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Sample records for mulberry leaves morus

  1. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  2. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.2813.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.2124.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.4131.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.971.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.892.12, 6.129.89 and 0.560.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  3. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  4. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  5. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA. PMID:26743028

  6. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6W/L for 5-15min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60°C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0W/L for 10min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product. PMID:26964954

  7. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  8. Free and bound volatile chemicals in mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ? 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas. PMID:25817411

  9. MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

  10. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) ameliorate obesity-induced hepatic lipogenesis, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ann, Ji-Young; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases such as fatty liver, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and severe metabolic syndrome. Obesity causes metabolic impairment including excessive lipid accumulation and fibrosis in the hepatic tissue as well as the increase in oxidative stress. In order to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) extract (MLE) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, lipogenesis, and fibrosis in liver, MLE has been gavaged for 12weeks in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. MLE treatment significantly ameliorated LXR?-mediated lipogenesis and hepatic fibrosis markers such as ?-smooth muscle actin, while MLE up-regulated lipolysis-associated markers such as lipoprotein lipase in the HFD-fed mice. Moreover, MLE normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione peroxidase in accordance with protein levels of 4-hydroxynonenal in the HFD-fed mice. MLE has beneficial effects on obesity-related fatty liver disease by regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, fibrosis, and antioxidant defense system. MLE supplementation might be a potential therapeutic approach for obesity-related disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26463593

  11. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26343778

  12. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  13. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-01-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp. PMID:27014591

  14. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-06-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp. PMID:27014591

  15. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    PubMed Central

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and plasma free fatty acids by 50, 6, 31 and 22% respectively in STZ- diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats which had significantly (P<0.01) raised levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids than the normal control rats. A marked increase in fecal bile acids (154%) was observed in mulberry treated diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group indicating conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. In addition, mulberry supplementation significantly lowered LDL-C (67%) and VLDL-C (44%) levels and increased HDL-C (53%) and also decreased atherogenic index (58%) significantly when compared to the diabetic control group. CONCLUSION: Besides the diabetic rats, mulberry leaves affected lipid profile in normal rats also indicating hypolipidemic effect as a result of the synergistic action of bioactive compounds. PMID:20165649

  16. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  17. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  18. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

    2013-01-01

    Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, Yongcheon showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas Somok had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the Cheongil mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

  19. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

  20. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  1. Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (14) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19??1.10 and 15.82??1.11?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34mg/g to 0.53mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

  2. Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.

    PubMed

    Natić, Maja M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Papetti, Adele; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojević, Mirjana; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 μM ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

  3. Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

    2011-06-01

    Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

  4. Metabolic Effects of Mulberry Leaves: Exploring Potential Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Hunyadi, A.; Liktor-Busa, E.; Mrki, .; Martins, A.; Jedlinszki, N.; Hsieh, T. J.; Bthori, M.; Hohmann, J.; Zupk, I.

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

  5. Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

  6. Enterobacter morus sp. nov., a novel Enterobacter species associated with bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mulberry pathogenetic bacterial strain R18-2T isolated from the diseased mulberry root was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the strain R18-2T to the genus Enterobacter. The strain was Gram nega...

  7. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7?g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7?g/Kg?DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7?g/Kg?DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  8. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  9. Genetic relationship in mulberry (Morus L.) inferred through PCRRFLP and trnD-trnT sequence data of chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dechang; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Shumin; Wang, Zhaohong; Chen, Chuanjie

    2014-01-01

    Ten universal primer pairs of the plant chloroplast genome were used to amplify the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) non-coding regions in eight mulberry (Morus spp.) genotypes, including M. mongolica, M. bombycis, M. alba, M. atropurpurea and M. multicaulis. Subsequently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested by seven restriction enzymes and the trnD-trnT fragment for sequence alignment, and the variations were expected to provide the genetic information for system classification. The results from this study showed that: (1) 10 cpDNA primer pairs could be used for successful amplification in the tested materials, with approximately 17.1kb of the chloroplast genome analysed. The 152 marker loci were detected by 70 primer/restriction endonuclease combinations, among which the trnD-trnT non-coding region digested by AluI, HinfI, MvaI and RsaI was detected by visible fragment length variation in different genotypes of the genus Morus. (2) eight Morus L. genotypes were divided into two groups based on the digesting pattern discrepancy through cpDNA. The M. multicaulis genotypes displayed diversity on an intraspecies level. Nongsang No.12 was identical with the female parent Beiqu No.1 (M. atropurpurea) in the surveyed sequence, but different from the male parent Tongxiangqing (M. multicaulis), suggesting that the cpDNA was maternal inheritance in Morus L. (3) There were two deletion fragments (451456bp; 840863bp) and six base point mutations in the trnD-trnT region based on homologous sequence alignment. The sequence of trnD-trnT in the cpDNA of mulberry could provide more genetic information for phylogenetic analysis and pedigree identification. PMID:26019528

  10. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    PubMed

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40°C, 60°C, and 80°C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. PMID:26868567

  11. Effect of fortification of Mulberry leaves with homeopathic drug Nux vomica on Bombyx mori. L.

    PubMed

    Hiware, C J

    2006-07-01

    Silk worm (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were fed on Mulberry leaves treated with Nux vomica mother tincture. The impact on larval, cocoon, shell and pupal weight, silk ratio, average filament length and denier, and number of breakages during reeling were investigated. The results were positive in all parameters under study except cocoon weight, pupal weight, and the average denier of the filament. PMID:16815518

  12. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  13. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    DNJ, an inhibitor of α-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs from Mulberry (Morus notabilis) RNA-seq Data.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobo; Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Ma, Qingguo; Zhao, Yi; Pei, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Numerous sources of evidence suggest that most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs and also into a large number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), a group consisting of ncRNAs longer than 200 nucleotides, have been found to play critical roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation across all kingdoms of life. However, lncRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in plants, especially in woody plants. In this paper, we used a computational approach to identify novel lncRNAs from a published RNA-seq data set and analyzed their sequences and expression patterns. In total, 1133 novel lncRNAs were identified in mulberry, and 106 of these lncRNAs displayed a predominant tissue-specific expression in the five major tissues investigated. Additionally, functional predictions revealed that tissue-specific lncRNAs adjacent to protein-coding genes might play important regulatory roles in the development of floral organ and root in mulberry. The pipeline used in this study would be useful for the identification of lncRNAs obtained from other deep sequencing data. Furthermore, the predicted lncRNAs would be beneficial towards an understanding of the variations in gene expression in plants. PMID:26938562

  15. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. PMID:26850343

  16. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42 Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method. PMID:24425885

  17. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Morus alba L. (Egyptian mulberry) root bark fractions supplementation in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Sinkkonen, Jari; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2006-05-01

