they are involved. PMID:25118991

Jia, Ling; Zhang, Dayan; Qi, Xiwu; Ma, Bi; Xiang, Zhonghuia; He, Ningjia

2014-01-01

66

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

67

Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

Liu, Xueming

2004-01-01

68

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

2010-01-01

69

Isolation and HPLC-ESI-MS identification of mulberry anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and purification of anthocyanins from mulberry by column chromatography were made, macroporous resins D101 was employed to purify the anthocyanin extracts from mulberry and Sephadex LH-20 was to further separate the anthocyanins in order to obtain more purified or individual anthocyanin. HPLC-ESI\\/MS analysis was used to identify the anthocyanins in mulberry. The results indicated that there exist 14 anthocyanins

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Maomao Zhu; Ye Zou; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

70

A Development of Laminating Mulberry Paper by Biodegradable Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the light has shed on the ecological-friendly products. The mulberry products, especially hand-made paper, are wildly facilitated as general wares or decoration. The research on the lamination of the mulberry paper with biodegradable films can ameliorate the usability, corresponding to the modernisation and green products. Meticulously, the laminating machine is designed and created in this research, with the size

Anin Memon; Somsak Ithisoponakul; Supaeak Pramoonmak; Montip lawsuriyonta; Dhanon Leenoi; Nateechai Passadee

2011-01-01

71

Prenylated arylbenzofuran derivatives from Morus mesozygia with antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Five prenylated arylbenzofurans, moracins Q-U, were isolated from Morus mesozygia (Moraceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Along with these compounds, 3beta-acetoxyurs-12-en-11-one, marsformoxide, moracin C, moracin M, moracin K, artocarpesin, cycloartocarpesin, morachalcone A were also isolated. Four of the five compounds, (moracins R-U) displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:19147162

Kapche, Gilbert D W F; Fozing, Christian D; Donfack, Jean H; Fotso, Ghislain W; Amadou, Dawe; Tchana, Angèle N; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Moundipa, Paul F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Abegaz, Berhanu M

2009-01-01

72

Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15?53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

2014-06-01

73

20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

74

Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. PMID:25467154

Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

2014-12-15

75

Micropropagation of Morus laevigata Wall. from mature trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants of 10-year-old tree of Morus laevigata on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5–5.0 mg.l-1) of benzyladenine (BA). Nodal segments taken from in vitro proliferated shoots gave further multiple shoots when cultured on the same basal medium containing 2.5 mg.l-1 BA. Repeated subculture resulted in rapid shoot multiplication at the average

M. Hossain; S. M. Rahman; A. Zaman; O. I. Joarder; R. Islam

1992-01-01

76

An extract of black, green, and mulberry teas causes malabsorption of carbohydrate but not of triacylglycerol in healthy volunteers1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In vitro studies suggest that extracts of black, green, andmulberryteascouldinterferewithcarbohydrateandtriacylglyc- erol absorption via their ability to inhibit-amylase,-glucosidase, sodium-glucose transporters, and pancreatic lipase. Objective: We measured breath hydrogen and 13CO2 to investigate the ability of an extract of black, green, and mulberry tea leaves to inducemalabsorptionofcarbohydrateandtriacylglycerolinhealthy volunteers. Design: In a crossover design, healthy adult volunteers randomly ingested test meals with

Litao Zhong; Julie K Furne; Michael D Levitt

77

Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum  

PubMed Central

Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220?g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300?mg·kg?1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

2014-01-01

78

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1  

PubMed Central

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees. PMID:10364399

Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

1999-01-01

79

Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics and leaf protein analyses to track dynamics of photosynthetic performance in mulberry during progressive drought.  

PubMed

Modulation of photosynthesis and the underlying mechanisms were studied in mulberry (Morus indica L. genotype V1) under progressive drought stress conditions. Five months old potted mulberry plants were arranged in a semi-controlled glasshouse chamber in completely randomized block design with four replications. On day 1 (D1), the plants were subjected to two watering treatments: well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS). In WS plants, watering was completely withheld for next 10days (D1-D10), whereas the WW plants were maintained at 100% pot water holding capacity. Photosynthetic performance was tracked periodically (from D0 to D10) through measurements of leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and additionally leaf protein analyses were performed on D10. Down-regulation in net CO(2) fixation (P(n)) was primarily mediated through stomatal limitation which concurrently reduced transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). The OJIP transients and other associated biophysical parameters elucidated the events of photoacclimatory changes in photosystem II (PSII) with progressive increase in drought stress. Down-regulation of PSII activity occurred predominantly due to increase in inactive reaction centers (RCs), decrease in electron transport per RC (ET(O)/RC) as well as per leaf cross-section (ET(O)/CS(m)) and enhanced energy dissipation. The L and K-bands appeared only in the stage of extreme drought severity indicating the ability of genotype V1 to resist drought-induced damage on structural stability of PSII and imbalance between the electrons at the acceptor and donor sides of PSII, respectively. Drought-induced changes in leaf protein analyses revealed significant up-regulation of important proteins associated to photostability of thylakoid membrane including oxygen evolving enhancer, chlorophyll a/b binding proteins, rubisco and rubisco activase. Further, the antioxidative defense proteins including peroxiredoxin and NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase were also enhanced. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an integrated down-regulation of the photosynthetic process to maintain intrinsic balance between electron transfer reactions and reductive carbon metabolism without severe damage to PSII structural and functional integrity. PMID:23357190

Guha, Anirban; Sengupta, Debashree; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

2013-02-01

80

Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis.  

PubMed

Mulberry extract (ME) has been shown to possess beneficial effects towards obesity, but its mechanism is still unclear. In small mammals, mitochondria enriched brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to convert protein's electrochemical energy to heat and maintain a constant body temperature. Improving the mitochondrial function or increasing the number of mitochondria could promote the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mitochondrial function regulated by ME and mulberry wine extract (MWE) during the brown adipogenesis. The C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell was treated with ME and MWE, both of which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression levels of fatty acid oxidation related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, PR domain-containing 16 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? during brown adipogenesis. These changes were accompanied with increases in mitochondrial oxidative complex proteins upon ME and/or MWE exposure. Notably, ME and/or MWE also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression of the transcription factor A and the nuclear respiratory factor-1, which are the key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis. In parallel, the mitochondrial copy number and brown adipose tissue specific gene-uncoupling protein-1 expression were dramatically (p < 0.05) elevated after ME or MWE treatment. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) was found to be one of the most abundant anthocyanins in ME and MWE. Therefore, the BAT regulatory activity of ME and MWE might be, at least in part, due to the effect of Cy-3-glu. These results suggested that ME and MWE could ameliorate metabolic disease through an improvement in mitochondrial functions. PMID:25554947

You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Huang, Weidong; Jin, Wanzhu; Zhan, Jicheng

2015-02-11

81

Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang

2014-01-01

82

Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

2014-01-01

83

Statistical modeling of process parameters for the recovery of polysaccharide from Morus alba leaf.  

PubMed

A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, particle size of mulberry leaf, number of extraction and water to the mulberry leaf ratio on extraction yield of mulberry leaf crude polysaccharides (MLCP). The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant quadratic regression equation with high R(2) (=0.9782) was successfully fitted for extraction yield of MLCP as function of independent variables. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of extraction time 5h, extraction temperature 85 °C, particle size of mulberry leaf (mesh) 40, number of extraction 4 and water to mulberry leaf ratio 18. At this optimum point, extraction yield of MLCP was 12.0017±0.42%. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found between the actual and predicted (11.6286±0.19) values. The results demonstrated that MLCP had strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, MLCP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. PMID:23987414

Samavati, Vahid; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeed

2013-10-15

84

Changes in the antioxidant enzyme efficacy in two high yielding genotypes of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) under NaCl salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), glutathione S-transferase (GST: EC 2.5.1.18), cell membrane stability (CMS) and the rate of lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in two high yielding genotypes (S1 and ATP, salt tolerant and salt

Chinta Sudhakar; A Lakshmi; S Giridarakumar

2001-01-01

85

Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

86

Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.  

PubMed

Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants. PMID:25647798

Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

2015-03-01

87

DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

88

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in Mulberry Cells of Saccoglossus and Ptychodera (Hemichordata  

E-print Network

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in Mulberry Cells of Saccoglossus and Ptychodera (Hemichordata Cephalodiscus or Rhabdopleura (Hemichordata: Ptero- branchia). Extracts of tissues from 4200 Saccoglossus and plank- tosphaeroid larvae, compose the small deuterostome phylum Hemichordata, generally regarded

Cameron, Chris B.

89

Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: In vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was

L. P. R. Bidel; S. Meyer; Y. Goulas; Y. Cadot; Z. G. Cerovic

2007-01-01

90

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

91

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

92

Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

2012-01-01

93

Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Aim The dietary contents have a very important role in the management of metabolic syndrome along with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indian diet contains a large amount of carbohydrates that set off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations and leads to increased risk of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of mulberry tea in the reduction of abnormally high postprandial blood glucose (PPG) levels in T2DM patients. Methods The study design was follow-up T2DM, 20 diabetic patients were given plain tea (control) and 28 diabetic patients were given mulberry tea (test subject) to measure the effect of mulberry tea on fasting blood glucose and PPG levels. Fasting blood glucose samples were collected after a standard breakfast. The PPG levels were recorded after the consumption of 70 ml tea along with 1 teaspoon of sugar after 90 min in all 48 patients. Results Fasting blood glucose levels in control and test group samples were found to be 178.55 ± 35.61 and 153.50 ± 48.10, respectively. After the consumption of plain tea and mulberry tea, the PPG values were recorded as 287.20 ± 56.37 and 210.21 ± 58.73, respectively. A highly significant (p < 0.001) change in the PPG level was observed in response to mulberry tea in all the test patients compared with control. Moreover, the effect size was also found to be very large (1.31). Conclusion Mulberry tea suppresses postprandial rise of blood glucose levels after 90 min of its consumption.

Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R.; Manjunath, Nanjappa C.; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

2014-01-01

94

Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

95

Biosorption of Cadmium From Aqueous Solution Using Mulberry Wood Sawdust: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study sawdust, an inexpensive material, obtained from mulberry wood has been studied after treatment with hydrochloric acid as biosorbent for cadmium removal using batch experiments. The effect of different parameters on biosorption process, such as contact time with shaking and without shaking, pH of the solution and initial concentration of Cd(II) ions were studied. The biosorption of

Jasmin Shah; Muhammad Rasul Jan; Atta ulHaq; Maria Sadia

2011-01-01

96

Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface  

PubMed Central

The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C.

2014-01-01

97

Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface.  

PubMed

The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C

2014-01-01

98

[Effects of mulberry/soybean intercropping on the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbial number and enzyme activities].  

PubMed

A root separation experiment was conducted to investigate the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbes and enzyme activities in a mulberry/soybean intercropping system. As compared with those in plastic barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments, the plant height, leaf number, root length, root nodule number, and root/shoot ratio of mulberry and soybean in non-barrier treatment were significantly higher, and the soybean's effective nodule number was larger. The available phosphorous content in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean in no barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments was increased by 10.3% and 11.1%, and 5.1% and 4.6%, respectively, as compared with that in plastic barrier treatment. The microbial number, microbial diversity, and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean were higher in the treatments of no barrier and nylon mesh barrier than in the treatment of plastic barrier. All the results indicated that there was an obvious interspecific synergistic effect between mulberry and soybean in the mulberry/soybean intercropping system. PMID:24015565

Hu, Ju-Wei; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Li, Xin; Yue, Bing-Bing; Sun, Guang-yu

2013-05-01

99

Predicting ultimate methane yields of Jatropha curcus and Morus indica from their chemical composition.  

PubMed

In this study, all the components of Jatropha curcus and Morus indica were chemically characterized and their biochemical methane potentials (BMP) were determined. From the variables that showed strong influence on the ultimate methane yield (B(o)) of J. curcus, a multiple regression Jatropha model was developed. This model comprised of total carbohydrates, protein, lipid, acid-detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and ash in ADF as independent variables, with r(2) value of 0.943. The Jatropha model was validated on 7 samples of M. indica parts and wastes from silkworm rearing trays of this study and 13 samples of heterogeneous organic wastes of earlier studies, to judge the prediction quality. It was found that most of the predicted values differed by less than 15% of their experimental B(o). PMID:19286374

Gunaseelan, V Nallathambi

2009-07-01

100

Comparison of genetic transformation in Morus alba L. via different regeneration systems.  

PubMed

Three different regeneration systems, viz. direct regeneration of adventitious shoot buds from explant, regeneration through callus cultures and somatic embryos were compared to see their effect on transfer of neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gus) to Morus alba clone M5, through Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. Pre-conditioning and co-cultivation durations had a marked effect on transformation frequency. The highest transformation frequency of 18.6% was obtained using direct induction of adventitious shoot buds. Expression and presence of transgene were assayed histochemically and through polymerase chain reaction. Southern analysis of GUS and PCR positive transformants confirmed stable integration of transgenes with two to four copy numbers. The selected transformants showed normal phenotype under in vitro and field conditions. PMID:16951950

Agarwal, Sandhya; Kanwar, Kamlesh

2007-02-01

101

Anti-hyperglycemic effect of bilberry, blackberry and mulberry ultrasonic extracts on diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Small fruits like bilberry, blackberry and mulberry are rich sources of anthocyanins and other phenols, compounds with a certified antioxidant activity and spectacular effects in some chronic diseases. Romanian bilberry, blackberry and mulberry extracts were tested as anti-hyperglycemic agents on diabetic rats. Anthocyanins extraction was carried out with 80 % acidified ethanol in ultrasonically conditions at 23?±?2 °C and 40 kHz. Monomeric anthocyanins content was determined by pH differential method and varied between 1200 and 2800 mg/L. The analyses of anthocyanins were achieved using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Phenolics content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and values varied between 2320 and 4250 mg/L gallic acid. Antioxidant activities of extracts were estimated by DPPH scavenging method and the values varied between 8 and 16 miliequivalents Trolox. In order to evaluate the toxicology of the extracts, the heavy metals concentration and pesticides content were analyzed. The extracts were administrated to diabetic rats in drinking water for five weeks. The administration of bilberry extract offered no satisfactory results. Treatment with blackberry extract determined a significant decrease of glucose level from 360 to about 270 mg/dL (p?mulberry extract administration determined a significant decrease of glucose level from 252 mg/dL at the start day to 155 mg/dL at the final of experiment (p?

Stef?nu?, Mariana N; C?ta, Adina; Pop, Raluca; T?nasie, Cristian; Boc, Daniel; Iena?cu, Ioana; Ordodi, Valentin

2013-12-01

102

Mulberry (??? Sang Shèn Z?) and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Mulberry (??? s?ng shèn z?), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs) and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. PMID:24716151

Huang, Hui-Pei; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-01-01

103

Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo degradations of silk fibroin scaffolds from mulberry and nonmulberry silkworms.  

PubMed

Degradation behavior is very important in the field of silk-based biomaterials. Mulberry and nonmulberry silk fibroins are structurally and functionally distinguishable; however, no studies have examined the differences in the degradation behaviors of silk materials from various silkworm species. In this study, Ca(NO3)2 was used as a uniform solvent to obtain regenerated mulberry and nonmulberry (Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai) silk fibroin (SF) solutions, and the degradation behaviors of various SF scaffolds were examined. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that regenerated mulberry SF scaffolds exhibited significantly higher mass loss and free amino acid content release than did nonmulberry SF scaffolds. The differences in the primary structures and condensed structures between mulberry and nonmulberry SF contributed to the significant difference in degradation rates, in which the characteristic (-Ala-)n repeats, compact crystal structure and high ?-helix and ?-sheet contents make nonmulberry SF more resistant than mulberry SF to enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai SFs possess similar primary structures and condensed structures, although a slight difference in degradation was observed; this difference might depend on the differences in molecular weight following the regeneration process. The results indicate that the original sources of SF significantly influence the degradation rates of SF-based materials; therefore, the original sources of SF should be fully considered for preparing tissue engineering scaffolds with matched degradation rates. PMID:25532470

You, Renchuan; Xu, Yamei; Liu, Yi; Li, Xiufang; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

104

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

105

Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

2014-03-01

106

Biosorption properties of Morus alba L. for Cd (II) ions removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The abundantly available industrial waste product Morus alba L. pomace (MAP) is one of the cost-effective biosorbent for removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to test the ability of MAP to remove Cd(II) ions through batch biosorption process. Firstly, MAP was characterized using several techniques, and then the influence of various experimental parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous solution, initial Cd(II) concentration, contact time, MAP concentration, and temperature were evaluated upon the biosorption process. It was found that the maximum uptake of Cd(II) ions occurred at initial pH 6.0 and optimum contact time was observed as 60 min. Cd(II) ions adsorption on MAP analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of MAP was found to be 21.69 mg?g(-1) by using the Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed to describe the biosorption kinetics. In order to investigate the thermodynamic properties of the biosorption process, the changes in the Gibbs free energy (?G), enthalpy (?H), and entropy (?S) were also evaluated and it has been concluded that the process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in the temperature range of 5-40 °C. PMID:23184397

Serencam, Huseyin; Ozdes, Duygu; Duran, Celal; Tufekci, Mehmet

2013-07-01

107

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

108

Micropropagation of a fruit tree, Morus australis Poir. syn. M. acidosa Griff.  

PubMed

High frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in nodal explants collected between November to February from a 5 year old tree of Morus australis Poir syn. M. acidosa Griff. on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (1.0 mg/1). Incorporation of gibberellic acid (0.3 mg/l) along with BAP (1.0 mg/l) not only induced faster bud break from nodal explants as well as from apical shoot buds, but it also enhanced the frequency of bud break. Nodal explants were more responsive than apical shoot buds. The shoots formed in vitro were multiplied further as nodal segments, and an average multiplication rate of 6-fold per subculture was established within 4-5 months. The shoots were successfully rooted on half-strength MS containing a combination of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-propionic acid, each at 1.0 mg/1. The plantlets were successfully hardened off and established in natural soil. PMID:24178221

Pattnaik, S K; Sahoo, Y; Chand, P K

1996-08-01

109

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

110

[Effects of mulberry-soybean intercropping on carbon-metabolic microbial diversity in saline-alkaline soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the characteristics that mulberry-soybean intercropping could alleviate the damage of saline-alkaline soil, Biolog technique was adopted to study the effects of this intercropping on the diversity of carbon-metabolic microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Under mulberry-soybean intercropping, the average well color development (AWCD) symbolizing the metabolic activity of soil microbes was obviously higher, as compared with that under mulberry or soybean monocropping, being the lowest under mulberry monocropping. The McIntosh index was also higher under intercropping than under monocropping, but the Shannon index and Simpson index had less difference between intercropping and monocropping, indicating that intercropping changed the composition and enhanced the diversity of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the carbon source utilization mode of the soil microbial community differed between intercropping and monocropping, and the main carbon sources were carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and polymers. Soil pH and salinity were the main factors limiting the diversity of the microbial community in saline-alkaline soil, and intercropping could effectively decrease the soil pH and salinity and promote the improvement of soil microbial community diversity. PMID:23173455

Li, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Yue, Bing-Bing; Jin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

111

Cyanidin-3?glucoside isolated from mulberry fruits protects pancreatic ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin?3?glucoside (C3G), isolated from mulberry fruits, on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of this compound. MIN6N pancreatic ??cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G. In addition, the effects of C3G on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells was evaluated using MTT assay, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometric and western blot analyses. The pancreatic ??cells cultured under high glucose conditions exhibited distinct apoptotic features. C3G decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptosis. C3G also prevented pancreatic ??cell apoptosis induced by high glucose conditions by interfering with the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, C3G treatment resulted in increased insulin secretion compared with treatment with high glucose only. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that C3G obtained from mulberry fruits may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25501967

Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Park, Jun Myoung; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam In; Hong, Eock Kee

2015-04-01

112

Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000?mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:25485155

Audomkasok, Suthin; Singpha, Waraporn; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Somsak, Voravuth

2014-01-01

113

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in mulberry cells of Saccoglossus and Ptychodera (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta).  

