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1

Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

2

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

3

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing  

PubMed Central

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-01-01

4

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

5

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

6

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

7

MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.  

PubMed

Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-01-01

8

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

9

Mulberry latex rich in antidiabetic sugar-mimic alkaloids forces dieting on caterpillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times, mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) have been used to rear the silkworm Bombyx mori. Because the silkworm grows well on mulberry leaves, the toxicities and defensive activities of these leaves against herbivorous insects have been overlooked. Here we show that mulberry leaves are highly toxic to caterpillars other than the silkworm B. mori, because of the ingredients of

Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Ono; Masatoshi Nakamura; Ken Tateishi; Chikara Hirayama; Yasumori Tamura; Makoto Hattori; Akio Koyama; Katsuyuki Kohno

2006-01-01

10

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

11

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

12

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

13

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

2014-01-01

14

Volatile glycosides from the leaves of Morus alba with a potential contribution to the complex anti-diabetic activity.  

PubMed

The leaves and root bark of Morus alba, the white mulberry tree, are well-known traditional medicines for the treatment of type II diabetes. Several different types of constituents have been suggested to be responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of mulberry drugs, such as iminosugars, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids. Our group recently suggested that a volatile-oil like fraction of the hot water extract of M. alba leaves, containing several phenyl-propane derivatives, can increase the glucose consumption of adipocytes. Here we report the isolation of three glycosylated volatile constituents from mulberry leaves, two megastigmane derivatives along with the beta-D-glucoside of eugenol. Furthermore, a commercially available mixture of probiotic bacteria was assessed to study the effect of the intestinal flora on the megastigmane derivatives. Significant amounts of the aglycons of both compounds were liberated, suggesting that these compounds can be metabolized in the large intestines and absorbed without the sugar moiety after the consumption of a traditional mulberry tea. Based on literature data, both the glycosides and their aglycons have a potential contribution to the beneficial effects of mulberry leaves in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24689274

Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Veres, Katalin; Erdei, Anna; Simon, András; Tóthb, Gábor

2014-02-01

15

Purification of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) polyphenol oxidase by affinity chromatography and investigation of its kinetic and electrophoretic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit using a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on native and SDS–poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa. Optimum PPO activity as a function of pH and temperature was determined using

Oktay Arslan; Mahmut Erzengin; Selma Sinan; Ozen Ozensoy

2004-01-01

16

Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

2013-01-01

17

Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: Translocation and detoxification.  

PubMed

The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25mgkg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm. PMID:25703900

Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

2015-06-01

18

A new nepovirus identified in mulberry (Morus alba L.) in China.  

PubMed

An isometric virus was identified in mulberry leaves showing symptoms of mulberry mosaic leaf roll (MMLR) disease. Its genome consists of two (+)ssRNAs. RNA1 and RNA2 have 7183 and 3742 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the RNA1-encoded polyprotein and CP amino acid sequences, the properties of the the 3'-UTR of RNA1 and RNA2, and <75 % identity in the CP amino acid sequence, this virus is proposed to be a new member of the genus Nepovirus, subgroup A. Since a causal relationship between this virus and MMLR has not been established, it is tentatively referred to as MMLR-associated virus. PMID:25577167

Lu, Quan-You; Wu, Zu-Jian; Xia, Zhi-Song; Xie, Lian-Hui

2015-03-01

19

Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 ?M ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

Nati?, Maja M; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Papetti, Adele; Fotiri? Akši?, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojevi?, Mirjana; Teši?, Živoslav Lj

2015-03-15

20

Investigating Some Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Native Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of seed and seed oil obtained from the native black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) were investigated in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that the seed consisted of 27.5–33% crude oil, 20.2–22.5% crude\\u000a protein, 3.5–6% ash, 42.4–46.6% carbohydrate and 112.2–152.0 mg total phenolics\\/100 g. Twenty different fatty acids were determined,\\u000a with the percentages varying from 0.02% myristic acid (C14:0)

Umit Gecgel; Serap Durakli Velioglu; Hasan Murat Velioglu

21

Enterobacter morus sp. nov., a novel Enterobacter species associated with bacterial wilt on mulberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mulberry pathogenetic bacterial strain R18-2T isolated from the diseased mulberry root was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the strain R18-2T to the genus Enterobacter. The strain was Gram nega...

22

In vivo growth of encapsulated axillary buds of mulberry (Morus indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary buds excised from aseptic shoot cultures of mulberry were encapsulated in an alginate matrix under non-aseptic conditions. Addition of a fungicide to the alginate beads prevents contamination of the bud and increased survival of the buds when sown in soil.

V. A. Bapat; P. S. Rao

1990-01-01

23

White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7?g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7?g/Kg?DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7?g/Kg?DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

2014-01-01

24

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

25

Identification and characterization of the Enterobacter complex causing mulberry ( Morus alba ) wilt disease in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease\\u000a are browning of vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the symptoms of bacterial wilt disease\\u000a caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, symptoms of MWD generally started from the bottom of the plants and moved upward. In inoculation experiments, four selected\\u000a MWD strains

Guo-Fen Wang; Guan-Lin Xie; Bo Zhu; Jun-Sheng Huang; Bo Liu; Praphat Kawicha; Lesley Benyon; Yong-Ping Duan

2010-01-01

26

Effect of environmental conditions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaves have been used as the sole food for silkworms in sericulture, and also as a traditional medicine for diabetes prevention. Mulberry leaf components, for example 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), inhibit the activity of ?-glucosidase and prevent increased blood glucose levels, and they are highly toxic to caterpillars other than silkworms. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves changes with the season, but it is unknown which environmental conditions influence the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We investigated in this study the relationship between the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and environmental conditions of temperature and photoperiod. The results demonstrate that low temperatures induced decreasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while the induction of newly grown shoots by the scission of branches induced increasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was related to the defense mechanism of mulberry plants against insect herbivores. PMID:22146716

Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Onose, Shinji; Kitahara, Eriko; Chumchuen, Sukunya; Takasaki, Midori; Konishi, Hajime; Kanekatsu, Rensuke

2011-01-01

27

Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: Enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Naoya Wasano; Masatoshi Nakamura

2007-01-01

28

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

2013-01-01

29

Mulberroside F Isolated from the Leaves of Morus alba Inhibits Melanin Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of an 85% methanol extract of dried Morus alba leaves on melanin biosynthesis, which is closely related to hyperpigmentation. These extracts inhib- ited the tyrosinase activity that converts dopa to dopachrome in the biosynthetic process of melanin. Mulberro- side F (moracin M-6, 39-di-O-bb-D-glucopyranoside), which was obtained after the

Sang Hee Lee; Sang Yoon Choi; Hocheol Kim; Jae Sung Hwang; Byeong Gon Lee; Jian Jun Gao; Sun Yeou Kim

2002-01-01

30

Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

31

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism.  

PubMed

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

32

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism  

PubMed Central

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

33

Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.  

PubMed

Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method. PMID:24425885

Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

2013-02-01

34

Efficient gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells by an ethylenediamine-modified polysaccharide from mulberry leaves.  

PubMed

This study investigates the use of a natural polysaccharide isolated from mulberry leaves as a nonviral gene vector. Ethylenediamine is chemically grafted to the backbone of a polysaccharide from mulberry leaves (MPS) to acquire nucleic acid binding affinity. A particle-size observation indicates that the cationic mulberry leaf polysaccharide (CMPS) can efficiently combine with plasmid transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) to form nanoscaled particles. In addition, the electrophoresis assay indicates a retarded plasmid migration when the CMPS/pTGF-?1 weight ratio is increased to 30:1. The in vitro cell transfection experiment is performed based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from rat femurs and tibias, and the findings reveal that the complex with a CMPS/pTGF-?1 weight ratio of 50:1 exhibits the highest cell transfection effect, which is significantly higher than that of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) (25 kDa; p = 0.001, Student's t-test) and slightly higher than Lipofectamine 2000. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assay also demonstrates that all of these tested complexes and the plasmid TGF-?1 are nontoxic to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results of the living cell imaging confirm that more of the CMPS/plasmid TGF-?1 nanoparticles can be taken up and at a faster rate by the MSCs than by the positive control Lipofectamine 2000; these data are consistent with the transfection efficiency data. Together, these results suggest that the CMPS/pTGF-?1 nanoparticle can potentially be developed into a promising alternative for the transfer of therapeutic genes into cells. PMID:22213679

Deng, Wen-Wen; Cao, Xia; Wang, Miao; Yang, Yan; Su, Wei-Yan; Wei, Ya-Wei; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Yu, Jiang-Nan; Xu, Xi-Ming

2012-02-01

35

Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.  

PubMed

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

36

Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P?=?0.743), ADG (P?=?0.425), DMI (P?=?0.642), or ADG/DMI (P?=?0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P?=?0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P?=?0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P?=?0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P?=?0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

37

Biological control against bacterial wilt and colonization of mulberry by an endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain.  

PubMed

Forty-five bacterial isolates were collected from surface-sterilized leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.). By screening their antagonistic activities against Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro, four isolates showed a remarkable inhibitory effect. The evaluation of the antagonistic strains against bacterial wilt of mulberry indicated that the strain Lu144 effectively reduced disease incidence. In the greenhouse, Lu144 displayed effective biological control against bacterial wilt of mulberry when it was applied to sterile or nonsterile soil before the infection by the pathogen. Based on bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Lu144 was identified as a strain of Bacillus subtilis. The endophytic population and infection process of Lu144 in mulberry seedlings was explored following recovery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Lu144 and examination of the labeled strain by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Interestingly, the infection of GFP-labeled Lu144 cells into the mulberry seedlings occurred through the cracks formed at the lateral root junctions and the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to develop and transfer in mulberry and mainly in the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The population of the GFP-labeled Lu144 inoculant was larger and more stable in leaves than that in roots and stems. PMID:18631174

Ji, Xianling; Lu, Guobing; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2008-09-01

38

The study of hypoglycemic effects of the Morus alba L. leave extract and histology of the pancreatic islet cells in diabetic and normal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects and histological changes of pancreatic islets after receiving Morus alba leave extract in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg\\/kg) intraperitoneally. All diabetic rats were divided into 5 groups, each of which was orally received one of the following; vehicle, glibenclamide and

Suphaket Saenthaweesuk; Amornnat Thuppia; Pornrut Rabintossaporn; Kornkanok Ingkaninan; Seewaboon Sireeratawong

39

A derivatization procedure for the simultaneous analysis of iminosugars and other low molecular weight carbohydrates by GC–MS in mulberry ( Morus sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different derivatization procedures were assayed to simultaneously analyse iminosugars such as deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or fagomine and other carbohydrates of low molecular weight by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in Morus sp. Both oximation+trimethylsilylation and oximation+acetylation allowed the separation of target compounds, whereas trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetylated derivatives showed several coelutions. Nevertheless, oximation+acetylation were discarded for giving inaccurate results

S. Rodríguez-Sánchez; O. Hernández-Hernández; A. I. Ruiz-Matute; M. L. Sanz

2011-01-01

40

Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)  

PubMed Central

The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm. PMID:24612781

2014-01-01

41

Analysis of Black Mulberry Volatiles Using GCxGC-TOF\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile constituents of black mulberry (Morus nigra) dried with various commercially used techniques (sun, hot air, and microwaves) were obtained by direct thermal desorption and analysed using comprehensive GCxGC coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF\\/MS). Some mulberries were dried using only a desiccator and the volatile desorbed from these was used for comparison. The number of components of

F. Gö?ü?; A. C. Lewis; M. Z. Özel

2011-01-01

42

Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

2010-10-15

43

Effects of quercetin derivatives from mulberry leaves: Improved gene expression related hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in short-term high-fat fed mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Mulberry leaves contain quercetin derivatives, which have the effects of reducing obesity and improving lipid and glucose metabolism in mice with obesity. It is not clear whether or not mulberry leaves can directly affect metabolic disorders, in the presence of obesity, because of the interaction between obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of the current study was to assess the direct action of quercetin derivatives on metabolic disorders in non-obese conditions in short-term high-fat diet fed mice. MATERIALS/METHODS C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet, supplemented with either 0% (control), 1%, or 3% mulberry leaf powder (Mul) or 1% catechin powder for five days. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistry were determined, and hepatic gene expression associated with lipid and glucose metabolism was analyzed. RESULTS Body and white fat weights did not differ among the four groups. Plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the 1%, 3% Mul and catechin groups did not differ significantly from those of the controls, however, plasma glucose and 8-isoprostane levels were significantly reduced. Liver gene expression of gp91phox, a main component of NADPH oxidase, was significantly down-regulated, and PPAR-?, related to ?-oxidation, was significantly up-regulated. FAS and GPAT, involved in lipid metabolism, were significantly down-regulated, and Ehhadh was significantly up-regulated. Glucose-metabolism related genes, L-PK and G6Pase, were significantly down-regulated, while GK was significantly up-regulated in the two Mul groups compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the Mul quercetin derivatives can directly improve lipid and glucose metabolism by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing ?-oxidation. The 1% Mul and 1% catechin groups had similar levels of polyphenol compound intake (0.4 × 10-5 vs 0.4 × 10-5 mole/5 days) and exhibited similar effects, but neither showed dose-dependent effects on lipid and glucose metabolism or oxidative stress.

Sun, Xufeng; Katsube, Takuya; Shiwaku, Kuninori

2015-01-01

44

Mulberry extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit is used effectively in Chinese medicines against fever, to protect the liver and to lower blood pressure. Here, we report a water extract, MWE (Mulberry water extract), which is designed to exhibit anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with a normal diet, high cholesterol (1.3%), lard

Chang-Che Chen; Li-Kaung Liu; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Hui-Pei Huang; Mon-Yuan Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

2005-01-01

45

Antihyperglycemic, Antioxidant and Antiglycation Activities of Mulberry Leaf Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Chronic Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, beverages containing mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) are believed to promote good health, especially in people with diabetes. We examined the effects of long-term administration\\u000a of an ethanolic extract of mulberry leaf (MA) on blood glucose, oxidative damage, and glycation in streptozotocin-induced\\u000a diabetic rats. Daily administration of 1 g\\/kg MA for six weeks decreased blood glucose by 22%, which

Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Patchareewan Pannangpetch; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Bunkerd Kongyingyoes; Upa kukongviriyapan

2009-01-01

46

Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.  

PubMed

A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

2015-04-01

47

Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet  

PubMed Central

A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

2015-01-01

48

Cell wall sheath surrounding calcium oxalate crystals in mulberry idioblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The distribution and ultrastructural features of idioblasts containing calcium oxalate crystals were studied in leaf tissues\\u000a of mulberry, Morus alba L. In addition to the calcium carbonate crystals formed in epidermal idioblasts, large calcium oxalate crystals were deposited\\u000a in cells adjacent to the veins and surrounded by a cell wall sheath which had immunoreactivity with an antibody recognizing\\u000a a xyloglucan

H. Katayama; Y. Fujibayashi; S. Nagaoka; Y. Sugimura

2007-01-01

49

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients. PMID:19602243

Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2009-01-01

50

MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements.  

PubMed

Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/ PMID:25725060

Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2015-01-01

51

MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements  

PubMed Central

Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/ PMID:25725060

Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2015-01-01

52

An IgE-Mediated Allergic Reaction Caused by Mulberry Fruit.  

PubMed

Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a widespread deciduous tree and its fruit is commonly eaten in Korea and eastern Asia. Some reports demonstrate that mulberry fruit is a food allergen in the Mediterranean area. However, there has been no report of systemic allergic reactions after ingesting mulberry fruit in Korea. An 18-year-old boy with a mulberry fruit allergy visited our allergy clinic. He had experienced generalized urticaria, chest tightness, breathing difficulty, and abdominal cramping after ingesting mulberry fruit. The patient had a positive skin reaction to mulberry fruit extract (mean wheal size, 5 mm). We performed an ELISA to detect specific IgE antibody (Ab) to mulberry fruit extract in the patient's serum compared to those of non-atopic healthy controls and birch-sensitized individuals. Specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit extract was detected in the patient's serum, as compared to non-atopic healthy controls. Another subject, who was strongly sensitized to birch pollen, also had a positive serum-specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit. We performed IgE immunoblot analysis using the patient's and the other subject's sera, who had serum-specific IgE to mulberry fruit, to identify the IgE-binding component. An identical IgE-binding component to mulberry extract was detected in the two subjects at around 17 kDa, and which might be PR 10 of Bet v 1. In conclusion, mulberry fruit could induce a systemic allergic reaction through an IgE-mediated mechanism, and cross-reactivity might occur between mulberry fruit and birch pollen. PMID:25729628

Choi, Jong Hyun; Sim, Jae Kyoem; Oh, Jee Youn; Hur, Gyu-Young; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sung Yong; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

2015-03-01

53

An IgE-Mediated Allergic Reaction Caused by Mulberry Fruit  

PubMed Central

Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a widespread deciduous tree and its fruit is commonly eaten in Korea and eastern Asia. Some reports demonstrate that mulberry fruit is a food allergen in the Mediterranean area. However, there has been no report of systemic allergic reactions after ingesting mulberry fruit in Korea. An 18-year-old boy with a mulberry fruit allergy visited our allergy clinic. He had experienced generalized urticaria, chest tightness, breathing difficulty, and abdominal cramping after ingesting mulberry fruit. The patient had a positive skin reaction to mulberry fruit extract (mean wheal size, 5 mm). We performed an ELISA to detect specific IgE antibody (Ab) to mulberry fruit extract in the patient's serum compared to those of non-atopic healthy controls and birch-sensitized individuals. Specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit extract was detected in the patient's serum, as compared to non-atopic healthy controls. Another subject, who was strongly sensitized to birch pollen, also had a positive serum-specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit. We performed IgE immunoblot analysis using the patient's and the other subject's sera, who had serum-specific IgE to mulberry fruit, to identify the IgE-binding component. An identical IgE-binding component to mulberry extract was detected in the two subjects at around 17 kDa, and which might be PR 10 of Bet v 1. In conclusion, mulberry fruit could induce a systemic allergic reaction through an IgE-mediated mechanism, and cross-reactivity might occur between mulberry fruit and birch pollen. PMID:25729628

Choi, Jong Hyun; Sim, Jae Kyoem; Oh, Jee Youn; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sung Yong; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

2015-01-01

54

Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China  

PubMed Central

Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

2012-01-01

55

Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

2013-01-01

56

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. RESULTS: We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a

Sakihito Kitajima; Kaeko Kamei; Shigeru Taketani; Masamitsu Yamaguchi; Fumiko Kawai; Aino Komatsu; Yoshihiro Inukai

2010-01-01

57

The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoid content of mulberry leaves of 19 varieties of species, determined spectrophotometrically in terms of rutin equivalent, varied from 11.7 to 26.6mgg?1 in spring leaves and 9.84 to 29.6mgg?1 in autumn leaves. Fresh leaves gave more extract than air-dried or oven-dried ones. HPLC showed that mulberry leaves contain at least four flavonoids, two of which are rutin and quercetin. The

Jia Zhishen; Tang Mengcheng; Wu Jianming

1999-01-01

58

Influence of plant growth stage and season on the release of root phenolics by mulberry as related to development of phytoremediation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolics released by red mulberry (Morus rubra L.) roots at different growth stages within a season were quantified and the makeup of phenols analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The data show that total phenols released into the soil solution increased continuously from an early vegetative stage to leaf senescence, indicating their accumulation in the rhizosphere. From

Ramesh S. Hegde; John S. Fletcher

1996-01-01

59

Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

60

JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression.  