    The 70% alcohol extract of the Egyptian Morus alba L. root bark was fractionated over cellulose CC eluted with water, 50% methanol and finally with 100% methanol to yield 3 fractions (MRBF-1, MRBF-2 and MRBF-3), respectively. In continuation of chromatographic purification of 70% alcohol extract fractions of the Egyptian M. alba L. root bark, 4 compounds namely: mulberroside A, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside and albanols A and B were isolated from MRBF-2 for the first time from the Egyptian plant. Experimentally induced atherosclerosis was produced by feeding rats a diet enriched in coconut oil (25% by weight) and cholesterol (2% by weight) for 21 days. Then, hypercholesterolemic rats were orally administered (MRBF-1, MRBF-2 and MRBF-3 fractions) in a dose of 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 successive days, in order to evaluate their expected hypocholesterolemic activity. Lipid profile parameters such as plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, LDL:HDL ratio and triglycerides, as well as plasma and liver lipid peroxides and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme levels, serum paraoxonase enzyme level, LDL oxidation, LDL aggregation and LDL retention, were measured. Plasma and liver glutathione-S-transferase enzyme levels were unaffected in all studied groups. The results revealed that the administration of (MRBF-2 and/or MRBF-3) fractions resulted in alleviation of atherosclerotic state. Administration of MRBF-3 significantly retained plasma and liver peroxides towards their normal levels, and also, produced significant increase in resistance towards major atherogenic modifications; namely LDL oxidation, LDL aggregation and LDL retention by 44%, 30%, and 33%, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that the consumption of MRBF-2 and (MRBF-3, in some extent) fractions of M. alba L. root bark 70% alcohol extract may act as a potent hypocholesterolemic nutrient and powerful antioxidant via the inhibition of LDL atherogenic modifications and lipid peroxides formation in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:16313926

  18. Identification and Determination of the Polyhydroxylated Alkaloids Compounds with α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Activity in Mulberry Leaves of Different Origins.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tao; Li, Jun; Su, Shu-Lan; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry leaves have commonly been utilized in China as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes for thousands of years. To evaluate the quality, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed for identification of polyhydroxylated alkaloids with α-glucosidase inhibitor activity in mulberry leaf. As a result, five alkaloid compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Among them, the compound 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was selected as the most typical and active chemical marker and quantified using an improved high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) normal phase coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) method. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision and repeatability, as well as recovery, and subsequently applied to evaluate twenty-nine batches of mulberry leaves from different collections. From the analytical data it was discovered that the average content of DNJ is 1.53 mg/g, while the total contents of DNJ in the 29 mulberry leaf sample ranged from 0.20 to 3.88 mg/g, which suggested remarkable differences, although it reached the highest levels in early August. These data may provide an important reference for the quality of mulberry leaves used as herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes or as a material to obtain the DNJ of α-glucosidase inhibitor or as a functional food. PMID:26867190

  19. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57C, an extraction time of 80min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.920.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10?g/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry. PMID:26686153

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the mulberry Na(+)/H(+) exchanger gene family.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boning; Long, Dingpei; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Changying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2016-02-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHXs) have important roles in cellular pH, and Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in plants. Mulberry is not only an important traditional economic woody plant known for its leaves, which are the exclusive food source of the silkworm Bombyx mori, but it can also adapt to many different adverse conditions, including saline environments. However, little is known about the NHXs in this important perennial tree. In this study, we identified and cloned seven putative NHX gene family members from Morus atropurpurea based on a genome-wide analysis of the Morus genome database. A phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization of mulberry NHXs suggested that the mulberry NHX family forms three distinct subgroups. Transcriptome data and real-time PCR of different mulberry varieties under normal culture conditions revealed that the mulberry NHX family has a different tissue-specific pattern in the two mulberry species. The MaNHX genes' expression analyses under different stresses (salt and drought) and signal molecules (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and methyl jasmonate) revealed that MaNHXs not only could be induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid as describe in the literature, but were also induced by other signal molecules, which indicated that MaNHX members exhibited diverse and complicated expression patterns in different mulberry tissues under various abiotic stresses, phytohormones and plant signaling molecules. Our results provide some insights into new and emerging cellular and physiological functions of this group of H(+)-coupled cation exchangers, beyond their function in salt tolerance, and also provide the basis for further characterizations of MaNHXs' physiological functions. PMID:26730882

  1. [Electrophoresis with the mulberry leave extract and officinal peat for the rehabilitative treatment of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Grigorian, E G; Malerian, D S; Seropian, N S; Sarkisian, R A; Iskandarian, V A; Khachatrian, K K; Avetisian, K G

    2008-01-01

    Electrophoresis using a 5% aqueous extract of mulberry leaves and a 5% aqueous extract of Tavish peat at the right hypochondrium of patients included in the study had beneficial effect on the clinical picture of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis. Specifically, the state of the hepatobiliary system improved judging by the results of staged chromatic duodenal probing, ultrasonographic examination of biliary ducts, and bioresonance diagnostics. Also, positive changes were recorded in energy metabolism. It is recommended that electrophoresis using an aqueous mulberry leaf extract be prescribed to patients with a short duration of the disease and hyperkinetic biliary ducts and intestines. In case of an inflammatory process in these organs or hypomotor dyskinesia of biliary ducts, good results can be obtained using electrophoresis with Tavish peat extracts having a wide spectrum of action. They are indicated for the rehabilitative treatment of digestive organ pathology. PMID:19069798

  2. Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  3. Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm. PMID:24612781

  4. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macário; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  5. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macrio; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrcia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antnia; Napoleo, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000?mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000?mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000?mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  6. Inhibitory effects of extractives from leaves of Morus alba on human and rat small intestinal disaccharidase activity.

    PubMed

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Yamada, Mai; Nakamura, Mariko; Sadamori, Naoki; Nakamura, Sadako

    2006-05-01

    The inhibitory effect on human and rat intestinal disaccharidase by the extractive from the leaves of Morus alba (ELM) containing 0.24 % 1-deoxynojirimycin equivalent and its inhibitory activities were investigated by the modified Dahlqvist method. In the presence of 1000-fold diluted ELM solution, the sucrase activity of four human samples was inhibited by 96 % and that of maltase and isomaltase by 95 and 99 %, respectively. The activities of trehalase and lactase were inhibited by 44 and 38 %, respectively. The human disaccharidase activities varied from sample to sample because the samples were obtained from different resected regions after surgery. However, the ratio of the inhibitory effect for sucrase, maltase, isomaltase, trehalase and lactase was very similar among the four samples, and also that of resembled rat intestinal disaccharides. The inhibitory constant of the 1-deoxynojirimycin equivalent for sucrase, maltase and isomaltase was 2.1 x 10(-4), 2.5 x 10(-4) and 4.5 x 10(-4) mm, respectively, and these inhibitory activities were shown, using rat brush border membrane vesicles, to be competitive. These results demonstrate that digestion is inhibited when an appropriate amount of ELM is orally ingested with sucrose or polysaccharide in man. When ELM was orally administered in a sucrose solution to fasted rats, the elevation in blood glucose was significantly suppressed, depending on the concentration of ELM given. These results suggest that ELM could be used as an ingredient in health foods and in foods that help to prevent diabetes. PMID:16611383