PubMed

Mulberry cells are epidermal gland cells bearing a long basal process resembling a neurite and are tentatively regarded as neurosecretory cells. They occur scattered through the ectoderm of the proboscis, collar, and anterior trunk regions of the acorn worms Saccoglossus, usually in association with concentrations of nervous tissue. They contain secretion granules that appear from electron micrographs to be released to the exterior. The granules are immunoreactive with antisera raised against mammalian and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Similar results were obtained with another enteropneust, Ptychodera bahamensis, using antisera raised against tunicate-1 and mammalian GnRH. Mulberry cells were not found in either Cephalodiscus or Rhabdopleura (Hemichordata: Pterobranchia). Extracts of tissues from 4200 Saccoglossus contain an area of immunoreactive GnRH that is detected by an antiserum raised against lamprey GnRH when characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. This is the first report of the occurrence of GnRH in hemichordates, probably the most primitive group clearly belonging to the chordate lineage. The physiological function of GnRH in enteropneusts is unknown, but an exocrine function appears more likely than an endocrine or neurotransmitter role. PMID:10094853

Cameron, C B; Mackie, G O; Powell, J F; Lescheid, D W; Sherwood, N M

1999-04-01

114

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

115

Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice.  

PubMed

Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 10(6) infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000?mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:25485155

Audomkasok, Suthin; Singpha, Waraporn; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Somsak, Voravuth

2014-01-01

116

An evolutionary perspective of Pierce's disease of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis, and mulberry leaf scorch diseases.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on a growing list of economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated and evolved is important for disease prevention and management. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships of X. fastidiosa strains from citrus, grapevine, and mulberry through the analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and conserved 16S rDNA genes. RAPD analysis emphasized the vigorous genome-wide divergence of X. fastidiosa and detected three clonal groups of strains that cause Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), and mulberry leaf scorch (MLS). Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences also identified the PD and CVC groups, but with a less stable evolutionary tree. MLS strains were included in the PD group by the 16S rDNA analysis. The Asiatic origins of the major commercial grape and citrus cultivars suggest the recent evolution of both PD and CVC disease in North and South America, respectively, since X. fastidiosa is a New World organism. In order to prevent the development of new diseases caused by X. fastidiosa, it is important to understand the diversity of X. fastidiosa strains, how strains of X. fastidiosa select their hosts, and their ecological roles in the native vegetation. PMID:12402083

Chen, Jianchi; Hartung, John S; Chang, Chung-Jan; Vidaver, Anne K

2002-12-01

117

Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

2010-04-01

118

Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions  

PubMed Central

Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68–12.7, 0.69–9.86 and 0.05–3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium. PMID:25054010

KIM, DONG-SEON; KANG, YOUNG MIN; JIN, WEN YI; SUNG, YOON-YOUNG; CHOI, GOYA; KIM, HO KYOUNG

2014-01-01

119

Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruit protects pancreatic ?-cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The extract obtained from berries contains high amounts of anthocyanins, and this extract is used as a phytotherapeutic agent for different types of diseases. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) isolated from mulberry fruit against pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. The MIN6 pancreatic ?-cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G on the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cells. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and lipid peroxidation was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis were also used to determine apoptosis and the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis. Our results revealed that H2O2 increased the rate of apoptosis by stimulating various pro-apoptotic processes, such as the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. However, C3G reduced the H2O2-induced cell death in the MIN6N pancreatic ?-cells. In addition, we confirmed that H2O2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. C3G inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 without inducing the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, C3G regulated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway-associated proteins, such as proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family, cytochrome c and caspase-3. Taken together, our results suggest that C3G isolated from mulberry fruit has potential for use as a phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress-induced ?-cell apoptosis. PMID:25435295

Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam-In; Hong, Eock Kee

2015-02-01

120

Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants.

Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

2014-06-01

121

Non-mulberry silk gland fibroin protein 3-D scaffold for enhanced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteocytes.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds of wild non-mulberry tropical tasar silk gland fibroin protein as substratum for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The novelty of the study lies in the fabrication of scaffolds from non-bioengineered silk fibroin directly extracted from the glands of non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworms using sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolution protocol and its osteogenic application using single- and double-seeding methods. The scaffolds were mechanically robust and showed homogenous pore distribution within the scaffold. hMSCs were seeded on the scaffolds and were cultured for up to 28days under static conditions in osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on fibroin scaffolds resulted in extensive mineralization with the formation of large calcium nodules, higher alkaline phosphatase activity and intense von Kossa staining. Real-time studies revealed higher transcript levels for osteopontin (OS) and bone sialoprotein (IBSP) under double-seeded conditions as compared to single-seeded scaffolds. Histological analysis showed the development of osteoblastic cells and large calcified nodules. The development and spreading of nuclei and actin filaments on fibroin matrices were revealed through confocal studies. The results suggest the suitability of non-mulberry silk-fibroin protein 3-D scaffolds as natural biomaterial for potential in vitro bone-tissue engineering applications. PMID:19345621

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

2009-09-01

122

CSU Leave Program Types of Leave Programs  

E-print Network

Policy · California Pregnancy Disability Leave · Education Code 89519 Leave · Maternity/Paternity/Adoption/parental or roommates) ­ Bereavement in the case of death of a person in the immediate family (when bereavement leave as spouse, parent, child, or domestic partner · Medical, dental, and vision benefits continue while on FML

de Lijser, Peter

123

Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Results Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Conclusions A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells. PMID:23433072

2013-01-01

124

Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.  

PubMed

The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress. PMID:25231943

Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-12-01

125

Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

2014-01-01

126

Hydrologic data for a subsurface waste-injection site at Mulberry, Florida; 1972-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since October 1972, industrial liquid waste has been injected into a brine aquifer of limestone and dolomite in Mulberry, FL., at a depth of more than 4,000 feet below land surface. During 1977, the injection rate was about 8.8 million gallons per month. To determine what effect the injected waste has on the ground-water body, water levels have been measured and water samples collected from two monitor wells that tap different permeable zones above the injection zone, and from a satellite monitor well that taps the injection zone. The monitor wells are in the annulus of the injection well, and the satellite monitor well is 2,291 feet from the injection well. This report updates previous data reports and includes all hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1972-77. Included is a table of well-construction data, a graph showing the volume of waste injected each month, and hydrographs of the annulus monitor wells and the satellite monitor well. (Woodard-USGS)

Wilson, William Edward; Parsons, David C.; Spechler, R.M.

1979-01-01

127

Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE) has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts) as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde) in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg) diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. PMID:24644381

Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Zal, Fatemeh; Jafarian, Aida; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

2014-01-01

128

Identification and Effect of Two Flavonoids from Root Bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in Grass Carp.  

PubMed

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

2015-02-11

129

[Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

130

Structure and genetic diversity of natural populations of Morus alba in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh region.  

PubMed

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers were used to assess the genetic structure in three natural populations of Morus alba from trans-Himalaya. Multilocation sampling was conducted across 14 collection sites. The overall genetic diversity estimates were high: percentage polymorphic loci 89.66%, Nei's gene diversity 0.2286, and Shannon's information index 0.2175. At a regional level, partitioning of variability assessed using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), revealed 80% variation within and 20% among collection sites. Pattern appeared in STRUCTURE, BARRIER, and AMOVA, clearly demonstrating gene flow between the Indus and Suru populations and a geographic barrier between the Indus-Suru and Nubra populations, which effectively hinders gene flow. The results showed significant genetic differentiation, population structure, high to restricted gene flow, and high genetic diversity. The assumption that samples collected from the three valleys represent three different populations does not hold true. The fragmentation present in trans-Himalaya was more natural and less anthropogenic. PMID:24243146

Bajpai, Prabodh K; Warghat, Ashish R; Sharma, Ram Kumar; Yadav, Ashish; Thakur, Anil K; Srivastava, Ravi B; Stobdan, Tsering

2014-04-01

131

Identification and Partial Characterization of Midgut Proteases in the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50° C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5– 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 ± 2.0 µM and 116.06 ± 1.96 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H.; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

2013-01-01

132

Stanford Community Leave Bank A voluntary leave time donation program  

E-print Network

Stanford Community Leave Bank A voluntary leave time donation program July 1, 2012 h t t p : / / h of accrued vacation to the Stanford Community Leave Bank (SCLB) central leave bank. In accordance with tax vacation leave hours from their unused balance to a central leave bank fund. This central leave bank fund

Straight, Aaron

133

Plasmids of Xylella fastidiosa Mulberry-Infecting Strains Share Extensive Sequence Identity and Gene Complement with pVEIS01 From the Earthworm Symbiont Verminephrobacter Eiseniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A ~25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

134

Xylella fastidiosa isolates from mulberry harbor a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian isolates of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

135

Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

136

Mulberry Extracts Alleviate A?25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells  

PubMed Central

Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against ?-amyloid 25–35- (A?25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200??g/mL) for 24?h were treated with A?25–35 (20??mol/L) for another 24?h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent A?25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit A?25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

2014-01-01

137

Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the ? phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in ? phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the ?-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized ? alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the ? fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity.

Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

2014-06-01

138

5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

2010-01-01

139

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

140

Look at Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

Science Netlinks;

2002-02-14

141

Graphing Fall Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology lab extension, student will have already collected leaves from the playground and surrounding school areas and sorted them into categories according to leaf properties. Students will use the leave classifications/ sorts to graph the properties of the leaves.

Bonnie DePeel

142

Forms of Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent issue of NATURE, in the discussion on the forms of leaves, Mr. Henslow seems to doubt the assertion of Sir John Lubbock that the holly produces prickly leaves on the lower branches, and smooth leaves without spines above; but this is a fact which may easily be verified in numerous localities (selected gardens varieties are of course

R. A. Rolfe

1885-01-01

143

Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Two Novel Regio-specific Flavonoid Prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata.  

PubMed

Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3'-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity. PMID:25361766

Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

2014-12-26

144

Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  

PubMed

This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

2014-08-01

145

Mulberry Leaf Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose Response in Prediabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Abstract This study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of 4 weeks of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLAE) supplementation (5?g/day) for postprandial glycemic control in 36 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) tolerance. Postprandial responses in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured after a carbohydrate load both at baseline and after 4 weeks of MLAE supplementation. The postprandial glycemic response was attenuated in the MLAE group after the treatment period, particularly 30 and 60?min after loading (P=.003 and 0.0325 for glucose, P=.0005 and .0350 for insulin, and P=.0151 and .0864 for C-peptide). Additionally, the incremental area under the curve for insulin was significantly lower in the MLAE group than in the placebo group (P=.0207). Four weeks of MLAE supplementation improved postprandial glycemic control in individuals with IFG tolerance. PMID:25343729

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Hyang Mok; Kim, Joohee; Park, Seok Won; Kwon, Sung Won; Kwon, Oran

2014-10-24

146

Types of Compound Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of compound leaves. The single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Along with a short description, an illustration that identifies a leaflet and petiole is included for four types of compound leaves.

147

Amygdalin in Prunus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin was found for the first time in the leaves of mature trees of several Prunus taxa: P. serotina and P. virginiana cv. Schubert of subg. Padus and P. ilicifolia and P. lyonii of subg. Laurocerasus. Leaves of other taxa in both subgenera contained only the monoglucoside prunasin. Amygdalin production was inherited in hybrids between P. padus

Frank S. Santamour

1998-01-01

148

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

149

Habitat use by the golden-cheeked warbler in Texas  

E-print Network

lanuginose), redbud (Cercis canadensis), evergreen sumac (Rhus virens), soapberry (Sapindus saponaria), deciduous holly (Ilex deciduas), escarpment cherry (Prunus serotina), Mexican bucheye (Ugnadia speciosa), red mulberry (Morus rubra) bir-tooth maple (Acer...

Newnam, John Calvin

2009-05-15

150

State Arboretum of Virginia at Blandy Experimental Farm Alien Invasive Landscape Plants in Virginia  

E-print Network

calleryana Callery, Ornamental or Bradford Pear Quercus acutissima Sawtooth Oak Salix alba White Willow Ulmus Chinaberry Morus alba White Mulberry Phellodendron amurense Amur Corktree Populus alba White Poplar Pyrus

Acton, Scott

151

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications  

E-print Network

and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba!matsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15e20% benzo

Alvarez, Pedro J.

152

Look At Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will observe, measure, and sort tree leaves. They will examine leaves individually, in groups, and in relationship to the entire tree. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves according to these attributes and consider any patterns that emerge. In addition, they will communicate what they have learned about leaves in quantitative terms. The activities in this lesson will challenge students to consider how standard units of measurement help clarify for others what they are trying to convey. In the second part of the lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves. They will realize that these and other changes repeat themselves and that these patterns of change are called cycles and are part of our environment.

153

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

2014-01-01

154

MEDICAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY  

E-print Network

MEDICAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your Supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence, and to obtain the UCF Medical Leave Request of Medical Leave Request Form" which is part of the Request form. Be sure you understand your

Wu, Shin-Tson

155

Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.  

PubMed

Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

2015-02-01

156

Falling for Clay Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

Kernan, Christine

2002-01-01

157

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

158

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students examine drawings of oak leaves and figure out how to classify and identify them. The printable six-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about classification and its importance to scientists, drawings of 12 different oak leaves, and a worksheet that includes step-by-step directions and areas for recording answers.

159

[Control effect and bacteriostasis of mulberry endophytic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 on silkworm septicemia].  

PubMed

A laboratory test was conducted to study the control effect and bacteriostasis of antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 isolated from mulberry on silkworm septicemia, aimed to develop a new microbial pesticide to control silkworm diseases. The supernatant of Lu10-1 zymotic fluid achieved 41.2% control efficiency and 24.0% prophylactic effect on silkworm septicemia. The antibacterial crude extract of Lu10-1 had stronger antagonistic activity against Bacillus bombyseptieus. The diameter of inhibition zone reached 18.20 mm, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the antibacterial crude extract were 1.56 and 3.13 mg x mL(-1), respectively. After treated with the antibacterial crude extract, B. bombyseptieus never appeared logarithmic growth phase, its cell membrane permeability changed, intracellular protein leaked out, intracellular macromolecular protein degraded, and at last, the thalli cracked, inner substances out-flowed, cavity formed, and cell ablated. It was considered that the antagonistic substances of Lu10-1 strain could be used for controlling silkworm septicemia, with preferable development foreground. PMID:23431798

Dong, Fa-Bao; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Yu, Qi; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Yan-Wen; Gao, Hui-Ju

2012-11-01

160

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

161

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2011-01-01

162

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

163

Paper Chromatography with Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

2013-07-08

164

De Novo Assembly of Expressed Transcripts and Global Transcriptomic Analysis from Seedlings of the Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera)  

PubMed Central

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry. PMID:24848504

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

165

Classify the trees/Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

Mary Walsh

166

Effect of Kuwanon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba on ovalbumin-induced allergic response in a mouse model of asthma.  

PubMed

The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10?mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7?days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. PMID:25116225

Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

2014-11-01

167

[Effects of NaCl and Na2CO3 stresses on the growth and photosynthesis characteristics of Morus alba seedlings].  

PubMed

Taking 1-year old Morus alba variety 'Qinglong' seedlings as test materials, this paper studied their growth and photosynthetic characteristics under the stresses of different concentration neutral salt NaCl and alkali salt Na2CO3. Salt stresses decreased the plant height and the leaf number, biomass, and photosynthetic capacity of the seedlings markedly. With increasing concentration Na+, the leaf stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, electron transport rate, and photochemical quenching (qP) decreased obviously, the energy dissipation rate increased, and the light use efficiency and photosynthetic capacity dropped down. At low concentrations Na+ (< 150 mmol x L(-1)), the seedlings growth and leaf photosynthetic capacity were slightly inhibited, and the adaptability of the seedlings to the salt stresses increased via the increase of root/shoot ratio. However, this protection mechanism was impaired by increasing salt concentration. Na2CO3 stress (Na+ concentration > 50 mmol x L(-)) had stronger inhibitory effects on the seedlings growth and leaf photosynthetic capacity, and the effect increased with increasing Na+ concentration. It was concluded that at Na+ concentration < 150 mmol x L(-1), the photosynthetic adaptability of M. alba to neutral salt stress was mainly dependent on the plant morphology and photosynthetic metabolism, but at Na+ concentration > 150 mmol x L(-1), the photosynthetic adaptability of M. alba to alkali salt stress was mainly dependent on the photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:22720603

Zhang, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Li, Xin; Ding, Jun-Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Qi, Fei; Zhang, Ting; Tian, Ye; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-03-01

168

Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.  

PubMed

In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. PMID:24927367

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

2014-01-01

169

Mulberry water extracts inhibit rabbit atherosclerosis through stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis via activating p53 and regulating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in rabbits. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the key determinant of the number of VSMCs in remodeling. To improve the recovery from atherosclerosis pathology, it would be ideal to induce regression of atherosclerotic plaques and apoptosis of VSMCs. In this study, we treated high-cholesterol-diet-fed (HCD-fed) rabbits with MWEs, and we found that the MWEs effectively inhibited HCD-fed-induced intimal hyperplasia of vessel walls. We also found that MWEs initially activate JNK/p38 and p53, which in turn activate both Fas-ligand and mitochondria pathways, thereby causing mitochondria translocation of Bax and the reduction of Bcl-2 that trigger the cleavage of procaspases, finally resulting in apoptosis of VSMCs. In addition, 2.5-5.0 g/day of MWEs for humans may be enough to prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:24833292

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-06-01

170

A polysaccharide extract of mulberry leaf ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat-diet and streptozotocin.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaf is a traditional medicine used to treat diabetes in the clinic. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII), improves hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and streptozotocin (STZ). MLPII was administered for 6 weeks after establishment of type 2 diabetes in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance, liver glycogen content, glucose synthase (GS) activity and insulin resistance were determined. Expression patterns of proteins and genes associated with insulin signaling as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed. Compared with normal control rats, MLPII treatment significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01) and restored the glycogen level (P < 0.01) and GS activity (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats. Insulin resistance was improved in MLPII-treated diabetic rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) involved in insulin signaling were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while protein–tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in livers of the MLPII-treated group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), while activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The results clearly indicate that MLPII treatment effectively normalizes hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling by inhibiting the expression of PTP1B, activating the PI3K–AKT pathway and mitigating oxidative stress in the livers of rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and STZ. PMID:25316427

Ren, Chunjiu; Zhang, Yao; Cui, Weizheng; Lu, Guobing; Wang, Yanwen; Gao, Huiju; Huang, Lu; Mu, Zhimei

2015-01-01

171

Combined Treatment of Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity. PMID:23957352

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook

2013-01-01

172

Lateral gas diffusion inside leaves.  