PubMed

Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry) reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM) but not the leaf extract (LEM) reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:23983799

Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

61

Morphogenic response of the alginate-encapsulated axillary buds from in vitro shoot cultures of six mulberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary buds obtained from in vitro shoot cultures of six mulberries (Morus alba L., M. australis Poir., M. bombycis Koidz., M. cathyana Hemsl., M. latifolia Poir., and M. nigra L.) were encapsulated in calcium alginate hydrogel containing Murashige and Skoog (1962) nutrients (MS) and 4.4 ?M benzyladenine\\u000a (BA). Morphogenic response of encapsulated buds to various planting media such as MS

Sitakanta Pattnaik; Pradeep K. Chand

2000-01-01

62

Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.  

PubMed

Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

2013-08-01

63

Bioactive compounds and sensory quality of black and white mulberries grown in Spain.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare, for the first time, white and black mulberry species in terms of main phytochemical, volatile composition and sensory profile characteristics in eight Spanish clones. The results showed that black and white mulberry species displayed significant different characteristics. PLS analysis has allowed grouping of the clones into four groups (i) MA1, MA2 and MN2, (ii) MN3 and MN4, (iii) MA3 and MA4, and (iv) MN1. Experimental results proved that Spanish mulberries have potential for fresh consumption due to their high antioxidant capacity (10.7-86.1 mg Trolox 100 g(-1)), polyphenol (76.7-180 mg gallic acid 100 g(-1)) and ellagic acid content (8.7-15.5 mg 100 g(-1)) as well as considerable amount of volatile compounds (35) with desirable attributes, which were scored high by a trained panel. Cultivars from the Morus nigra species seem to provide fruits with higher content of bioactive compounds and better aptitude for fresh consumption than Morus alba. Differences among the species should be attributed to genetics because they were cultivated under same conditions. PMID:23979495

Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Martínez-Nicolás, Juan José; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

2013-12-01

64

Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-05-01

65

Large-Scale Intersubspecific Recombination in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Is Associated with the Host Shift to Mulberry  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Schuenzel, Erin L.; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-01-01

66

In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

67

Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits. PMID:25477663

Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?; Pogo?, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

2014-12-01

68

In vitro screening of some plant extracts against fungal pathogens of mulberry (Morus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one plant species were screened in vitro for their fungitoxic properties against four fungal pathogens viz., Phyllactinia corylea (Powdery mildew), Peridiopsora mori (Brown rust) and Pseudocercospora mori (Black leaf spot) by slide germination method and Myrothecium roridum (Brown leaf spot) by poisoned food technique. Conidial germination of P. corylea was significantly reduced in 5% (w\\/v) ethanolic extracts all tested

Manas Dev Maji; Souman Chattopadhyay; Pratheesh Kumar; Beera Saratchandra

2005-01-01

69

The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.  

PubMed

Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root/shoot ratios, root surface areas, specific root areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the young mulberry trees in the DH were all significantly higher than those of the control group (DM). Leaf water potential, instantaneous water use efficiency, and abscisic acid content of DH were all significantly lower than DM. Under different degrees of drought stress, the growth of mulberry trees will be inhibited, but the trees can respond to the stress by increasing the root absorptive area and enhancing capacity for water retention. Mulberry trees demonstrate strong resistance to drought stress, and furthermore drought resistance can be improved by drought hardening during the seedling stage. PMID:23250728

Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

2013-10-01

70

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

71

Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

72

Characterization and Expression of Genes Involved in the Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction during Ripening of Mulberry Fruit  

PubMed Central

Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1–methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID:25822202

Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

2015-01-01

73

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

74

Dual inhibition of arachidonic acid pathway by mulberry leaf extract.  

PubMed

The present work investigates the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of mulberry leaves of variety S-1, S-13 and S-146. The S-146 extract was further evaluated for its efficacy against adjuvant arthritis in albino rats followed by inhibitory potential for COX 1, COX 2 and 5 LOX. The HPLC analysis enumerated the presence of morin, reversterol, scopoletin and 7-hydroxy coumarin as the major constituents. The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity observed in the present experiment could be accredited to the dual inhibition in the AA pathway. The inhibition of COX and LOX enzymes could be imparted to the presence of resveraterol, morin, scopoletin and 7-hydroxy coumarin. PMID:25490949

Chauhan, Seema; Devi, Uma; Kumar, Venkatesh R; Kumar, Vikas; Anwar, Firoz; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2015-02-01

75

Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.  

PubMed

The phytochemical profiles of Morus australis roots, stems and twigs were firstly compared by HPLC analysis. It was found that Morus australis stem extract mainly contained one known tyrosinase inhibitor, oxyresveratrol, while its root and twig extract might contain some unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors. The root extract of Morus australis was further investigated in this study. One new compound, austraone A, together with 21 known compounds, was isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of MS and NMR data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory testing, some of them, such as oxyresveratrol, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O, exhibited stronger tyrosinase inhibitory activities than that of kojic acid. These results suggested the Morus australis root extract as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors with a great potential to be used in foods as anti-browning agents and in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22698714

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Tan, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Mingfu

2012-09-01

76

Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

Liu, Xueming

2004-01-01

77

Flavonoid 4?-O-Methylkuwanon E from Morus alba Induces the Differentiation of THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

Aims. In this work we studied cytodifferentiation effects of newly characterized prenyl flavonoid 4?-O-methylkuwanon E (4ME) isolated from white mulberry (Morus alba L.). Main Methods. Cell growth and viability were measured by dye exclusion assay; cell cycle and surface antigen CD11b were monitored by flow cytometry. For the cytodifferentiation of cells the NBT reduction assay was employed. Regulatory proteins were assessed by western blotting. Key Findings. 4ME induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of THP-1 cells, which was not accompanied by toxic effect. Inhibition of cells proliferation caused by 4ME was associated with the accumulation in G1 phase and with downregulation of hyperphosphorylated pRb. Treatment with 4ME led to significant induction of NBT-reducing activity of PMA stimulated THP-1 cells and upregulation expression of differentiation-associated surface antigen CD11b. Our results suggest that monocytic differentiation induced by 4ME is connected with up-regulation of p38 kinase activity. Significance. Our study provides the first evidence that 4ME induces the differentiation of THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells and thus is a potential cytodifferentiating anticancer agent. PMID:25737734

Bárta, Tomáš; Keltošová, Stanislava; Trnová, Pavlína; Müller Závalová, Veronika; Šmejkal, Karel; Fedr, Radek; Sou?ek, Karel; Hampl, Aleš

2015-01-01

78

Cold Acclimation-Induced WAP27 Localized in Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cortical Parenchyma Cells of Mulberry Tree Was Homologous to Group 3 Late-Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins1  

PubMed Central

We have shown that two 27-kD proteins, designated as WAP27A and WAP27B, were abundantly accumulated in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions isolated from cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.) during winter (N. Ukaji, C. Kuwabara, D. Takezawa, K. Arakawa, S. Yoshida, S. Fujikawa [1999] Plant Physiol 120: 480–489). In the present study, cDNA clones encoding WAP27A and WAP27B were isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of WAP27A and WAP27B cDNAs had 12 repeats of an 11-mer amino acid motif that was the common feature of group 3 late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins. Under field conditions, transcripts of WAP27 genes were initially detected in mid-October, reached maximum level from mid-November to mid-December, and then gradually decreased. The transcript levels of WAP27 genes in cortical parenchyma cells harvested in October was drastically induced by cold treatment within a few days, whereas those in cortical parenchyma cells harvested in August were low even by cold treatment for 3 weeks. Immunocytochemical analysis by electron microscopy confirmed that WAP27 was localized specifically in vesicular-form ER and also localized in dehydration-induced multiplex lamellae-form ER. The role of WAP27 in the ER is discussed in relation to acquisition of freezing tolerance of cortical parenchyma cells in mulberry tree during winter. PMID:11500557

Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

2001-01-01

79

Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15?53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

2014-06-01

80

Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum

81

Accumulation and spatial distribution of Cd, Cr, and Pb in mulberry from municipal solid waste compost following application of EDTA and (NH4)2SO4.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste compost can be used to cropland as soil amendment to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. But long-term application of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost may result in accumulation of toxic metals in amended soil. Phytoremediation, especially phytoextraction, is a novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach that uses metal-accumulating plants to concentrate and remove metals from contaminated soils. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was applied to metal-contaminated soil to increase the mobility and phytoavailability of metals in soil, thereby increasing the amount of toxic metals accumulated in the upper parts of phytoextracting plants. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the accumulation and spatial distribution of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) in mulberry from MSW compost with the application of EDTA and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), (2) to examine the effectiveness of EDTA and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) applied together on toxic metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) removal by mulberry under field conditions, and (3) to evaluate the potential of mulberry for phytoextraction of toxic metals from MSW compost. The tested plant-mulberry had been grown in MSW compost field for 4 years. EDTA solution at five rates (0, 50, 100, 50 mmol L(-1) + 1 g L(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and 100 mmol L(-1) + 1 g L(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4)) was added into mulberry root medium in September 2009. Twenty days later, the plants were harvested and separated into six parts according to plant height. Cd, Cr, and Pb contents in plant samples and MSW compost were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the same treatment, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations in mulberry shoot were all higher than those in root, and Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot increased from lower to upper parts, reaching the highest in leaves. Significant increases were found in toxic metal concentration in different parts of mulberry with increasing EDTA concentration, especially when combined with (NH(4))(2)SO(4). Mulberry exhibited high ability to accumulate Cd with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) higher than 1. EDTA application also significantly increased Cd BCFs. More than 30 % of metal uptake was concentrated in mulberry branches (stem of above 100 cm height) and leaves. Results presented here show that mulberry is a woody plant that has the potential of Cd phytoextraction from MSW compost by removing leaves and cutting branches. The application of EDTA combined with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) significantly enhanced the efficiency of mulberry in removing Cd from the compost medium. Adding (NH(4))(2)SO(4) into the compost will lower the risk of the exposure of environment to excessive non-biodegradable EDTA in a large-scale EDTA-assisted phytoextraction by reducing the dosage of EDTA. In China, the need for sod is increasing day by day. Sod is often produced on arable soil and sold together with soils. This would lead to the soil being infertile and the soil layer thin. After several times' production, the soil can no longer be used for cultivating crops and be destroyed. In order to fully utilize MSW compost resources and save valuable soil resources, MSW compost can be used to replace arable soil to produce sod after extraction of toxic metals in it. PMID:22661279

Zhao, Shulan; Shang, Xiaojuan; Duo, Lian

2013-02-01

82

Micropropagation of Morus laevigata Wall. from mature trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants of 10-year-old tree of Morus laevigata on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5–5.0 mg.l-1) of benzyladenine (BA). Nodal segments taken from in vitro proliferated shoots gave further multiple shoots when cultured on the same basal medium containing 2.5 mg.l-1 BA. Repeated subculture resulted in rapid shoot multiplication at the average

M. Hossain; S. M. Rahman; A. Zaman; O. I. Joarder; R. Islam

1992-01-01

83

An extract of black, green, and mulberry teas causes malabsorption of carbohydrate but not of triacylglycerol in healthy volunteers1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In vitro studies suggest that extracts of black, green, andmulberryteascouldinterferewithcarbohydrateandtriacylglyc- erol absorption via their ability to inhibit-amylase,-glucosidase, sodium-glucose transporters, and pancreatic lipase. Objective: We measured breath hydrogen and 13CO2 to investigate the ability of an extract of black, green, and mulberry tea leaves to inducemalabsorptionofcarbohydrateandtriacylglycerolinhealthy volunteers. Design: In a crossover design, healthy adult volunteers randomly ingested test meals with

Litao Zhong; Julie K Furne; Michael D Levitt

84

Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of anthocyanins of mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) from different varieties mulberry fruit in China.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins, copiously distributed in a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, are probably the most important group of visible plant pigments besides chlorophyll. And the mulberry fruit is one of the anthocyanins-rich fruits. Total flavonols, total phenolic acids and anthocyanins contents of ten varieties mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) were determined. The highest content was 965.63±4.90 mg RE/g, 690.83±7.38 mg GAE/g and 272.00±1.20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g FW, respectively. Moreover, MJP and MMP exhibited high antioxidant activity, including total force reduction (TRP), Feł? reducing power (FRAP) and DPPH • radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of MJP and MMP was determined through mice-burden swimming experiments. Interestingly, the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of MMP were much higher than those of MJP. The experimental results suggested that the generally discarded mulberry marc had greater value of development and utilization as food processing waste. PMID:23727333

Jiang, Dong-Qing; Guo, Ying; Xu, Dian-Hong; Huang, Ya-Si; Yuan, Ke; Lv, Zhi-Qiang

2013-09-01

85

Enterobacter spp.: a new evidence causing bacterial wilt on mulberry.  

PubMed

Thirty-six pathogenetic bacterial strains were isolated from wilted mulberry plants in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province of China. The six representative strains were confirmed to be involved in more than one Enterobacter species by common bacteriological test, electron microscope observation, hypersensitive reaction, Koch's postulates, physiological and biochemical test, biology, fatty acid methyl esters analysis (FAMEs), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR), 16s rRNA sequences analysis, and comparative analysis with 7 type strains and 3 reference strains. This is the first report on mulberry disease caused by Enterobacter spp. in the world providing new evidence on induction of the plant disease in this genus. The results are not only important in the mulberry disease management but also have significant scientific value for further studies of opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains in Enterobacter. PMID:20596840

Zhu, Bo; Wang, GuoFen; Xie, GuanLin; Zhou, Qin; Zhao, Min; Praphat, Kawicha; Li, Bin; Tian, WenXiao

2010-02-01

86

An Efficient Preparation of Mulberroside A from the Branch Bark of Mulberry and Its Effect on the Inhibition of Tyrosinase Activity  

PubMed Central

A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 µmol/L and 0.12 µmol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 µmol/L and 0.926 µmol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 µmol/L and 0.662 µmol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 µmol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 µmol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics. PMID:25299075

Wang, Shu; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

87

An efficient preparation of mulberroside a from the branch bark of mulberry and its effect on the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.  

PubMed

A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 µmol/L and 0.12 µmol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 µmol/L and 0.926 µmol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 µmol/L and 0.662 µmol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 µmol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 µmol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics. PMID:25299075

Wang, Shu; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

88

Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum  

PubMed Central

Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220?g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300?mg·kg?1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

2014-01-01

89

Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis.  

PubMed

Mulberry extract (ME) has been shown to possess beneficial effects towards obesity, but its mechanism is still unclear. In small mammals, mitochondria enriched brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to convert protein's electrochemical energy to heat and maintain a constant body temperature. Improving the mitochondrial function or increasing the number of mitochondria could promote the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mitochondrial function regulated by ME and mulberry wine extract (MWE) during the brown adipogenesis. The C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell was treated with ME and MWE, both of which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression levels of fatty acid oxidation related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, PR domain-containing 16 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? during brown adipogenesis. These changes were accompanied with increases in mitochondrial oxidative complex proteins upon ME and/or MWE exposure. Notably, ME and/or MWE also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression of the transcription factor A and the nuclear respiratory factor-1, which are the key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis. In parallel, the mitochondrial copy number and brown adipose tissue specific gene-uncoupling protein-1 expression were dramatically (p < 0.05) elevated after ME or MWE treatment. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) was found to be one of the most abundant anthocyanins in ME and MWE. Therefore, the BAT regulatory activity of ME and MWE might be, at least in part, due to the effect of Cy-3-glu. These results suggested that ME and MWE could ameliorate metabolic disease through an improvement in mitochondrial functions. PMID:25554947

You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Huang, Weidong; Jin, Wanzhu; Zhan, Jicheng

2015-02-11

90

Production of carboxy methyl cellulose films from waste of mulberry paper ????????????????????????????????????????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of carboxy methyl cellulose film from waste of mulberry paper was studied. Cellulose from waste of mulberry paper was modified to be carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) by adding isopropyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Effect of NaOH concentration (30%, 40%, 50% and 60%) on mechanical properties (tensile strength and percent elongation) of CMC film was investigated. Tensile strength and

Pornchai Rachtanapun

91

Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang

2014-01-01

92

Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

2014-01-01

93

Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

94

Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

95

Elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra and Zizyphus jujuba and their biological activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 616.314-008.92 We have studied the elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra L. and Zizyphus jujuba Mill. and their biological activities in order to determine the desirability of using these fruits as a component of toothpastes. The plants concerned are widely distributed in Uzbekistan and their fruits contain a considerable amount of such biologically active agents as tannin

U. Zh. Zhumatov

1996-01-01

96

LEAVE POLICIES LEAVE REPORTING  

E-print Network

absent from work. Leave should be submitted electronically at http fax or e-mail to CEMML Human Resources. These forms are also available on the CEMML website at http to inaccuracy in amount paid. A current leave balance report may be requested at any time at http

97

Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.  

PubMed

Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants. PMID:25647798

Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

2015-03-01

98

DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

99

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Mulberry, Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials. PMID:21686165

Zou, Tang-Bin; Wang, Min; Gan, Ren-You; Ling, Wen-Hua

2011-01-01

100

Hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and vascular protective effects of Morus alba L. in rats fed an atherogenic diet.  

PubMed

Morus alba L. has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and almost all parts of this plant are useful in cardiovascular, liver and spleen disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of a water extract from Morus alba L. (WMA) on vascular dysfunction in rat models fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of food with 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg WMA, for 14 weeks. Chronic treatment with low (100 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/day/kg) doses of WMA markedly attenuated hypertension and the impairments of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic rings in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA reduced intima/media thickness in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA improved plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but did not affect blood glucose levels. Interestingly, WMA suppressed increased cell adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in the aorta. Taken together, these results suggested that Morus alba L. could improve an atherogenic diet-induced hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and vascular dysfunction through inhibition of cell adhesion molecules expression and induction of vascular relaxation. PMID:21213397

Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Kwon, Tae Oh; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2011-01-01

101

Effect of gossypol and gossypol related compounds on mulberry pyralid (diaphania pyloalis walker, lepidoptera: pyralidae), a pest of the Mulberry Tree  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypol, gossypurpurin and diaminogossypol were tested for inhibitory effects against feeding mulberry pyralid larvae (Diaphania pyloalis Walker, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The inclusion of very low concentrations of these compounds (10, 50 or 100 µmoles/g) in artificial diets increased the number of...