  7. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  8. Chlorogenic Acid and Rutin Play a Major Role in the In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Activity of Morus alba Leaf Extract on Type II Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hunyadi, Attila; Martins, Ana; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Seres, Adrienn; Zupk, Istvn

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the white mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) are used worldwide in traditional medicine as anti-diabetics. Various constituents of mulberry leaves, such as iminosugars (i.e. 1-deoxynojirimicin), flavonoids and related compounds, polysaccharides, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids, have been reported to exert anti-diabetic activity, but knowledge about their contribution to the overall activity is limited. The objective of the present work was to determine the in vivo anti-diabetic activity of an extract of mulberry leaves (MA), and to examine to what extent three major constituents, chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin, might contribute to the observed activity. Quantities of the three constituents of interest in the extract were determined by using HPLC-DAD. Activity was determined by using a type II diabetic rat model. After 11 days of per os administration of 250 or 750 mg/kg of MA or the corresponding amounts of each individual compound, a dose dependent decrease of non-fasting blood glucose levels were found for MA, chlorogenic acid and rutin, but not for isoquercitrin. Based on our results, chlorogenic acid and rutin might account for as much as half the observed anti-diabetic activity of MA, hence they can be considered as excellent markers for the quality control of mulberry products. PMID:23185641

  9. Genetic diversity and interrelationship among mulberry genotypes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rita; Roychowdhuri, Sukhen; Sau, Haradhan; Das, Bimal Kumar; Ghosh, Pannalal; Saratchandra, Beera

    2007-08-01

    Fourteen morphometric traits were used to examine the genetic divergence of 25 mulberry (Morus spp.) genotypes from varied agroclimatic conditions of India. Wide variation was observed for all the traits. The genotypes irrespective of their place of collection were grouped into 10 different clusters. Seven accessions, that is, Baragura-2, Gorabandha-2, Kalimpong, Herbertpur, Kollegal, Resham majri-7, and UP-14 each a cluster of unique entries will be of useful for genetic resources. Nevertheless, the correlation and path analysis suggest the direct selection of lamina length, fresh leaf weight, leaf area, and single leaf weight will be rewarding for mulberry leaf yield improvement. PMID:17707213

  10. Antioxidant effect of astragalin isolated from the leaves of Morus alba L. against free radical-induced oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sung Zoo; Kwon, Tae Oh; Jeong, Seung-Il; Jang, Seon Il

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant properties of mulberry leaves extract (MLE) and flavonoids isolated from MLE. MLE was prepared by extraction with methanol. Flavonoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxidative hemolysis of normal human red blood cells (RBCs) was induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH]. MLE contained three flavonoids in the order quercetin (QC) > kaempferol (KF) > astragalin (AG). Oxidative hemolysis of RBCs induced by AAPH was suppressed by MLE, AG, KF, and QC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MLE and these three flavonoids prevented the depletion of cystosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in RBCs. AG had the greatest protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis and GSH depletion in RBCs. PMID:23512775

  11. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. PMID:25529706

  12. Effects of quercetin derivatives from mulberry leaves: Improved gene expression related hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in short-term high-fat fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xufeng; Katsube, Takuya; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Mulberry leaves contain quercetin derivatives, which have the effects of reducing obesity and improving lipid and glucose metabolism in mice with obesity. It is not clear whether or not mulberry leaves can directly affect metabolic disorders, in the presence of obesity, because of the interaction between obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of the current study was to assess the direct action of quercetin derivatives on metabolic disorders in non-obese conditions in short-term high-fat diet fed mice. MATERIALS/METHODS C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet, supplemented with either 0% (control), 1%, or 3% mulberry leaf powder (Mul) or 1% catechin powder for five days. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistry were determined, and hepatic gene expression associated with lipid and glucose metabolism was analyzed. RESULTS Body and white fat weights did not differ among the four groups. Plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the 1%, 3% Mul and catechin groups did not differ significantly from those of the controls, however, plasma glucose and 8-isoprostane levels were significantly reduced. Liver gene expression of gp91phox, a main component of NADPH oxidase, was significantly down-regulated, and PPAR-α, related to β-oxidation, was significantly up-regulated. FAS and GPAT, involved in lipid metabolism, were significantly down-regulated, and Ehhadh was significantly up-regulated. Glucose-metabolism related genes, L-PK and G6Pase, were significantly down-regulated, while GK was significantly up-regulated in the two Mul groups compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that the Mul quercetin derivatives can directly improve lipid and glucose metabolism by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing β-oxidation. The 1% Mul and 1% catechin groups had similar levels of polyphenol compound intake (0.4 × 10-5 vs 0.4 × 10-5 mole/5 days) and exhibited similar effects, but neither showed dose-dependent effects on lipid and glucose metabolism or oxidative stress. PMID:25861419

  13. Antiplatelet Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract, Mediated via Inhibiting Granule Secretion and Blocking the Phosphorylation of Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Man Hee; Sung, Yoon-Young; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Hyung; Kim, Ho-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Morus alba L. leaves (MAE) have been used in fork medicine for the treatment of beriberi, edema, diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. However, underlying mechanism of MAE on cardiovascular protection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated whether MAE affect platelet aggregation and thrombosis. Materials and Methods. The anti-platelet activity of MAE was studied using rat platelets. The extent of anti-platelet activity of MAE was assayed in collagen-induced platelet aggregation. ATP and serotonin release was carried out. The activation of integrin ?IIb?3 and phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including MAPK and Akt, were investigated with cytofluorometer and immunoblotting, respectively. The thrombus formation in vivo was also evaluated in arteriovenous shunt model of rats. Results. HPLC chromatographic analysis revealed that MAE contained rutin and isoquercetin. MAE dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. MAE also attenuated serotonin secretion and thromboxane A2 formation. In addition, the extract in vivo activity showed that MAE at 100, 200, and 400?mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently attenuated thrombus formation in rat arterio-venous shunt model by 52.3% (P < 0.001), 28.3% (P < 0.01), and 19.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions. MAE inhibit platelet activation, TXB2 formation, serotonin secretion, aggregation, and thrombus formation. The plant extract could be considered as a candidate to anti-platelet and antithrombotic agent. PMID:24701244

  14. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.84.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.31.22; 69.90.85; 46.31.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.00.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

  15. Cytoprotective activity of mulberry leaf extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2013-01-01

    Morus alba Linn. (MA), mulberry leaves have been used as a beverage for prevention of various diseases including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Recently, the antioxidant activities of the MA leaf extract have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the MA leaf extract on free radical-induced cellular injury. In the in vitro models, the extract scavenged stable free radical (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 20.10 0.78 ? g/ml. The extract protected the erythrocytes from free radical (2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; AAPH)-induced hemolysis with an IC(50) of 74.22 9.87 ?g/ml. Additionally, the extract significantly prevented the gastric mucosal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats when given orally at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg/day for 3 consecutive days (p < 0.05; n=7). However, this effect was not found when the higher doses (1 and 2 g/kg/day) of the extract were tested. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MA leaf extract possesses the cytoprotective activity against free radical-induced cell injury. Therefore, when given at the appropriate dose range, the mulberry leaf may potentially be used as a food supplement in patients with certain diseases in which the oxidative stress-induced cellular injury is pathologically involved. PMID:23261743