PubMed

Diffusion of CO2 inside leaves is generally regarded to be from the substomatal cavities to the assimilating tissues, i.e. in the vertical direction of the leaf blades. However, lateral gas diffusion within intercellular air spaces may be much more effective than hitherto considered. In a previous work it was demonstrated that, when 'clamp-on' leaf chambers are used, leaf internal 'CO2 leakage' beyond the leaf chamber gaskets may seriously affect gas exchange measurement. This effect has been used in the present paper to quantify gas conductance (g(leaf,l), mmol m(-2) s(-1)) in the lateral directions within leaves and significant differences between homo- and heterobaric leaves were observed. For the homobaric leaves, lateral gas conductance measured over a distance of 6 or 8 mm (the widths of the chamber gaskets) was 2-20% of vertical conductance taken from published data measured over much smaller distances of 108-280 microm (the thickness of the leaves). The specific internal gas diffusion properties of the leaves have been characterized by gas conductivities (g*(leaf), micromol m(-1) s(-1)). Gas conductivities in the lateral directions of heterobaric leaves were found to be small but not zero. In homobaric leaves, they were between 67 and 209 micromol m(-1) s(-1) and thus even larger than those in the vertical direction of the leaf blades (between 15 and 78 micromol m(-1) s(-1)). The potential implications for experimentalists performing gas exchange measurements are discussed. PMID:15668225

Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

2005-03-01

173

Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

174

See the Colors in Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

2012-03-22

175

Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Oviposition site-selection in insects is mediated through innate recognition templates (IRTs) tuned to specific chemical cues. These cues aid gravid insects in choosing suitable oviposition sites and may even enhance the fitness of their offspring by warding off predators and parasitoids. However, studies on the evolution of oviposition site-selection and cues instigating oviposition in domesticated insects remain elusive. Using the interaction between the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and its host plant mulberry, Morus alba, as a model system, we demonstrate that centuries of domestication of silkmoth has not impaired its oviposition site-selection function. Silkmoths significantly preferred mulberry leaves to filter paper as oviposition sites. Oviposition assays with filter paper, filter paper treated with leaf volatiles and leaf alone proved that surface texture was not a significant criterion for oviposition site-selection, but volatile cues were. Oviposition assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from mulberry revealed that two of the volatiles, valencene and ?-humulene, aided moths in choosing suitable oviposition sites and enhanced egg-laying significantly. Moreover, we show that generalist egg-parasitoids are strongly repelled by valencene and ?-humulene. Our results demonstrate that IRTs tuned to cues that aid crucial functions like oviposition site-selection are less likely to be impaired even after centuries of domestication. PMID:25503440

Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Rajasekhar, Sowmya Bandhisara; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham

2014-01-01

176

Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Oviposition site-selection in insects is mediated through innate recognition templates (IRTs) tuned to specific chemical cues. These cues aid gravid insects in choosing suitable oviposition sites and may even enhance the fitness of their offspring by warding off predators and parasitoids. However, studies on the evolution of oviposition site-selection and cues instigating oviposition in domesticated insects remain elusive. Using the interaction between the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and its host plant mulberry, Morus alba, as a model system, we demonstrate that centuries of domestication of silkmoth has not impaired its oviposition site-selection function. Silkmoths significantly preferred mulberry leaves to filter paper as oviposition sites. Oviposition assays with filter paper, filter paper treated with leaf volatiles and leaf alone proved that surface texture was not a significant criterion for oviposition site-selection, but volatile cues were. Oviposition assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from mulberry revealed that two of the volatiles, valencene and ?-humulene, aided moths in choosing suitable oviposition sites and enhanced egg-laying significantly. Moreover, we show that generalist egg-parasitoids are strongly repelled by valencene and ?-humulene. Our results demonstrate that IRTs tuned to cues that aid crucial functions like oviposition site-selection are less likely to be impaired even after centuries of domestication. PMID:25503440

Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Rajasekhar, Sowmya Bandhisara; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham

2014-01-01

177

Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors  

E-print Network

Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors As a supervisor, it is important for you to know how & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) &/or Wisconsin Family & Medical Leave Act (WFMLA) and to know what to do with confidential medical information. FMLA and WFMLA are leave entitlements for reasonable, job-protected leave

Saffman, Mark

178

Key Obama officials leave administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

Showstack, Randy

2013-01-01

179

The thermal conductivity of leaves.  

PubMed

Thermal conductivities of fresh leaves, both unmodified and infiltrated with water, were measured. Samples were placed between silver plates of known and differing temperatures, and the time required to boil off a constant volume of liquid was measured. The species used are evergreens: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (sclerophyllous) with isolateral leaf symmetry; and Peperomia obtusifolia A. Dietr. (succulent), Citrus limon Burm. f. (mesophyllous), Arbutus menziessii Pursh. (sclerophyllous), and Heteromeles arbutifolia M. Roem. (sclerophyllous), all with bilateral leaf symmetry. Mean values found were in the range of 0.268 to 0.573 W/m · °C for fresh leaves, and 0.540 to 0.548 W/m · °C for leaves infiltrated with water. An analysis of errors in the technique indicated that these values may be somewhat low. These results are several times higher than previously reported values. It is concluded that ordinary mesophytic and xerophytic leaves will not develop large gradients in temperature between the surfaces. PMID:24435441

Hays, R L

1975-01-01

180

The ocean-going noni, or Indian Mulberry ( Morinda citrifolia , Rubiaceae) and some of its “colorful” relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Morinda embraces about 80 species, mostly of Old World origin.M. citrifolia L. (southern Asia Australia), noted as a source of dye and edible leaves, has buoyant seeds that float for many months and\\u000a commonly appears in the Pacific and also in tropical America where M. royoc L., piña de ratón, is indigenous, inhabits inland\\u000a hammocks and pinelands as

Julia F. Morton

1992-01-01

181

5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

2010-01-01

182

Buying Additional Leave 1 Revised June 2009  

E-print Network

Buying Additional Leave 1 Revised June 2009 BUYING ADDITIONAL ANNUAL LEAVE 1.0 Introduction 1 outlines the option and process for buying additional annual leave which builds on existing provision to employees. 1.2 The payment arrangements for buying additional annual leave are outlined in 4.0 below

Davies, Christopher

183

Mulberry water extracts inhibit atherosclerosis through suppression of the integrin-??/focal adhesion kinase complex and downregulation of nuclear factor ?B signaling in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in vivo and in vitro through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Histological analysis was performed on atherosclerotic lesions from high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed rabbits after treatment with 0.5-1% MWEs for 10 weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of SMA, Ras, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the VSMCs were dose-dependently inhibited after MWE treatment. The antimigratory effects of MWEs on A7r5 VSMCs were assessed by western blot analysis of migration-related proteins, visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MWEs inhibited VSMC migration through reducing interactions of the integrin-?3/focal adhesion kinase complex, alterations of the cytoskeleton, and downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3?/nuclear factor ?B signaling. Taken together, MWEs inhibited HCD-induced rabbit atherogenesis through blocking VSMC migration via reducing interactions of integrin-?3 and focal adhesion kinase and downregulating migration-related proteins. PMID:25197764

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Chien-Ning; Huang, Hui-Pei; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-10-01

184

Planned Giving: Leaving a Legacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a wonderful surprise when an executor calls to inform that one's college has been remembered in an individual's estate, either for a future gift or one that is being distributed. Leaving this legacy often enriches the final years of a donor's life. But too often, these opportunities are left to chance because community college development…

Edwards, Joan

2010-01-01

185

Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

186

GRADUATE COLLEGE LEAVE OF ABSENCE  

E-print Network

on maintaining visa eligibility for reentering the United States. RETURNING FROM A LEAVE OF ABSENCE Upon their admitted student status; however, they are not registered and therefore do not have the rights any GI Bill education benefits, you must contact the Office of Veteran Services Other (please

Cho, Hokwon

187

Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

2015-01-01

188

Stanford Community Leave Bank Program Guidelines  

E-print Network

Stanford Community Leave Bank Program Guidelines h t t p : / / u h r . s t a n f o r d . e d u A Community Leave Bank Program Guidelines ­ July 1, 2012 Page 2 h t t p : / / u h r . s t a n f o r d . e d u their unused balance to a central leave bank fund. This central leave bank fund will be made available

Straight, Aaron

189

Gas transfer in floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized gas transport with flow rates of 1.1 to 1.81 gas h-1 plant-1 have been detected in the floating-leaved aquatic macrophyte Euryale ferox on sunny days. The younger leaves gave the highest pressurization, but the gas flow was initiated mainly by the middle-aged leaves of the plants. The gas through-flow was shown to be highly beneficial for floating-leaved plants. It

W. Große; C. Bauch

1991-01-01

190

The New Jersey Family Leave Act  

E-print Network

The New Jersey Family Leave Act The New Jersey Family Leave Act (N.J.S.A. 34:11B-1, et seq.NJCivilRights.gov The New Jersey mily Leave Act w Jersey Family Leave Act (N.J.S.A. 34:11B-1, et seq.) requires. Pennsylvania Avenue, 3 rd Floor Atlantic City, NJ 08401 (609) 441-3100 (Phone) (609) 441-7648 (TTY) Jersey City

Liu, Alice Y.C.

191

Pregnancy, Teaching, and Leaving before Year's End.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay highlights one pregnant middle school teacher's experiences with taking a mid-year leave. She used entries from her personal diary to reflect on how she felt about her leave, while her students wrote letters and notes expressing their anxieties about her leaving. The discussion of planning a pregnancy and the stages of pregnancy, along…

Abdulrashid, Jamila

192

A unified explanation for anthocyanins in leaves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves from many of New Zealand's native species are remarkably polymorphic for anthocyanin expression. Red coloration varies not only as a function of seasonal and developmental factors, but can also differ among individuals of a population, among leaves within a canopy, and even among tissues within a leaf. Moreover, the biosynthesis of anthocyanin in these leaves can be induced

Kevin S. Gould; Sam O. Neill; Thomas C. Vogelmann

2002-01-01

193

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

194

Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal/family, career, and school…

Cuddapah, Jennifer L.; Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Masci, Frank J.; Hetrick, Monica

2011-01-01

195

Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity  

PubMed Central

“Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

McSherry, James

1986-01-01

196

Resource capture by single leaves  

SciTech Connect

Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Long, S.P.

1992-05-01

197

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

198

Autumn leaves seen through herbivore eyes  

PubMed Central

Why leaves of some trees turn red in autumn has puzzled biologists for decades, as just before leaf fall the pigments causing red coloration are newly synthesized. One idea to explain this apparently untimely investment is that red colour signals the tree's quality to herbivorous insects, particularly aphids. However, it is unclear whether red leaves are indeed less attractive to aphids than green leaves. Because aphids lack a red photoreceptor, it was conjectured that red leaves could even be indiscernable from green ones for these insects. Here we show, however, that the colour of autumnal tree leaves that appear red to humans are on average much less attractive to aphids than green leaves, whereas yellow leaves are much more attractive. We conclude that, while active avoidance of red leaves by aphids is unlikely, red coloration in autumn could still be a signal of the tree's quality, or alternatively serve to mask the over-attractive yellow that is unveiled when the green chlorophyll is recovered from senescing leaves. Our study shows that in sensory ecology, receiver physiology alone is not sufficient to reveal the whole picture. Instead, the combined analysis of behaviour and a large set of natural stimuli unexpectedly shows that animals lacking a red photoreceptor may be able to differentiate between red and green leaves. PMID:18782744

Döring, Thomas F; Archetti, Marco; Hardie, Jim

2008-01-01

199

Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.  

PubMed

Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

2007-01-01

200

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

201

Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: in vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was used to assess the difference in epidermal absorbance (EAbs). EAbs increased with increasing solar irradiance intercepted for the three species. This epidermal localisation of UV-absorbers was confirmed by the removal of the epidermis. It was possible to simulate EAbs as a linear combination of major phenolic compounds (Phen) identified in leaf methanol extracts by HPLC-DAD. Under UV-free radiation conditions, shaded leaves of M. nigra accumulated chlorogenic acid. Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives greatly increased with increasing PAR irradiance under the low UV-B conditions found in the greenhouse. These traits were also observed for the HCA of the two other species. Flavonoid (FLAV) accumulation started under low UV-A irradiance, and became maximal in the adaxial epidermis of sun-exposed leaves outdoors. A decrease in the amount of HCA was observed concomitantly to the intense accumulation of FLAV for both leaf sides of the three species. Judging from the logFER, under low UV-B conditions, larger amounts of HCA are present in the epidermis in comparison to FLAV for the three species. Upon transition from the greenhouse to full sunlight outdoors, there was a decrease in leaf-soluble HCA that paralleled FLAV accumulation in reaction to increasing solar UV-B radiation in the three species. In M. nigra, that contains large amounts of HCA, the logFER analysis showed that this decrease occurred in the adaxial epidermis, whereas the abaxial epidermis, which is protected from direct UV-B radiation, continued to accumulate large amounts of HCA. PMID:17720509

Bidel, L P R; Meyer, S; Goulas, Y; Cadot, Y; Cerovic, Z G

2007-09-25

202

Asian long-horned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis MSU's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

pennsylvanica), rose of Sharon (Hibiscus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), sugar including maple (Acer spp.), poplar (Populus spp.), willow (Salix spp.), mulberry (Morus spp.), plum (Prunus maple (Acer saccharum), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), Sycamore (Platanus spp.) and box elder (Acer

203

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

204

5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule when medically necessary, subject...intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule that is foreseeable based...authority; (2) The same type of appointment, work schedule, status, and tenure;...

2011-01-01

205

5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule when medically necessary, subject...intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule that is foreseeable based...authority; (2) The same type of appointment, work schedule, status, and tenure;...

2010-01-01

206

Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

Waters, Megan.

207

MEDICAL LEAVE/CRISIS RESPONSE POLICIES Mandated Medical Leave of Absence for Physiological Reasons Policy  

E-print Network

MEDICAL LEAVE/CRISIS RESPONSE POLICIES Mandated Medical Leave of Absence for Physiological Reasons Policy A student will be placed on mandatory medical leave if the following has occurred: · It has been determined by a Health Service clinician (NP or MD) that the student requires more intensive medical care

208

Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 85 Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves  

E-print Network

are at the tips (or apices) of plant parts. The shoot apical meristem is at the tip of the shoot, while the root;Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 87 The basic parts of the leaf are a leaf base, which is the region wherePlants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 85 Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves Unlike animals, plants only have

Koptur, Suzanne

209

Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of  

E-print Network

Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of Red-Osier Dogwood1 the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence

Holbrook, N. Michele

210

Resilience and Young People Leaving Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

Stein, Mike

2008-01-01

211

Manager's Guide for Family Leave Transitions  

E-print Network

Cambridge, MA 02138 Crimson Cares including Manager's Guide for Family Leave Transitions 3 #12;GoodManager's Guide for Family Leave Transitions When a member of your team is prepar- ing to go will increase the likelihood of a smooth transition and ap- propriate coverage of job responsibilities. Helping

Wolfe, Patrick J.

212

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annual leave at any time subject to approval...allowed only after the student has spent 180 days in pay status in Job Corps, and only once...enrollment. (e) Students shall not be charged annual leave for travel time to and from home...

2010-04-01

213

A versatile scattering model for deciduous leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A versatile, multi-frequency scattering model is developed for deciduous leaves. The model gains its versatility from estimating the field inside the leaves, which are represented by elliptic discs, through employing a technique bridging the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) and the physical optics (PO) approximations. Analytic and numerical results are presented to illustrate the model versatility

Mostafa A. Karam; GenCorp Aerojet

1998-01-01

214

Extended Leaves of Absence for Classroom Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended leave of absence policies for classroom teachers in 129 school systems with enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. A table lists, in order of descending frequency, the following purposes for which leaves are granted: (1) Military service, (2) professional study, (3) maternity, (4) exchange teaching…

Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

1966-01-01

215

Characteristics of photosynthesis in peach leaves.  

PubMed

Seasonal photosynthetic patterns of Loring peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) leaves were monitored throughout the 1974 growing season. Using leaves on detached branches, CO2 exchange was measured under controlled light and temperature conditions. Net photosynthesis rate varied from 9 to 12.4 mg CO2 dm(-2) leaf area h(-1) and was correlated with fruit development, with the highest values occurring during the final stage of fruit maturation. The proximity of fruits to leaves also regulated photosynthesis, with the highest rates occurring in leaves closest to fruit. Soluble-sugar content in fruits and fruit yield were highest in tree areas with greatest exposure to direct sunlight although leaf area was evenly distributed throughout the tree. Light and temperature optimum for photosynthesis in peach leaves was 9.5×10(-3) erg cm(-2) s(-1) and 30°, respectively. PMID:24430151

Crews, C E; Williams, S L; Vines, H M

1975-01-01

216

Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1984-01-01

217

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

2011-01-01

218

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

2014-01-01

219

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

2013-01-01

220

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

2012-01-01

221

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

2010-01-01

222

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

223

The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

Chemecology, 1997

1997-01-01

224

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) in light of the United States Supreme Court’s decision in United States v. Windsor, which found section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) to be unconstitutional. ...

225

Family Medical Leave Process No Yes  

E-print Network

Family Medical Leave Process applicable) or discusses other required supporting documentation. * Does employee meet the basic. No Yes *Contact your HR Consultant regarding the appropriate documentation. If the employee provides

New Mexico, University of

226

38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

2010-07-01

227

38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.  