102

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

103

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) as a commensal model for human mobility in Oceania: anthropological, botanical and genetic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.) was one of the most widely distributed crop species in prehistoric Oceania, occurring from continental East Asia to the Polynesian islands. Its broad distribution is largely due to human-mediated dispersal during colonization of the islands of Near and Remote Oceania. We explore the potential for analyses of genetic variation in paper mulberry and the

D Seelenfreund; AC Clarke; N Oyanedel; R Pińa; S Lobos; EA Matisoo-Smith; A Seelenfreund

2011-01-01

104

Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

2012-01-01

105

Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Aim The dietary contents have a very important role in the management of metabolic syndrome along with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indian diet contains a large amount of carbohydrates that set off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations and leads to increased risk of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of mulberry tea in the reduction of abnormally high postprandial blood glucose (PPG) levels in T2DM patients. Methods The study design was follow-up T2DM, 20 diabetic patients were given plain tea (control) and 28 diabetic patients were given mulberry tea (test subject) to measure the effect of mulberry tea on fasting blood glucose and PPG levels. Fasting blood glucose samples were collected after a standard breakfast. The PPG levels were recorded after the consumption of 70 ml tea along with 1 teaspoon of sugar after 90 min in all 48 patients. Results Fasting blood glucose levels in control and test group samples were found to be 178.55 ± 35.61 and 153.50 ± 48.10, respectively. After the consumption of plain tea and mulberry tea, the PPG values were recorded as 287.20 ± 56.37 and 210.21 ± 58.73, respectively. A highly significant (p < 0.001) change in the PPG level was observed in response to mulberry tea in all the test patients compared with control. Moreover, the effect size was also found to be very large (1.31). Conclusion Mulberry tea suppresses postprandial rise of blood glucose levels after 90 min of its consumption. PMID:25561880

Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R.; Manjunath, Nanjappa C.; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

2014-01-01

106

Results of deep-well injection testing at Mulberry, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Fla., high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. In 1975, a satellite monitor well was drilled 2,291 feet from the injection well and a series of three injection tests were performed. Duration of the tests ranged from 240 to 10,020 minutes and injection rates ranged from 110 to 230 gallons per minute. Based on an evaluation of factors that affect hydraulic response, water-level data suitable for interpretation of hydraulic characteristics of the injection zone were identified to occur from 200 to 1,000 minutes during the 10,020-minute test. Transmissivity of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from 700 to 1,000 feet squared per day and storage coefficient of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from .00001 to .00005. The confining bed accepting most of the leakage appears to be the underlying bed. Also, it appears that the overlying beds are probably relatively impermeable and significantly retard the vertical movement of neutralized waste effluent. (USGS)

Hickey, John J.; Wilson, W.E.

1982-01-01

107

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

108

Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

109

Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface  

PubMed Central

The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C.

2014-01-01

110

Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface.  

PubMed

The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C

2014-01-01

111

Phenolic constituents from the wood of Morus australis with cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

A new methylated flavonol, 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone (1), had been isolated from the methanol extract of the wood of Morus australis, along with nine known compounds, kuwanon C (2), morusin (3), morachalcone A (4), oxyresveratrol (5), 4'-(2-methyl-2-buten-4-yl)oxyresveratrol (6), moracins M (7) and C (8), alboctalol (9), and macrourin B (10). The structures of these compounds were determined based on spectral evidence, including UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectra. Cytotoxic properties of compounds 1-10 were evaluated against murine leukemia P-388 cells. The prenylated stilbene 6 and 2-arylbenzofuran 8, and morusin (3) were found to have strong cytotoxic effects with IC50 values of 6.9, 8.7, and 10.1 microM, respectively. PMID:18386485

Ferlinahayati; Syah, Yana M; Juliawaty, Lia D; Achmad, Sjamsul A; Hakim, Euis H; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Said, Ikram M; Latip, Jalifah

2008-01-01

112

Habitat use by the golden-cheeked warbler in Texas  

E-print Network

grandidentatum), Texas mountain laurel (Sophora secundiflora). poison ivy (Rhus toxicondendron), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), grape (Vitis spp.), black haw (Viburnum rufidulum), springherald (Forestieria pubescens), and Texas mulberry (Morus...

Newnam, John Calvin

2009-05-15

113

Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

114

A virgin flight across the Tasman Sea? Satellite tracking of post-fledging movement in the Australasian Gannet Morus serrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies enable tracking of the route, duration, and destination of previously unassessed long-distance movements.\\u000a Fledgling Australasian Gannets Morus serrator from breeding populations in New Zealand had been reported to fly across the Tasman Sea to Australia, with this historic\\u000a knowledge derived from the recovery of banded carcasses and from observations of initial flight direction. We deployed Argos\\u000a satellite devices

Stefanie M. H. Ismar; Colin Hunter; Kevin Lay; Tamsin Ward-Smith; Peter R. Wilson; Mark E. Hauber

2010-01-01

115

Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds as estimated through TNF alpha release indicates its potential as future biopolymeric graft material. Rat bone marrow cells cultured on scaffolds for 28 days under static conditions in osteogenic and adipogenic media respectively led to induction of differentiation. Proliferation and spreading of fibroblasts and bone marrow cells on silk scaffolds were observed to be dependent on scaffold porosity as revealed through confocal microscopic observations. Histological analysis shows osteogenic differentiation within silk scaffolds resulting in extensive mineralization in the form of deposited nodules as observed through intense Alizarin Red S staining. Similarly, adipogenesis was marked by the presence of lipid droplets within scaffolds on staining with Oil Red O. Real-time PCR studies reveal higher transcript levels for osteopontin (Spp1), osteocalcin (Bglap2) and osteonectin (Sparc) genes under osteogenic conditions. Similarly, upregulated adipogenic gene expression was observed within A. mylitta and B. mori scaffolds under adipogenic conditions for Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipocyte binding protein (aP2) genes. The results suggest suitability of silk fibroin protein 3D scaffolds as natural biopolymer for potential bone and adipose tissue engineering applications. PMID:19577292

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-10-01

116

Mulberry (??? Sang Shčn Z?) and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Mulberry (??? s?ng shčn z?), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs) and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. PMID:24716151

Huang, Hui-Pei; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-01-01

117

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ąłC/ą˛C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

118

Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

2014-03-01

119

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

120

Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000?mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:25485155

Audomkasok, Suthin; Singpha, Waraporn; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Somsak, Voravuth

2014-01-01

121

Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice.  

PubMed

Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 10(6) infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000?mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:25485155

Audomkasok, Suthin; Singpha, Waraporn; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Somsak, Voravuth

2014-01-01

122

Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruits protects pancreatic ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin?3?glucoside (C3G), isolated from mulberry fruits, on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of this compound. MIN6N pancreatic ??cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G. In addition, the effects of C3G on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells was evaluated using MTT assay, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometric and western blot analyses. The pancreatic ??cells cultured under high glucose conditions exhibited distinct apoptotic features. C3G decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptosis. C3G also prevented pancreatic ??cell apoptosis induced by high glucose conditions by interfering with the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, C3G treatment resulted in increased insulin secretion compared with treatment with high glucose only. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that C3G obtained from mulberry fruits may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25501967

Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Park, Jun Myoung; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam In; Hong, Eock Kee

2015-04-01

123

Indicain, a dimeric serine protease from Morus indica cv. K2.  

PubMed

A high molecular mass serine protease has been purified to homogeneity from the latex of Morus indica cv. K2 by the combination of techniques of ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography. The protein is a dimer with a molecular mass of 134.5 kDa and with two monomeric subunits of 67.2 kDa and 67.3 (MALDI-TOF), held by weak bonds susceptible to disruption on exposure to heat and very low pH. Isoelectric point of the enzyme is pH 4.8. The pH and temperature optima for caseinolytic activity were 8.5 and 80 degrees C, respectively. The extinction coefficient (epsilon280(1%)) of the enzyme was estimated as 41.24 and the molecular structure consists of 52 tryptophan, 198 tyrosine and 42 cysteine residues. The enzyme activity was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylflouride, chymostatin and mercuric chloride indicating the enzyme to be a serine protease. The enzyme is fairly stable and similar to subtilases in its stability toward pH, strong denaturants, temperature, and organic solvents. Polyclonal antibodies specific to enzyme and immunodiffusion studies reveal that the enzyme has unique antigenic determinants. The enzyme has activity towards broad range of substrates comparable to those of subtilisin like proteases. The N-terminal residues of indicain (T-T-N-S-W-D-F-I-G-F-P) exhibited considerable similarity to those of other known plant subtilases, especially with cucumisin, a well-characterized plant subtilase. This is the first report of purification and characterization of a subtilisin like dimeric serine protease from the latex of M. indica cv. K2. Owing to these unique properties the reported enzyme would find applications in food and pharma industry. PMID:18561962

Singh, Vijay Kumar; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Moir, A J; Jagannadham, Medicherla V

2008-08-01

124

Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruit protects pancreatic ?-cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The extract obtained from berries contains high amounts of anthocyanins, and this extract is used as a phytotherapeutic agent for different types of diseases. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) isolated from mulberry fruit against pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. The MIN6 pancreatic ?-cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G on the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cells. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and lipid peroxidation was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis were also used to determine apoptosis and the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis. Our results revealed that H2O2 increased the rate of apoptosis by stimulating various pro-apoptotic processes, such as the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. However, C3G reduced the H2O2-induced cell death in the MIN6N pancreatic ?-cells. In addition, we confirmed that H2O2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. C3G inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 without inducing the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, C3G regulated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway-associated proteins, such as proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family, cytochrome c and caspase-3. Taken together, our results suggest that C3G isolated from mulberry fruit has potential for use as a phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress-induced ?-cell apoptosis. PMID:25435295

Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam-In; Hong, Eock Kee

2015-02-01

125

Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions  

PubMed Central

Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68–12.7, 0.69–9.86 and 0.05–3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium. PMID:25054010

KIM, DONG-SEON; KANG, YOUNG MIN; JIN, WEN YI; SUNG, YOON-YOUNG; CHOI, GOYA; KIM, HO KYOUNG

2014-01-01

126

Inhibitive effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts on cell adhesion and inflammatory response in human aortic endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF- ? -induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF- ? B) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF- ? B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR ? DNA binding in 50? ? g/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation. PMID:24371453

Chao, P-Y; Lin, K-H; Chiu, C-C; Yang, Y-Y; Huang, M-Y; Yang, C-M

2013-01-01

127

Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants.

Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

2014-06-01

128

Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-?-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR ? DNA binding in 50??g/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation. PMID:24371453

Chao, P.-Y.; Lin, K.-H.; Chiu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Huang, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

2013-01-01

129

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-10-15

130

Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.  

PubMed

The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress. PMID:25231943

Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-12-01

131

Effects of Morus alba L. and Natural Products Including Morusin on In Vivo Secretion and In Vitro Production of Airway MUC5AC Mucin  

PubMed Central

Background It is valuable to find the potential activity of regulating the excessive mucin secretion by the compounds derived from various medicinal plants. We investigated whether aqueous extract of the root bark of Morus alba L. (AMA), kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, and morusin significantly affect the secretion and production of airway mucin using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods Effect of AMA was examined on hypersecretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced acute bronchitis in rats. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, or morusin for 30 minutes and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 hours. The MUC5AC mucin secretion and production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results AMA stimulated the secretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis rat model; aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G and morusin inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that extract of the root bark and the natural products derived from Morus alba L. can regulate the secretion and production of airway mucin and, at least in part, explains the folk use of extract of Morus alba L. as mucoregulators in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases. PMID:25237377

Lee, Hyun Jae; Ryu, Jiho; Park, Su Hyun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Kim, A Ryun; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Ju-Ock; Hong, Jang-Hee

2014-01-01

132

Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure. PMID:24779598

Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

2014-04-29

133

Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

2014-01-01

134

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

American Museum of Natural History

2001-01-01

135

Identification of novel catalytic features of endo-?-1,4-glucanase produced by mulberry longicorn beetle Apriona germari  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari, has been reported to produce two endo-?-1,4-glucanases or AgEGases (accession Nos. Q6SS52 and Q5XQD1). AgEGase sequence\\u000a contains catalytic motif (amino acid residues 37–48), which is the characteristic of family Glycohydrolase 45 and is identified\\u000a as the substrate binding site. The application of bioinformatics approaches includes sequence analysis, structural modeling\\u000a and inhibitor docking to relate the

Amtul Jamil Sami; Mohammed Kamran Haider

2007-01-01

136

Look at Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

Science Netlinks

2002-02-14

137

Donated Leave ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

absence from work due to the donation of an organ (which shall include, for example, the donation of bone resulting from a serious health condition or injury, or donation of an organ. 2. When the DepartmentDonated Leave 1 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/9/2010 DONATED LEAVE PROGRAM DONATED LEAVE PROCEDURES

Rainforth, Emma C.

138

Identification and Effect of Two Flavonoids from Root Bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in Grass Carp.  

PubMed

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

2015-02-11

139

[Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

140

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22934597

Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

2012-01-01

141

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22938037

Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S.; Anuradha, Chebba M.; Kumar, Chitta S.

2012-01-01

142

Enhancing Mulberry Leaf Meal with Urea by Pelleting to Improve Rumen Fermentation in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Four, ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman×native) beef cattle with initial body weight of 420±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were mulberry leaf pellet (MUP) supplementation at 0, 200, 400 and 600 g/hd/d with rice straw fed to allow ad libitum intake. All steers were kept in individual pens and supplemented with concentrate at 5 g/kg of body weight daily. The experiment was 4 periods, and each lasted 21 d. During the first 14 d, all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and during the last 7 d, they were moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection. It was found that increasing MUP levels resulted in linearly increasing rice straw and total intakes (p<0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not significantly affected by MUP supplementation while NH3-N concentration was increased (p<0.05) and maintained at a high level (18.5 mg/dl) with supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d. Similarly, viable total bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic bacteria were enriched by MUP supplementation at 600 g/hd/d. However, the rumen microbial diversity determined with a PCR-DGGE technique showed similar methanogenic diversity between treatments and sampling times and were similar at a 69% genetic relationship as determined by a UPGMA method. Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d improved DM intake, ruminal NH3-N, and cellulolytic bacteria thus iimproving rumen ecology in beef cattle fed with rice straw. PMID:25049585

Tan, N. D.; Wanapat, M.; Uriyapongson, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Pilajun, R.

2012-01-01

143

Plasmids of Xylella fastidiosa Mulberry-Infecting Strains Share Extensive Sequence Identity and Gene Complement with pVEIS01 From the Earthworm Symbiont Verminephrobacter Eiseniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A ~25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

144

Xylella fastidiosa isolates from mulberry harbor a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian isolates of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

145

Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

146

Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  

PubMed

This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

2014-08-01

147

Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the ? phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in ? phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the ?-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized ? alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the ? fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity.

Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

2014-06-01

148

Separation and identification of anthocyanin extracted from mulberry fruit and the pigment binding properties toward human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Purple pigments were isolated from mulberry extracts using preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified by ESI-MS/MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The solvent system containing methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (10:30:10:50:0.05; %, v/v) was developed in order to separate anthocyanins with different polarities. Cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-galactopyranoside) (also known as keracyanin) is the major component present in mulberry (41.3%). Other isolated pigments are cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) and petunidin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside. The binding characteristics of keracyanin with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that HSA fluorescence quenched by keracyanin follows a static mode. Binding of keracyanin to HSA mainly depends on van der Waals force or H-bonds with average binding distance of 2.82 nm. The results from synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra show that adaptive structure rearrangement and decrease of ?-helical structure occur in the presence of keracyanin. PMID:24930424

Sheng, Feng; Wang, Yuning; Zhao, Xingchen; Tian, Na; Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia

2014-07-16

149

Mulberry Extracts Alleviate A?25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells  

PubMed Central

Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against ?-amyloid 25–35- (A?25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200??g/mL) for 24?h were treated with A?25–35 (20??mol/L) for another 24?h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent A?25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit A?25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

2014-01-01

150

Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:24755250

2014-01-01

151

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

152

Amygdalin in Prunus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin was found for the first time in the leaves of mature trees of several Prunus taxa: P. serotina and P. virginiana cv. Schubert of subg. Padus and P. ilicifolia and P. lyonii of subg. Laurocerasus. Leaves of other taxa in both subgenera contained only the monoglucoside prunasin. Amygdalin production was inherited in hybrids between P. padus

Frank S. Santamour

1998-01-01

153

Evaluation of bioactive compounds of black mulberry juice after thermal, microwave, ultrasonic processing, and storage at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The effect of different sterilization methods (thermal, microwave, and ultrasonic processing) on the main bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of black mulberry juice during selected storage time (8 days) and temperatures (5, 15, and 25??) was investigated. The antioxidant activity of thermal-treated juice depleted with storage time, whilst both ultrasound- and microwave-treated juices showed transient increase in antioxidant activity during the first 2 days that later decreased with storage time. Lower temperature storage preserved more bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, especially in ultrasound sterilized samples. The activation energy values were 15.99, 13.07, and 12.81?kJ/mol for ultrasonic, microwave, and thermal pasteurization processes, respectively. In general, ultrasound-sterilized samples showed higher total phenolics, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity compared to the microwave- and thermal-processed juice during the storage time especially at lower temperatures. PMID:24917651

Jiang, Bo; Mantri, Nitin; Hu, Ya; Lu, Jiayin; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Hongfei

2014-06-10

154

Mulberry leaf extract improves postprandial glucose response in prediabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of 4 weeks of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLAE) supplementation (5?g/day) for postprandial glycemic control in 36 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) tolerance. Postprandial responses in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured after a carbohydrate load both at baseline and after 4 weeks of MLAE supplementation. The postprandial glycemic response was attenuated in the MLAE group after the treatment period, particularly 30 and 60?min after loading (P=.003 and 0.0325 for glucose, P=.0005 and .0350 for insulin, and P=.0151 and .0864 for C-peptide). Additionally, the incremental area under the curve for insulin was significantly lower in the MLAE group than in the placebo group (P=.0207). Four weeks of MLAE supplementation improved postprandial glycemic control in individuals with IFG tolerance. PMID:25343729

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Hyang Mok; Kim, Joohee; Park, Seok Won; Kwon, Sung Won; Kwon, Oran

2015-03-01

155

STAFF REQUEST FOR PARENTAL LEAVE  

E-print Network

. Parental Leave will consist of any form of leave the employee has accrued and earned as well as leaveSTAFF REQUEST FOR PARENTAL LEAVE PART I: To be completed by the Employee Name: Empl ID #: Date and understand the Parental Leave Policy. Employee's Signature: ______________________________ Date

Adali, Tulay

156

MILITARY LEAVE WORKSHEET PERSONAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

will not be credited any sick nor family and personal leave while I am on leave without pay. I want to retain all my sick and family and personal leave balance. I know my balances lapse on January 9th each year. I want to use all my family and personal leave balance before going on military leave without pay. I know I may

Swaddle, John

157

CATASTROPHIC LEAVE DONATION REQUEST  

E-print Network

to care for an incapacitated immediate family member, has exhausted or will soon exhaust their own accrued leave credits, and is totally incapacitated from work. · Under the CLD Program, eligible employees may

Eirinaki, Magdalini

158

Falling for Clay Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

Kernan, Christine

2002-01-01

159

Mulberry leaf extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and in cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

This study used high-cholesterol-fed New Zealand white rabbits and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to investigate the impact of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) on the development of atherosclerosis. The results show that the major components of MLE are polyphenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, and the major contituents of mulberry leaf polyphenol extract (MLPE) are polyphenols and flavonoids. In addition to improvement of liver function, the atheroma burden and levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also significantly reduced after MLE treatment. MLE and MLPE improved endothelial function, inhibited proliferation and migration of aortic VSMCs, and reduced atheromas in the vascular wall. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, in addition to exerting hypolipidemic effects, MLE and MLPE can effectively inhibit proliferation and migration of aortic VSMCs, improve vascular endothelial function, and reduce atheroma burden, thereby preventing atherosclerosis. PMID:23428158

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-03-20

160

Neuroprotection of Brain-Targeted Bioactive Dietary Artoindonesianin O (AIO) from Mulberry on Rat Neurons as a Novel Intervention for Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

The novel effects of artoindonesianin O, a dietary phenolic compound from mulberry, were investigated on oligomer A?42-, NMDA- or okadaic-acid-induced neurotoxicity and the restorative effect on the oligomer A?42-induced synapses dysfunction using rat hippocampus neuron cells in vitro. The phenolic compound of AIO can exert neuroprotection by blocking oligomer A?42- or NMDA-induced neurotoxicity and okadaic-acid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through inhibiting the expression of kinase p-ERK1/2. Meanwhile, it is also beneficial to synaptic plasticity. These interesting results strongly suggest that AIO, which is rich in abundant sources of mulberry and other fruits, is suitable and possible candidate for the development of general food type neuroprotection on AD by protecting against brain damage and memory impairment. PMID:25824329

Qiao, Aimin; Wang, Yihai; Zhang, Wanwan; He, Xiangjiu

2015-04-15

161

Different plants produce different leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

162

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students examine drawings of oak leaves and figure out how to classify and identify them. The printable six-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about classification and its importance to scientists, drawings of 12 different oak leaves, and a worksheet that includes step-by-step directions and areas for recording answers.