  16. An IgE-Mediated Allergic Reaction Caused by Mulberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Sim, Jae Kyoem; Oh, Jee Youn; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sung Yong; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a widespread deciduous tree and its fruit is commonly eaten in Korea and eastern Asia. Some reports demonstrate that mulberry fruit is a food allergen in the Mediterranean area. However, there has been no report of systemic allergic reactions after ingesting mulberry fruit in Korea. An 18-year-old boy with a mulberry fruit allergy visited our allergy clinic. He had experienced generalized urticaria, chest tightness, breathing difficulty, and abdominal cramping after ingesting mulberry fruit. The patient had a positive skin reaction to mulberry fruit extract (mean wheal size, 5 mm). We performed an ELISA to detect specific IgE antibody (Ab) to mulberry fruit extract in the patient's serum compared to those of non-atopic healthy controls and birch-sensitized individuals. Specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit extract was detected in the patient's serum, as compared to non-atopic healthy controls. Another subject, who was strongly sensitized to birch pollen, also had a positive serum-specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit. We performed IgE immunoblot analysis using the patient's and the other subject's sera, who had serum-specific IgE to mulberry fruit, to identify the IgE-binding component. An identical IgE-binding component to mulberry extract was detected in the two subjects at around 17 kDa, and which might be PR 10 of Bet v 1. In conclusion, mulberry fruit could induce a systemic allergic reaction through an IgE-mediated mechanism, and cross-reactivity might occur between mulberry fruit and birch pollen. PMID:25729628

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)–(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)–(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%–(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin B3) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)–(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±.22)–(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)–(576±7.37), (260±3.86)–(280±3.50), and (24±3.51)–(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

  18. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  19. Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

  20. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  1. [Effects of salt stress on mulberry seedlings growth, leaf water status, and ion distribution in various organs].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-bo; Sun, Guang-yu; Liu, Xiao-dong; Hu, Yan-bo; Zhao, Yu-sen

    2009-03-01

    Taking the seedlings of mulberry (Morus alba) varieties Qiuyu and Tailai from Heilongjiang Province as test materials, this paper studied their growth, leaf water relations, and ion distribution in various organs under the stress of different salt concentration. The resu1ts showed that salt stress decreased the plant height and dry mass of the seedlings obviously, and the dry mass of young leaves was more affected than that of old leaves. With increasing salt stress, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential, and relative water content decreased markedly, while the Na+ concentration in root and stem had an obvious increase. When the soil NaCl concentration was 150 mmol L(-1) or higher, the Na+ concentration in leaf, stem, and root reached saturated. Salt stress markedly decreased the K+ and Ca2+ concentrations in leaf, stem, and root as well as the Mg2+ concentration in leaf and stem, but had lesser effects on the Mg2+ concentration in root. The decrease of leaf Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ concentrations under salt stress caused the ion deficiency in plant and limited plant growth, while the regionalized distribution of Na+ in root, stem, and older leaf could be one of the salt tolerance mechanisms of test varieties. PMID:19637589

  2. Effects of Mulberry Leaf Extract Rich in 1-Deoxynojirimycin on Blood Lipid Profiles in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Hasumi, Keiji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    Mulberry leaves are rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. We previously showed that DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract suppressed elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract on plasma lipid profiles in humans. An open-label, single-group study was conducted in 10 subjects with initial serum triglyceride (TG) level ?200mg/dl. Subjects ingested capsules containing DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract at 12mg three times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Our findings showed a modest decrease in serum TG level and beneficial changes in the lipoprotein profile following 12-week administration of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract. No significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed during the study period; no adverse events associated with DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract occurred. PMID:20838571

  3. Biological activities of Morus celtidifolia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Oranday-Crdenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Verde-Star, Mara Julia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this research were to examine the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antiradical/antioxidant activities of the organic extracts obtained from the leaves of the medicinal plant Morus celtidifolia (Family: Moraceae). To evaluate its antimicrobial properties, M. celtidifolia was tested against the bacteria of medical importance: Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay and also by toxicity screening against human cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma). The free radical-scavenging activity was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Results revealed that the hexanic extract has antibacterial activity only against Gram positive strains, while the methanolic extract showed better cytotoxic and antioxidant activities than the non- polar extract with a median lethal dose (LD??) of 125?g/ml, 90?g/ml and 75?g/ml against A. salina, MCF-7 and HeLa cells respectively, and median effective concentration (EC??) of 152?g/ml on radical scavenging assay. This is the first study reporting the biological activities of leaves of Morus celtidifolia. PMID:26142508

  4. Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

  5. Bioactive compounds and sensory quality of black and white mulberries grown in Spain.

    PubMed

    Caln-Snchez, Angel; Martnez-Nicols, Juan Jos; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernndez, Francisca

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare, for the first time, white and black mulberry species in terms of main phytochemical, volatile composition and sensory profile characteristics in eight Spanish clones. The results showed that black and white mulberry species displayed significant different characteristics. PLS analysis has allowed grouping of the clones into four groups (i) MA1, MA2 and MN2, (ii) MN3 and MN4, (iii) MA3 and MA4, and (iv) MN1. Experimental results proved that Spanish mulberries have potential for fresh consumption due to their high antioxidant capacity (10.7-86.1mg Trolox 100g(-1)), polyphenol (76.7-180mg gallic acid 100g(-1)) and ellagic acid content (8.7-15.5mg 100g(-1)) as well as considerable amount of volatile compounds (35) with desirable attributes, which were scored high by a trained panel. Cultivars from the Morus nigra species seem to provide fruits with higher content of bioactive compounds and better aptitude for fresh consumption than Morus alba. Differences among the species should be attributed to genetics because they were cultivated under same conditions. PMID:23979495

  6. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

  7. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  8. Genome-wide identification of abiotic stress-regulated and novel microRNAs in mulberry leaf.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Han, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiguo; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Jiachun; Li, Long

    2015-10-01

    As the most important food plant for sericultural industry, mulberry trees have to suffer from a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses, such as drought and high salinity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to play important roles in abiotic stresses regulation in many plants. However, there are seldom reports on the miRNAs expression profiles upon abiotic challenges in mulberry. In this study, three small RNA libraries from mulberry leaf tissue with or without drought or salt treatment were constructed and deep sequenced. Total of 48 conserved miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 162 novel miRNAs were identified (processing precision value>0.1). A total of 270 and 1963 target genes were predicted for conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs, respectively. 13 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected under drought or salt stresses by deep sequencing and qRT-PCR. 5' RLM-RACE validated Morus 013341 to be the target gene of miR-395a. Our results provided initial clue to further study molecular mechanism on abiotic stresses regulation in mulberry. PMID:26188501

  9. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:26169822

  10. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  11. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a

  12. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. PMID:20854669

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  14. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.553.3%, 4911884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.954.0%, 2012287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 1101021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