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

2014-07-01

228

38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

2011-07-01

229

38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

2012-07-01

230

38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

2010-07-01

231

38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

2013-07-01

232

38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

2011-07-01

233

Spanning directed trees with many leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Directed Maximum Leaf Out-Branching problem is to flnd an out-branching (i.e. a rooted oriented spanning tree) in a given digraph with the maximum number of leaves. In this paper, we obtain two com- binatorial results on the number of leaves in out-branchings. We show that † every strongly connected n-vertex digraph D with minimum in- degree at least 3

Noga Alon; Fedor V. Fomin; Gregory Gutin

234

Spanning directed trees with many leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Directed Maximum Leaf Out-Branching problem is to nd an out-branching (i.e. a rooted oriented spanning tree) in a given digraph with the maximum number of leaves. In this paper, we obtain two combinatorial results on the number of leaves in out-branchings. We show that { every strongly connected n-vertex digraph D with minimum in- degree at least 3 has

Noga Alon; Fedor V. Fomin; Gregory Gutin; Michael Krivelevich; Saket Saurabh

2008-01-01

235

Characteristics of photosynthesis in peach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal photosynthetic patterns of Loring peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) leaves were monitored throughout the 1974 growing season. Using leaves on detached branches, CO2 exchange was measured under controlled light and temperature conditions. Net photosynthesis rate varied from 9 to 12.4 mg CO2 dm-2 leaf area h-1 and was correlated with fruit development, with the highest values occurring during the

C. E. Crews; S. L. Williams; H. M. Vines

1975-01-01

236

More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

McCain, D C; Markley, J L

1989-08-01

237

Leaving home and leaving the state: evidence from the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaving the parental home is an important first step in a long-term housing career. We extend the previous research on this topic by examining the impact of housing market factors on the risks of leaving with or without a partner in the United States. We also re-examine the role of the income of the young adult leavers in nest-leaving, and

Clara H. Mulder; William A. V. Clark

2000-01-01

238

The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

2013-08-01

239

Decision to Leave Scale: Perceived Reasons to Stay in or Leave Violent Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 30-item Decision to Leave Scale (DLS) was developed with 631 college women and 420 college women and women in shelters. Seven DLS subscales emerged for concerns in deciding to stay or leave: Fear of Loneliness, Child Care Needs, Financial Problems, Social Embarrassment, Poor Social Support, Fear of Harm, Hopes Things Change. Mean internal…

Hendy, Helen M.; Eggen, Doreen; Gustitus, Cheryl; McLeod, Kelli C.; Ng, Phillip

2003-01-01

240

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...occasional basis for medical appointments, or leave taken several days at a time spread over a period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for...

2011-07-01

241

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occasional basis for medical appointments, or leave taken several days at a time spread over a period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for...

2010-07-01

242

Leaves Antimicrobial Activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.  

PubMed

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) is an important medicinal plant. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from licorice leaves were studied compared to root extracts activities. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were used as test organisms. Antimicrobial activity was tested by paper disc agar diffusion and serial dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The root and leave extracts showed activity against Candida albicans, and tested gram-positive bacteria in a dose dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of the leaves was the most active extract against gram-positive bacteria. Its effectiveness against strains provides hope that it can serve as an alternative therapeutic agent. PMID:24381608

Irani, Mahboubeh; Sarmadi, Marziyeh; Bernard, Françoise; Ebrahimi Pour, Gholam Hossein; Shaker Bazarnov, Hossein

2010-01-01

243

Request for Leave of Absence Year Month Day  

E-print Network

B-1 Form B-1 Request for Leave of Absence Year Month Day Dean of the Graduate School Day Year Month Day Record of Study Abroad and Leaves of Absence in the past. Leave of Absence Year Month Day Year Month Day Leave of Absence Year Month Day Year Month Day

Sano, Masaki

244

Medical Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University  

E-print Network

Medical Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University Employee Name Request Justification: Medical leave without pay: Medical leave without pay may be granted for reasons including extenuating personal health problems or immediate family issues. Medical leaves of absence without

Hutcheon, James M.

245

5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605 Section 630.605 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service...

2010-01-01

246

5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630.606 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as...

2010-01-01

247

Time & Leave Benefits Summary Executive Compensation Plan (ECP) Employees Annual Leave Employees accrue annual leave monthly as set forth below  

E-print Network

Department. Bereavement Leave Employees may take up to 4 days for the death of an immediate family member as defined below: Immediate family shall be defined as spouse; natural, foster, or step parent; grand child, the Domestic Partner of the employee and a child or parent of the Domestic Partner or any other relative

Rosen, Jay

248

DEPARTMENT WORKSHEET FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT WORKSHEET FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE This worksheet is to be used when (1) an employee Injury/Illness Worksheet within 1 work day. Contact the WC office at x4-3362 if you have any questions remainder of worksheet and LOA form. If both boxes are not checked, employee is not eligible for FML

Leistikow, Bruce N.

249

Disaster Leave Office of Human Resources  

E-print Network

Disaster Leave 6.28 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty, staff, and graduate associates for further direction and compensation information 1 . The Ohio State University ­ Office of Human Resources of Human Resources 614-292-2800 ohrc@hr.osu.edu hr.osu.edu/elr Benefits Customer Service Center, Office

Howat, Ian M.

250

The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

Gill, John; And Others

1988-01-01

251

Compartmentation of storage compounds in peach leaves  

E-print Network

Compartmentation of storage compounds in peach leaves J.P. Gaudillère1 J. Schaeffer2 A. Moing A de Bordeaux /, 33405 Talence Cedex, France Introduction High leaf photosynthesis is achieved when into the phloem and exported to other parts of the plant. The study of interactions be- tween photosynthesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn – leaves  

PubMed Central

Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

2005-01-01

253

Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year

M. E. di Menna

1959-01-01

254

Paid Leave Programs Policy 6.27  

E-print Network

vacation, sick, parental, jury duty/court appearance and organ donation leave to respond to employee needs; or death of an immediate family member. Definitions Term Definition Active pay status Conditions under-child of the adoptive parent. Adoptive parent A parent who has taken a child into one's family, through legal means

Howat, Ian M.

255

5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the notification and medical certification requirements...entitlement to family and medical leave. However, if...returning to work. In such cases, the incapacity of the...documented by a written medical certification from...The 12-month period referred to in paragraph...

2010-01-01

256

House of Leaves: The End of Postmodernism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mark Z. Danielewski’s debut 2000 novel House of Leaves is written in part as an essay titled The Navidson Record by Zampanò. Within this essay, Zampanò includes footnotes and citations to many works both real and fictional. Through investigating some of his footnotes and allusions in The Navidson Record, certain connections to the postmodern movement may be drawn. By interpreting

Joseph B Noah

2012-01-01

257

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 825.202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL...825.113 and 825.127. (c) Birth or placement . When leave is...

2012-07-01

258

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

... 825.202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL...825.113 and 825.127. (c) Birth or placement. When leave is...

2014-07-01

259

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 825.202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL...825.113 and 825.127. (c) Birth or placement. When leave is...

2013-07-01

260

In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.  

PubMed

We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves. PMID:12870202

Markin, D; Duek, L; Berdicevsky, I

2003-04-01

261

The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

The senescence of the first leaves of light-grown Avena seedlings when detached and placed in the dark is inhibited by ?, ??-dipyridyl and ?, ??, ??-tripyridyl at concentrations between 10?5 and 10?4 M. Five other chelating agents exert similar inhibiting effects at concentrations 3 to 30 times higher. The senescence of etiolated leaves, as shown by loss of carotenoid and protein, is similarly inhibited. Ethylene-diaminetetraacetate has a similar effect in the dark, though only at 10 mM and above, but in the light it causes bleaching of chlorophyll. It is deduced that an iron-containing system plays an essential part in the initiation of the senescence process. PMID:16659244

Tetley, Richard M.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1975-01-01

262

Antinociceptive activity of Gynandropsis gynandra leaves.  

PubMed

Gynandropsis gynandra (Capparidaceae) leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of pain. In order to evaluate the scientific validity of this, leaves were extracted successively to produce various extracts. These extracts were screened for antinociceptive activity using the hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were found most active in both the tests. The action was blocked by naloxone (1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) in the hot plate test, which suggests involvement of opioid receptors in the action. Flavonoids and tannins were observed in the active extracts, so we can say that they may responsible for the antinociceptive activity. PMID:19296373

Ghogare, U R; Nirmal, S A; Patil, R Y; Kharya, M D

2009-01-01

263

Nurses’ intentions to leave nursing in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. We examined how factors related to wage, work, job satisfaction\\/dissatisfaction,\\u000a and workplace or demographic factors were associated with nurses’ intentions to switch from health care to non-health-care\\u000a roles. Wage and share of income from shift work were negatively and statistically significantly related to nurses’ intention\\u000a to leave the health care

T. Kankaanranta; P. Rissanen

2008-01-01

264

Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

2011-10-01

265

Saponins from the leaves of Mimusops laurifolia.  

PubMed

Fifteen new bidesmosidic triterpenoid saponins (1-15) were isolated from a methanol extract of the leaves of Mimusops laurifolia. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and determined to be bidesmosides of protobassic acid (2-4, 11, 12, and 15) and of 16alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid (1, 5-10, 13, and 14). PMID:15974604

Eskander, Jacqueline; Lavaud, Catherine; Abdel-Khalik, Soad M; Soliman, Hesham S M; Mahmoud, Ibrahim I; Long, Christophe

2005-06-01

266

Polysaccharide from the leaves of Phytolacca americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysaccharide has been isolated from the leaves ofPhytolacca americana and has been characterized. It has been established that it contains residues of galactose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose,\\u000a in a ratio of 3:4:1:3 and also D-galacturonic acid (85–90%). The results obtained permit the polysaccharide to be assigned\\u000a to the class of pectin substances.

L. A. Chistyakova; S. I. Denisova

1982-01-01

267

The cost of sickness: on the effect of the duration of sick leave on post-sick leave earnings.  

PubMed

Studies analysing the effect of the duration of sick leave on subsequent labour market outcomes do not consider the potential endogenous relationship between duration and labour market outcomes. This paper deals with this shortcoming by using a consistent estimator attained through Instrumental Variables methods for estimating the effect of the duration of a sick leave spell on post-sick leave earnings. I use Danish administrative data and a major 2001 reform of the sick leave system as the instrument for duration. I find that the duration of a sick leave spell has both short and long term effects on post-sick leave earnings. PMID:20207060

Andersen, Signe Hald

2010-05-01

268

Carbon fluxes in mature peach leaves.  

PubMed

The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using (14)C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

Moing, A; Carbonne, F; Rashad, M H; Gaudillère, J P

1992-12-01

269

Characterization of ?-Galactosidase from Cucumber Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Two forms of ?-galactosidase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.22) which differed in molecular weight were resolved from Cucumis sativus L. leaves. The enzymes were partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weights of the two forms, by gel filtration, were 50,000 and 25,000. The 50,000-dalton form comprised approximately 84% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in crude extracts from mature leaves and was purified 132-fold. The partially purified 25,000-molecular weight form rapidly lost activity unless stabilized with 0.2% albumin and accounted for 16% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in the crude extract. The smaller molecular weight form was not found in older leaves. The two forms were similar in several ways including their pH optima which were 5.2 and 5.5 for the 50,000- and 25,000-dalton form, respectively, and activation energies, which were 15.4 and 18.9 kilocalories per mole for the larger and smaller forms. Both enzymes were inhibited by galactose as well as by excess concentrations of p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactoside sub-strate. Km values with this substrate and with raffinose and melibiose were different for each substrate, but similar for both forms of the enzyme. With stachyose, Km values were 10 and 30 millimolar for the 50,000- and 25,000- molecular weight forms, respectively. PMID:16661511

Smart, Elizabeth L.; Pharr, David M.

1980-01-01

270

Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms. PMID:12223757

Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

1997-01-01

271

Morus spp. as a New Biomass Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Generating enthusiasm from political or business entities to promote conservation requires economic viability in times of economic downturn. Massive reforestation is being considered as a governmental policy to address the climate crisis. It offers an enormous opportunity to redefine forestry plan...

272

Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty Human Resources / Attendance and Leave recalled to active duty, it is critical that the Division of Human Resources is immediately notified. A military leave impacts terms and conditions of employment and staff and the Division of Human Resources

Meyers, Steven D.

273

Human Resources Division FMLA INTERMITTENT LEAVE TRACKING FORM  

E-print Network

1/06 Human Resources Division FMLA INTERMITTENT LEAVE TRACKING FORM Record hours used for approved FMLA leave purposes An FMLA Intermittent Leave Tracking Form must be submitted to the Human Resources: Supervisor Signature Date: Return Completed Tracking Form by Campus Mail, US Mail, or Fax to: Human Resources

Provancher, William

274

RESTORATION OF ANNUAL LEAVE CHECKLIST Exigency of the Smithsonian  

E-print Network

RESTORATION OF ANNUAL LEAVE CHECKLIST Exigency of the Smithsonian Employee schedules use year. Employee submits a request for restoration because of exigency through the supervisor of the leave year, but no later than January 31 of the new leave year The request for restoration should

275

Leave with Pay Bond/Waiver of Bond Form  

E-print Network

Leave with Pay Bond/Waiver of Bond Form Submit to: The Office of Faculty Affairs and Professional Development, ADM 451 I. As you were granted a leave with pay, you must either post a bond in the amount of the salary to be paid during the leave or be granted a waiver of the bond. Most faculty members request

276

Protein and fiber contents in alfalfa leaves and stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Alfalfa leaves and stems contain different protein and fiber concentration in different stages of growth. The objective of the study was to determine a dynamic of nutrient accumulation in leaves and stems. The experiment was conducted in two consecutive years (1999, 2000) on three cultivars (Slavonka, Vuka and Os-88). Chemical analysis of leaves and stems were obtained from

S. Popovic; M. Stjepanovic; S. Grljusic; T. Cupic; M. Tucak

277

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

...2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible...entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both...

2014-07-01

278

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible...entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both...

2010-07-01

279

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible...entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both...

2013-07-01

280

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible...entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both...

2012-07-01

281

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible...entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both...

2011-07-01

282

Leaving home: ;;The housing aspirations of young disabled people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the housing experiences and aspirations of young disabled people in Scotland. Those who leave the family home in crisis experience several housing moves before settling; those who leave in a planned way tend to stay in their first home. Young people aspiring to leave the parental home are limited to a social housing tenancy, as a result

Jo Dean

2003-01-01

283

Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol ? methyl viologen ? O2) and PS II (H2O ? parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH ? O2; succinate ? O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and reduction of O2. PMID:25366828

Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

2014-11-01

284

Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MRCL). Methods Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg bw. Results The results indicated that MRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids. Conclusions It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it. PMID:23569744

Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Waghmare, Maruti G; Bandal, Rajendra S; Patil, Ravindra Y

2011-01-01

285

Triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two triterpenoids, 20?-acetoxy-2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (guavanoic acid, 3), and 2?,3?-dihydroxy-24-p-z-coumaroyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (guavacoumaric acid, 7), along with six known compounds 2?-hydroxyursolic acid (1), jacoumaric acid (2), isoneriucoumaric acid (4), asiatic acid (5), ilelatifol D (6) and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (8), have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic methods. Compound 5 showed dose-dependent (10–500 ?g\\/ml) spasmolytic activity

Sabira Begum; Syed Imran Hassan; Bina S Siddiqui; Farhana Shaheen; M Nabeel Ghayur; Anwar H Gilani

2002-01-01

286

Random walks between leaves of random networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the desire to model internet traffic we consider random walks that start and are absorbed on the leaves of random networks and study the length of such walks. We present and test two techniques to analyse these walks. On Erd?s-Rényi random graphs where the probability of a walk decays exponentially with its length, the methods give indistinguishable results for the decay exponent. This simple form of decay is not apparent on heterogeneous networks such as Barabási-Albert scale free networks and in this case each technique is demonstrated to have a different strength.

Lancaster, David

2014-02-01

287

Acylated flavonol glycosides from Eugenia jambolana leaves.  

PubMed

Two acylated flavonol glycosides and 15 known polyphenols have been isolated and identified from the leaves of Eugenca jambolana Lam. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 3-O-(4"-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside of mearnsetin (myricetin 4'-methyl ether) and myricetin 3-O-(4"-O-acetyl-2"-O-galloyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside. The complete structure elucidation of all isolated metabolites based on chemical and spectroscopic methods of analysis (UV, 1D and 2D NMR) as well as negative ESI-MS with and without CID in-source fragmentation. PMID:11738415

Mahmoud, I I; Marzouk, M S; Moharram, F A; El-Gindi, M R; Hassan, A M

2001-12-01

288

Antihistaminic effect of Bauhinia racemosa leaves  

PubMed Central

Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves have been used in the treatment of asthma traditionally and we therefore undertook this study to scientifically validate its benefit in asthma using suitable animal models. Antihistaminic principles are known to be useful in the treatment of asthma; hence, in the present work, the antihistaminic activity of an ethanol extract of B. racemosa (at a dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using clonidine-induced catalepsy and haloperidol-induced catalepsy in Swiss albino mice. The results showed that the ethanol extract inhibits clonidine-induced catalepsy but there is no effect on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. This suggests that the inhibition is through an antihistaminic action and that there is no role of dopamine. Hence, we concluded that the ethanol extract has significant antihistaminic activity. The polar constituents in the ethanol extract of leaves of B. racemosa may be responsible for the antihistaminic activity and B. racemosa may therefore have a role in the treatment of asthma. PMID:21731358

Nirmal, SA; Laware, RB; Rathi, R A; Dhasade, VV; Kuchekar, BS

2011-01-01

289

Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-06-01

290

Amino Acid Metabolism of Pea Leaves  

PubMed Central

In the young leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants, there was a diurnal variation in the levels of amino acids. In the light, total amino nitrogen increased for the first few hours, then stabilized; in the dark, there was a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery. Asparagine, homoserine, alanine, and glutamine accounted for much of these changes. The incorporation of 15N into various components of the young leaves was followed after supply of 15N-nitrate. 15N appeared most rapidly in ammonia, due to reduction in the leaf, and this process took place predominantly in the light. A large proportion of the primary assimilation took place through the amide group of glutamine, which became labeled and turned over rapidly; labeling of glutamic acid and alanine was also rapid. Asparagine (amide group) soon became labeled and showed considerable turnover. Slower incorporation and turnover were found for aspartic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, and homoserine. Synthesis and turnover of all of the amino acids continued at a low rate in the dark. ?-Aminobutyric acid was the only compound found to label more rapidly in the dark than in the light. PMID:16659967

Bauer, Alfred; Urquhart, Aileen A.; Joy, Kenneth W.

1977-01-01

291

Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence 1  

PubMed Central

In air largely freed from CO2, senescence of isolated oat (Avena sativa cv Victory) seedling leaves is no longer prevented by white light; instead, the leaves lose both chlorophyll and protein as rapidly as in the dark. Senescence in light is also accelerated in pure O2, but it is greatly delayed in N2; 100% N2 preserves both protein and chlorophyll in light and in darkness. In light in air, most of the compounds tested that had previously been found to delay or inhibit senescence in darkness actually promote the loss of chlorophyll, but they do not promote proteolysis. Under these conditions, proteolysis can therefore be separated from chlorophyll loss. But in light minus CO2, where chlorophyll loss is rapid in controls, two of these same reagents prevent the chlorophyll loss. Unlike the many reagents whose action in light is thus the opposite of that in darkness, abscisic acid, which promotes chlorophyll loss in the dark, also promotes it in light with or without CO2. Kinetin, which prevents chlorophyll loss in the dark, also prevents it in light minus CO2. In general, therefore, the responses to light minus CO2 are similar to the responses to darkness, and (with the exception of abscisic acid and kinetin) opposite to the response to light in air. PMID:16662800

Satler, Sergio O.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1983-01-01

292

5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

2010-01-01

293

5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

2010-01-01

294

Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 ?g g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can be successfully modeled only if stomatal conductance and compound solubility are taken into account, emissions on longer time scales will be determined by rates of methanol production, controls over which remain to be investigated.

Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, É.; Guenther, A.

2007-12-01

295

Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.3 to 38 ?g g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.4 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can be successfully modeled only if stomatal conductance and compound solubility are taken into account, emissions on longer time scales will be determined by rates of methanol production, controls over which remain to be investigated.

Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, Ü.; Guenther, A.

2007-08-01

296

Leaving and entering a career in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

2013-03-01

297

Steroids from Dysoxylum grande (Meliaceae) leaves.  

PubMed

Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 ?g/ml). PMID:23178158

Wah, Low Kok; Abas, Faridah; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Ito, Hideyuki; Ismail, Intan Safinar

2013-02-01

298

Fruit extracts and ruthenium polypyridinic dyes for sensitization of TiO 2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitization of nanocrystalline n-type TiO2 was achieved by using fruit extracts as a natural source of sensitizers. Fresh extracts of chaste tree fruit (“maria-preta”, Solanum americanum, Mill.), mulberry (“amora”, Morus alba, L.) and cabbage-palm fruit (“aça??”, Euterpe oleracea, Mart) were employed as TiO2 sensitizers in thin-layer sandwich-type photoelectrochemical solar cells. Conversion of visible light into electricity was accomplished with natural

Christian Graziani Garcia; André Sarto Polo; Neyde Yukie Murakami Iha

2003-01-01

299

The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

1989-01-01

300

Reversal of chromoplasts to chloroplasts in Buxus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural changes in plastids ofBuxus sempervirens L. leaves were observed during their seasonal yellowing and regreening. The disintegration of chloroplasts into globular\\u000a type chromoplasts in yellowing leaves and their direct restoration to functional chloroplasts again in regreening leaves were\\u000a followed.\\u000a \\u000a The results presented an example of recent information indicating the essential sense of the reversible reciprocation of plastid\\u000a transformation.

Hiroyuki Koiwa; Taiji Ikeda; Yoshio Yoshida

1986-01-01

301

Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

None

2012-01-01

302

Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.  

PubMed

Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

2014-01-01

303

Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.  

PubMed

Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions. PMID:15027834

Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

2004-01-01

304

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

Weber, Andreas P.M.

2008-04-25

305

Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division. PMID:15161195

Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

2004-06-01

306

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

307

Endopeptidases during the development and senescence of Lolium temulentum leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endopeptidase activity of Lolium temulentum leaf tissue was measured using azocasein as a substrate. The enzyme increased with leaf age, and also during senescence of excised leaf tissue. There were at least two distinct endopeptidase activities, characterized by different pH optima. The predominant form in leaves of intact plants was maximally active at pH 5. In detached leaves during

Karl Morris; Howard Thomas; Lyndon J. Rogers

1996-01-01

308

Request for Leave of Absence Heisei Year Month Day  

E-print Network

Month Day Dean of the Graduate School of Science, the University of Tokyo Date of Enrollment for the following reasons. Reason Duration Heisei Year Month Day to Heisei Year Month Day Past Study Abroad and Leaves of Absence Study Abroad Heisei Year Month Day to Heisei Year Month Day Leave of Absence Heisei

Sano, Masaki

309

Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures Page | 1 Questions (813) 974 to access the HR A&L Website Home > A-Z Index > type in Human Resources in search box > HR Services/or the supervisor. #12;Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures Page | 2 Questions (813) 974

Meyers, Steven D.

310

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF ATAIANTIA MONOPHYIA CORREA  

PubMed Central

Leaves of Atalantia monophylla are used in chronic rheumatism and paralysis. The Pharmacognostical studies like histological characters, leaf constants, ash values and extractive values of leaves of Atalantia monophylla Corr were carried out. The preliminary phytochemical analysis were also carried out. PMID:22557099

Manimaran, S.; Sathya, S.; Subburaju, T.; Dhanabal, S. P.; Tamizhmani, T.; Nanjan, M.J.; Suresh, B.

2003-01-01

311

Fluidized and vibrofluidized shallow beds of fresh leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid dynamics behavior of shallow fluidized and vibrofluidized beds operating with fresh leaves was investigated with the aim of exploring drying applications in a modified conveyor belt (MCB) system, which may be operated in a fixed- or fluidized-bed mode. Leaves of the specimens Duranta repens, Schinus molle, Coleus barbatus, Buxus sempervirens, and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested with a range

Renata de Aquino Brito Lima; Maria do Carmo Ferreira

2011-01-01

312

Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

2000-01-01

313

Disability & Medical Leave Resources A Guide for Employees  

E-print Network

Disability & Medical Leave Resources A Guide for Employees This guide is a resource for you if you are experiencing difficulties at work related to a disability or chronic medical condition. For example, you may: have a serious health condition and need medical leave be returning to work with restrictions

Saffman, Mark

314

Chicoric acid found in basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was

Jungmin Lee; Carolyn F. Scagel

2009-01-01

315

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa  

PubMed Central

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-01-01

316

Secondary metabolite profiles in HLB-affected sweet orange leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preliminary analyses of methanolic extracts of orange leaves that are either healthy or symptomatic of citrus greening (HLB) have shown consistent differences in the profiles of important classes of phytochemicals. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and healthy leaves were monitored in the HPLC chro...

317

Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

2012-01-01

318

Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves m the Kansas Flint Hills  

E-print Network

w . 11 `c7 Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves m the Kansas Flint Hills JR. FORWOOD AND C.E. OWENSBY Flint Hills, the tons of tree leaves that fall to the ground each autumn are largely ignored MANAGEMENT 38(l), January 1985 We have observed cattle grazing Flint Hills rangeland in the fall selecting

Owensby, Clenton E.

319

The Features of Cotyledon Leaves of Buckwheat's Species Fagopyrum tataricum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledon leaves of 81 samples of world gene pool of tartary buckwheat were investigated. Their linear parameters were measured; their morphological description was submitted. High positive corre­ lation was established between linear parameters of cotyledon leaves and weight of 1000 grains. The distribution of samples on groups was conducted on the basis of these parameters.

Andriy V. Nikitchuk; Elena S. Alexeeva

320

THE HEIGHT DISTRIBUTION OF LEAVES IN ROOTED TREES  

E-print Network

THE HEIGHT DISTRIBUTION OF LEAVES IN ROOTED TREES Michael Drmota Technical University of Vienna meth- ods have been used. In addition the joint height distribution of two di#11;erent leaves-negative numbers ' 0 > 0, ' 1 #21; 0, ' 2 #21; 0; : : : , which are used to de#12;ne a weight !(T ) for any planted

Drmota, Michael

321

Extracts of ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves produce reversible inhibition of rat brain monoamine oxidase (MAO). Both MAO-A and -B types were inhibited to a similar extent. The MAO inhibitory compound(s) were present in dried or fresh Ginkgo biloba leaves as well as in commercially available capsules of Ginkgo biloba and appear to be heat stable with relatively low molecular weight. MAO

Helen L. White; Philip W. Scates; Barrett R. Cooper

1996-01-01

322

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

323

38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...21.6070 through 21.6074. Leave may only be authorized for a veteran during a period of rehabilitation to the point of employability. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1524(b)) (b) Purpose. The purpose of the leave system is to enable the...

2012-07-01

324

38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.  

...21.6070 through 21.6074. Leave may only be authorized for a veteran during a period of rehabilitation to the point of employability. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1524(b)) (b) Purpose. The purpose of the leave system is to enable the...

2014-07-01

325

Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

Dern, Daniel P.

1997-01-01

326

REGULAR PAPER Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long  

E-print Network

higher Fv/Fm (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition com- pared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating

Govindjee

327

Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees  

E-print Network

of leaves or nodes in a rational tree. Let s be an IN-rational sequence of nonnegative numbers, that is a se in "Theoretical Computer Science 221, 1-2 (1999) 41-60" #12;A rational tree is a tree which has only a nite numberEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Frederique Bassino Institut Gaspard

Boyer, Edmond

328

Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from

Ann E. Hagerman

1988-01-01

329

First Grade Collecting Leaves with the book Leaf Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.

330

Page 1 of 8 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 8 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances of eligible faculty and staff: The Gift-Endowment Program (GEP. IMPLEMENTATION In order to ensure that campus records reflect an accurate furlough accrual balance, Departments

Yamamoto, Keith

331

ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances for faculty: The Clinical Coverage Program (CCP) is being used they are paid. This document will provide guidance only for manually adjusting furlough balances as a result

Yamamoto, Keith

332

Page 1 of 7 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 7 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances for faculty: Over-the-cap ("NIH-OTC") DOS codes are used, as in the example below, the increase to an individual's furlough accrual balance will be negligible (less than one

Yamamoto, Keith

333

Leaving home in the Netherlands: when and in which  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses two aspects of leaving the parental home in the Netherlands: the timing of leaving home in the life course, and the outcome in terms of the first housing situation. We investigate to what extent the timing and the housing outcome are influenced by the child's and the parents' resources, and how they differ between spatial contexts and

Clara H. Mulder

334

Leaving home: A study of laboratory mouse pup independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile wild house mice leave their mothers at 8 weeks (+). In contrast, laboratory strains of mice (lab mice) are typically ‘weaned’ at postnatal day (PND) 21. Lab mice might mature faster than their wild forebears; but if they do not, standard laboratory weaning likely involves maternal deprivation. We therefore investigated when lab mice voluntarily leave their mothers. C57BL\\/6J families

Allison Bechard; Georgia Mason

2010-01-01

335

Profiler Cheat Sheet For Online Leave Users Table of Contents  

E-print Network

Profiler Cheat Sheet For Online Leave Users Table of Contents DOCUMENT PURPOSE........................................................................... 9 Information Technology Services Last Updated November 4, 2009 #12;Profiler Cheat Sheet for Online see this: #12;Profiler Cheat Sheet for Online Leave Users v1 11/04/2009 Page 3 User Profile

Olsen, Stephen L.

336

Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Malus domestica leaves.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viškelis, Pranas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Kviklys, Darius; Uselis, Norbertas; Janulis, Valdimaras

2014-01-01

337

Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

2014-01-01

338

Machine Recognition for Broad-Leaved Trees Based on Synthetic Features of Leaves Using Probabilistic Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to effectively solve the problem that the objects of traditional plant identification were too broad and the classification features of it were usually not synthetic and the recognition rate was always slightly low. This study gives one recognition approach, in which the shape features and the texture features of the leaves of broad-leaved trees combine, composing a

Huang Lin; He Peng

2008-01-01

339

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

Thomas D. Sharkey

2010-01-28

340

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

2014-04-01

341

Dose–response relation between physical activity and sick leave  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the dose–response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one prospective cohort study. A distinction was made between duration, frequency and intensity of physical activity. The outcome measure was the number of days of sick leave. Analyses of variance were used to compare sick leave (in days) for workers with different amounts of physical activity, in particular workers meeting the physical activity recommendations v those who did not. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to obtain effect estimates in the prospective cohort study, with the generalised estimating equation (GEE) method. Results No relation was found between moderate physical activity and sick leave. In two databases, workers meeting the recommendation of vigorous physical activity (active at a vigorous level for at least three times a week) had significantly less sick leave: more than one day over two months and more than four days over a year. The duration of vigorous physical activity was not associated with sick leave. Conclusion Physical activity at a vigorous intensity level for at least three times a week, as in the CDC/ACSM recommendation, has a positive effect on sick leave. PMID:16432007

Proper, K I; van den Heuvel, S G; De Vroome, E M; Hildebrandt, V H; Van der Beek, A J

2006-01-01

342

Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components. PMID:23637874

Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

2013-01-01

343

Photosynthate Partitioning in Soybean Leaves at Two Irradiance Levels  

PubMed Central

High irradiance-acclimated soybean leaves had the same CO2 exchange rates, but lower starch accumulation rates and correspondingly higher translocation rates than unacclimated leaves. Increased translocation rates were associated with increased sucrose phosphate synthetase (EC 2.4.1.14) activity. Foliar sucrose levels and adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.9) activity were unaffected. Carbon assimilation, partitioning, and enzyme activity of unacclimated leaves were unaltered even after a second day's exposure to high irradiance. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that photosynthate partitioning between starch synthesis and sucrose translocation are controlled in part by the rate of sucrose synthesis. PMID:16661072

Silvius, John E.; Chatterton, N. Jerry; Kremer, Diane F.

1979-01-01

344

Photoinactivation of photosystem II in leaves.  

PubMed

Photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PS II), the light-induced loss of ability to evolve oxygen, inevitably occurs under any light environment in nature, counteracted by repair. Under certain conditions, the extent of photoinactivation of PS II depends on the photon exposure (light dosage, x), rather than the irradiance or duration of illumination per se, thus obeying the law of reciprocity of irradiance and duration of illumination, namely, that equal photon exposure produces an equal effect. If the probability of photoinactivation (p) of PS II is directly proportional to an increment in photon exposure (p = kDeltax, where k is the probability per unit photon exposure), it can be deduced that the number of active PS II complexes decreases exponentially as a function of photon exposure: N = Noexp(-kx). Further, since a photon exposure is usually achieved by varying the illumination time (t) at constant irradiance (I), N = Noexp(-kI t), i.e., N decreases exponentially with time, with a rate coefficient of photoinactivation kI, where the product kI is obviously directly proportional to I. Given that N = Noexp(-kx), the quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II can be defined as -dN/dx = kN, which varies with the number of active PS II complexes remaining. Typically, the quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II is ca. 0.1micromol PS II per mol photons at low photon exposure when repair is inhibited. That is, when about 10(7) photons have been received by leaf tissue, one PS II complex is inactivated. Some species such as grapevine have a much lower quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II, even at a chilling temperature. Examination of the longer-term time course of photoinactivation of PS II in capsicum leaves reveals that the decrease in N deviates from a single-exponential decay when the majority of the PS II complexes are inactivated in the absence of repair. This can be attributed to the formation of strong quenchers in severely-photoinactivated PS II complexes, able to dissipate excitation energy efficiently and to protect the remaining active neighbours against damage by light. PMID:16049752

Chow, Wah Soon; Lee, Hae-Youn; He, Jie; Hendrickson, Luke; Hong, Young-Nam; Matsubara, Shizue

2005-06-01

345

Hydraulic design of leaves: insights from rehydration kinetics  

E-print Network

-like action of guard cells provides leaves with the ability to control rates of water loss to the environ- ment, stomatal closure involves the net movement of water out of cells and thus proceeds at a finite

Holbrook, N. Michele

346

A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2011-10-05

347

Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1985-01-01

348

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.  

PubMed

An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

2014-01-01

349

Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

DeLucia, Evan H.

350

Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

DeLucia, Evan H.

351

IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

352

29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.201...different operating divisions of the same company. On the other hand, if...

2010-07-01

353

29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121 Leave...different operating divisions of the same company. On the other hand, if one...

2010-07-01

354

38 CFR 21.348 - Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services.  

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.348 Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services. (a) Leave...

2014-07-01

355

38 CFR 21.348 - Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.348 Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services. (a) Leave...

2011-07-01

356

38 CFR 21.348 - Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.348 Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services. (a) Leave...

2010-07-01

357

38 CFR 21.348 - Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.348 Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services. (a) Leave...

2012-07-01

358

38 CFR 21.348 - Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.348 Leave following completion of a period of training or rehabilitation services. (a) Leave...

2013-07-01

359

Optical Properties of Leaves: Modelling and Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the interpretation of leaves spectra following an approach based on modelling and laboratory studies.\\u000a First, the leaves structure and principal constituents are described together with the way they interact with light. The effects\\u000a of growth, senescence and environmental factors on the leaf optical properties are summarised. A laboratory study conducted\\u000a on drought stress of maize (Zea

Jean Verdebout; Stephane Jacquemoud; Guido Schmuck

360

Oospore Production of Phytophthora infestans in Potato and Tomato Leaves.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fungal, host, and environmental factors affecting sexual reproduction of Phytophthora infestans in planta were studied. Intact and detached leaves were coinoculated with sporangia of various combinations of A(1) and A(2) mating-type isolates; leaves were incubated under various conditions, and oospore production was estimated microscopically within whole, clarified leaflets. Some A(1) + A(2) isolate combinations were more reproductive than others, whereas some potato genotypes better supported oospore formation than others. Tomato usually supported more oospore formation than potato. To induce oospore formation, A(1) and A(2) sporangia were usually mixed at a 1:1 ratio. Ratios of 1:19 to 19:1, however, also allowed abundant production of oospores. Optimal temperatures for sexual sporulation ranged from 8 to 15 degrees C, but oospores also were produced at 23 degrees C. Oogonia developed 5 to 6 days after sporangial coinoculation, and oospores developed after 8 to 10 days. Light had little effect on oospore formation in both tomato and potato leaves provided that initial lesions were established under photoperiodic conditions. Although A1 and A(2) sporangia usually were mixed before inoculation on leaves to obtain oospores, we found that discrete A(1) and A(2) lesions produced on opposite sides of the midvein of tomato leaves also induced oospore formation in the midvein and adjacent tissues. Oospores also formed when the two halves of the leaves were cut and separated at 3 days after sporangial coinoculation, which corresponded with the appearance of late blight lesions. The continuous supply of moisture to infected leaves was essential to oospore production. No oospores or oogonia formed in severely diseased plants kept at 50 to 80% relative humidity. Such plants did allow some oospore formation when kept continuously wet for 2 weeks in plastic boxes or tents. Detached leaves floated on water supported the highest sexual sporulation. Under optimal conditions of wetness and temperature, as many as 100 oospores per mm(2) of tissue were observed. PMID:18945141

Cohen, Y; Farkash, S; Reshit, Z; Baider, A

1997-02-01

361

Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple phenolic acids, 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, 4-O-methylpyridoxine and polyprenols. In the commercially important Ginkgo extracts some of these compound classes are no

Teris A van Beek

2002-01-01

362

Leaving home in the Netherlands: when and in which housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper addresses two aspects of leaving the parental home,in the Netherlands: the timing of leaving home in the life course, and the outcome in terms of the first housing situation. We investigate to what extent the timing and the housing outcome,are influenced by the child’s and the parents’ resources, and how they differ between spatial contexts and through

Clara H. Mulder

363

Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. • Methods Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. • Key Results Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves <1 mm long, then proliferate basipetally in the midrib. Lamina druses appear in the distal marginal teeth of leaves 3 cm long; from here they proliferate basipetally and towards midrib along major veins. In about two-thirds-grown leaves (6–9 cm length) druses are all adaxial to veins of most orders; a shift occurs then to formation of prisms, which appear first abaxial to, then all around, veins. Mature leaves have virtually all prisms encrusting all major veins, more sparsely along smaller minor veins. Late season leaves form epitactic crystals on existing prismatics. • Conclusions The developing and mature macropattern of P. serotina is almost the reverse of the pattern described previously in P. virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of organization that must be integrated with the anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches that have been dominant so far. PMID:16513655

LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

2006-01-01

364

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.  