163

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Matt Laposata

164

The Effect of Supplementation of Dried Mulberry Leaf Meal on the Growth and Carcass Characteristics of young Boer and Crossbred Boer Goats in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve growing male goats (6 Boers and 6 crossbred Boers), 3-4 months old with mean initial body weight of 18.29 ± 1.98 kg, were used to evaluate the effect of supplementation with mulberry leaf meal (MLM) on body weight, growth rate (ADG), body measurements, carcass yield and non-carcass components. The kids were matched by weight and randomly assigned to 2

David Miller; Delroy McDonald; Francis Asiedu

165

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

2014-02-01

166

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

2014-01-01

167

Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.  

PubMed

Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

2015-02-01

168

Leave Request (Intra-office)  

E-print Network

am entitled, and I may read more about my FMLA rights at http://www.hr.uga.edu/family Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) covered event. Yes No Date(s) Times Date(s) Times Account number from using paid leave will run concurrently with any Family & Medical and Leave Act (FMLA) leave to which I

Arnold, Jonathan

169

Paper Chromatography with Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

American Chemical Society

2010-01-01

170

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

171

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

172

FMLA: Family & Medical FLA: Family Leave Act  

E-print Network

FMLA: Family & Medical Leave Act FLA: Family Leave Act DVL: Domestic Violence Leave Faculty Sick Leave FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Who is · Faculty (9 month calendar weeks during one academic year (26 calendar weeks if eligible for "Service Member Family Leave

Borenstein, Elhanan

173

Mulberry water extracts possess an anti-obesity effect and ability to inhibit hepatic lipogenesis and promote lipolysis.  

PubMed

Obesity plays a critical role in dyslipidemia and related disorders. Mulberry water extracts (MWEs) contain polyphenols, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and anthocyanins. In this study, using 6-week-old male hamsters, we investigated the anti-obese effect of MWEs. After 12 weeks of treatment, MWEs lowered high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight and visceral fat, accompanied with hypolipidemic effects by reducing serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, free fatty acid, and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (n=8 for each group). MWEs decreased hepatic lipids, thus protected livers from impairment. The hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were elevated, while fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase were reduced by MWEs, indicating that MWEs regulated lipogenesis and lipolysis, which exerted the anti-obese and hypolipidemic effects. Noticeably, MWEs showed both efficacy and safety in vivo. In concluson, MWEs can be used to reduce body weight, serum, and liver lipids. PMID:21361295

Peng, Chiung-Huei; Liu, Li-Kaung; Chuang, Chao-Ming; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Huang, Chieng-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-03-23

174

Classify the trees/Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

Mary Walsh

175

Family and Medical Leave Act  

MedlinePLUS

... CARING FOR A CHILD: FAMILY & MEDICAL LEAVE ACT If your child's heart condition is serious and ... in the hospital, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 requires that covered employers provide up ...

176

De Novo assembly of expressed transcripts and global transcriptomic analysis from seedlings of the paper mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera).  

PubMed

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry. PMID:24848504

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

177

De Novo Assembly of Expressed Transcripts and Global Transcriptomic Analysis from Seedlings of the Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera)  

PubMed Central

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry. PMID:24848504

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

178

A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

2009-01-01

179

Judy Holoviak Leaves AGU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Judy C. Holoviak, AGU director of publications, leaves AGU on 6 May 2009. Her nearly 45-year career at AGU was recognized when she received the 2008 Edward A. Flinn III Award (see Eos, 89(52), 546, 2008). During her tenure, the journals program grew from 803 articles published per year to an average of 22 articles published per day (about 5670 per year); Eos grew from a quarterly journal (under the title of Transactions, American Geophysical Union) to a monthly magazine, and then to a weekly newspaper; and AGU became recognized as a leader in electronic publication.

2009-05-01

180

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

181

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

182

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...leave shall not exceed seven (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall not exceed a total of twelve (12) days, and leave may be granted for all...

2010-10-01

183

Water isotopologues in leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Ogée J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Ogée J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

2007-12-01

184

Neuroprotective Effect of Prenylated Arylbenzofuran and Flavonoids from Morus alba Fruits on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Injury in HT22 Hippocampal Cells.  

PubMed

A prenylated arylbenzofuran and six flavonoids were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba L. through silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopic data, the chemical structures of the compounds were determined to be artoindonesianin O (1), isobavachalcone (2), morachalcone A (3), quercetin (4), astragalin (5), isoquercetin (6), and rutin (7). The isolated compounds were evaluated for protection of HT22-immortalized hippocampal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited protective effects with EC50 values of 19.7±1.2 and 35.5±2.1 ?M, respectively. The major compounds 1-3 and 7 were quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and were determined to be 1.88±2.1, 1.90±1.8, 0.78±1.5, and 37.29±2.2?mg/kg, respectively, in the ethanol extract of M. alba L. fruits. PMID:25514545

Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Lee, Dae-Young; Jeong, Rak-Hun; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Young-Eon; Hong, Eock-Kee; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In

2015-04-01

185

Prenylated Flavonoids from Morus alba L. Cause Inhibition of G1/S Transition in THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells and Prevent the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response.  

PubMed

Morus alba L. (MA) is a natural source of many compounds with different biological effects. It has been described to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of three flavonoids isolated from MA (kuwanon E, cudraflavone B, and 4'-O-methylkuwanon E) and to determine their effects on proliferation of THP-1 cells, and on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Anti-inflammatory effects were also determined for all three given flavonoids. Methods used in the study included quantification of cells by hemocytometer and WST-1 assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, ELISA, and zymography. From the three compounds tested, cudraflavone B showed the strongest effects on cell cycle progression and viability of tumor and/or immortalized cells and also on inflammatory response of macrophage-like cells. Kuwanon E and 4'-O-methylkuwanon E exerted more sophisticated rather than direct toxic effect on used cell types. Our data indicate that mechanisms different from stress-related or apoptotic signaling pathways are involved in the action of these compounds. Although further studies are required to precisely define the mechanisms of MA flavonoid action in human cancer and macrophage-like cells, here we demonstrate their effects combining antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. PMID:23762124

Kollar, Peter; Bárta, Tomáš; Hošek, Jan; Sou?ek, Karel; Závalová, Veronika Müller; Artinian, Shushan; Talhouk, Rabih; Smejkal, Karel; Suchý, Pavel; Hampl, Aleš

2013-01-01

186

Prenylated Flavonoids from Morus alba L. Cause Inhibition of G1/S Transition in THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells and Prevent the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Morus alba L. (MA) is a natural source of many compounds with different biological effects. It has been described to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of three flavonoids isolated from MA (kuwanon E, cudraflavone B, and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E) and to determine their effects on proliferation of THP-1 cells, and on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Anti-inflammatory effects were also determined for all three given flavonoids. Methods used in the study included quantification of cells by hemocytometer and WST-1 assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, ELISA, and zymography. From the three compounds tested, cudraflavone B showed the strongest effects on cell cycle progression and viability of tumor and/or immortalized cells and also on inflammatory response of macrophage-like cells. Kuwanon E and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E exerted more sophisticated rather than direct toxic effect on used cell types. Our data indicate that mechanisms different from stress-related or apoptotic signaling pathways are involved in the action of these compounds. Although further studies are required to precisely define the mechanisms of MA flavonoid action in human cancer and macrophage-like cells, here we demonstrate their effects combining antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. PMID:23762124

Bárta, Tomáš; Sou?ek, Karel; Závalová, Veronika Müller; Artinian, Shushan; Talhouk, Rabih; Šmejkal, Karel; Suchý, Pavel; Hampl, Aleš

2013-01-01

187

Cassava leaves as human food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cassava leaves as human food is reviewed and their value as a source of protein and vitamins for supplementing\\u000a predominantly starchy diets reemphasized. The problem of the toxicity of the leaves is considered, and the effects on both\\u000a nutritive value and toxicity of the traditional methods of preparing the leaves, such as drying, pounding, and long periods

P. A. Lancaster; J. E. Brooks

1983-01-01

188

PAYROLL/PERSONNEL SABBATICAL LEAVE / SPECIAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE  

E-print Network

2. EMPLOYEE ID NO. 3. DATE PREPARED MO DY YR 4. NAME (Last, First, Middle Initial) 5. PERSONNEL PROGRAM ACADEMIC STAFF 6. ADDRESS WHILE ON LEAVE 7. DEPARTMENT (TO CHANGE W-2 OR CHECK ADDRESS--USE UPAY OF LEAVE BEGIN DATE RETURN DATE 11. ACADEMIC YEAR SERVICE SEMESTER AFFECTED SUM FALL SPR MO DY YR MO DY YR

Healy, Kevin Edward

189

Purification of a lectin from M. rubra leaves using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and its characterization.  

PubMed

Lectins represent a heterogeneous group of proteins/glycoproteins with unique carbohydrate specificity, with wide range of biomedical applications. The multi-step purification protocols generally used for purification of lectin result in a significant reduction in the final yield and activity. In the present study, Morus rubra lectin (MRL) was purified to homogeneity from the leaves using a single-step immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) procedure. The approximate molecular weight of purified MRL resolved as a single band on SDS-PAGE was 52 kDa. Final percentage yield of purified lectin by IMAC was calculated as 74.7 %. Purified MRL was specific to three sugars, galactose, D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and rendered haemagglutination (HA) activity towards different human blood group RBCs. MRL showed stability over a wide range of temperature (up to 80 °C) and pH (4-11). Chelation of the lectin with EDTA did not alter HA which indicates that metal ion is not required for activity. In the presence of Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+) and K(+), HA activity was reduced to 50 %, whereas the presence of trivalent metal ions (Fe3(+) and Al(3+)) and Cu(2+) did not affect the activity. In the presence of Mg(2+) and Hg(2+), only 25 % of HA activity remained. PMID:23070714

Sureshkumar, Thavamani; Priya, Sulochana

2012-12-01

190

See the Colors in Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

2012-03-22

191

Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

192

FAMILY-RELATED LEAVE POLICIES  

E-print Network

UW-MADISON FAMILY-RELATED LEAVE POLICIES FOR FACULTY, ACADEMIC STAFF AND LIMITED APPOINTEES Office://www.ohr.wisc.edu/polproced/fambroch.pdf #12;Table of Contents Introduction 1 Caring for Ill Family Members 2 Paid leave for Birth or Adoption with the difficulty of balancing the needs of family with the needs of work. Childbirth, adoption, child care

Sheridan, Jennifer

193

Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy.  

PubMed

A comprehensive strategy for the preparation of mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers (MLDC NCs) with high drug loading and adjustable dual-drug ratio was developed. First, apogossypolone (ApoG2) amphiphilic starch micelles (AASt MCs) were prepared by self-assembly process, and doxorubicin (DOX) hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (DHA NPs) were prepared by DOX absorption with excess HA by electrostatic absorption. MLDC NCs were obtained by adsorption of 8-9 DHA NPs around one AASt MC via electrostatic interaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometers were used to measure the entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of the two drugs. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering method were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of the particles. The tumor-targeting feature caused by HA-receptor mediation was confirmed by in vitro cell uptake and in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. MLDC NCs were found to possess a mulberry-like shape with a dynamic size of 83.1 ± 6.6 nm. The final encapsulation efficiencies of ApoG2 and DOX in MLDC NCs were 94 ± 1.7% and 87 ± 5.8% with respect to drug-loading capacities of 13.3 ± 1.2% and 13.1 ± 3.7%, respectively. Almost no ApoG2 release was found within 80 h and less than 30% of DOX was released into the outer phase even after 72 h. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed that MLDC NCs had highly efficient targeting and accumulation at the tumor in vivo and was maintained for 96 h after being injected intravenously in mice. Low LD50 for the two drugs in MLDC NCs was found after acute toxicity test. One-fifth normal dosage of the two drugs in MLDC NCs exhibited significantly higher anti-tumor efficiency in reducing tumor size compared with free drugs combination or single drug-loaded nanoparticles individually, indicating that the mulberry-like dual-drug nanoplatform has a great potential in tumor therapy. PMID:25477180

Li, Ke; Liu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Chen, Mu; Zeng, Yun; Liu, Jiajun; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng

2015-01-01

194

Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Oviposition site-selection in insects is mediated through innate recognition templates (IRTs) tuned to specific chemical cues. These cues aid gravid insects in choosing suitable oviposition sites and may even enhance the fitness of their offspring by warding off predators and parasitoids. However, studies on the evolution of oviposition site-selection and cues instigating oviposition in domesticated insects remain elusive. Using the interaction between the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and its host plant mulberry, Morus alba, as a model system, we demonstrate that centuries of domestication of silkmoth has not impaired its oviposition site-selection function. Silkmoths significantly preferred mulberry leaves to filter paper as oviposition sites. Oviposition assays with filter paper, filter paper treated with leaf volatiles and leaf alone proved that surface texture was not a significant criterion for oviposition site-selection, but volatile cues were. Oviposition assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from mulberry revealed that two of the volatiles, valencene and ?-humulene, aided moths in choosing suitable oviposition sites and enhanced egg-laying significantly. Moreover, we show that generalist egg-parasitoids are strongly repelled by valencene and ?-humulene. Our results demonstrate that IRTs tuned to cues that aid crucial functions like oviposition site-selection are less likely to be impaired even after centuries of domestication. PMID:25503440

Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Rajasekhar, Sowmya Bandhisara; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham

2014-01-01

195

PROCEDURES FOR EMPLOYEE LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

receives donated leave. The employee donating leave as well as the recipient must complete the RequestPROCEDURES FOR EMPLOYEE LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM The Employee Leave Donation Policy is in Section VII employees. Employees with a serious and prolonged medical condition may receive donated leave from UMBC

Adali, Tulay

196

Key Obama officials leave administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

Showstack, Randy

2013-01-01

197

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

198

A polysaccharide extract of mulberry leaf ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat-diet and streptozotocin.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaf is a traditional medicine used to treat diabetes in the clinic. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII), improves hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and streptozotocin (STZ). MLPII was administered for 6 weeks after establishment of type 2 diabetes in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance, liver glycogen content, glucose synthase (GS) activity and insulin resistance were determined. Expression patterns of proteins and genes associated with insulin signaling as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed. Compared with normal control rats, MLPII treatment significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01) and restored the glycogen level (P < 0.01) and GS activity (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats. Insulin resistance was improved in MLPII-treated diabetic rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) involved in insulin signaling were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while protein–tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in livers of the MLPII-treated group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), while activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The results clearly indicate that MLPII treatment effectively normalizes hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling by inhibiting the expression of PTP1B, activating the PI3K–AKT pathway and mitigating oxidative stress in the livers of rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and STZ. PMID:25316427

Ren, Chunjiu; Zhang, Yao; Cui, Weizheng; Lu, Guobing; Wang, Yanwen; Gao, Huiju; Huang, Lu; Mu, Zhimei

2015-01-01

199

Combined Treatment of Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity. PMID:23957352

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook

2013-01-01

200

Leaving Your Child Home Alone  

MedlinePLUS

... kitchen the smoke alarm goes off there's a tornado or other severe weather a stranger comes to ... addition, leave flashlights in an accessible place in case of a power outage. Post important phone numbers — ...

201

Special Leave Scenarios Scenario Special  

E-print Network

) ­ not medically required You have a dentist or GP appointment Not recorded* Dentist and GP appointments should and the amount of special leave should be at your manager's discretion eg funeral attendance. *Dentist and GP

Brierley, Andrew

202

Department of Genetics Leave Policy Annual Leave = Annual leave is granted to an employee for rest and relaxation and to  

E-print Network

Department of Genetics Leave Policy Annual Leave = Annual leave is granted to an employee for rest be approved by the employee's supervisor. It is essential to discuss any planned absence with your supervisor well in advance so that the timing of leave can be coordinated with the work requirements of your area

203

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN PARENTAL LEAVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN PARENTAL LEAVE PROCEDURE 1 WHAT IS PARENTAL LEAVE? Parental leave is a right: .................................................................................. 3 Employee Declaration I have read the University of Aberdeen's Parental Leave Procedure: ................................ Please forward a signed copy of this application form to Human Resources. Approved by the University

Levi, Ran

204

Unpaid Leave Policy 6.45  

E-print Network

this requirement in workers' compensation, short-term disability and long-term disability cases. Medical leave must/01/1973 Edited: 04/15/2014 Faculty and staff may request an unpaid leave for personal, professional or medical unpaid family and medical leave falls under this policy. A leave implies that the same or similar

Howat, Ian M.