  15. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; L, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID:25822202

  16. Characterization and Expression of Genes Involved in the Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction during Ripening of Mulberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1–methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID:25822202

  17. Enhanced Mulberroside A Production from Cell Suspension and Root Cultures of Morus alba Using Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Komaikul, Jukrapun; Kitisripanya, Tharita; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-07-01

    Morus alba L. has been used in Asian traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic and as a whitening agent in cosmetic products. Mulberroside A is the major active compound from M. alba root bark. In this study, cell suspension and root cultures of M. alba were established, and the effect of the elicitors on the enhancement of mulberroside A production in M. alba was investigated. The cell suspension and root cultures of M. alba were exposed to elicitors and then mulberroside A contents were determined by an indirect competitive ELISA method. High levels of mulberroside A were obtained by addition of 100 and 200 ?M salicylic acid with 24 h exposure time in cell suspension cultures (37.9 1.5 and 34.0 4.7 mg/g dry wt., respectively). Furthermore, addition of yeast extract at 2 mg/mL with 24 h exposure time can significantly increase mulberroside A contents from both cell suspension (3.2-fold) and root cultures (6.6-fold). Mulberroside A contents from both cell suspension and root cultures after treatment with elicitors are similar or higher than those found in the intact root and root bark of several years old M. alba. These results indicate that mulberry tissue cultures using the elicitation method are interesting alternative sources for mulberroside A production. PMID:26411024

  18. Differential responses in photosynthesis, growth and biomass yields in two mulberry genotypes grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Sreeharsha, Rachapudi Venkata; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine the responses of two mulberry genotypes (Morus alba L.), which include a drought tolerant (DT) Selection-13 (S13) and a drought susceptible (DS) Kanva-2 (K2) grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) of 550 ?mol mol(-1). Although both genotypes exhibited positive responses to elevated CO2, S13 showed higher light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') and apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), suggesting better Rubisco carboxylation. Increased water use efficiency (WUEi) in elevated CO2 grown S13 (ES13) was due to reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E). Elevated CO2 significantly increased chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics including maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (FV/FM) and performance index (PI(ABS)) suggesting an improved photosystem-II efficiency in both genotypes compared to their respective controls. Even though ES13 showed superior photosynthetic performance, accumulation of soluble and insoluble sugars (starch) were significantly low compared to elevated CO2 grown K2 (EK2), demonstrating higher sink capacity in ES13, which in turn resulted in better biomass yields. We conclude that S13 could be a potential genotype for mulberry-based short rotation forestry (SRF) to mitigate increasing atmospheric [CO2] as well as for the production of carbon neutral renewable bio-energy. PMID:26298067

  19. Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

  20. Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Khaled M.; Mostafa, Ashraf M.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 μU/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 μU/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 μM methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds. PMID:22145117

  1. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming

    2004-01-01

    Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

  2. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp.

    PubMed

    Fu, YaoWu; Zhang, QiZhong; Xu, De-Hai; Xia, Huan; Cai, XinXing; Wang, Bin; Liang, Jinghan

    2014-02-19

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), an important fish parasite, can cause significant losses in aquaculture. To find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of white mulberry Morus alba was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. Bark was powdered and extracted with 1 of 5 organic solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, or methanol. The extracts were concentrated, dissolved in 0.1% (v/v) DMSO, and used for anti-Ich trials. Acetone and ethyl acetate extracts significantly reduced the survival of Ich tomonts and theronts. In vitro, acetone extract at 25 mg l-1 killed all non-encysted tomonts, at 50 mg l-1 eradicated all encysted tomonts, and at 8 mg l-1 caused mortality of all theronts. Ethyl acetate extract at 50 mg l-1 eliminated all non-encysted tomonts, at 100 mg l-1 killed all encysted tomonts and terminated tomont reproduction, and at 8 mg l-1 killed all theronts. Low concentrations (2 and 4 mg l-1) of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts could not kill all theronts after 4 h exposure, but a significant decrease in theront infectivity was observed following 30 min of pretreatment with the extracts. The 96 h LC(50) values of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts to grass carp were 79.46 and 361.05 mg l-1, i.e. much higher than effective doses for killing Ich theronts (8 mg l-1 for both extracts) and non-encysted tomonts (12.5 and 25 mg l-1, respectively). Thus M. alba extract may be a potential new, safe, and efficacious drug to control Ich. PMID:24553418

  3. Protective effect of Morus rubra L. leaf extract on diet-induced atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suman Bala; Tanwar, Reenu Singh; Rini, A C; Singh, Usha Rani; Gupta, Shipra; Shukla, Santosh Kumar

    2010-02-01

    The antiatherosclerotic effect of aqueous leaves extract of Morus rubra was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with atherosclerotic (Ath) diet [1.5 ml olive oil containing 8 mg (3, 20,000 IU) vitamin D2 and 40 mg cholesterol] for 5 consecutive days. A short-term toxicity assessment was also conducted in healthy rats to examine toxic effects of the extract. Oral administration of extract to diabetic rats (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per day for a period of 30 days) produced significant (p<0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG) in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with the extract (400 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) improvement in body weight and serum lipid profile i.e., total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, when compared with diabetic control. Endothelial dysfunction parameters (sVCAM-1, Fibrinogen, total NO levels and oxidized LDL), apolipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B were significantly (p<0.001) reversed to near normal, following treatment with the extract. Thus, our study shows that aqueous leaf extract of Morus rubra (400 mg/kg) significantly improves the homeostasis of glucose and fat and possesses significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. PMID:21086751

  4. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210

  5. Polyphenols from the stems of Morus alba and their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Rivire, Cline; Krisa, Stphanie; Pchamat, Laurent; Nassra, Merian; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Axel; Badoc, Alain; Waffo-Tguo, Pierre; Mrillon, Jean-Michel

    2014-09-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. Microglial cells, the main immune cells of the central nervous system, represent a target of interest to search for naturally occurring anti-inflammatory products. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols obtained from the stems of Morus alba. This edible species, known as white mulberry, is frequently studied because of its traditional use in Asian medicine and its richness in different types of polyphenols, some of which are known to be phytoalexins. One new coumarin glycoside, isoscopoletin 6-(6-O-?-apiofuranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) (1) was mainly isolated by CPC (centrifugal partition chromatography) from this plant, together with seven known polyphenols (2-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including extensive 2D NMR studies. The eight isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. The absence of cell toxicity is checked by a MTT assay. PMID:24912117

  6. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15-53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

  7. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  8. Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2014-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. PMID:25467154