PubMed

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

2008-01-01

365

Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves  

PubMed Central

Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study homobaric leaves of Vicia faba or heterobaric leaves of Glycine max were illuminated with lightflecks of different sizes, mimicking sunflecks. Photosynthetic properties of the lightfleck areas were assessed with combined gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Lateral diffusion in homobaric leaves with an interconnected intercellular air space stimulated photosynthesis and the effect was largest in small lightfleck areas, in particular when plants were under drought stress. Such effects were not observed in the heterobaric leaves with strongly compartmented intercellular gas spaces. It is concluded that lateral diffusion may significantly contribute to photosynthesis of lightfleck areas of homobaric leaves depending on lightfleck size, lateral diffusivity, and stomatal conductance. Since homobaric leaf structures have been reported for many plant species, it is hypothesized that leaf homobary may have an impact on overall plant performance under conditions with a highly heterogeneous light environment. PMID:20008895

Pieruschka, Roland; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

2010-01-01

366

Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1973-01-01

367

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave  

PubMed Central

Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

2015-01-01

368

Protection by Isoprene against Singlet Oxygen in Leaves  

PubMed Central

Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) protection against effects of singlet oxygen was investigated in Myrtus communis and Rhamnus alaternus. In M. communis, singlet oxygen produced in the leaves by Rose Bengal (RB) led to a 65% decrease in net assimilation rates within 3 h, whereas isoprene emission rates showed either a 30% decrease at ambient CO2 concentrations or a 70% increase under high CO2. In both cases, these changes led to an increase in calculated internal isoprene concentrations. The isoprene protection effect was directly demonstrated by fumigation of young (non-emitting) leaves, treated with RB or bromoxynil (simulating photoinhibition). There was 42% and 29% reduction in the damage to net assimilation compared with non-fumigated leaves for RB or bromoxynil, respectively. In R. alaternus, similar effects of RB on net assimilation were observed, and additional fluorescence measurements showed a significantly smaller decrease in Fv/Fm in isoprene-fumigated young leaves treated with RB (from 0.78 to 0.52), compared with non-fumigated leaves (from 0.77 to 0.27). The internal isoprene concentrations used in this study and possible rate of 1O2 production in leaves indicate that the protective effects observed should be beneficial also under natural conditions. PMID:12011357

Affek, Hagit P.; Yakir, Dan

2002-01-01

369

Metabolism of purine bases, nucleosides and alkaloids in theobromine-forming Theobroma cacao leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plant leaves at various ages: young small leaves (stage I), developing intermediate size leaves (stage II), fully developed leaves (stage III) from flush shoots, and aged leaves (stage IV) from 1-year-old shoots. The major purine alkaloid in stage I leaves was theobromine (4.5 ?mol g–1 fresh weight),

Yoko Koyama; Yoshihisa Tomoda; Misako Kato; Hiroshi Ashihara

2003-01-01

370

Time & Leave Benefits Summary Higher Education Officer Series Employees Annual Leave Employees accrue annual leave monthly, based on years of service, as set forth below  

E-print Network

Office Human Resources Department. Bereavement Leave Employees may take up to 4 days for the death, or step parent; grand child; mother-in-law; father-in-law; natural, foster, or step brother; natural and effective January 1, 2004, the Domestic Partner of the employee and a child or parent of the Domestic

Rosen, Jay

371

[FTIR spectroscopic study of broad bean diseased leaves].  

PubMed

In the present paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. The results show that the spectra of samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption intensity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1200-700 cm(-1). The data in the range of 1 200-700 cm(-1) were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correlation coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases. PMID:22827057

Li, Zhi-yong; Liu, Gang; Li, Lun; Ou, Quan-hong; Zhao, Xing-xiang; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiang-ping; Wang, Lu-xiang

2012-05-01

372

Sucrose transporter1 functions in phloem loading in maize leaves  

PubMed Central

In most plants, sucrose is exported from source leaves to carbon-importing sink tissues to sustain their growth and metabolism. Apoplastic phloem-loading species require sucrose transporters (SUTs) to transport sucrose into the phloem. In many dicot plants, genetic and biochemical evidence has established that SUT1-type proteins function in phloem loading. However, the role of SUT1 in phloem loading in monocot plants is not clear since the rice (Oryza sativa) and sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) SUT1 orthologues do not appear to function in phloem loading of sucrose. A SUT1 gene was previously cloned from maize (Zea mays) and shown to have expression and biochemical activity consistent with a hypothesized role in phloem loading. To determine the biological function of SUT1 in maize, a sut1 mutant was isolated and characterized. sut1 mutant plants hyperaccumulate carbohydrates in mature leaves and display leaf chlorosis with premature senescence. In addition, sut1 mutants have greatly reduced stature, altered biomass partitioning, delayed flowering, and stunted tassel development. Cold-girdling wild-type leaves to block phloem transport phenocopied the sut1 mutants, supporting a role for maize SUT1 in sucrose export. Furthermore, application of 14C-sucrose to abraded sut1 mutant and wild-type leaves showed that sucrose export was greatly diminished in sut1 mutants compared with wild type. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SUT1 is crucial for efficient phloem loading of sucrose in maize leaves. PMID:19181865

Slewinski, Thomas L.; Meeley, Robert; Braun, David M.

2009-01-01

373

Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.  

PubMed

Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest. PMID:24343262

Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

2014-02-01

374

A Global Regulation Inducing the Shape of Growing Folded Leaves  

PubMed Central

Shape is one of the important characteristics for the structures observed in living organisms. Whereas biologists have proposed models where the shape is controlled on a molecular level [1], physicists, following Turing [2] and d'Arcy Thomson [3], have developed theories where patterns arise spontaneously [4]. Here, we propose that volume constraints restrict the possible shapes of leaves. Focusing on palmate leaves (with lobes), the central observation is that developing leaves first grow folded inside a bud, limited by the previous and subsequent leaves. We show that the lobe perimeters end at the border of this small volume. This induces a direct relationship between the way it was folded and the final unfolded shape of the leaf. These dependencies can be approximated as simple geometrical relationships that we confirm on both folded embryonic and unfolded mature leaves. We find that independent of their position in the phylogenetic tree, these relationships work for folded species, but do not work for non-folded species. This global regulation for the leaf growth could come from a mechanical steric constraint. Such steric regulation should be more general and considered as a new simple means of global regulation. PMID:19956690

Couturier, Etienne; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

2009-01-01

375

[Research on lettuce leaves' moisture prediction based on hyperspectral images].  

PubMed

In order to conduct rational management of watering lettuce, the model of detecting lettuce leaves' moisture was built. First of all, the hyperspectral images of lettuce leaves were acquired and simultaneously the moisture proportions of leaves were measured. Meanwhile, hyperspectral images were analyzed and the characteristic bands of lettuce leaves' moisture were found. Then the images in characteristic bands were processed and the image features of lettuce leaves' moisture were computed. The image features highly relevant to moisture were obtained through correlation analysis. Furthermore, due to the possible correlation among image features, the principal components of the images were extracted by principal components analysis and were used as BP neural network's inputs to establish PCA-ANN model. At the same time, other models were constructed by using BP neural network and traditional MLR (multiple liner regression) method respectively. Prediction examinations of the three models were made based on the same sample data. The experimental results show that the average prediction error of PCA-ANN prediction model of tillering stage reaches 9.323% which is improved compared with BP-ANN and MLR prediction models. PMID:23697146

Sun, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Hong-Yan

2013-02-01

376

Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545

Wu, Dong-Yan

2013-01-01

377

Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

1974-01-01

378

Densitometric determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves (Vaccinium vitis idaeae).  

PubMed

Densitometry was used for quantitative determination of arbutin (Vaccinium vitis idaeae) in leaves of cowberry collected from region of Suwalszczyzna, Poland. Arbutin was extracted using methanol. Chromatography was performed on glass TLC plates with layers of silica gel. The quantitative densitometric analysis was performed using internal standard solution method. On the base of densitometric analysis it was shown that the band characteristic for absorption maximum of arbutin is placed at lambda(max) = 285 nm. The second absorption band is at lambda = 225 nm. It was stated that contents of arbutin are ca. 35 mg and 47 mg in 1 g of herbs, in cowberry leaves coming from collections in 2005 and 2006 year, respectively. The presented method is accurate, selective, and precise, and can be used for routine quality control analysis and quantitative determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves. PMID:18540157

Pyka, Alina; Bober, Katarzyna; Stolarczyk, Adam

2007-01-01

379

Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated

Margaret Pierce; Klaus Raschke

1980-01-01

380

5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630.607 Section 630.607 ...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have...

2010-01-01

381

The major phenolic compounds in the leaves of Cyclopia species (honeybush tea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds of the leaves of Cyclopia species (tribe Podalyrieae) are of both chemotaxonomic and commercial interest, as the leaves are used to brew a herbal drink known as honeybush tea. Despite the commercial importance of Cyclopia, virtually nothing was known about the chemistry of the leaves prior to the present work. Methanolic extracts from leaves of 22 species

Anna Maria De Nysschen; Ben-Erik Van Wyk; Fanie R. Van Heerden; Anne Lise Schutte

1996-01-01

382

Effect of autumn?olive on the mineral composition of black walnut leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen concentrations were significantly higher in walnut leaves from trees planted with autumn?olive than in leaves from walnut planted alone, while the reverse was true for potassium. The amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium based on leaf weight was higher in leaves from walnut trees mixed with autumn?olive than in leaves from walnut planted alone. The differences in

Felix Ponder Jr

1983-01-01

383

Distribution of Salmonella typhimurium in romaine lettuce leaves.  

PubMed

Leafy greens are occasionally involved in outbreaks of enteric pathogens. In order to control the plant contamination it is necessary to understand the factors that influence enteric pathogen-plant interactions. Attachment of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium to lettuce leaves has been demonstrated before; however, only limited information is available regarding the localization and distribution of immigrant Salmonella on the leaf surface. To extend our knowledge regarding initial pathogen-leaf interactions, the distribution of green-fluorescent protein-labeled Salmonella typhimurium on artificially contaminated romaine lettuce leaves was analyzed. We demonstrate that attachment of Salmonella to different leaf regions is highly variable; yet a higher attachment level was observed on leaf regions localized close to the petiole (7.7 log CFU g(-1)) compared to surfaces at the far-end region of the leaf blade (6.2 log CFU g(-1)). Attachment to surfaces located at a central leaf region demonstrated intermediate attachment level (7.0 log CFU g(-1)). Salmonella displayed higher affinity toward the abaxial side compared to the adaxial side of the same leaf region. Rarely, Salmonella cells were also visualized underneath stomata within the parenchymal tissue, supporting the notion that this pathogen can also internalize romaine lettuce leaves. Comparison of attachment to leaves of different ages showed that Salmonella displayed higher affinity to older compared to younger leaves (1.5 log). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a more complex topography on the surface of older leaves, as well as on the abaxial side of the examined leaf tissue supporting the notion that a higher attachment level might be correlated with a more composite leaf landscape. Our findings indicate that initial attachment of Salmonella to romaine lettuce leaf depends on multiple plant factors pertaining to the specific localization on the leaf tissue and to the developmental stage of the leaf. PMID:21569943

Kroupitski, Yulia; Pinto, Riky; Belausov, Eduard; Sela, Shlomo

2011-08-01

384

Water is allocated differently to chloroplasts in sun and shade leaves.  

PubMed

Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study water allocation in cell compartments of sun and shade leaves. NMR spectra of Acer platanoides were resolved into two peaks that were assigned to chloroplast and nonchloroplast water. Sun leaves contained 1.7 times more water per unit area of surface than shade leaves, and the water was allocated differently. Chloroplasts in sun leaves contained 17% of the total leaf water versus 47% in shade leaves. Comparing equal leaf surface areas, the chloroplasts in shade leaves contained 60% more water than those in sun leaves. PMID:16665860

McCain, D C; Croxdale, J; Markley, J L

1988-01-01

385

The uptake of elemental iodine vapour by bean leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of iodine vapour to leaves of phaseolus vulgaris was measured over a range of conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were used to deduce stomatal opening. The results showed that stomatal resistance controlled iodine absorption at relative humidities below 40 per cent, but that the rate of absorption of iodine increased by an order of magnitude when the relative humidity was raised to 80 per cent, presumably due to cuticular absorption. After exposure to iodine at high humidity, a substantial fraction of the iodine could be washed from the leaves. In Britain, cuticular uptake would probably dominate stomatal uptake of iodine on most occasions.

Garland, J. A.; Cox, L. C.

386

Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll Â? giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

2000-08-01

387

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

388

Triterpenoids and a triterpene glycoside from Schefflera bodinieri leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel triterpenoids and a triterpene glycoside have been isolated from the leaves of Schefflera bodinieri. They are 3-oxo-20-demethylisoaleuritolic-14(15)-ene-28,29-dioic acid, 28-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?4)-O-?- d-glucopyranosyl(1?6)-]-O-?-d-glucopyranoside of 3-oxo-20-demethylisoaleuritic-14(15)-ene-28,29-dioic acid and 3?-hydroxyl-20-demethylisoaleuritolic-14(15)-ene-28,30-dioic acid. The known compounds, d-sorbitol, stigmasterol-3-O-?-d-glucose and two trisaccharides, were also isolated from the leaves. The structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence.

Min Zhu; J. David Phillipson; Pam M. Greengrass; Norman G. Bowery

1996-01-01

389

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

2011-01-01

390

Shapes of river networks and leaves: are they statistically similar?  

PubMed Central

The structure of river networks is compared with the vein structure of leaves. The two structures are visually similar at the smaller scales. The statistics of branching and side branching are nearly identical. The branching structure of diffusion-limited aggregation clusters is also similar and can provide an explanation for the structure of river networks. The origin of the self-similar branching and side branching of the vein structure in leaves is not clear but it appears to be an optimal network in terms of transporting nutrients to all parts of the leaf with the least total resistance. PMID:10724463

Pelletier, J D; Turcotte, D L

2000-01-01

391

Shapes of river networks and leaves: are they statistically similar?  

PubMed

The structure of river networks is compared with the vein structure of leaves. The two structures are visually similar at the smaller scales. The statistics of branching and side branching are nearly identical. The branching structure of diffusion-limited aggregation clusters is also similar and can provide an explanation for the structure of river networks. The origin of the self-similar branching and side branching of the vein structure in leaves is not clear but it appears to be an optimal network in terms of transporting nutrients to all parts of the leaf with the least total resistance. PMID:10724463

Pelletier, J D; Turcotte, D L

2000-02-29

392

Maize seedling blight induced by Fusarium verticillioides: accumulation of fumonisin B? in leaves without colonization of the leaves.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins during the colonization of maize, and fumonisin B? (FB?) production is necessary for manifestation of maize seedling blight disease. The objective of this study was to address FB? mobility and accumulation in seedlings to determine if proximal infection by F. verticillioides is necessary for FB? accumulation. Taking advantage of an aconidial mutant known to have limited capability for seedling infection, tissue and soil samples were analyzed to compare wild-type F. verticillioides against the mutant. Inoculation with either strain caused accumulation of FB? in the first and second leaves, but the mutants were unable to colonize aerial tissues. FB?, FB?, and FB? were detected in the soil and seedling roots, but only FB? was detected in the leaves of any treatment. These data suggest root infection by F. verticillioides is necessary for accumulation of FB? in leaves, but the mechanism for accumulation does not require colonization of the leaf. PMID:24524621

Baldwin, Thomas T; Zitomer, Nicholas C; Mitchell, Trevor R; Zimeri, Anne-Marie; Bacon, Charles W; Riley, Ronald T; Glenn, Anthony E

2014-03-01

393

Physiological, biochemical, and fluorescence parameters of senescing sugar beet leaves in the vegetative phase of growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase of vegetative growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., single-sprout form) was conditionally subdivided into four periods according to leaf number and size (including already\\u000a withered leaves): (A) 8 ± 1 weeks after seedling emergence (wase) (5–7 leaves); (B) 11 ± 1 wase (10–12 leaves); (C) 14 wase (13–15 leaves); (D) 15 wase (15–18 leaves). It took each

A. K. Romanova; G. A. Semenova; N. S. Novichkova; A. R. Ignat’ev; V. A. Mudrik; B. N. Ivanov

2011-01-01

394

Stomatal development in new leaves is related to the stomatal conductance of mature leaves in poplar (Populus trichocarpaxP. deltoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, stomatal density (SD) decreases when plants are grown at high CO2 concentrations. Recent studies suggest that signals produced from mature leaves regulate the SD of expanding leaves. To de- termine the underlying driver of these signals in poplar (Populus trichocarpa3P. deltoides) saplings, a cuvette system was used whereby the environment around mature (lower) leaves could be controlled indepen-

Shin-Ichi Miyazawa; Nigel J. Livingston; David H. Turpin

2005-01-01

395

Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †  

PubMed Central

Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (?4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition. PMID:16347463

Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

1987-01-01

396

Turnover and intent to leave among speech pathologists.  

PubMed

Sound, large scale and systematic research into why health professionals want to leave their jobs is needed. This study used psychometrically-sound tools and logistic regression analyses to determine why Australian speech pathologists were intending to leave their jobs or the profession. Based on data from 620 questionnaires, several variables were found to be significantly related to intent to leave. The speech pathologists intending to look for a new job were more likely to be under 34 years of age, and perceive low levels of job security and benefits of the profession. Those intending to leave the profession were more likely to spend greater than half their time at work on administrative duties, have a higher negative affect score, not have children under 18 years of age, and perceive that speech pathology did not offer benefits that met their professional needs. The findings of this study provide the first evidence regarding the reasons for turnover and attrition in the Australian speech pathology workforce, and can inform the development of strategies to retain a skilled and experienced allied health workforce. PMID:20497738

McLaughlin, Emma G H; Adamson, Barbara J; Lincoln, Michelle A; Pallant, Julie F; Cooper, Cary L

2010-05-01

397

ETHICS CODE PROVISIONS FOR THOSE LEAVING STATE SERVICE  

E-print Network

ETHICS CODE PROVISIONS FOR THOSE LEAVING STATE SERVICE The State Code of Ethics contains several should review the following rules and, if necessary, seek guidance from the Office of State Ethics or the Office of Audit, Compliance & Ethics. 1. You may never use confidential information for financial gain

Holsinger, Kent

398

When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY: When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi For Amy Arnett, getting a Ph, collecting ants at 33 sites along the way. They had set out to look at how the food resources for ant lions, insects that prey on ants, changed from north to south along the East Coast. But in the process

Gotelli, Nicholas J.