205

Parental Leave Guidelines.doc PARENTAL LEAVE GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

for a child's welfare. Parents can use it to spend time with their children and balance the demands of work Parental leave is not intended to cover emergencies involving children, which is covered by different who has acquired parental responsibility for a child under 5 years (under the Children's Act

Subramanian, Sriram

206

The ocean-going noni, or Indian Mulberry ( Morinda citrifolia , Rubiaceae) and some of its “colorful” relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Morinda embraces about 80 species, mostly of Old World origin.M. citrifolia L. (southern Asia Australia), noted as a source of dye and edible leaves, has buoyant seeds that float for many months and\\u000a commonly appears in the Pacific and also in tropical America where M. royoc L., pińa de ratón, is indigenous, inhabits inland\\u000a hammocks and pinelands as

Julia F. Morton

1992-01-01

207

Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

208

Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a cDNA encoding the arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari.  

PubMed

We describe here the cloning, expression, and characterization of a cDNA encoding the arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). The complete cDNA sequence of A. germari hexamerin (AgeHex) is comprised of 2,160 bp with 720 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence of AgeHex is most similar to Tenebrio molitor hexamerin2 (65.3%). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the AgeHex is more closely related to T. molitor hexmerin2 and T. molitor early-staged encapsulation inducing protein than to the other insect storage proteins. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of A. germari hexamerin gene as a single copy and Northern blot analysis confirmed fat body-specific expression at the transcriptional level. The cDNA encoding AgeHex was expressed as a 80-kDa protein in the baculovirus-infected insect cells. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal antiserum against recombinant AgeHex indicated that the AgeHex corresponds to storage protein 2 (SP2) present in the A. germari larval hemolymph. PMID:12761873

Kim, Seong Ryul; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Park, Nam Sook; Lee, Sang Mong; Moon, Jae Yu; Seo, Sook Jae; Jin, Byung Rae; Sohn, Hung Dae

2003-06-01

209

Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4?mg/100?g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30?min before and 1?h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1?h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30?min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvăo; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

2013-01-01

210

Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

2005-10-01

211

Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

2015-01-01

212

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

2014-10-01

213

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

2012-10-01

214

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

2011-10-01

215

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

2013-10-01

216

APPLICATION FOR FACULTY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE  

E-print Network

: ______________________________________________________________ Specify other awards, grants, or fellowships (include amounts) which may be available to supplementAPPLICATION FOR FACULTY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE NAME the faculty member's responsibilities while on leave. Include teaching and graduate student support. · Letter

Ma, Lena

217

Manager's Guide for Family Leave Transitions  

E-print Network

), allowing for issues and questions to be addressed well before the employee's leave begins. · Familiarize an employee prepare for leave and the transition back to work are also critical to that employee's retention process about two months before the employee goes on leave (or at a time you and the employee agree to

Wolfe, Patrick J.

218

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

219

Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity  

PubMed Central

“Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

McSherry, James

1986-01-01

220

Resource capture by single leaves  

SciTech Connect

Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Long, S.P.

1992-05-01

221

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

222

Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.  

PubMed

Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n?=?57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n?=?57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40?L-NEG and 33?L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32?L-NEG and 34?L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P?

Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

2011-12-01

223

cDNA cloning, expression, and characterization of an arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein, AgeHex2, from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari.  

PubMed

An arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein, AgeHex2, cDNA was cloned from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), larval cDNA library. The complete cDNA sequence of AgeHex2 is comprised of 2,088 bp encoding 696 amino acid residues. The AgeHex2 had four potential N-glycosylation sites. The AgeHex2 contained the highly conserved two larval storage protein signature motifs. The deduced protein sequence of AgeHex2 showed high homology with A. germari hexamerin1 (51% amino acid identity), Tenebrio molitor hexamerin2 (49% amino acid identity), T. molitor early-staged encapsulation inducing protein (43% amino acid identity), and Leptinotarsa decemlineata diapause protein1 (43% amino acid identity). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the AgeHex2 is more closely related to coleopteran hexamerins than to the other insect storage proteins. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the AgeHex2 showed fat body-specific expression. The cDNA encoding AgeHex2 was expressed as a 75-kDa protein in the baculovirus-infected insect cells. Furthermore, N-glycosylation of the recombinant AgeHex2 was revealed by tunicamycin to the recombinant virus-infected Sf9 cells, demonstrating that the AgeHex2 is N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal antiserum against recombinant AgeHex2 indicated that the AgeHex2 corresponds to a 75-kDa storage protein present in the A. germari larval hemolymph. PMID:15146541

Kim, Seong Ryul; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Park, Nam Sook; Lee, Sang Mong; Je, Yeon Ho; Jin, Byung Rae; Sohn, Hung Dae

2004-06-01

224

Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2?,3?-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2?-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2?-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-?-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[?-glucosyl-(1???2)]-[?-rhamnosyl-(1???6)]-?-glucoside-7-O-?-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[?-rhamnosyl-(1???2)]-[?-rhamnosyl-(1???4)]-?-glucoside-7-O-?-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-?-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-?-rhamnosyl-(1???2)-?-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-?-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-?-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside. Their structures were

Lawrence Onyango Arot Manguro; Peter Lemmen

2007-01-01

225

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). 825.310 Section 825.310 Labor Regulations...for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). (a) Required information from health care...

2011-07-01

226

Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.  

PubMed

Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

2013-07-25

227

Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability  

PubMed Central

A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

Hill, Heather D.

2013-01-01

228

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

229

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

230

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2012-01-01

231

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2011-01-01

232

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2013-01-01

233

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2014-01-01

234

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2010-01-01

235

UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10?mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

2015-01-01

236

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

2014-07-01

237

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

2013-07-01

238

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

2011-07-01

239

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

2010-07-01

240

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

2012-07-01

241

A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

Sallee, Margaret W.

2008-01-01

242

Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.  

PubMed

The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

Pabuçcuo?lu, A; Kivçak, B; Ba?, M; Mert, T

2003-09-01

243

Leaving Care in England: A Research Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses changes in leaving care in England and Wales, based on a survey of young people leaving the care of social service departments that examined diversity of care leavers; care careers; age at independence; living out of care; and after-care support. Summarizes key policy and practice issues, and outlines new directions for practice and…

Biehal, Nina; And Others

1994-01-01

244

Division of Human Resources MEDICALLY-RELATED LEAVES  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources MEDICALLY-RELATED LEAVES GENERAL INFORMATION Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Medically-Related Leaves ­ General Information Form questions: (813) 974-2970 Rev. 04/2010 Some medically-related leaves of absence apply towards an employee's Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA

Meyers, Steven D.

245

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

1983-01-01

246

REQUEST FOR FAMILY OR MEDICAL LEAVE If possible, a request for family or medical leave must be made 30 days prior to the date requested leave  

E-print Network

REQUEST FOR FAMILY OR MEDICAL LEAVE If possible, a request for family or medical leave must be made.Va. Hire Date: _________________ State Hire Date: _________________ I request family or medical leave: __________________ _____ TO CARE FOR MY SPOUSE, CHILD (UNDER THE AGE OF 18), OR A PARENT THAT HAS A SERIOUS HEALTH CONDITION* Leave

Acton, Scott

247

Reflectance and Transmittance of Light by Leaves  

PubMed Central

Spectrophotometric transmittance and reflectance curves were recorded for wavelengths from 0.45 (in some cases 0.34) to 2.7 micrometers for faces and backs of leaves and for stacked leaves of several plant species. Measurements were made at different angles of illumination. Leaf spectrophotometric curves were compared with curves for leaf extracts, potato tuber tissue, glass beads in water, and frozen leaves to demonstrate the physical bases for the leaf curves. Leaves were infiltrated with liquids of different refractive indices for further comparison of spectrophotometric curves. Goniophotometric reflectance curves were recorded, giving visible reflectance and degree of polarization as functions of viewing angle for two different angles of illumination. No retroreflection was observed, and no phenomena were observed which could be attributed to interference because of similarity between leaf structural sizes and wavelengths used. PMID:16657679

Woolley, Joseph T.

1971-01-01

248

DEPARTMENT WORKSHEET FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE  

E-print Network

FOR LEAVE own serious health condition pregnancy disability (nonwork- or work related)* serious health condition of parent, care for newborn, newly adopted or child placed spouse, domestic partner or child

Leistikow, Bruce N.

249

Herbicide Uptake by Leaves and Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.

250

Constant Email Checks Can Leave You Stressed  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Constant Email Checks Can Leave You Stressed People felt less ... to help reduce your stress? Try checking your emails less often, researchers suggest. The new study featured ...

251

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

252

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2013-07-01

253

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2010-07-01

254

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2011-07-01

255

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2014-07-01

256

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2012-07-01

257

More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

McCain, D C; Markley, J L

1989-08-01

258

Colorado School of Mines Leave Sharing Bank Program  

E-print Network

Colorado School of Mines Leave Sharing Bank Program Application for Use of Bank Leave PART I:___________________________________________ CWID #:_______________ Home Address City/State/Zip: _____________________________________________________ Home Phone: ________________________________ Work Phone:______________________ Department

259

Evaluation of leaves as a litter material.  

PubMed

The suitability of leaves for use as broiler litter was evaluated in four 49-d floor pen trials of 150 Avian x Avian female chickens each. In each trial, 25 broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to one of six pens at a density of 1.2 m2 per bird. There were two replicates of each of the following three treatments: 1) pine wood shaving (control), 2) a mix of 50% pine wood shaving and 50% leaves, and 3) leaves. Litter materials had no significant (P > or = 0.05) influence on live weight, feed conversion, breast blisters, dressed carcass weight, carcass yield percentage, or mortality. Mortality of birds reared on leaves tended to be higher than the other treatments, but it was found to be nonsignificant at the P < 0.05 level. No significant differences were observed for percentage litter moisture among treatments. Body weight gain was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher for the broilers reared on the leaf litter. Leaves alone or mixed with wood shavings have potential as an alternate litter material without compromising production or processing parameters at a low placement density. PMID:9251143

Willis, W L; Murray, C; Talbott, C

1997-08-01

260

Leaving and Returning toLeaving and Returning to Harbour with anHarbour with an  

E-print Network

Leaving and Returning toLeaving and Returning to Harbour with anHarbour with an Autonomous UnderwaterAutonomous Underwater VehicleVehicle Gwyn Griffiths & Steven McPhail Southampton Oceanography l will be autonomous as the norm l will be Ôlong rangeŐ in time and distance l will operate at slow

Griffiths, Gwyn

261

Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): Leave Usage Genie  

E-print Network

Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): Leave Usage Genie Purpose_____ The Leave Usage Genie allows you to review timecard approvals and leave taken by the employees that you supervise in to CalTime." 2. Go to the Leave Usage Genie by clicking on its link underneath the My Genies tab

Yaghi, Omar M.

262

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2013-07-01

263

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2010-07-01

264

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2011-07-01

265

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2014-07-01

266

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2012-07-01

267

Family and Medical Leave Revised 06/06  

E-print Network

Policy Family and Medical Leave Revised 06/06 THE LANGUAGE USED IN THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT CREATE/University of Charleston has established the Family and Medical Leave Policy and Procedures. The Family and Medical Leave to "eligible" employees for certain family and medical reasons. While family medical leave is defined as unpaid

Kasman, Alex

268

Division of Human Resources USF Sick Leave Pool  

E-print Network

experiences a short-term serious personal disability, illness or injury and has exhausted all personal leave requested for this medical leave of absence counts towards my entitlement as outlined under the Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Employee's Signature Date I have approved a medical leave of absence (with

Meyers, Steven D.

269

Educational Leave in Europe. Policy Paper No. 83-C3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a description of and rationale for paid educational leave policies in Western Europe by examining three basic categories: general leave provisions provided by law, legal provisions for specific groups, and provisions for educational leave in collective bargaining agreements. Five countries presently have general leave

Schutze, Hans G.

270

The geometry of unfolding tree leaves  

PubMed Central

Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

1998-01-01

271

STAFF REQUEST FOR PARENTAL LEAVE The Parental Leave Policy for staff is in Section VII.7.49 of  

E-print Network

/paternity leave. Parental Leave will consist of any form of leave the employee has accrued and earned as well.49 of the UMBC Policies website (www.umbc.edu/policies). PART I: To be completed by the Employee Name: Empl ID the Parental Leave Policy. Employee's Signature: ______________________________ Date: _______________ PART II

Adali, Tulay

272

Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.  

PubMed

This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N?=?716), twelve weeks (N?=?661), six months (N?=?625), and twelve months (N?=?575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

2014-04-01

273

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

MedlinePLUS

... Press Releases General Guidance Break Time for Nursing Mothers Special Rules for Returning Reservists under USERRA FMLA Frequently Asked Questions Military Frequently Asked Questions Questions and Answers concerning the use of FMLA leave to care for a son or daughter age 18 or older FMLA Employee ...

274

Comparative ionomes of rice leaves and seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The project is investigating the possibility of using the mineral (ionomics) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict varieties that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their seeds. This information will be used for improving our understanding of the mineral physi...

275

Absence, Leave of 26 Absences 26  

E-print Network

Architecture Program 71 Canadian Undergraduates 14 College of Business 80 Early 15 Former Students 16 Freshmen, College of Courses Graduate Program Associated Students of MSU ASMSU Athletics Audiovisual Media ServicesMOM Absence, Leave of 26 Absences 26 Absentia Registration 35, 138 College of Graduate Studies 138

Dyer, Bill

276

Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

Tomley, David

1983-01-01

277

Lignans from leaves of Rollinia mucosa.  

PubMed

A new furofuranic lignan named (+)-epimembrine together with known (+)-epieudesmine and (+)-epimagnoline were isolated from leaves of R. mucosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data. Palmitone and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. PMID:11926539

Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Alvarez, Ana Laura; López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Rocha, Luisa; Heinze, Gerardo; Moreno, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

2002-01-01

278

MATERNITY LEAVE: WHERE WE STAND COMPARED  

Microsoft Academic Search

1) . There are essentially two basic types: financial instruments (tax deductions, credits, benefits, etc.) and formal, non-financial instruments (such as social recognition of the importance of motherhood and par- enthood). One of the first policy provisions that families with children encounter is maternity leave (ML) and the financial assistance that accompanies it. This policy provision combines both aspects: for-

279

LEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

LEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One Washington Square as well as any additional required documentation (see below) and submit it to your immediate supervisor. All documentation must be provided to HR for review and approval. Employee Information Employee Name

Eirinaki, Magdalini

280

APPLICATION FOR LEAVE *Without pay only. Required  

E-print Network

events. Depts may use for other purposes. Today's Date Employee's UFID Employee's Name Division/College Military exams Natural disaster Civil disorder Athletic competition Formal investigation Disabled Veteran-month period for the reasons listed above. You may elect to substitute accrued paid leave for unpaid

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

281

Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

2000-01-01

282

Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

2010-01-01

283

[Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L].  

PubMed

Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:2069701

Chen, L

1991-01-01

284

FAMILY LEAVE FOR AAUP FACULTY AT URI  

E-print Network

://www.nccp.org/state_detail_RI_policy_29.html URI President's Commission on the Status of Women: http://www.uri.edu/uriwomen/ URI the AAUP contract. These provisions include the paid parental leave and reduced workload options indicated) The President's Commission on the Status of Women American Association of University Professors #12;10 Article

Rhode Island, University of

285

Report on Sabbatical Leave: Spring Semester, 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During his sabbatical leave, the author traveled to Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific, and Japan to observe English-language programs. He reports on the contacts that he made and the programs that he observed. He gives his general impressions of the English-language activity in each location and makes several recommendations as a result of…

Hinckley, E. B.

286

5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee...daughter, or parent has a serious health condition; or (4) A serious health condition...12-month period beginning on the date of birth or placement. Leave for a...

2010-01-01

287

5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee...daughter, or parent has a serious health condition; or (4) A serious health condition...12-month period beginning on the date of birth or placement. Leave for a...

2011-01-01

288

5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee...daughter, or parent has a serious health condition; or (4) A serious health condition...12-month period beginning on the date of birth or placement. Leave for a...

2012-01-01

289

FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE IMPORTANT INFORMATION  

E-print Network

must be granted for any of the following reasons: · to care for the employee's child after birth a serious health condition; or · for a serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform certification to support a request for leave because of a serious health condition, and may require second

290

SQL APPLICATION FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper main objective is to present SQL power of use for a case of data management with heterogeneous data classification. The article is based on a PHP application developed to manage a real situation of secondary school leaving examination in August 2003 at Bra?ov city, Romania at exams center no. 29, where the first author was president of the

Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Mariana MARCU

2003-01-01

291

Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-01-01

292

The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

Gill, John; And Others

1988-01-01

293

Antifungal activity of Aloe vera leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aloe vera fresh leaves hydroalcoholic plant extract was tested against the mycelial growth of Botrytis gladiolorum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli, Heterosporium pruneti and Penicillium gladioli on Czapek-agar medium. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied between 80 and 100 ?l\\/ml, depending on the fungal species.

Oana Rosca-Casian; Marcel Parvu; Laurian Vlase; Mircea Tamas

2007-01-01

294

Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).  

PubMed

The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

2000-12-01

295

CATASTROPHIC LEAVE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

and forward to Human Resources, Leave Program Manager, UPD 0046. Please print using blue or black ink pen. EMPLOYEE INFORMATION Employee's Name: Employee ID: Home Telephone: Address: City and Zip Code: Department/College Name: Campus Phone: Request for Self Request for incapacitated member of family Name: Relationship: I

Su, Xiao

296

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind  

E-print Network

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

Northern British Columbia, University of

297

University of Sussex Arrangements for parental leave  

E-print Network

in respect of each child (eg a parent of twins would be entitled to up to eight months' leave); and where is either (a) the parent named on the birth certificate of a child; or (b) a person who has adopted a child or until its eighteenth birthday if this is sooner); or (c) a person who has acquired formal parental

Sussex, University of

298

Faculty Single Semester Leave 1. Complete Faculty Single Semester Leave Form and submit to department head.  

E-print Network

leave. For more information, see Board of Regents Policy: Employee Development, Education, and Training at http://www.umn.edu/regents/policies/humanresources/Employee_Develop_Educ_Training. Requested in accordance with Board of Regents Policy: Employee Development, Education, and Training

Amin, S. Massoud

299

Enumerative Sequences of Leaves in Rational Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We prove that any IN-rational sequence s = (sn)n1 of nonnegativeintegers satisfying the Kraft strict inequalityPn1snk\\\\Gamman! 1is the enumerative sequence of leaves by height of a rational k-ary tree.Particular cases of this result had been previously proven. We give somepartial results in the equality case.1 IntroductionThis paper is a study of problems linked with coding and symbolic dynamics.The results

Frédérique Bassino; Marie-pierre Béal; Dominique Perrin

1997-01-01

300

Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

2011-10-01

301

Triterpenoids from the leaves of Nerium oleander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new triterpenoids have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide and 3?,22?,28-trihydroxy-25-nor-lup-1 (10),20(29)-dien-2-one. Elucidation of the structures was based on spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (COSY-45, NOESY and J-resolved).