  9. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of anthocyanins of mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) from different varieties mulberry fruit in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Qing; Guo, Ying; Xu, Dian-Hong; Huang, Ya-Si; Yuan, Ke; Lv, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins, copiously distributed in a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, are probably the most important group of visible plant pigments besides chlorophyll. And the mulberry fruit is one of the anthocyanins-rich fruits. Total flavonols, total phenolic acids and anthocyanins contents of ten varieties mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) were determined. The highest content was 965.634.90 mg RE/g, 690.837.38 mg GAE/g and 272.001.20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g FW, respectively. Moreover, MJP and MMP exhibited high antioxidant activity, including total force reduction (TRP), Fe? reducing power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of MJP and MMP was determined through mice-burden swimming experiments. Interestingly, the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of MMP were much higher than those of MJP. The experimental results suggested that the generally discarded mulberry marc had greater value of development and utilization as food processing waste. PMID:23727333

  10. An Efficient Preparation of Mulberroside A from the Branch Bark of Mulberry and Its Effect on the Inhibition of Tyrosinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 mol/L and 0.12 mol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 mol/L and 0.926 mol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 mol/L and 0.662 mol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 mol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 mol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics. PMID:25299075

  11. Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Huang, Weidong; Jin, Wanzhu; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-02-01

    Mulberry extract (ME) has been shown to possess beneficial effects towards obesity, but its mechanism is still unclear. In small mammals, mitochondria enriched brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to convert protein's electrochemical energy to heat and maintain a constant body temperature. Improving the mitochondrial function or increasing the number of mitochondria could promote the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mitochondrial function regulated by ME and mulberry wine extract (MWE) during the brown adipogenesis. The C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell was treated with ME and MWE, both of which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression levels of fatty acid oxidation related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, PR domain-containing 16 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? during brown adipogenesis. These changes were accompanied with increases in mitochondrial oxidative complex proteins upon ME and/or MWE exposure. Notably, ME and/or MWE also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression of the transcription factor A and the nuclear respiratory factor-1, which are the key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis. In parallel, the mitochondrial copy number and brown adipose tissue specific gene-uncoupling protein-1 expression were dramatically (p < 0.05) elevated after ME or MWE treatment. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) was found to be one of the most abundant anthocyanins in ME and MWE. Therefore, the BAT regulatory activity of ME and MWE might be, at least in part, due to the effect of Cy-3-glu. These results suggested that ME and MWE could ameliorate metabolic disease through an improvement in mitochondrial functions. PMID:25554947

  12. Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2014-01-01

    Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220 g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300 mg·kg−1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mulberry Vein Banding Associated Virus, a New Tospovirus Infecting Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiaorong; Liu, Pingping; Zhu, Liling; Zou, Chengwu; Li, Jieqiu; Chen, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry vein banding associated virus (MVBaV) that infects mulberry plants with typical vein banding symptoms had been identified as a tentative species of the genus Tospovirus based on the homology of N gene sequence to those of tospoviruses. In this study, the complete sequence of the tripartite RNA genome of MVBaV was determined and analyzed. The L RNA has 8905 nucleotides (nt) and encodes the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 2877 aa amino acids (aa) in the viral complementary (vc) strand. The RdRp of MVBaV shares the highest aa sequence identity (85.9%) with that of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), and contains conserved motifs shared with those of the species of the genus Tospovirus. The M RNA contains 4731 nt and codes in ambisense arrangement for the NSm protein of 309 aa in the sense strand and the Gn/Gc glycoprotein precursor (GP) of 1,124 aa in the vc strand. The NSm and GP of MVBaV share the highest aa sequence identities with those of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (83.2% and 84.3%, respectively). The S RNA is 3294 nt in length and contains two open reading frames (ORFs) in an ambisense coding strategy, encoding a 439-aa non-structural protein (NSs) and the 277-aa nucleocapsid protein (N), respectively. The NSs and N also share the highest aa sequence identity (71.1% and 74.4%, respectively) with those of CaCV. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, NSm, GP, NSs, and N proteins showed that MVBaV is most closely related to CaCV and GBNV and that these proteins cluster with those of the WSMoV serogroup, and that MVBaV seems to be a species bridging the two subgroups within the WSMoV serogroup of tospoviruses in evolutionary aspect, suggesting that MVBaV represents a distinct tospovirus. Analysis of S RNA sequence uncovered the highly conserved 5’-/3’-ends and the coding regions, and the variable region of IGR with divergent patterns among MVBaV isolates. PMID:26291718

  14. Mulberry anthocyanin extract regulates glucose metabolism by promotion of glycogen synthesis and reduction of gluconeogenesis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fujie; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Lingxia; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-20

    Mulberry has been demonstrated to possess important biological activities such as antioxidation and antiinflammation. However, research on the ability of mulberry for diabetes improvement mainly focuses on the leaves and less on the fruit. This study showed that a mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) had a significant effect on increasing the glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. The MAE enhanced the glycogen content and suppressed levels of glucose production. The enzyme activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were decreased in HepG2 cells after MAE treatment due to PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) inhibition. Moreover, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) was increased by the MAE, leading to an expression enhancement of glycogen synthase 2 (GYS2). And this effect was blocked by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. In summary, our results suggested that the MAE regulates glucose metabolism by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway that relates to glycogen synthesis as well as through the inhibition of key molecules that promote gluconeogenesis. PMID:26467565

  15. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing, cold pressing, pasteurization, and filling-packing. Two major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside), two phenolic acids (3- and caffeoylquinic acid) and 3 flavonols (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside) were identified using LC-QTOF-MS and were quantified using HPLC. Approximately, 60-70% of the fruit anthocyanins were retained in the final juice, which also contained high levels of caffeoylquinic acids, relative to the fruit. Mashing and pressing were the steps which were effective for the recovery of fruit polyphenolics into the juice fraction. Moreover, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, applied to determine the effect of processing on the bioavailability of mulberry antioxidants, indicated a higher anthocyanin bioavailability for the fruit matrix than for the juice matrix. PMID:25976822

  16. Attenuation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Liver Damage by Mulberry Leaf Diet in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Rejina; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Wahed, Mir Imam Ibne; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Sreedhar, Remya; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Nakamura, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Masahiko; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2016-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Although antidiabetic use of mulberry leaves (MLs) has been popular due to their many anti-oxidative flavonoid compounds and free radical scavenging effects, ML's effects on ERS in experimental diabetic hepatocyte injury remain unknown. To investigate how ML affect ERS in diabetic liver, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to induce diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) and fed with either normal chow or a diet containing 25% mulberry leaf powder diet (MLD) and examined for 56 days. We observed that MLD improved the rats' morphological and histopathological changes. Levels of ERS markers such as phosphorylated double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and the protein expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were significantly higher in the diabetic liver compared to normal liver. MLD for 8 weeks significantly reduced all of these markers. MLD also significantly decreased hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatic macrophage recruitment, cellular infiltration, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2), interleukin 1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text]) and sterol regulatory element binding protein isoform 1c (SREBP 1c) levels in diabetic liver. These results may suggest that MLs can preserve hepatic function in experimental diabetes by modulating ERS mediated apoptosis and liver damage. PMID:26916916