399

Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85?GAE?mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96?CE?mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2??g/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

400

Leaving So Soon? Understanding and Predicting Web Search Abandonment Rationales  

E-print Network

Leaving So Soon? Understanding and Predicting Web Search Abandonment Rationales Abdigani Diriye1.diriye@ucl.ac.uk, {ryenw, georgbu, sdumais}@microsoft.com ABSTRACT Users of search engines often abandon their searches. Despite the high frequency of Web search abandonment and its importance to Web search engines, little

Dumais, Susan

401

Department of Human Resources APPLICATION FOR DEFERRED SALARY LEAVE  

E-print Network

Department of Human Resources APPLICATION FOR DEFERRED SALARY LEAVE *Forward to the Director of Human Resources prior to January 31st DEFSAL 08/05 NAME DEPARTMENT ADDRESS PRESENT POSITION NUMBER to Employee Relations, Department of Human Resources, Arts and Administration Building, Memorial University

Oyet, Alwell

402

The Essential Oil of the Leaves of Psidium guajava L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characterization of the compounds present in the essential oil from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (a traditional Chinese medicinal plant) has been obtained. ?-Pinene (37.8%) and 1,8-cineole (18.9%) are the major components.

Xiao-duo Ji; Quan-long Pu; H. Martin Garraffo; Lewis K. Pannell

1991-01-01

403

at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "We must leave  

E-print Network

.kimbrough@noaa.gov) · Lake Sturgeon Health Assessment Contact: Paula Bizot (paula.bizot@noaa.gov) · Great Lakes Sedimentat the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "We must leave the Great Lakes better for the next generation than the condition in which we inherited them." Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

404

Leaving Care: Retrospective Reports by Alumni of Israeli Group Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the retrospective reports of alumni of Israeli group homes on their experiences of leaving care, taking into account possible gender differences as well as associations with their experiences while in care. The reports of 94 alumni (38 men and 56 women) interviewed by phone revealed major difficulties associated with the…

Schiff, Miriam

2006-01-01

405

Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Leave a reply  

E-print Network

Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Leave a reply The Windmill in Action At the University of Texas Arlington, scientists J.C. Chiao and Smitha Rao have developed micro-windmills which recharge Page 1 of 2Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones | MADE 2/3/2014http://themadeblog.com/micro

Chiao, Jung-Chih

406

Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

Thomas D. Sharkey

1984-01-01

407

MODELING EXPANSION OF INDIVIDUAL LEAVES IN THE POTATO CANOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A model to simulate expansion of individual leaves in the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) canopy was developed by modifying an existing growth model. Data for model development and testing were obtained from three soil-plant-atmosphere-research (SPAR) chamber experiments. The first experi...

408

25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees...Employees on a full-time school-term contract...incurred on-the-job and not covered by...included under this part. However, whenever...after instructional time. (i) Sick leave...before the first day of student instruction or...

2010-04-01

409

June 3, 2010 Federal Funding Cuts Leave Oceanographers, Spill  

E-print Network

June 3, 2010 Federal Funding Cuts Leave Oceanographers, Spill Responders in Dark By PAUL VOOSEN in tracking the Gulf's unfolding oil disaster. But the money ran out, and the collective blind spot to use satellite snapshots and imperfect models to guess where the oil will travel, dragged by unwatched

Gilbes, Fernando

410

Iridoid glucosides from the leaves and stems of Duranta erecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the leaves of Duranta erecta, four new iridoid glucosides, duranterectosides A, B, C and D, were isolated along with durantosides I and II, lamiide, lamiidoside and verbascoside. Duranterectoside A was also isolated from the stems together with durantosides I, II and III, and lamiidoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on the spectroscopic evidence.

Yoshio Takeda; Youko Morimoto; Takashi Matsumoto; Choei Ogimi; Eiji Hirata; Anki Takushi; Hideaki Otsuka

1995-01-01

411

Iridoid glucosides from the leaves and stems of Duranta erecta.  

PubMed

From the leaves of Duranta erecta, four new iridoid glucosides, duranterectosides A, B, C and D, were isolated along with durantosides I and II, lamiide, lamiidoside and verbascoside. Duranterectoside A was also isolated from the stems together with durantosides I, II and III, and lamiidoside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on the spectroscopic evidence. PMID:7626266

Takeda, Y; Morimoto, Y; Matsumoto, T; Ogimi, C; Hirata, E; Takushi, A; Otsuka, H

1995-07-01

412

Neolignans from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Six new neolignans, casearialignans A-F (1-6) and one known lignan syringaresinol-ß-D-glucoside were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and high resolution ESI-MS spectroscopic analyses. The relative and absolute configura...

413

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES LEAVE SHARING BANK PROGRAM  

E-print Network

-altering catastrophic events or emergencies, such as wildfires, floods, tornados, other natural disasters, murder, and illness/injury covered by short-term and long-term disability (except for the waiting period), PERA and sick leave. The bank may also be available to employees who are directly affected by life

414

Academic radiology: the reasons to stay or leave 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and Objectives. To find major reasons why junior academic radiologists leave academia for private practice and to suggest future changes to motivate them to stay.Materials and Methods. 2000 surveys were sent to every tenth member of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) who completed training within the past decade. Those in academic institutions and those who left within

Mihra S Taljanovic; Tim B Hunter; Elizabeth A Krupinski; Jennifer N Alcala; Kimberly A Fitzpatrick; Theron W Ovitt

2003-01-01

415

Carbon Dreaming: getting to know hummers, tropical leaves  

E-print Network

Carbon Dreaming: getting to know hummers, tropical leaves and power plants Kevin Robert Gurney (CSU Cotton Honorary Stove! #12;The Global Carbon Cycle (pre-industrial) Atmosphere! 500! Units: billion tons Global Carbon Cycle Atmosphere! 500! Units: billion tons of C = 1 Gt C Ocean! 38,000! ~90/yr! ~90/yr

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

416

Who Is No Child Left Behind Leaving Behind?  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than six years after the election of our current president, the nation is analyzing the effects of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation. Educators are discovering that the plan is flawed, developmentally inappropriate, ill funded, and leaving more students, teachers, and schools behind than ever before. In this article, the author offers a brief history of educational

Theoni Soublis Smyth

2008-01-01

417

Who Is No Child Left Behind Leaving Behind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than six years after the election of our current president, the nation is analyzing the effects of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation. Educators are discovering that the plan is flawed, developmentally inappropriate, ill funded, and leaving more students, teachers, and schools behind than ever before. In this article, the…

Smyth, Theoni Soublis

2008-01-01

418

A Statewide Analysis of RNs' Intention To Leave Their Position.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary analysis of registered nurse work force data from Vermont (n=4,418, 85% response) identified predictors of intention to leave current position. Differences in intention vary by educational attainment, hours worked, gender, practice role, and practice activity. Improving retention will require increased attention to compensation,…

Rambur, Betty; Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Mongeon, Joan

2003-01-01

419

Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

Devor, Kenneth A.

1979-01-01

420

In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

Salvador Said Fernández; Monica Celina Ramos Guerra; Benito David Mata Cárdenas; Javier Vargas Villarreal; Licet Villarreal Treviño

2005-01-01

421

In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana.  

PubMed

The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. PMID:15975735

Said Fernández, Salvador; Ramos Guerra, Monica Celina; Mata Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas Villarreal, Javier; Villarreal Treviño, Licet

2005-07-01

422

Rutin and Luteolin from Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO ) extraction conditions were optimized for the 2 simultaneous separation of four bioactive flavonoids (catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; rutin, RU; luteolin, LU) contained in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaves. SC-CO extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature 2 and dynamic extraction time were optimized by Complete Randomize Design (CRD) full factorial. The optimum condition

M. Bimakr; R. A. Rahman; F. S. Taip; L. T. Chuan; A. Ganjloo; J. Selamat; A. Hamid

423

Adaptive Significance of Evergreen vs. Deciduous Leaves: Solving the Triple  

E-print Network

evergreens, deciduous trees, optimality models, leaf longevity, phenology Author´s address Dept of Botany imagery (DeFries et al. 2000), evergreen broad-leaved trees dominate tropical rain forests and cloud, boreal forests, 2) deciduous larch in many nutrient-poor peatlands, and 3) evergreen leaf

Givnish, Thomas J.

424

Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk  

E-print Network

Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk Locking your computer's screen is an easy and effective step to take to protect the information on your computer system while it's unattended. Create Virus Protection Computers are infected with a virus more often than most people. Make sure antivirus

California at Santa Barbara, University of

425

Methyl Jasmonate Induces Papain Inhibitor(s) in Tomato Leaves.  

PubMed Central

Leaves of 18- to 24-d-old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants exposed to gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) for 24 h at 30[deg]C in continuous light contained high levels of soluble protein that inhibited papain. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the active protein had a molecular mass of 80 to 90 kD. Induction of papain inhibitor was directly related to the concentration of air-borne MJ up to a maximum of 0.1 [mu]L MJ per treatment and depended on the duration of exposure up to 18 h. Inhibitor activity in plants treated for less than 18 h increased with time after treatment. Levels remained constant for up to 4 d after treatment, after which time activity decreased. The youngest leaf, leaf 5, consistently lost activity at a faster rate than older, lower leaves. Inhibitor concentration in all leaves was reduced to minimum levels by 11 d after MJ treatment, but did not return to control levels. Treatment with MJ in the dark did induce inhibitor activity, but at a significantly lower rate. Polyclonal antibodies raised to purified potato tuber skin cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) cross-reacted with the tomato inhibitor, suggesting that the tomato papain inhibitor and the potato CPI are closely related. No papain inhibitor activity was observed in extracts from wounded tomato leaves, nor was there any immunoreactivity with antibodies raised to potato tuber skin CPI. PMID:12232028

Bolter, C. J.

1993-01-01

426

Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1972-01-01

427

Modeling Carbon Export Out of Mature Peach Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of sorbitol and sucrose export out of mature leaves in seedlings of peach (frunus persica 1. Batsch cv CF 305) were investigated by simulating carbon fluxes through the leaf. Three treatments were employed: a control treatment and two treatments modifying leaf export, the latter using either shading or girdling. Photosynthesis and \\

Annick Moing; Abraham Escobar-Cutierrez; Jean Pierre Caudillère

428

46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intervene. (a) Filing. A motion for leave to intervene may...this chapter. (2) The motion must: (i) Comply with...intervention, and address the grounds for intervention set forth...part. (3) A response to a motion to intervene must be...

2013-10-01

429

46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.  

...intervene. (a) Filing. A motion for leave to intervene may...this chapter. (2) The motion must: (i) Comply with...intervention, and address the grounds for intervention set forth...part. (3) A response to a motion to intervene must be...

2014-10-01

430

Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive potential value of six species of acacia tree leaves: Acacia brevispica, nubica, tortilis, seyal, nilotica, and mellifera from Kenya. A wide variability in chemical composition, polyphenolics and gas production and in situ dry matter (DM) degradability was recorded. Crude protein (CP) content ranged from 134 to 213g\\/kg DM. The content of neutral

S. A. Abdulrazak; T. Fujihara; J. K. Ondiek; E. R. Ørskov

2000-01-01

431

Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

432

Policy in Action: New Jersey's Family Leave Insurance  

E-print Network

Policy in Action: New Jersey's Family Leave Insurance Program at Age Three KAREN WHITE LINDA HOUSER ELIZABETH NISBET Center for Women and Work Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey School of Management at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. CWW is also affiliated with the internationally

433

Acylated anthocyanins from leaves of the water lily, Nymphaéa × marliacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three anthocyanins have been isolated from the leaves of the water lily, Nymphaéa × marliacea. Even though the lability of the two major anthocyanins was high, especially the linkage between the acetic acid and the galactose moieties, it was possible by means of homo- and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR techniques and electrospray mass spectrometry to give the full structures of the

Torgils Fossen; Øyvind M. Andersen

1997-01-01

434

Students Matter in School Reform: Leaving Fingerprints and Becoming Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our examination of three schools demonstrates how students can be involved in school reform by giving input about problems, helping design the reform, and sharing implementation responsibilities with adult leaders. Their involvement affects both the reform--as students leave their fingerprints on it--and the students themselves, who show signs of…

Osberg, Jerusha; Pope, Denise; Galloway, Mollie

2006-01-01

435

Antioxidant capacity of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp and leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years, in the attempt to counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative damages is always more convincing the strategy of implementing the diet with antioxidants nutrients, especially deriving from natural sources. Etnobotanical studies have confirmed the high content of antioxidant vitamins in Adansonia digitata fruit constituents and leaves. Baobab fruit pulp can be considered a much valuable source

Silvia Vertuani; Elena Braccioli; Valentina Buzzoni; Stefano Manfredini

2002-01-01

436

Typical ADHD Care Leaves Room for Improvement, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Typical ADHD Care Leaves Room for Improvement, Study Finds Many ... 2015) Monday, November 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children's Health Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. ...

437

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

E-print Network

correspondence to Li An, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources- ever, the psychological causes and effects of leaving one's parental home, and especially with observable conflicts between development and conversation goals, provides us an ex- cellent site to address

An, Li

438

Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M

1995-06-01

439

REQUEST FOR LEAVE NAME__________________________College of Charleston ID# (CWID#)________________  

E-print Network

. Family Sick Leave/Medical Appt.* 9. Death in Family __three or less days __over three days Relation the employee or the spouse. Death in the Immediate Family ­ up to three consecutive workdays with pay for death of spouse, parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, brothers, sisters, children, grandchildren and great

Kasman, Alex

440

Antiinflammatory property of the leaves of Gongronema latifolium.  

PubMed

An aqueous extract of the dried leaves of Gongronema latifolium was studied for its antiinflammatory activity. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, carrageen-induced leucocyte migration in rats and dye leakage induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid in mice. These results demonstrate the antiinflammatory property of G. latifolium. PMID:11933146

Morebise, Olugbenga; Fafunso, Michael A; Makinde, J Modupe; Olajide, Olumayokun A; Awe, E O

2002-03-01

441

CONTROL OF POWDERY MILDEW ON LEAVES AND STEMS OF GOOSEBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca mors-uvae (Scw.) Berk] severely infects young shoots and leaves of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.) in the Pacific Northwest. Less environmentally damaging control measures are being sought as alternatives to sulfur or de-methylation inhibiting fungicides. This study exa...

442

Expedition Five crew is ready to leave KSC for Houston  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition Five crew are ready to leave KSC for Houston. From left are Science Officer Peggy Whitson, Commander Valery Korzun and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The three returned to Earth on Endeavour Dec. 7, with the STS-113 crew, after six months on the International Space Station.

2002-01-01

443

Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

444

The effects of polyphenols in olive leaves on platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe phenolic compounds of olive leaves and olive oils in the Mediterranean diet have been associated with a reduced incidence of heart disease. Accordingly, antioxidant-rich diets may prevent the deleterious effects of oxidative metabolism by scavenging free radicals, thus inhibiting oxidation and delaying atherosclerosis. The process involves phospholipase C activation and arachidonic acid metabolism, and is thought to reduce hydrogen

Indu Singh; Michelle Mok; Anne-Marie Christensen; Alan H. Turner; John A. Hawley

2008-01-01

445

Growth and regeneration of waxes on the leaves of Eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of wax morphology to wax chemistry and the effects of light intensity on wax development were investigated using rubbing techniques to produce nearly wax free cuticular surfaces. Wax regeneration took place rapidly on leaves which were in their exponential stage of expansion, but only slowly on those that had fully expanded. The pattern of wax development suggested that

N. D. Hallam

1970-01-01

446

Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves  

E-print Network

Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves Reveal Complex Andrews, Fife, Scotland Abstract The manual processing of eight species of leaf was investigated in the M-group chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Leaf species varied in the extent to which physical

447

Volatile Constituents of the Leaves of Ocimum sanctum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the volatiles isolated from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum L., Lamiaceae, by capillary GC and GC\\/MS resulted in the identification of 25 components comprising 98.7% of the total oil. Eugenol (53.4%), ?-caryophyllene (31.7%) and ?-elemene (6.2%) were the major components found.

P. M. Raju; Mohamed Ali; Arturo Velasco-Negueruela; María José Pérez-Alonso

1999-01-01

448

202 Music PROFESSORS Preston, Rasmussen (Chair), Serghi (on leave Fall  

E-print Network

202 · Music Music PROFESSORS Preston, Rasmussen (Chair), Serghi (on leave Fall 2012). ASSOCIATE Gilman.VISITINGLECTURERMauthe,DIRECTOROFAPPLIED MUSIC Zwelling. ARTS LIBRARIAN DeLaurenti. VISITING AS. The Department of Music is committed to teaching the discipline of music through its interrelated subdisciplines

Lewis, Robert Michael

449

Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

Vartak, Rehka

2006-01-01

450

Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C 3 plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll.

John R. Evans

1989-01-01

451

The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves.  

PubMed

Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C; Ambrose, Barbara A

2013-01-01

452

Leaving Education: The Agony and the Ecstasy of Changing Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of a workshop format that is being successfully used to motivate and guide teachers who are changing careers. Reasons cited for teachers leaving the profession include a heavily supplied market with reduced demand, economic stagnation and noncompetitive salaries, and job burnout. The workshop is designed to promote the…

Stone, Christopher I.

453

Functional transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis leaves by biolistic bombardment  

E-print Network

with genetically modified Arabidopsis plants. Floral dip, however, is designed for the production of transgenicFunctional transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis leaves by biolistic bombardment Shoko. Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism for plant biology research due to the availability

Citovsky, Vitaly

454

Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current

NELS R. LERSTEN; HARRY T. HORNER

2006-01-01

455

New prenylflavones from the leaves of Epimedium saggitatum.  

PubMed

Five new prenylflavones, yinyanghuo A (1), yinyanghuo B (2), yinyanghuo C (3), yinyanghuo D (4), and yinyanghuo E (5), along with six known flavonoids, chrysoeriol, quercetin, apigenin, apigenin 7,4'-dimethyl ether, kaempferol, and luteolin, were isolated from the leaves of Epimedium sagittatum. Their structures were determined from spectral analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant antiplatelet induced by arachidonic acid. PMID:8699184

Chen, C C; Huang, Y L; Sun, C M; Shen, C C

1996-04-01

456

Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.  

PubMed

Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells. PMID:24266393

Zhang, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Bao, Mei-Fen; Liu, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Xiang-Hai

2013-01-01

457

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves  

PubMed Central

The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

2008-01-01

458

Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

2010-01-01

459

LEAVES AND THE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the burning of fossil fuel and the clearing of land has led to dramatic rises in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Leaves concentrate highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere and transform organic carbon compounds into useful forms (food and fibe...