Sabira Begum; Razia Sultana; Bina S. Siddiqui

1997-01-01

302

Sick leave patterns in common musculoskeletal disorders – a study of doctor prescribed sick leave  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative data on sick leave within musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is limited. Our objective was to give a descriptive overview of sick leave patterns in different MSDs. Methods Using electronic medical records, we collected information on dates and diagnostic codes for all available sick leave certificates, during 2 years (2009–2010), in the North Western part of the Skĺne region in Sweden (22 public primary health care centres and two general hospitals). Using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes on the certificates we studied duration, age and sex distribution and recurrent periods of sick leave for six strategically chosen MSDs; low back pain (M54) disc disorders (M51), knee osteoarthritis (M17) hip osteoarthritis (M16) rheumatoid arthritis (M05-M06) and myalgia (M79). Results All together 20 251 sick leave periods were issued for 16 673 individuals 16–64 years of age (53% women). Out of the selected disorders, low back pain and myalgia had the shortest sick leave periods, with a mean of 26 and 27 days, respectively, while disc disorders and rheumatoid arthritis had the longest periods with a mean of 150 and 147 days. For low back pain and myalgia 27% and 26% of all sick leave was short (8–14 days) and only 11% and 13%, were long (?90 days). For the other selected MSDs, less than 5% of the periods were short. For disc disorders, hip osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, more than 60% of the periods were long (p?>?0.001). For back disorders and myalgia most periods were issued in the age groups between 40–49, with similar patterns for women and men. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis had most periods in the age groups of 50–64, and patterns for women and men differed. Low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis and myalgia had the greatest share of recurrent sick leave (31%, 34% and 32% respectively). Conclusion Duration, age and sex distribution and numbers of recurrent sick leave varies considerably between different MSDs. This underscores the importance of using specified diagnosis, in sick leave research as well as in planning of treatment and rehabilitation and evaluation of prognosis. PMID:24886568

2014-01-01

303

Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms. PMID:12223757

Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

1997-01-01

304

Characterization of ?-Galactosidase from Cucumber Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Two forms of ?-galactosidase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.22) which differed in molecular weight were resolved from Cucumis sativus L. leaves. The enzymes were partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weights of the two forms, by gel filtration, were 50,000 and 25,000. The 50,000-dalton form comprised approximately 84% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in crude extracts from mature leaves and was purified 132-fold. The partially purified 25,000-molecular weight form rapidly lost activity unless stabilized with 0.2% albumin and accounted for 16% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in the crude extract. The smaller molecular weight form was not found in older leaves. The two forms were similar in several ways including their pH optima which were 5.2 and 5.5 for the 50,000- and 25,000-dalton form, respectively, and activation energies, which were 15.4 and 18.9 kilocalories per mole for the larger and smaller forms. Both enzymes were inhibited by galactose as well as by excess concentrations of p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactoside sub-strate. Km values with this substrate and with raffinose and melibiose were different for each substrate, but similar for both forms of the enzyme. With stachyose, Km values were 10 and 30 millimolar for the 50,000- and 25,000- molecular weight forms, respectively. PMID:16661511

Smart, Elizabeth L.; Pharr, David M.

1980-01-01

305

Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

306

Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves  

PubMed Central

The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves. PMID:25493183

Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

2014-01-01

307

5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

2014-01-01

308

5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

2012-01-01

309

5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

2011-01-01

310

5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

2013-01-01

311

5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

2010-01-01

312

[Ultrastructure and pigment composition of Sagittaria sagittifolia L. leaves].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of the cellular ultrastructure and pigment content of both submerged and above-water Sagittaria sagittifolia leaves with transmission electron microscopic and biochemical methods were realized. Essential distinctions of S. sagittifolia ultrastructure of photosynthesizing cells in submerged leaves were revealed during the comparison with those in mesophyll cells of above-water leaves. The changes of chloroplast ultrastructure in submerged leaves are examined as the adaptative signs of photosynthesizing cells under influence of altered environment. PMID:24228498

Nedukha, O M

2013-01-01

313

REGULAR PAPER Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long  

E-print Network

REGULAR PAPER Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed carried to unravel mecha- nism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed *5

Govindjee

314

Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

Furbish, Dale S.

2009-01-01

315

Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

2002-01-01

316

Methods of Reducing Sick Leave Abuse. An ERS Information Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perennial concern to educational administrators is the abuse of sick leave by school employees. Numerous suggestions have been offered for reducing the abuse of sick leave both within education and industry. This publication reviews 12 research studies that evaluate plans for reducing sick leave abuse among various categories of employees. Also…

Stemnock, Suzanne K.

317

Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol ? methyl viologen ? O2) and PS II (H2O ? parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH ? O2; succinate ? O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and reduction of O2. PMID:25366828

Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

2014-11-01

318

The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

When the detached first leaves of green or etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv. Victory) seedlings senesce in the dark, their oxygen consumption shows a large increase, beginning after 24 hours and reaching a peak of up to 2.5 times the initial rate by the 3rd day. This effect takes place while the chlorophyll of green leaves, or the carotenoid of etiolated leaves, is steadily decreasing. Kinetin, at a concentration which inhibits the decrease in pigment, completely prevents the respiratory rise; instead, the oxygen consumption drifts downwards. Lower kinetin concentrations have a proportional effect, 50% reduction of respiration being given by about 0.1 mg/l. About one-fifth of the respiratory rise may be attributed to the free amino acids which are liberated during senescence; several amino acids are shown to cause increases of almost 50% in the oxygen consumption when supplied at the concentrations of total amino acid present during senescence. A smaller part of the rise may also be due to soluble sugars liberated during senescence, largely coming from the hydrolysis of a presumptive fructosan. The remainder, and the largest part, of the increase is ascribed to a natural uncoupling of respiration from phosphorylation. This is deduced from the fact that dinitrophenol causes a similar large rise in the oxygen consumption of the fresh leaves or of leaf segments kept green with kinetin, but causes only a very small rise when the oxygen consumption is near its peak in senescent controls. The respiration of these leaves is resistant to cyanide, and 10 mm KCN even increases it by some 30%; in contrast, etiolated leaves of the same age, which undergo a similar rise in oxygen consumption over the same time period, show normal sensitivity to cyanide. The respiratory quotient during senescence goes down as low as 0.7, both with and without kinetin, though it is somewhat increased by supplying sugars or amino acids; glucose or alanine at 0.3 m bring it up to 1.0 and 0.87, respectively. N6-Benzylaminopurine and ?-2-isopentenylaminopurine act similarly to kinetin in repressing the respiratory rise, the former being five times as active as kinetin, while the latter has only 1% of the activity of kinetin. Zeatin also powerfully prevents senescence. Because the repression of the respiratory rise is shown by each cytokinin at the concentration at which it inhibits senescence, the action is ascribed in both cases to the maintenance of a tight coupling between respiration and phosphorylation. It is pointed out that such an effect would explain many features of cytokinin action. A change in the methodology of the senescence experiments is described and compared with the method previously used, and the influence of temperature and age of the plants on the course of leaf senescence are presented in detail. PMID:16658877

Tetley, Richard M.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1974-01-01

319

BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave  

E-print Network

Leave CPT Comp time taken MTH Military Leave-Temp DNO Organ Donation-Temp-Salary MTS Military Leave-Temp-Salary DNR Organ Donor-Regular OCE On Call Earned DNA Organ Donor-Salary OCH On Call Hours-Paid DNT Organ

Barrash, Warren

320

Dibenzocycloheptanoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium.  

PubMed

Five dibenzocycloheptatrienes (1-3, 5, and 6) and one dibenzocycloheptadiene (8) together with 16 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium. Application of HPLC-SPE-NMR to a selected fraction afforded two additional dibenzocycloheptatrienes (4, 7). The glycosides 2-7 comprise two diastereomers because of the chiral glycosyl moiety and the axial chirality of the biphenyl system. Their structures were elucidated via ECD and 2D NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Subavenosides D (5) and E (6) showed moderate inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with IC?? values of 50.7 and 19.0 ?M, respectively. PMID:23025417

Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

2012-10-26

321

Dihydrostilbene derivatives from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves.  

PubMed

Four new dihydrostilbenes, alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4'-acetoxy-5'-isopentenylstilbene (1), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3',4'-trihydroxy-5-O-isopentenyl-6-isopentenylstilbene (2), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (3), and alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3'-dihydroxy-5beta-d-O-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), together with seven known flavonoids, glabranin isomer, naringenin, lupiwighteone, pinocembrin 7-O-glucoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, vicenin II, and the inositol, pinitol, were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra grown in Sicily. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16038558

Biondi, Daniela M; Rocco, Concetta; Ruberto, Giuseppe

2005-07-01

322

Female journalists more likely to leave newspapers  

E-print Network

42 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 30, No. 3 • Summer 2009 Female Journalists More Likely To Leave Newspapers by Scott Reinardy A survey of 715 U.S. newspaper journalists reveals women report higher levels of exhaustion and lower levels... they are experiencing. Nonetheless, HI was supported. H2 stated that female journalists will report significantly lower levels of professional efficacy on the MBI-GS scale than would men. Independent sam- ple t-tests were used to determine H2. There were significant...

Reinardy, Scott

2009-01-01

323

Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-06-01

324

The senescence of detached leaves of tropaeolum.  

PubMed

The senescence of detached Tropaeolum majus leaves was compared with that described earlier for Avena. Tropaeolum was chosen as being not only a dicot but also as having a nearly circular leaf, thus needing only the smallest minimum of wounding, since wounding delays the loss of chlorophyll and protein in darkness. Tropaeolum resembles Avena in that closing the stomata osmotically or with ABA causes rapid senescence in light. As in Avena also, n-hexanol and alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl delay senescence in darkness but cause ;bleaching' of chlorophyll in light. Unlike Avena, however, kinetin and gibberellic acid, which delay senescence in the dark in both species, do so in Tropaeolum without causing any significant stomatal opening. The senescence of Tropaeolum leaves is actually promoted by fusicoccin, which powerfully delays senescence in Avena, although fusicoccin does cause stomatal opening in darkness in both species. Thus, many of the phenomena of senescence are alike in the monocot and dicot, but there are several significantly different responses to the senescence-modifying reagents. It is concluded that while stomatal closure accelerates senescence in both species, stomatal opening is not directly linked to the prevention of leaf senescence. PMID:16664539

Thimann, K V

1985-12-01

325

Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 85 Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves  

E-print Network

on the same plant. One aspect of understanding plants is to be able to figure out what is root, stem, and leaf of the stem between the nodes (Figure 1). Figure 1. Shoot structure. #12;Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 86 meristem, the differentiating cells produce the root cap, a structure that protects the root apical

Koptur, Suzanne

326

Danforth Campus Family and Medical Leave of Absence Application Form (and Departmental Leave when applicable)  

E-print Network

. For unforeseen events, such as accidental injury causing a serio us health condition, premature birth or sudden health condition. NEW CHILD LEAVE ­ to be with your child following the birth or the placement of a child days in advance. Examples of foreseeable events include planned medical treatment or your child's birth

Subramanian, Venkat

327

Guidelines to the Implementation of Leaves under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

E-print Network

. The situations in which FMLA leave may be taken are these: Birth of a child, and in order to care for that child Placement of a dependent child with the employee for adoption or foster care A serious health condition from such a serious health condition Employees who have worked for NIU for the equivalent of at least

Kostic, Milivoje M.

328

Danforth Campus Family and Medical Leave of Absence Application Form (and Departmental Leave when applicable)  

E-print Network

. For unforeseen events, such as accidental injury causing a serious health condition, premature birth or sudden a serious health condition. NEW CHILD LEAVE ­ to be with your child following the birth or the placement days in advance. Examples of foreseeable events include planned medical treatment or your child's birth

Subramanian, Venkat

329

Morus spp. as a New Biomass Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Generating enthusiasm from political or business entities to promote conservation requires economic viability in times of economic downturn. Massive reforestation is being considered as a governmental policy to address the climate crisis. It offers an enormous opportunity to redefine forestry plan...

330

Leaving and entering a career in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

2013-03-01

331

Waving Apollo 8 Astronauts Leaving Recovery Helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 8 served as the first manned lunar orbit mission. Liftoff occurred on December 21, 1968, carrying a three man crew consisting of astronauts Frank Borman, commander; William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot. The three safely returned to Earth on December 27, 1968. In this photograph, the crew members are waving as they leave the recovery helicopter. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

1968-01-01

332

Diterpenoids from leaves of Cryptomeria japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytol, seven labdanes, eight abietanes, four pimaranes and three biditerpenes were isolated from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica. The new compounds included 8,13-dioxo-14,15,17-trinorlabdan-19-oic acid, 12-hydroxy-11-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one, 6?,11-dihydroxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one, 6,12-dihydroxy-11-methoxyabieta-5,8,11,13-tetraen-7-one, an acetal formed by abieta-8,11,13-triene-6?,7?,11,12-tetraol and imbricataloic acid, a self-condensation product of imbricataloic acid, as well as an acetal formed by abieta-8,11,13-triene-6?,7?,12-triol and 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectral methods.

Wen-Chiung Su; Jim-Min Fang; Yu-Shia Cheng

1996-01-01

333

Three chromone components from Aloe vera leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new chromone components, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera. Their structures have been established from spectroscopic studies; the structures of 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were shown to be 8-C-?-d- glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone and 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-cinnamoyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, respectively. The inhibitory action of these compounds against tyrosine oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase was examined.

Nobuyuki Okamura; Noriko Hine; Satomi Harada; Toshihiro Fujioka; Kunihide Mihashi; Akira Yagi

1996-01-01

334

Proanthocyanidins from the leaves of Machilus philippinensis.  

PubMed

Seven proanthocyanidins (2-8) together with epicatechin (1) were isolated from the EtOH extract of the leaves of Machilus philippinensis. Of these, machiphilitannins A (7) and B (8) are new natural products, with respective IC(50) values of 31.3 (7) and 18.4 microM (8) against alpha-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of CD and 2D NMR analyses. In addition, aesculitannin B (2) showed inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase with an IC(50) value of 3.5 microM. This work demonstrates for the first time that the purified proanthocyanidins possess inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase type IV. PMID:20568785

Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

2010-08-27

335

[Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents, twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 1-undecanol (3), 1-eicosanol (4), daucosterol (5), 6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6), 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7), rhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11), hyperoside (12), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13), astragalin (14), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 6)-[alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside] (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), quercetin (19), kaempferol (20), dehydronuciferine (21), roemerine (22), stigmast-7-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (24), and benzene-1,2-diol (25) on the basis of spectral data analysis. Compounds 1, 6, 7, 8, 24 and 25 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 15-18 were isolated from the leaves for the first time. Compounds 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 showed inhibitory activities against beta amyloid (1-42) by A-beta aggregation method with inhibition rates of (63.99 +/- 24.29)%, (79.61 +/- 4.49)%, (49.96 +/- 12.61)%, (101.19 +/- 8.19)%, (88.41+/-6.76)% and (72.48 +/- 8.97)%, respectively. PMID:23724680

Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jing, Wen-Guang; Liu, An

2013-03-01

336

Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

The ATP content of 7-day-old Avena sativa leaves during senescence in dark and in light, and after treatment with cytokinins and other reagents, has been determined by the luciferin-luciferase method. Special care was taken to avoid decomposition of the ATP, and a detailed procedure is presented for ATP analysis at the picomole level. Preliminary experiments with several inhibitors of photophosphorylation suggest, though not conclusively, that the delaying effect of light on senescence is mediated by photophosphorylation. The ATP values of the leaves senescing in darkness are found to increase in parallel with the large increase in respiratory rate, and kinetin prevents this increase just as completely as it prevents the respiratory rise. It is concluded that the respiratory increase in senescence cannot be simply due to uncoupling. In light the ATP level also rises, though more slowly, and again kinetin prevents this rise. l-Serine, which promotes dark senescence, does not significantly modify the dark ATP level, but both arginine and kinetin, which antagonize the action of serine on senescence, greatly lower the ATP level below that on serine alone. Cycloheximide has a similar effect, and the combination of cycloheximide and kinetin lowers the ATP level drastically. Fusicoccin, which opens stomata in the dark, correspondingly maintains the ATP at a low level. Thus, in general, a low level of ATP is associated with the prevention of dark senescence, i.e. probably with ATP utilization, and the ATP level at any time may thus be determined more by the rate of utilization than by the efficiency of respiratory coupling. PMID:16661296

Malik, Nasir S. A.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1980-01-01

337

Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood  

PubMed Central

Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

2013-01-01

338

UF Parental Leave Policy UFF Faculty Benefit MOU of 2/8/2008  

E-print Network

If the employee leaves the University, the leave hours will be paid back from accrued leave of the employee If the employee does not have enough accrued leave to repay the balance, the employee does not have to pay for outstanding used leave balance The employee can take up to 6 months of paid/unpaid parental leave per year

Jawitz, James W.

339

Thin-layer drying behaviour of mint leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin-layer drying behaviour of mint leaves for a temperature range of 35–60°C was determined in a cabinet dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly reduced the drying time of the mint leaves. Drying data of this material were analysed to obtain diffusivity values from the falling rate-drying period. In this period, moisture transfer from mint leaves was described by

?brahim Doymaz

2006-01-01

340

The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

1989-01-01

341

Leaf life span of floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic capacity of floating-leaved plants is relatively high comparable with terrestrial herbaceous plants, though floating-leaved plants have a much smaller biomass with a leaf area index seldom exceeding 2m2m-2. Their rather small biomass accumulation is related to higher turnover of leaf biomass or shorter leaf life span. Life span of floating leaves reported in the literature ranged mostly from 13

T. Tsuchiya

1991-01-01

342

Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

None

2012-01-01

343

Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.  

PubMed

Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

2014-01-01

344

Birch leaves as a resource for herbivores: Seasonal occurrence of increased resistance in foliage after mechanical damage of adjacent leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal occurrence of such wound-induced reaction in birch foliage which deteriorates the quality of nearby leaves for herbivores was tested by means of bioassays. Length of the larval period was protracted in two early and mid-summer (larval period!) lepidopteran species as well as in two mid-summer hymenopteran species when larvae were reared on birch leaves whose adjacent leaves had earlier

Erkki Haukioja I; Pekka Niemelä

1979-01-01

345

Development of wine from infused tea leaves (Cammellia sinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Tea and herb teas are popular beverages with potential health benefits. This study evaluates the potential for the development of wine using infused tea leaves as a raw material. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Tea leaves of clones 318 and 143 obtained from the Mambilla Highland of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria Ibadan, were infused in hot water and used

S. O. Aroyeun; O. Olubamiwa; M. A. K. Ogunjobi

2005-01-01

346

Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

2000-01-01

347

Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and

S. A. Emami; J. Asili; Z. Mohagheghi; M. K. Hassanzadeh

2007-01-01

348

Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

Dern, Daniel P.