  17. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

  18. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent. PMID:25957753

  19. Non-mulberry Silk Fibroin Biomaterial for Corneal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Sarbani; Nandi, Sudip; Naskar, Deboki; Guha, Rajdeep; Chowdhury, Sushovan; Pradhan, Nirparaj; Kundu, Subhas C.; Konar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Successful repair of a damaged corneal surface is a great challenge and may require the use of a scaffold that supports cell growth and differentiation. Amniotic membrane is currently used for this purpose, in spite of its limitations. A thin transparent silk fibroin film from non-mulberry Antheraea mylitta (Am) has been developed which offers to be a promising alternative. The silk scaffolds provide sufficient rigidity for easy handling, the scaffolds support the sprouting, migration, attachment and growth of epithelial cells and keratocytes from rat corneal explants; the cells form a cell sheet, preserve their phenotypes, express cytokeratin3 and vimentin respectively. The films also support growth of limbal stem cell evidenced by expression of ABCG2. The cell growth on the silk film and the amniotic membrane is comparable. The implanted film within the rabbit cornea remains transparent, stable. The clinical examination as well as histology shows absence of any inflammatory response or neovascularization. The corneal surface integrity is maintained; tear formation, intraocular pressure and electroretinography of implanted eyes show no adverse changes. The silk fibroin film from non-mulberry silk worms may be a worthy candidate for use as a corneal scaffold. PMID:26908015

  20. DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

  1. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Mulberry, Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Wang, Min; Gan, Ren-You; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials. PMID:21686165

  2. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  3. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  4. Milled non-mulberry silk fibroin microparticles as biomaterial for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Devi, Dipali

    2015-11-01

    Silk fibroin has been widely employed in various forms as biomaterials for biomedical applications due to its superb biocompatibility and tunable degradation and mechanical properties. Herein, silk fibroin microparticles of non-mulberry silkworm species (Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea mylitta and Philosamia ricini) were fabricated via a top-down approach using a combination of wet-milling and spray drying techniques. Microparticles of mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori) were also utilized for comparative studies. The fabricated microparticles were physico-chemically characterized for size, stability, morphology, chemical composition and thermal properties. The silk fibroin microparticles of all species were porous (?5?m in size) and showed nearly spherical morphology with rough surface as revealed from dynamic light scattering and microscopic studies. Non-mulberry silk microparticles maintained the typical silk-II structure with ?-sheet secondary conformation with higher thermal stability. Additionally, non-mulberry silk fibroin microparticles supported enhanced cell adhesion, spreading and viability of mouse fibroblasts than mulberry silk fibroin microparticles (p<0.001) as evidenced from fluorescence microscopy and cytotoxicity studies. Furthermore, in vitro drug release from the microparticles showed a significantly sustained release over 3 weeks. Taken together, this study demonstrates promising attributes of non-mulberry silk fibroin microparticles as a potential drug delivery vehicle/micro carrier for diverse biomedical applications. PMID:26226458

  5. Mulberry Transcription Factor MnDREB4A Confers Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Cao, Bo-Ning; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhao, Ai-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors have been reported to be involved in stress responses. Most studies have focused on DREB genes in subgroups A-1 and A-2 in herbaceous plants, but there have been few reports on the functions of DREBs from the A-3–A-6 subgroups and in woody plants. Moreover, mulberry trees are ecologically and economically important perennial woody plants, but there has been little research on its stress physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. In this study, a DREB gene from the mulberry tree, designated as MnDREB4A, classified into the A-4 subgroup by our previous study, was selected for further characterization. Our results showed that the MnDREB4A protein was localized to the nucleus where it activated transcription. The promoter of MnDREB4A can direct prominent expression downstream of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under heat, cold, drought and salt stress, and GUS staining was deepest after 12 h of stress treatment. The MnDREB4A-overexpression transgenic tobacco showed the improved growth phenotype under untreated conditions, such as greener leaves, longer roots, and lower water loss and senescence rates. Overexpression of MnDREB4A in tobacco can significantly enhance tolerance to heat, cold, drought, and salt stresses in transgenic plants. The leaf discs and seedlings of transgenic plants reduced leaf wilting and senescence rates compared to the wild type plants under the different stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also had higher water contents and proline contents, and lower malondialdehyde contents under untreated condition and stress conditions. Our results indicate that the MnDREB4A protein plays an important role in plant stress tolerance. PMID:26695076

  6. The Mulberry Cogeneration Facility: Design features and operating success

    SciTech Connect

    Jasper, W.M.; Wierschem, R.A.; Gray, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mulberry Cogeneration Facility is in successful, reliable, and profitable service, with the complex requirements of zero discharge, extensive water treatment, process steam supply, and inlet chillers having been reduced to routine, automated operation. What was initially visualized by the developer as a straightforward combined cycle plant became much more than that as the various requirements for environmental and regulatory compliance became necessities, along with the desire to maximize output and revenues in response to growing power demands. A delicate balance exists between a financially successful cogeneration project and the Owners` obligation to the community and the environment. As competitive pressures grow and expectations of investors, insurers, operators, and the public increase, still more creativity will be required to provide a safe, reliable, cost-effective plant on ever shorter schedules.

  7. Effect of gossypol and gossypol related compounds on mulberry pyralid (diaphania pyloalis walker, lepidoptera: pyralidae), a pest of the Mulberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypol, gossypurpurin and diaminogossypol were tested for inhibitory effects against feeding mulberry pyralid larvae (Diaphania pyloalis Walker, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The inclusion of very low concentrations of these compounds (10, 50 or 100 µmoles/g) in artificial diets increased the number of...

  8. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

  9. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section 334.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  10. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section 334.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  11. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section 334.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  12. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section 334.280 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  13. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  14. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  15. Hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and vascular protective effects of Morus alba L. in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Kwon, Tae Oh; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    Morus alba L. has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and almost all parts of this plant are useful in cardiovascular, liver and spleen disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of a water extract from Morus alba L. (WMA) on vascular dysfunction in rat models fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of food with 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg WMA, for 14 weeks. Chronic treatment with low (100 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/day/kg) doses of WMA markedly attenuated hypertension and the impairments of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic rings in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA reduced intima/media thickness in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA improved plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but did not affect blood glucose levels. Interestingly, WMA suppressed increased cell adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in the aorta. Taken together, these results suggested that Morus alba L. could improve an atherogenic diet-induced hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and vascular dysfunction through inhibition of cell adhesion molecules expression and induction of vascular relaxation. PMID:21213397

  16. Sugarcane and mulberry silage supplementation of sheep during the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    David, Caroline Marçal Gomes; Costa, Ricardo Lopes Dias da; Parren, Guadalupe Aparecida Espicaski; Rua, Miguel Alejandro Silva; Nordi, Ellen Carolina Pereira; Okamoto, Fumiko; Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with silage made from sugarcane alone or mulberry and sugarcane on the gastrointestinal nematodes and hematological parameters in peripartum Santa Inês ewes. Three groups, each of 15 ewes, were supplemented with either 100 % sugarcane silage or sugarcane silage and mulberry at ratios of either 75:25 or 50:50. The variables analyzed were weight, body condition, packed cell volume, total plasma protein, hemoglobin, total leukocytes, eosinophils, and number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. All variables were measured individually every 14 days, making ten samples per ewe. Diets with sugarcane added to different proportions of mulberry branches did not influence the blood and parasitological parameters of Santa Inês sheep naturally infected in the peripartum period. PMID:25761641