460

ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 regulates abscission zone placement in Arabidopsis flowers  

PubMed Central

Background The sepals, petals and stamens of Arabidopsis flowers detach via abscission zones formed at their boundaries with the underlying receptacle. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) MYB transcription factor plays a critical role in setting boundaries between newly formed leaf primordia and the shoot meristem. By repressing expression of a set of KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN (KNOX) genes from developing leaf primordia, AS1 and its partner ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 allow the patterning and differentiation of leaves to proceed. Here we show a unique role for AS1 in establishing the positions of the sepal and petal abscission zones in Arabidopsis flowers. Results In as1 mutant flowers, the sepal abscission zones are displaced into inverted V-shaped positions, leaving behind triangular stubs of tissue when the organs abscise. Movement of the petal abscission zones is also apparent. Abscission of the medial sepals is delayed in as1 flowers; loss of chlorophyll in the senescing sepals contrasts with proximal zones that remain green. AS1 has previously been shown to restrict expression of the KNOX gene, BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP), from the sepals. We show here that loss of BP activity in as1 flowers is sufficient to restore the positions of the sepal and petal abscission zones, the sepal-receptacle boundary of the medial sepals and the timing of their abscission. Conclusions Our results indicate that AS1 activity is critical for the proper placement of the floral organ abscission zones, and influences the timing of organ shedding. PMID:25038814

2014-01-01

461

5 CFR 550.1207 - Recrediting annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Lump-Sum Payment for Accumulated and Accrued Annual...reemployment and the expiration of the lump-sum period. The recredited annual leave...reemployment and the expiration of the lump-sum period. (2) When an employee...

2010-01-01

462

Leaving home in the Netherlands: Timing and first housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive birth cohorts have left the parentalhome at an accelerating pace in the earlypost-war decades in the Netherlands. A secondtrend, starting later but lasting longer, isthat people increasingly leave the parentalhome to live alone. Both trends have hadimplications for the housing market as theycontributed to the continuation of the housingshortage and generated a shift in the type ofaccommodation in which

Clara H. Mulder; Pieter Hooimeijer

2002-01-01

463

Voices from the Darkness: A House of Leaves Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

House of Leaves is both a love letter to the written word and a demonstration of its inadequacies, a cautionary tale, a horror story, a romance, a bildungsroman, an eloquent mockery of literary criticism, and much else besides. It incorporates postmodern poly-vocal framing techniques, which are sort of a literary version of Russian nesting dolls, if the dolls all talked

Waltman Melanie

2009-01-01

464

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE LEAVES OF DODONAEA VISCOSA var. ANGUSTIFOLIA.  

E-print Network

??The petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia afforded a diterpene 5-(2-(furan-3-yl)ethyl)-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-8 hydroxy-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid (compound Dc-8B) whereas the chloroform extract gave… (more)

Dessalegn, Bekele

2009-01-01

465

When the Leader Leaves: Sustaining Success at Romero High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study asks readers to consider what leadership actions might help to sustain success for immigrant students in a small urban high school when the leader leaves. Principal Michael Perez, the founding principal of Romero High School, has been recruited to become the superintendent of a first-ring suburban district with rapidly changing…

Johnson, Lauri; Sillman, Kathryn

2012-01-01

466

Incidence of naturally internalized bacteria in lettuce leaves.  

PubMed

Lettuce is the fresh leafy vegetable most frequently involved in foodborne disease outbreaks. Human bacterial pathogens may be experimentally internalized into lettuce plants, but the occurrence of natural microflora inside lettuce leaves has not been elucidated. To characterize the endophytic microorganism residing in commercial lettuce leaves, two separate studies were conducted. First, a total of 30 and 25 heads of romaine and red leaf lettuce, respectively, served as the source of individual leaves which were surface sterilized, stomached, enriched in BHI broth for 24h and plated onto BHI agar for non-selective isolation of internalized microorganism. In a separate survey, 80 heads of each of the two types of lettuce were similarly processed, except that GN broth and MacConkey agar (MCA) were used for isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Thirty-eight out of 100 leaves were positive for internalized microorganisms, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were the genera most frequently found in both types of lettuce. Members of the genus Erwinia were isolated from romaine lettuce only. In the second study, 21 and 60% of romaine and red leaf lettuce heads, respectively, had internalized bacteria capable of growing on MCA. Among the Gram negative strains, Pseudomonas and Pantoea genera were most frequently isolated. Enterobacter isolates were obtained from three red leaf samples. In summary, spore-forming bacteria and traditional epiphytic bacterial genera were frequently detected in surface-sterilized commercial lettuce leaves. Despite the common occurrence of internalized bacteria, only Enterobacter was related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. PMID:23454817

Hou, Zhe; Fink, Ryan C; Radtke, Christie; Sadowsky, Michael J; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

2013-04-01

467

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...servicemember to have such periodic care and an estimate of the...servicemember to have such periodic care, which can include assisting...frequency and duration of the periodic care. (c) Required...

2010-07-01

468

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...servicemember to have such periodic care and an estimate of the...servicemember to have such periodic care, which can include assisting...frequency and duration of the periodic care. (c) Required...

2012-07-01

469

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...servicemember to have such periodic care and an estimate of the...servicemember to have such periodic care, which can include assisting...frequency and duration of the periodic care. (c) Required...

2011-07-01

470

Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of Red-Osier Dogwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated

Taylor S. Feild; David W. Lee; N. Michele Holbrook

2001-01-01

471

Movement of Water from Old to Young Leaves in Three Species of Succulents  

PubMed Central

A hypothetical adaptive response of succulent plants to drought?stress is the redistribution of water from old to young leaves. We examined the effects of possible movement of water from old to young leaves in three succulent species, Carpobrotus edulis (weak CAM?inducible), Kalanchoe tubiflora (CAM) and Sedum spectabile (possibly a CAM?cycler or CAM?inducible). Old leaves were removed from plants, and photosynthesis, transpiration, f. wt?:?d. wt ratios, diurnal acid fluctuations, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentrations of the remaining young leaves were measured during drought?stress. Comparison was made with plants retaining old leaves. There was no evidence that water moved from old to young leaves during drought?stress as previously hypothesized. Only in drought?stressed plants of K. tubiflora, were photosynthetic and transpiration rates of young leaves greater on shoots with old leaves removed compared with attached. There was a trend in all species for greater fluctuations in acidity in young leaves on shoots that lacked older leaves. For two of the three species studied, the f. wt?:?d. wt ratios of young leaves were greater under drought?stress, on shoots with old leaves removed than with them attached. Absence of old leaves may reduce competition for water with young leaves, which consequently have higher water content and greater photosynthetic rates. PMID:12907468

RABAS, A. R.; MARTIN, C. E.

2003-01-01

472

Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.  

PubMed

Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

2012-01-01

473

Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes  

PubMed Central

The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots. PMID:22232687

Pereira, Caio G.; Almenara, Daniela P.; Winter, Carlos E.; Fritsch, Peter W.; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S.

2012-01-01

474

Bioactive molecules in Kalanchoe pinnata leaves: extraction, purification, and identification.  

PubMed

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (syn. Bryophyllum pinnatum; family Crassulaceae) is a popular plant used in traditional medicine in many temperate regions of the world and particularly in South America. In Guyana, the leaves are traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic to treat coughs, ulcers, and sores. The purpose of this study was to implement a method for targeting and identifying molecules with antimicrobial activity, which could replace chemical preservatives in cosmetic applications. The leaves were extracted by a method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using different solvents. A study of antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity tests were performed to select the most interesting extract. To isolate one or more active molecules, the selected crude extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and then antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of each fraction were tested under the same procedure. The last step consisted of identifying the main compounds in the most active fraction by LC-MS/MS. PMID:20714893

El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Destandau, Emilie; Toribio, Alix; Elfakir, Claire; Lafosse, Michel; Renimel, Isabelle; André, Patrice; Cancellieri, Perrine; Landemarre, Ludovic

2010-10-01

475

Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves  

PubMed Central

Plants monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature to synchronize their flowering with seasonal changes to maximize fitness. In the Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway, the circadian clock-regulated components, such as FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 and CONSTANS, both of which have light-controlled functions, are crucial to induce the day-length specific expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in leaves. Recent advances indicate that FT transcriptional regulation is central for integrating the information derived from other important internal and external factors, such as developmental age, amount of gibberellic acid, and the ambient temperature. In this review, we describe how these factors interactively regulate the expression of FT, the main component of florigen, in leaves. PMID:23790253

Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

2013-01-01

476

Antioxidant and anticancer constituents from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera.  

PubMed

Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+)-Norstephalagine (2) (an aporphine) and scopoletin (8) (a coumarin) were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera leaves from the first time. The identified compounds were screened for their antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power activities. The results have showed that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the chemopreventive property of the isolated compounds against human melanoma cells A375. The results shown that (-)-anonaine (1), (-)-liridinine (3), (+)-lirinidine (6), lysicamine (7) and epitulipinolide diepoxide (9) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells. These results revealed that these compounds have antioxidative activity and chemopreventive activity in skin melanoma cells. PMID:24705566

Kang, Ya-Fei; Liu, Chi-Ming; Kao, Chiu-Li; Chen, Chung-Yi

2014-01-01

477

Spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of potato leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laboratory investigations of the spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of radiation reflected from the leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum) of different varieties are discussed. During the vegetation season of 1997, the angular dependence of the degree and azimuth of polarization of radiation reflected from potato leaves as well as the scattering indicatrices in the range 380 1080 nm were determined by a specially developed method with the use of a laboratory goniometric setup. The relationship between the spectral polarization characteristics of radiation and biological parameters of the potato has been obtained with the help of different methods of statistical analysis and explained on the basis of the known physical mechanisms.

Belyaev, B. I.; Belyaev, Yu. V.; Chumakov, A. V.; Nekrasov, V. P.; Shuplyak, V. I.

2000-07-01

478

Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties. PMID:24689302

Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

2014-02-01

479

Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves. PMID:25198243

Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

2014-10-15

480

Antifungal aryltetralin lignans from leaves of Podophyllum hexandrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aryltetralin lignans, 4?-O-demethyldehydropodophyllotoxin and picropodophyllone, which were earlier reported as semi-synthetic products, were isolated from the leaves of Podophyllum hexandrum of Pakistani origin. Two known aryltetralin lignans, isopicropodophyllone and dehydropodophyllotoxin, were also isolated. Structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. The two new lignans showed strong antifungal activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Nigrospora oryzae, Microsporum canis, Allescheria boydii and

Atta-ur-Rahman; M. Ashraf; M. Iqbal Choudhary; M. H. Kazmi

1995-01-01

481

Flavonoids in the leaves of twenty-eight polygonaceous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids in the leaves of twenty-eight species belonging to the Polygonaceae were studied. Thirty-three kinds of flavonoids\\u000a were isolated, and eighteen kinds were obtained as crystals. Quercetin glycosides were commonly found in the family. In the\\u000a quercetin glycosides, 3-O-rhamnoside was most frequently found: 3-O-glucuronide is also distributed widely. Myricetin glycosides were rare. Methylated flavonols were found in some species of

Masaru Kawasaki; Takeshi Kanomata; Kunijiro Yoshitama

1986-01-01

482

What do red and yellow autumn leaves signal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread phenomenon of red and yellow autumn leaves has recently attracted considerable scientific attention. The fact\\u000a that this phenomenon is so prominent in the cooler, temperate regions and less common in warmer climates is a good indication\\u000a of a climate-specific effect. In addition to the putative multifarious physiological benefits, such as protection from photoinhibition\\u000a and photo-oxidation, several plant\\/animal interaction

Simcha Lev-Yadun; Kevin S. Gould

2007-01-01

483

Chemical constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five constituents including one new pentacyclic triterpenoid guajanoic acid (1) and four known compounds ?-sitosterol (2), uvaol (3), oleanolic acid (4), and ursolic acid (5) have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava.The new constituent1has been characterized as 3?-p-E-coumaroyloxy-2?-methoxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid through 2D NMR techniques and chemical transformations. This is the first report of isolation of compound 3 from the

Sabira Begum; Syed Imran Hassan; Syed Nawazish Ali; Bina S. Siddiqui

2004-01-01

484

Friedolanostanes and lanostanes from the leaves of Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

Five new triterpenes, one 17,14-friedolanostane (garcihombronane F, 1), three 17,13-friedolanostanes (garcihombronanes G-I, 2-4), and one lanostane (garcihombronane J, 5), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia hombroniana together with nine known compounds including five triterpenes, two ionone-derived glycosides, and two flavonoid glucosides. Their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those previously reported. PMID:16124765

Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Saelim, Somsak; Karnsomchoke, Pueksa; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

2005-08-01

485

Flavonoids in the leaves of Asclepias incarnata L.  

PubMed

Seven flavonoid compounds: quercelin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-arabinoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-beta-glucopyranoside were isolated and identified from the leaves of Asclepias incarnata, L. (Asclepiadaceae). PMID:15080595

Sikorska, Maria

2003-01-01

486

Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.  

PubMed

Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

2008-02-15

487

Identification of a senescence-related protease in coriander leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescence-related protease may play an important role in leaf senescence. By improved SDS-Gelatin-PAGE assay, a 63 ku senescence-related\\u000a protease (63 SRP) in coriander leaves was identified. Activity of 63 SRP was increased in parallel to the advance of coriander\\u000a leaf senescence, and inhibited by treating the leaf with gibberellic acid, and enhanced by ethylene treatment. The 63 SRP\\u000a was suggested

Weibo Jiang; Xiangjuan Zhou; Yumei Zhao; Pengcheng Liu

2002-01-01

488

Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Peroxidase in Coriander Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of efficient blanching treatments requires knowledge of critical factors such as enzyme inactivation kinetic parameters\\u000a and relative proportions of heat-labile and heat-resistant fractions, which is unique in each vegetable. Thermal inactivation\\u000a curves for peroxidase in coriander leaves were determined in the temperature range of 70 to 100 °C and in steam. The isothermal\\u000a data were statistically treated using both linear

S. G. Rudra; S. Basu; B. C. Sarkar

2008-01-01

489

Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

2010-01-01

490

Factors affecting the determination of net photosynthesis of apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net photosynthesis (Pn) was determined on individual leaves of greenhouse grown Golden Delicious on seedling rootstocks. Saturation light intensity varied among experiments, but was typically between 2000 and 4000 ft-c. Pn increased with increasing air flow rates up to about 2.5 liters min⁻¹ with only slight increases above this rate. Good comparisons of Pn could be made on either a

Barden

1971-01-01

491

Chlorophyllase activity in developing leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In crude extracts of primary leaves from dark grown seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L., relatively high hydrolytic activity of chlorophyllase (chlorophyll-chlorophyllido-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14) was observed. When plants were exposed to continuous illumination, the enzyme activity in the extracts was doubled within 3 days and both chlorophyll a and b were synthesized. However, when exposed to periodic illumination (1 min light-59

W. A. W. Moll; B. Wit; R. Lutter

1978-01-01

492

Photosystem II efficiency in low chlorophyll, iron-deficient leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency (iron chlorosis) is the major nutritional stress affecting fruit tree crops in calcareous soils in the Mediterranean\\u000a area. This work reviews the changes in PS II efficiency in iron-deficient leaves. The iron deficiency-induced leaf yellowing\\u000a is due to decreases in the leaf concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids. However, carotenoids,\\u000a and more specifically lutein and the xanthophylls

Javier Abadía; Fermín Morales; Anunciación Abadía

1999-01-01

493

Systemic signalling of environmental cues in Arabidopsis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light intensity and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure are two environmental signals known to regulate stomatal numbers. It has previously been shown that if a mature Arabidopsis leaf is supplied with either elevated CO2 (750 ppm instead of ambient at 370 ppm) or reduced light levels (50 lmol m22 s21 instead of 250 lmol m22 s21), the young, developing leaves that

S. A. Coupe; B. G. Palmer; J. A. Lake; S. A. Overy; K. Oxborough; F. I. Woodward; J. E. Gray; W. P. Quick

2010-01-01

494

Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing.\\u000a\\u000aIn twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied

Du Thanh Hang

2007-01-01

495

Photosynthetic symmetry of sun and shade leaves of different orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic responses to light of leaves irradiated on the adaxial or abaxial surfaces, were measured for plants with contrasting leaf orientations. For vertical-leaf species of open habitats (Eryngium yuccifolium and Silphium terebinthinaceum), photosynthetic rates were identical when irradiated on either surface. However, for horizontal-leaf species of open habitats (Ambrosia trifida and Solidago canadensis), light-saturated rates of photosynthesis for adaxial

Evan H. Lucia; Hemanth D. Shenoi; Shawna L. Naidu; Thomas A. Day

1991-01-01

496

Polarized directional reflectance from laurel and mullein leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to perform polarimetric imaging throughout the visible and infrared (IR) wavebands has improved considerably in the past decade. Systems now exist that enable measurements to be made of all four Stokes parameters arising from each pixel in the image. The question of whether polarimetric imaging offers an advantage over conventional imaging methods for discrimination of plant type in scenes of natural vegetation remains to be answered. Although the size of a leaf may be below the spatial resolution of an imaging system, the polarimetric properties of individual leaves may affect the data observed from a tree or forest canopy. We report the results of measurements of the polarized hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR), which is related to the directional emissivity, and bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) from two examples of leaves. To completely characterize the polarimetric properties of a leaf, and ultimately a leaf canopy, an extensive measurement of the polarized BRDF and HDR of individual leaves is required. This is necessary because of the large range of possible relative orientations of the illumination, leaf and observer, and the range of polarization states of incident radiation. We report a limited set of laboratory measurements designed to investigate whether any gross polarimetric difference exist between two dissimilar types of plant leaves in the visible, near IR (NIR), and IR spectral wavebands. Laurel (prunus laurecatious) has a wax surface creating a gloss or glabrous appearance to the leaf. The surface of mullein (verbascum thapsus) is highly pubescent with a dense layer of hair over the adaxial surface, creating a highly diffuse surface reflectance. Significant differences are found between the two species of leaf in the measured polarized directional reflectance and emissivity.

Raven, Peter N.; Jordan, David L.; Smith, Catherine E.

2002-05-01

497

Sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis.  

PubMed

From the leaves of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis, a new eremophilanolide, 8 alpha-methoxy-6-oxoeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8-olide (6-oxoeremophilenolide) and a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, (+)-intermedeol were isolated. The structures were determined on the basis of 2D-NMR spectral data. Data on cytotoxicity showed that the latter was clearly more potent than the former compound. PMID:11199147

Park, H J; Kwon, S H; Yoo, K O; Sohn, I C; Lee, K T; Lee, H K

2000-12-01

498

Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.  

PubMed

To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions. PMID:19426314

Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

2009-04-01

499

Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their

G. J. Wagner

1984-01-01

500

5- O-glucosyldihydroflavones from the leaves of Helicia cochinchinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the leaves of Helicia cochinchinensis, collected on Okinawa Island, seven phenolic glucosides and two terpenic glucosides were isolated. Five of the phenolic glucosides were previously known, being identified with p-coumaric and ferulic acids glucosyl esters, rhodioloside, helicidiol, and naringenin 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside. The structures of two other phenolic glucosides, named heliciosides A and B, were elucidated to be 5-O-?-d-glucosides of 3-hydroxyflavanone,

Ken-Ichi Morimura; Asuka Gatayama; Reiki Tsukimata; Katsuyoshi Matsunami; Hideaki Otsuka; Eiji Hirata; Takakazu Shinzato; Mitsunori Aramoto; Yoshio Takeda

2006-01-01