1997-01-01

349

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Tracking Form  

E-print Network

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Tracking Form Refer to page 2 for instructions into PeopleSoft and shadow records updated accordingly. REMINDER: PTO only accrues during paid leaves of FMLA documentation should be kept in the employee's medical/confidential file, which is to be kept

Oklahoma, University of

350

The Family and Medical Leave Act. Final rule.  

PubMed

This Final Rule amends certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (the FMLA or the Act) to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the Act made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the servicemember's deployment; defines those deployments covered under these provisions; extends FMLA military caregiver leave for family members of current servicemembers to include an injury or illness that existed prior to service and was aggravated in the line of duty on active duty; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries or illnesses. This Final Rule also amends the regulations to implement the Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act, which establishes eligibility requirements specifically for airline flight crewmembers and flight attendants for FMLA leave and authorizes the Department to issue regulations regarding the calculation of leave for such employees as well as special recordkeeping requirements for their employers. In addition, the Final Rule includes clarifying changes concerning the calculation of intermittent or reduced schedule FMLA leave; reorganization of certain sections to enhance clarity; the removal of the forms from the regulations; and technical corrections to the current regulations. PMID:23476974

2013-02-01

351

P-83 OLVERSION 5/2012 Employee Request for Leave  

E-print Network

P-83 OLVERSION 5/2012 Employee Request for Leave Name: SSN: Department: Dept. No.: Indicate Type) Requires approval by employee's department and by the University's Benefits Office. Please forward. Signature of Employee (Sign original in blue ink) Date Sick leave of over three (3) days must be submitted

Almor, Amit

352

Pushout Principals: Why They Leave and Where They Go.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reasons principals give for leaving the principalship involve job conditions more than personal or community circumstances. Diminished authority contributes to the attrition rate. From a random survey of 4,766 secondary school principals, just under 10 percent (446) indicated they had decided to leave the principalship in 1979. (Author/LD)

DeLeonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott D.

1979-01-01

353

Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

2014-01-01

354

Iron distribution in vine leaves with HCO3 induced chlorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the investigation was to examine whether iron chlorosis in grape vine grown on calcareous soils was related to the Fe distribution in the leaf.Leaf samples collected from three different sites showed in most cases higher Fe contents in the chlorotic leaves as compared with healthy leaves. The solubility of leaf Fe in diluted HC1, however, was lower

K. Mengel; W. Bubl; H. W. Scherer

1984-01-01

355

Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves m the Kansas Flint Hills  

E-print Network

w . 11 `c7 Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves m the Kansas Flint Hills JR. FORWOOD AND C.E. OWENSBY Flint Hills, the tons of tree leaves that fall to the ground each autumn are largely ignored MANAGEMENT 38(l), January 1985 We have observed cattle grazing Flint Hills rangeland in the fall selecting

Owensby, Clenton E.

356

Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave  

E-print Network

Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U-0181 Expires: 12/31/2011 SECTION I: For Completion by the EMPLOYER INSTRUCTIONS to the EMPLOYER: The Family to active duty) in support of a contingency operation is attached. ___ I have previously provided my

Sheridan, Jennifer

357

Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

G. J. Kenagy

1972-01-01

358

Separation of cell enlargement and division in bean leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for inducing cell enlargement in intact leaves and leaf strips of Phaseolus vulgaris L. without the complication of cell division. Primary bean leaves complete cell division and stop growing after 10 d in dim red light. Transfer to white light induces expansion (50% in 24 h) which is entirely the consequence of cell enlargement. Leaf strips

Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh; Robert E. Cleland

1979-01-01

359

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

360

Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees  

E-print Network

of leaves or nodes in a rational tree. Let s be an IN-rational sequence of nonnegative numbers, that is a se in "Theoretical Computer Science 221, 1-2 (1999) 41-60" #12;A rational tree is a tree which has only a nite numberEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Frederique Bassino Institut Gaspard

Boyer, Edmond

361

Understanding Worker Leave Policies: An Overview December 2010  

E-print Network

. For a worker's own short- term illness (such as a cold); For a worker to attend routine medical appointments and medical leave, and paid sick and safe days. FMLA (Family and Medical Leave Act) "Paid Family and Medical-protected. Policies that provide job- protected, paid time off for short-term, routine personal illness, to allow

362

Family and Medical Leave Acts Rights and Responsibilities  

E-print Network

· Birth/adoption of a child · Employee's own serious health condition · Care of an eligible family member with a serious health condition = Six weeks = Two weeks = Two weeks #12;WFMLA: Birth/adoption of a child · Under WFMLA, leave must begin within 16 weeks of birth or date of adoption. · Six weeks of leave is available

Saldin, Dilano

363

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-07-01

364

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa  

PubMed Central

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-01-01

365

First Grade Collecting Leaves with the book Leaf Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.

366

OFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE 2015/2016  

E-print Network

, intellectual renewal, and acquisition of new skills through study, research, writing, and trainingOFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE ­ 2015/2016 The Professional Development Leave (PDL) program is funded and administered by the College of Liberal Arts. Its purpose is to enhance

Bermúdez, José Luis

367

Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from

Ann E. Hagerman

1988-01-01

368

Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

2013-01-01

369

Towards a More Telling Way of Understanding Early School Leaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with research into early school leaving. A narrative interview approach was used to document and analyse the experiences, processes and decisions that a small sample of boys made prior to leaving school, in this case, before completing year 10 and 11. Data collected in 2004 indicate that schools along with students…

Hodgson, David

2007-01-01

370

Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

2014-01-01

371

Response of the Succulent Leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia to Dehydration  

PubMed Central

Relative water content, solute concentrations, and osmolality were determined in the water storage tissue (hydrenchyma) and the assimilatory tissue (chlorenchyma) of the succulent leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jac) (Piperaceae) during slow desiccation. Relative water loss was significantly greater for the hydrenchyma than for the chlorenchyma. When whole leaves had lost 50% of their initial water content, the concomitant decrease of the relative water content of the hydrenchyma was 75 to 85%, but of the chlorenchyma only 15 to 25%. In spite of this differential water loss, the osmolality in both tissues increased to the same extent, indicating solute flow from the hydrenchyma to the chlorenchyma during desiccation. Solute translocation appeared to be unspecific, probably reflecting symplastic mass flow from one tissue to the other. The observed volume preservation of the chlorenchyma stabilized photosynthesis of Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jac) leaves, which was less inhibited by a given decrease of the relative water content of the whole leaves than in nonsucculent leaves. PMID:16665200

Schmidt, Jutta E.; Kaiser, Werner M.

1987-01-01

372

Preparation of morusin from Ramulus mori and its effects on mice with transplanted H22 hepatocarcinoma.  

PubMed

In this study, we used branches Ramulus mori from cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perry) as the experimental material and anhydrous ethanol as the extraction solution to obtain the crude extract from the branch bark. The ethanolic extract was successively purified through a macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20, and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The high-purity monomer was identified as morusin by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its UV spectrum. The contents of morusin exhibited almost no difference between the root and branch bark in Husang-32, and morusin was not detected in the leaves. Morusin is able to inhibit the tumor growth of transplanted H22 hepatocarcinoma in mice and has no side effects. The fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicate that morusin has a marked inhibitory effect on liver cancer cells through a mechanism that may be related increases in the expression of p53, Survivin, CyclinB1, and Caspase-3 and a decrease in NF-? B gene expression. The influence of this compound is more apparent in the Caspase-3 and the NF-? B genes. PMID:25422054

Wan, Liang-Ze; Ma, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

373

Student Checklist: Requesting a Leave of Absence 11/13 Page 1 of 2 LEAVE OF ABSENCE OFFICE  

E-print Network

program. The leave of absence process is designed to protect your privacy. Forms requesting sensitive/Scholar Advisor to discuss how immigration regulations will impact the proposed leave of absence. An advisor from an appointment as a GSI, GSRA or a GSSA will be responsible for tuition assessments for the current term

Awtar, Shorya

374

The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

375

The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.  

PubMed

Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

2014-09-01

376

Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using poplar leaves as activator material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine pin head formation time and mushroom yield of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves using poplar leaves as activator material. In this study, moreover, in order to follow the evolution of the composting process, daily temperature measurements were taken. According to the

Hilmi Toker; Ergun Baysal; Osman Nuri Yigitbasi; Mehmet Colak; Huseyin Peker; Hakan Simsek; Ferah Yilmaz

377

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

Sharkey, Thomas D

2012-05-03

378

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

Thomas D. Sharkey

2010-01-28

379

Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes  

PubMed Central

Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2013-01-01

380

Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.  

PubMed

RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid. PMID:16665768

Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

1987-11-01

381

Acetaldehyde and Ethanol Biosynthesis in Leaves of Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N2 and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N2, all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation. PMID:16665585

Kimmerer, Thomas W.; MacDonald, Robert C.

1987-01-01

382

Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): How to Add Leave  

E-print Network

Information tab.). --OR-- To add leave to an employee's timecard, click the Leave Usage Genie link under My Genies 3. Previous Pay Period is the default Time Period in the Leave Usage Genie. --OR-- Current Pay to Add Leave 12. Click the Home link to return to the Leave Usage Genie to work on another employee --OR

Yaghi, Omar M.

383

Cytokinins in the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba1  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin conjugates of zeatin, ribosylzeatin, and their respective dihydro derivatives tentatively have been identified as the major cytokinins present in mature Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Ribosylzeatin was present in higher levels than zeatin and dihydrozeatin. No evidence could be found that 6-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutylamino)purine occurs as a metabolite in the mature leaves. From the available evidence, it is concluded that cytokinin conjugates are probably the major metabolites formed in the leaves of this deciduous gymnosperm. PMID:16663198

Van Staden, Johannes; Hutton, Margaret J.; Drewes, Siegfried E.

1983-01-01

384

Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Cultivated Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated\\u000a and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified\\u000a as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03–16.33 mg\\/g).

Jing Z. Dong; Da Y. Lu; Y. Wang

2009-01-01

385

Changes in endogenous growth regulators in nasturtium leaves during senescence.  

PubMed

By use of lettuce-hypocotyl and wheat-coleoptile bioassay, the presence of both gibberellin (GA)-like and abscisic-acid(ABA)-like components in acidic ethyl-acetate extracts of fully expanded nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) leaves has been shown. During senescence of detached leaves there was a progressive decline in GA-like components and an increase in ABA-like components. Pretreatment of detached leaves with GA3 or kinetin prevented changes in the levels of endogenous growth regulators and delayed senescence. The observations provide experimental verification for the concept that senescence is associated with changes in endogenous growth regulators. PMID:24500186

Chin, T Y; Beevers, L

1970-06-01

386

Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. PMID:24583325

Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzi?ska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

2014-06-01

387

Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

DeLucia, Evan H.

388

Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

DeLucia, Evan H.

389

TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY SABBATICAL LEAVE REQUEST COVER SHEET  

E-print Network

TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY SABBATICAL LEAVE REQUEST COVER SHEET ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016 FACULTY ACTION: SUBMIT THIS COVER SHEET TO YOUR DEAN BY NOON ON SEPTEMBER 15, 2014, FOR UPLOADING TO THE APPLICATION SITE

Gering, Jon C.

390

School Sports Costs Leave Some Students on Sidelines  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. School Sports Costs Leave Some Students on Sidelines Only one-third ... an average of $275 in other sports-related costs such as equipment and travel. "So, the average ...

391

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

2011-07-01

392

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

2010-07-01

393

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

2013-07-01

394

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

2012-07-01

395

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

2014-07-01

396

29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to designate properly. The employee might establish this by showing that he or she would have arranged for an alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated...

2010-07-01

397

29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to designate properly. The employee might establish this by showing that he or she would have arranged for an alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated...

2011-07-01

398

A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2011-10-05

399

Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures  

E-print Network

Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures 1. Introduction has significantly strengthened the legal protections for students during periods of pregnancy who is pregnant or has decided to terminate a pregnancy. The arrangements and procedures detailed

Aickelin, Uwe

400

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.  

PubMed

An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

2014-01-01

401

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF DRYMARIA CORDATA WILLD  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: In folklore medicine Drymaria Cordata willd (Fam:Caryophylaceae) is well known plant in Sikkim state, India. The present work summarizes preliminary phytochemical study of leaves of this plant.

S. Venkatesan; V. Sankar; A. S. K. Sankar

402

76 FR 18254 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee and Employer...on employees' and employers' experience with family and medical leave under the Family Medical Leave Act. A copy of the proposed...

2011-04-01

403

Reddish spring colouring of deciduous leaves: a sign of ecotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several deciduous woody plant species produce anthocyanins during leaf development in spring and again during leaf senescence\\u000a in autumn. The leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) commonly exhibit transient reddening in juvenile leaves under northern growing conditions, with the intensity\\u000a of the red colour varying among individual trees. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that

Kari Taulavuori; Henna Pihlajaniemi; Satu Huttunen; Erja Taulavuori

2011-01-01

404

Nutritional Value of Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina L.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritive value of Momordica balsamina L. leaves by analysing their proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral constituents. The results showed that the plant leaves had high moisture content (71.00±0.95% fresh weights). The concentration of estimate d crude protein and available carbohydrates on dry weight (DW) basis were 11.29 0.07% and

2006-01-01

405

Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

406

Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1997-07-01

407

Effect of light intensity on ammonia assimilation in maize leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of light on the metabolism of ammonia was studied by subjecting detached maize leaves to 150 or 1350 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR during incubation with the leaf base in 2 mM 15NH4Cl. After up to 60 min, leaves were extracted. Ammonia, glutamine, glycine, serine, alanine, and aspartate were separated by isothermal distillation and ion exchange chromatography. 15N enrichments

Ruth E. Klaus; Michael G. Berger; Heinrich P. Fock

1985-01-01

408

Efficacy of leaves (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken block.  

PubMed

The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf-life of meat products is promising as they possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Earlier, a highly acceptable restructured chicken slice without the addition of extra fat was developed in the same laboratory which was acceptable up to 10th day of storage under refrigeration and spoilage was mainly due to oxidation. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the efficacy of certain plant leaves' (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder at 1 % level as natural preservatives to enhance the shelf life of restructured chicken slices under refrigerated storage. The quality attributes of the products containing different natural preservativs were compared with the control and reference products. The control product contained no preservative and the reference product contained BHT (200 ppm) only. Incorporation of the leaf powders at 1 % level did not show any significant differences for both cooking yield (99.5-99.6 %) and proximate composition (moisture 72.2-72.3 %, protein 19.2-19.4 %, fat 4.2-4.3 % and total ash 2.3-2.4 %) of the restructured chicken slices compared to both control and reference products during storage. All products containing leaf powders showed significantly (P?

Najeeb, A P; Mandal, P K; Pal, U K

2015-05-01

409

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave  

PubMed Central

Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

2015-01-01

410

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.  

PubMed

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

2008-01-01

411

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves  

PubMed Central

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

2008-01-01

412

Metabolism of purine bases, nucleosides and alkaloids in theobromine-forming Theobroma cacao leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plant leaves at various ages: young small leaves (stage I), developing intermediate size leaves (stage II), fully developed leaves (stage III) from flush shoots, and aged leaves (stage IV) from 1-year-old shoots. The major purine alkaloid in stage I leaves was theobromine (4.5 ?mol g–1 fresh weight),

Yoko Koyama; Yoshihisa Tomoda; Misako Kato; Hiroshi Ashihara

2003-01-01

413

OSU Human Resources 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (405) 744-5449 Annual Leave, Sick Leave, and Holidays  

E-print Network

of the immediate family who is ill or incapacitated. The immediate family is defined as spouse, children, parents is ill or incapacitated. Employees are not paid for unused sick leave. Employees who return to OSU within

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

414

OSU Human Resources 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (405) 744-5449 ANNUAL LEAVE, SICK LEAVE, AND HOLIDAYS  

E-print Network

for a member of the immediate family who is ill or incapacitated. The immediate family is defined as spouse family who is ill or incapacitated. Employees are not paid for unused sick leave. Employees who return

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

415

GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

2015-01-01

416

Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium  

SciTech Connect

Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

1987-11-01

417

Radical scavenging conserves from unused fresh green tea leaves.  

PubMed

Green teas were made by inactivating the enzymes present in fresh leaves of coarse/pruned (unused) and normal (used for tea) grades using different sources of thermal energies. Green teas were extracted in a Soxhlet using different solvents. The obtained miscella was subjected to concentration to give the extract. The extract was subjected to solvent-solvent extraction. Solvent extract was concentrated to obtain conserve. The yields of conserves are 17 +/- 0.8 and 15 +/- 0.8% from green teas of normal and coarse tea leaves, respectively. The radical scavenging activity of these extracts was evaluated using a DPPH in vitro model system. The total polyphenol content was also determined and found to be higher in conserves from normal tea leaves. However, radical scavenging activity of conserves from coarse and normal green tea leaves was found to be >90% at 15 ppm concentration. The HPLC profiles of these conserves were used to quantify the total catechin content with the help of calibration curves prepared using authentic samples at known concentrations. The total catechin content is found to be in the range of 55-85%. Results indicated that the extracts from coarse leaves also possess potential biological activity and could be used as nutraceuticals as well as for preservation purposes in food formulations. PMID:17284052

Borse, B B; Kumar, H Vijay; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

2007-03-01

418

Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers  

PubMed Central

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of ?-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than ?-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.

2007-01-01

419

Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers.  

PubMed

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of alpha-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S A; Asili, J; Mohagheghi, Z; Hassanzadeh, M K

2007-09-01

420

Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and pyrophosphorylase of bean leaves.  

PubMed

This report includes results demonstrating the existence of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase in plant leaves. The decarboxylase enzyme, purified 8 fold from leaves of etiolated pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), had a pH optimum of 6.3. It was strongly inhibited by 6-azauridine-5'-phosphate; a concentration of 12 mum decreased the reaction rate 60%. The enzyme was not dependent upon magnesium ions or inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. It was present in other parts of the bean plant and was found in young leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.)The enzyme orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase, which catalyzes the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphate from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, was found in the etiolated bean leaves, and was also present in the leaves of tomato and Canada thistle. It was stimulated by manganous or magnesium ions and had a pH optimum of 7.2. The K(m) value obtained by varying the concentrations of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate was 75 mum, and when orotic acid was varied the resulting K(m) was 3.5 mum. The presence of these 2 enzymes in higher plants, combined with previous results with inhibitors and labeled metabolites, indicates that the normal pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis in higher plants proceeds through orotic acid and OMP. PMID:6040896

Wolcott, J H; Ross, C

1967-02-01

421

An event history analysis of union joining and leaving.  

PubMed

This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562

Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D

2007-05-01

422

Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

1974-01-01

423

Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.  

PubMed

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

Kenagy, G J

1972-12-01

424

Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana *  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R 2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding. PMID:24302710

Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

2013-01-01

425

How different are the indicatrixes of the leaves of various woody plant species?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some researchers assume that the light reflection from leaves is Lambertian, but I verify that some leaves exist showing no Lambertian reflection. One can measure the indicatrixes of leaves of various woody plant species by the use of a goniophotometer. Minnaert constants can be calculated from these indicatrixes for quantitative evaluation. I discuss why light scattering from leaves does not always obey Lambertian law.

Okayama, Hiroshi

1996-06-01

426

Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated

Margaret Pierce; Klaus Raschke

1980-01-01

427

The Development of Recommendations for College of Du Page Faculty Sabbatical Leave Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on existing sabbatical leave policies at 38 Illinois public community colleges was gathered in order to assess the current policy at the College of DuPage and to generate recommendations for revisions. Data were collected on years of service before eligibility for leave, permissible reasons for leave grants, maximum length of leave

Vasiliauskas, Jura B.

428

5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.306 Time limit for use...able to return to duty if the leave was forfeited because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5...

2010-01-01

429

Evaluation of mercury contamination using plant leaves and humus as indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant leaves and humus were collected from three areas with and without mercury emission sources. Mercury in these samples were determined by cold flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. A part of mercury emitted from the source into the atmosphere is absorbed by plant leaves, and move to humus through fallen leaves. Consequently, plant leaves are able to be used as an

R. Tamura; N. Fukuzaki; Y. Hirano; Y. Mizushima

1985-01-01

430

Employee Benefits & Other Related Information * FOR EMPLOYEES HIRED BEFORE July 1, 2012 Vacation Leave  

E-print Network

life insurance coverage. Current benefits range from $38,361 (under age 65) to $7,672 (age 80 and over family and medical leave, up to 26 weeks of unpaid leave under the Servicemember Family Leave provision, and/or up to 4 weeks of leave under State law or collective bargaining (faculty members may

431

Paid Educational Leave. NIE Papers in Education and Work: Number Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a digest of a larger work, "Developments in Paid Leave of Absence," a report including case studies and analysis of the collective experience of nine European countries and the United States with paid educational leave. Section I defines paid educational leave as "leave given to an employee for educational purposes for a specified…

Levine, Herbert A.

432

Goniometric observations of light scattered from soils and leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory established at NASA-Goddard to measure and model the light-scattering properties of soil samples and individual plant leaves employs two goniometers: one for the measurement of directional reflectance and transmittance from vertically-mounted leaf samples, and the other for measurement of directional reflectance from such horizontal, semiinfinite particulate surfaces as soil samples. Sample observations of various soil minerals and plant leaves are presented; these goniometric data are compared to the results of a reflectance model from particulate surfaces and those of a ray-tracing model of leaf reflectance and transmittance.

Kestner, Joann M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Irons, James R.; Smith, James A.; Brakke, Thomas W.

1988-01-01

433

G-MG How many leaves on a tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Amy and Greg are raking up leaves from a large maple tree in their yard and Amy remarks "I'll bet this tree has a million leaves." Greg is skeptical an...

434

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

2011-01-01

435

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

2011-04-01

436

Site of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Majorana hortensis Leaves 12  

PubMed Central

Excised epidermis of Majorana hortensis Moench (sweet marjoram) leaves incorporates label from [U-14C]sucrose into monoterpenes as efficiently as do leaf discs, while mesophyll tissue has only a very limited capacity to synthesize monoterpenes from exogenous sucrose. These results strongly suggest that epidermal cells, presumably the epidermal oil glands, are the primary site of monoterpene biosynthesis in marjoram. Using a leaf disc assay, it was demonstrated that label from [U-14C]sucrose is incorporated into monoterpenes most efficiently in very young leaves. PMID:16659884

Croteau, Rodney

1977-01-01

437

Site of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Majorana hortensis Leaves.  

PubMed

Excised epidermis of Majorana hortensis Moench (sweet marjoram) leaves incorporates label from [U-(14)C]sucrose into monoterpenes as efficiently as do leaf discs, while mesophyll tissue has only a very limited capacity to synthesize monoterpenes from exogenous sucrose. These results strongly suggest that epidermal cells, presumably the epidermal oil glands, are the primary site of monoterpene biosynthesis in marjoram. Using a leaf disc assay, it was demonstrated that label from [U-(14)C]sucrose is incorporated into monoterpenes most efficiently in very young leaves. PMID:16659884

Croteau, R

1977-03-01

438

Detoxification of cassava leaves by simple traditional methods.  

PubMed

Cassava leaves, which usually contain large quantities of cyanogenic glycosides, were processed into a Zairian traditional vegetable sauce "Mpondu" by simple methods which included blanching (10 min), mashing and then boiling for 20-80 min. These methods enhanced the detoxification of the leaves, with blanching alone resulting in the loss of 57% of the free (non-glycosidic) cyanide content and of 60% of the bound (glycosidic) cyanide. It is presumed that losses of cyanide during these processes would be accounted for in volatile HCN, its derivatives and in the boiling water. PMID:7080092

Maduagwu, E N; Umoh, I B

1982-02-01

439

Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized Cycad Leaves  

E-print Network

from the Jurassic of Scotland (Dower et al. 2004), multiple petrified leaves on four specimens from the Early Cretaceous of India (Sharma 1973; Suthar et al. 1986), and two perminer- alized leaves from the Cretaceous of Japan (Stopes 1910; Nishida et al... characteristic also present in sporophylls (Matte 1904; Stevenson 1990). In extant cycads, the protoxylem in the vascular bundles of the petiole-rachides is exarch and occurs at the tip of a wedge of centripetal pri- mary xylem (Le Goc 1914; Marsh 1914; fig. 2E...

Hermsen, Elizabeth; Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Stevenson, Dennis W.

2007-09-01

440

Comparative phytochemical analysis of Diospyros chloroxylon leaves in various extracts  

E-print Network

Abstract- A comparative preliminary study on the phytochemistry of acetone, methanol ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Diospyros chloroxylon of family Ebenaceae was carried out using specific chemical color reaction tests. The results obtained revealed that acetone was the best extractive solvent with the phytochemical properties of the D.chloroxylon leaves. Phytochemical studies indicated that the leaf contain a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites. Different extracts of leaf powders have been screened for qualitative determination of different secondary metabolites like carbohydrates,cardioglycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, amino acids and proteins, saponins etc. Index Terms- Diospyros chloroxylon, Phytochemistry, secondary metabolites, soxhlet extraction

Resmi. P. Thomas; Alpha Maria Antony; Anu Annamma Mamen

441

Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll Â? giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

2000-08-01

442

Synthesis of Oxalic Acid by Enzymes from Lettuce Leaves  

PubMed Central

A rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves is described. The kinetics of both enzymes are reported in relation to their possible roles in the production of oxalate. Lettuce lactate dehydrogenase behaves like mammalian dehydrogenase, catalyzing the dismutation of glyoxylate to glycolate and oxalate. A model is proposed in which glycolate oxidase in the peroxisomes and lactate dehydrogenase in the cytosol are involved in the production of oxalate. The effect of pH on the balance between oxalate and glycolate produced from glyoxylate suggests that in leaves lactate dehydrogenase may function as part of an oxalate-based biochemical, pH-stat. PMID:16662946

Davies, David D.; Asker, Hassan

1983-01-01

443

Water is allocated differently to chloroplasts in sun and shade leaves.  

PubMed

Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study water allocation in cell compartments of sun and shade leaves. NMR spectra of Acer platanoides were resolved into two peaks that were assigned to chloroplast and nonchloroplast water. Sun leaves contained 1.7 times more water per unit area of surface than shade leaves, and the water was allocated differently. Chloroplasts in sun leaves contained 17% of the total leaf water versus 47% in shade leaves. Comparing equal leaf surface areas, the chloroplasts in shade leaves contained 60% more water than those in sun leaves. PMID:16665860

McCain, D C; Croxdale, J; Markley, J L

1988-01-01

444

The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.  

PubMed

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

445

Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †  

PubMed Central

Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (?4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition. PMID:16347463

Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

1987-01-01

446

Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

Vartak, Rehka

2006-01-01

447

Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C 3 plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll.

John R. Evans

1989-01-01

448

Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

2010-01-01

449

Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg\\/kg) on the transfer latency,

H. D Une; V. P Sarveiya; S. C Pal; V. S Kasture; S. B Kasture

2001-01-01

450

Leaving hospital against medical advice among HIV-positive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hospital discharge against medical advice, especially among substance-abusing populations, is a frustrating problem for health care pro- viders. Because of the high prevalence of injection drug use among HIV- positive patients admitted to hospital in Vancouver, we explored the factors as- sociated with leaving hospital against medical advice in this population. Methods: We reviewed records for all HIV\\/AIDS patients

Aslam H. Anis; Huiying Sun; Daphne P. Guh; Anita Palepu; Martin T. Schechter; Michael V. O'Shaughnessy

2002-01-01

451

Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive potential value of six species of acacia tree leaves: Acacia brevispica, nubica, tortilis, seyal, nilotica, and mellifera from Kenya. A wide variability in chemical composition, polyphenolics and gas production and in situ dry matter (DM) degradability was recorded. Crude protein (CP) content ranged from 134 to 213g\\/kg DM. The content of neutral

S. A. Abdulrazak; T. Fujihara; J. K. Ondiek; E. R. Řrskov

2000-01-01

452

Unusual Metaxylem Tracheids in Petioles of Amorphophallus (Araceae) Giant Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Petioles of huge solitary leaves of mature plants of Amorphophallus resemble tree trunks supporting an umbrella-like crown. Since they may be 4 m tall, adaptations to water transport in the petioles are as important as adaptations to mechanical support of lamina. The petiole is a cylindrical shell composed of compact unlignified tissue with a honeycomb aerenchymatous core.

ZYGMUNT HEJNOWICZ

2005-01-01

453

Students Matter in School Reform: Leaving Fingerprints and Becoming Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our examination of three schools demonstrates how students can be involved in school reform by giving input about problems, helping design the reform, and sharing implementation responsibilities with adult leaders. Their involvement affects both the reform--as students leave their fingerprints on it--and the students themselves, who show signs of…

Osberg, Jerusha; Pope, Denise; Galloway, Mollie

2006-01-01

454

Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85?GAE?mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96?CE?mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2??g/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

455

Leaving Education: The Agony and the Ecstasy of Changing Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of a workshop format that is being successfully used to motivate and guide teachers who are changing careers. Reasons cited for teachers leaving the profession include a heavily supplied market with reduced demand, economic stagnation and noncompetitive salaries, and job burnout. The workshop is designed to promote the…

Stone, Christopher I.

456

Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a frisbee-type method, the Syncom IV-1 satellite leaves the Discovery's payload bay on its way into service for the U.S. Navy. Retrieval hardware and part of the pallet for securing the Palapa B-2 are pictured near the protective shield for the now vacated Telest-H/PAM-B.

1984-01-01

457

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) General Information  

E-print Network

in a 12 month period with continuation of group health insurance for a specified family event total of 12 weeks of FMLA leave for the birth and care of a newborn child, for placement of a child for adoption or foster care, or to care for a parent with a serious health condition. If either spouse, partner

458

Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

2011-01-01

459

Maternal leave policies and vaccination coverage: a global analysis.  

PubMed

Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. PMID:22196248

Daku, Mark; Raub, Amy; Heymann, Jody

2012-01-01

460

The occurrence of nitrate reductase in leaves of prunus species.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

Leece, D R; Dilley, D R; Kenworthy, A L

1972-05-01

461

"Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

2012-01-01

462

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves  

PubMed Central

The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

2008-01-01

463

Alkaloids from leaves and stems of Vallesia glabra.  

PubMed

Eleven known indole alkaloids: vallesine, aspidospermine, 11-methoxydichotine, apparicine, tubotaďwine, vincadifformine, condylocarpine, (-)-rhazinilam, aspidospermatine, haplocidine, and 18-oxohaplocidine, have been isolated from leaves and stems of Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link. (Apocynaceae) from Bolivia. Analysis of 2 D NMR spectra complete previous 1H and 13C data for vallesine, aspidospermine, and 11-methoxydichotine. PMID:17238065

Zčches, M; Mesbah, K; Richard, B; Moretti, C; Nuzillard, J M; Men-Olivier, L L

1995-02-01

464

Tertiary indole alkaloids from leaves of Tabernaemontana dichotoma.  

PubMed

Seven indole alkaloids were isolated and identified from the leaves of Tabernaemontana dichotoma Roxb. The major alkaloids were: perivine, 19-epi-voacristine, 12-methoxy-voaphylline and vobasine. (-)apparicine, 19-epi-iboxygaine and isomethuenine occurred in minor amounts. PMID:17404903

Perera, P; Samuelsson, G; van Beek, T A; Verpoorte, R

1983-03-01

465

Plaque the Apollo 14 crew will leave on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 14 crew will leave behind on the Moon during their lunar landing mission. The seven by nine-inch stainless steel plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the Lunar Module's descent stage.

1971-01-01

466

Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

2013-04-01

467

Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

468

Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

Mulcahy, D. G.

2012-01-01

469

University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay  

E-print Network

a baby (this includes same-sex partners); (ii) who is the biological father of an expected baby; (iii) who is adopting a child with a partner, or whose partner is adopting a child. 1.2 Paternity leave or adopted child and/or to support the mother following birth or following the adoption of a child. 1

Sussex, University of

470

FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994). 2. Permissible Reasons for Taking FMLA Leave a members of the National Guard or Reserve whose military service combined with the time employed and hours actually worked for CUNY satisfy the time and service requirements (in compliance with the Uniformed

Qiu, Weigang

471

Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

Thomas D. Sharkey

1984-01-01

472

Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and Mediterranean plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexane extracts obtained by percolation from the leaves of nine Mediterranean plants (Daphne oleoides, Myrtus communis, Pelargonium zonale, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia terebinthus, Quercus pubescens, Rhamnus lucioides, Sideritis syriaca, Smilax aspera) and from five leaf spices (Rosmarinum officinalis, Coridothymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pomifera) were examined for the presence of tocopherols by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance

Anila Demo; Christos Petrakis; Panagiotis Kefalas; Dimitrios Boskou

1998-01-01

473

Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

Hoover, James P.

2012-01-01

474

Chemistry & Biology Peptide Length and Leaving-Group Sterics Influence  

E-print Network

of cancer cells. INTRODUCTION The creation and implementation of high-throughput nucleic acid analysisChemistry & Biology Article Peptide Length and Leaving-Group Sterics Influence Potency of Peptide an analysis of parameters influencing potency of peptide phosphonate ABPs for trypsin- fold S1A proteases

Craik, Charles S.

475

Oviposition by butterflies on young leaves: Investigation of leaf volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Various butterflies select young foliage on which to lay their eggs; volatiles emitted by young and old leaves have been compared (by sorption enrichment, followed by GC-MS) to gauge possible qualitative and quantitative differences between the two age groups. The plants investigated are cabbage (Brassica oleracea), two milkweeds (Asclepias syriaca andA. curassavica), the bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and the

Gunnar Bergström; Miriam Rothschild; Inga Groth; Cathy Crighton

1994-01-01

476

Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts  

PubMed Central

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

2011-01-01

477

Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.  

PubMed

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

2011-08-01

478

Bioactive cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at

Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria

1999-01-01

479

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves.  

PubMed

The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (delta), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation-permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

Noblin, X; Mahadevan, L; Coomaraswamy, I A; Weitz, D A; Holbrook, N M; Zwieniecki, M A

2008-07-01

480

Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)

Koman, Michael

2003-01-01

481

Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that ac- cumulate during development and are thought to function as con- stitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita L.) leaves and investigated

Jonathan Gershenzon; Marie E. McConkey; Rodney B. Croteau

2000-01-01

482

A Statewide Analysis of RNs' Intention To Leave Their Position.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary analysis of registered nurse work force data from Vermont (n=4,418, 85% response) identified predictors of intention to leave current position. Differences in intention vary by educational attainment, hours worked, gender, practice role, and practice activity. Improving retention will require increased attention to compensation,…

Rambur, Betty; Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Mongeon, Joan

2003-01-01

483

FACULTY DEVELOPMENT LEAVE COMMITTEE 2012-2013 (FY13)  

E-print Network

FACULTY DEVELOPMENT LEAVE COMMITTEE 2012-2013 (FY13) OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF FACULTIES AND ASSOCIATE@tamu.edu n/a 108 YMCA/ 1126 TAMU Vice-Chair Burlbaw Lynn Education & Human Development Teaching, Learning-oberhelman@tamu.edu 2015 ACAD 119B/ 4215 TAMU Kyle Gerard Agriculture & Life Sciences Recreation, Parks and Tourism

Boas, Harold P.

484

Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1972-01-01

485

Carbon Dreaming: getting to know hummers, tropical leaves  

E-print Network

Carbon Dreaming: getting to know hummers, tropical leaves and power plants Kevin Robert Gurney (CSU of C = 1 Gt C Ocean! 38,000! ~90 /yr! ~90 /yr! Land! 2000! ~120 /yr! ~120 /yr! Rock: 10000000!! #12;The Global Carbon Cycle Atmosphere! 500! Units: billion tons of C = 1 Gt C Ocean! 38,000! ~90/yr! ~90/yr

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

486

When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY: When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi For Amy Arnett, getting a Ph, collecting ants at 33 sites along the way. They had set out to look at how the food resources for ant lions, insects that prey on ants, changed from north to south along the East Coast. But in the process

Gotelli, Nicholas J.

487

Rapid isolation of intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves.  

PubMed

In this chapter, a rapid method to isolate intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves is described. Intact chloroplasts are isolated using two short centrifugation steps and avoiding the use of percoll gradient. Intactness of chloroplast is evaluated by the inability of potassium ferricyanide to enter inside the chloroplasts and to act as an electron acceptor for photosystem II. PMID:20960139

Joly, David; Carpentier, Robert

2011-01-01

488

Morphogenesis of Simple and Compound Leaves: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves. PMID:20435903

Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

2010-01-01

489

HR & Payroll11/5/2008 EMPLOYEE LEAVE REQUEST FORM  

E-print Network

)__________________________________________________ G # _____________________Date of Request ______________________________ Reason for Leave The birth of your child or placement of a child with you for adoption or foster care. A serious health condition that makes you unable to perform the essential functions of your job. A serious health condition affecting

490

Boise State University Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

E-print Network

to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition to submit a medical certification a request for FMLA leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition. Your response or daughter, date of birth: ___________________________ 4) Describe the care you will provide to your family

Barrash, Warren

491

FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) CERTIFICATION FORM Employee's Section  

E-print Network

__________________ (if patient is not employee): Reason for FMLA Leave: a. Employee's (your) own medical condition. b. Employee's spouse/parent/dependant medical cond