  17. Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R.; Manjunath, Nanjappa C.; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-01-01

    Aim The dietary contents have a very important role in the management of metabolic syndrome along with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indian diet contains a large amount of carbohydrates that set off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations and leads to increased risk of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of mulberry tea in the reduction of abnormally high postprandial blood glucose (PPG) levels in T2DM patients. Methods The study design was follow-up T2DM, 20 diabetic patients were given plain tea (control) and 28 diabetic patients were given mulberry tea (test subject) to measure the effect of mulberry tea on fasting blood glucose and PPG levels. Fasting blood glucose samples were collected after a standard breakfast. The PPG levels were recorded after the consumption of 70 ml tea along with 1 teaspoon of sugar after 90 min in all 48 patients. Results Fasting blood glucose levels in control and test group samples were found to be 178.55 ± 35.61 and 153.50 ± 48.10, respectively. After the consumption of plain tea and mulberry tea, the PPG values were recorded as 287.20 ± 56.37 and 210.21 ± 58.73, respectively. A highly significant (p < 0.001) change in the PPG level was observed in response to mulberry tea in all the test patients compared with control. Moreover, the effect size was also found to be very large (1.31). Conclusion Mulberry tea suppresses postprandial rise of blood glucose levels after 90 min of its consumption. PMID:25561880

  18. Coincidence of conchachoanal polyp and complete mulberry hypertrophy of inferior concha.

    PubMed

    Akduman, Davut; Karaman, Murat; Aydin, Eda; Korkmaz, Deniz; Karaaslan, Ahmet; Turgut, Suat

    2009-04-01

    We report two unique cases of 50- and 28-year-old Turkish men with coincidence of conchachoanal polyp and mulberry hypertrophy of the inferior concha. We operated on both cases with endoscopic stripping of the polypoid tissue while preserving the periosteum and healthy mucosa of the inferior nasal concha. The polypoid tile of the left inferior nasal concha was resected in the case with mulberry hypertrophy at only the tail of the concha. Both cases reported significant relief of symptoms after the operations. PMID:19205019

  19. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yiming; Liu, Min; Ouyang, Yanan; Zhao, Xianfang; Ju, Yanlun; Fang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Background Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs) and relative odor contributions (ROCs) were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types) of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54%) and mulberry wines (2.08%) were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%), and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was superior to raspberry and mulberry wines. PMID:26617387

  20. Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

  1. Specific detection and identification of mulberry-infecting strains of Xylella fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X. fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular land...

  2. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17-carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the "out of Taiwan" hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China "into North Taiwan," the "out of South China-Indochina" expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  3. Comparison Between in Vivo and in Vitro Metabolite Production of Morus nigra.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Monacelli, B; Messana, I

    1999-02-01

    Nine flavonoids and seven Diels-Alder type adducts were isolated from the acetonic extract of MORUS NIGRA I. root bark, and three flavonoids and six Diels-Alder type adducts were isolated from the acetonic extract of M. NIGRA L. callus. However, none of the metabolites isolated from the root bark was found in the cell culture. Moreover, adducts isolated from the plant and cell culture showed not only a different cyclohexene ring substitution but also a different stereochemistry, that was found CIS-TRONS in the metabolites isolated from callus, and TRANS-TRANS in those isolated from the root bark. PMID:17260241

  4. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26567954

  5. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Morus mongolica and a comparative analysis within the Fabidae clade.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2016-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the Morus mongolica chloroplast (cp) genome was reported and characterized in this study. The cp genome is a circular molecule of 158,459bp containing a pair of 25,678bp IR regions, separated by small and large single-copy regions of 19,736 and 87,363bp, respectively. The number and relative positions of the 114 unique genes (80PCGs, 30tRNAs, and 4rRNA genes) are almost identical to Morus indica cp genome. Further detailed comparative analyses revealed one hypervariable region, which is responsible for 88% of the total variation, and 64 indel events between two individuals. There are 78 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in M. mongolica cp genome, in which 58 of them are mononucleotide repeats. Comparative analysis with M. indica cp genome indicated 22 SSRs with length polymorphisms and 1 SSR with nucleotide content polymorphism. The phylogenetic analysis of 60PCGs from 62 cp genomes provided strong support for the monophyletic, single origin of Fabidae (N2-fixing) clade. PMID:26205390

  7. Quantification of Changes in Mulberry Silk Fabrics due to Different Laundering: Using WAXS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswara, P.; Nivedita, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2011-07-01

    Loom finished mulberry silk fabrics (Taffeta) were machine laundered and hand laundered several times. X-ray diffractograms of pure and laundered fabrics were used to calculate microstructural parameters like average crystallite size (D) and lattice strain (Vegr) employing Williamson-Hall plot. Microstructural parameters were compared with measured mechanical properties like breaking load, tenacity, and elongation of warp yarns unraveled from fabrics. Surface morphology and texture of silk fabrics changed upon washing is evident from SEM images.

  8. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17–carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China “into North Taiwan,” the “out of South China–Indochina” expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  9. Optimization for ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry fruits with antioxidant and hyperglycemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69°C, ultrasonic power 190W and extraction time 75 min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions. PMID:26076608

  10. Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2014-08-01

    Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550?molmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy. PMID:24938741

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380–1030 nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  12. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo degradations of silk fibroin scaffolds from mulberry and nonmulberry silkworms.

    PubMed

    You, Renchuan; Xu, Yamei; Liu, Yi; Li, Xiufang; Li, Mingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Degradation behavior is very important in the field of silk-based biomaterials. Mulberry and nonmulberry silk fibroins are structurally and functionally distinguishable; however, no studies have examined the differences in the degradation behaviors of silk materials from various silkworm species. In this study, Ca(NO3)2 was used as a uniform solvent to obtain regenerated mulberry and nonmulberry (Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai) silk fibroin (SF) solutions, and the degradation behaviors of various SF scaffolds were examined. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that regenerated mulberry SF scaffolds exhibited significantly higher mass loss and free amino acid content release than did nonmulberry SF scaffolds. The differences in the primary structures and condensed structures between mulberry and nonmulberry SF contributed to the significant difference in degradation rates, in which the characteristic (-Ala-)n repeats, compact crystal structure and high ?-helix and ?-sheet contents make nonmulberry SF more resistant than mulberry SF to enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai SFs possess similar primary structures and condensed structures, although a slight difference in degradation was observed; this difference might depend on the differences in molecular weight following the regeneration process. The results indicate that the original sources of SF significantly influence the degradation rates of SF-based materials; therefore, the original sources of SF should be fully considered for preparing tissue engineering scaffolds with matched degradation rates. PMID:25532470

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380-1030?nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  14. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with C/C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60 on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80, the glucose syrup as -11.20 and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

  15. Spermidine enhances the silk production by mulberry silkworm.

    PubMed

    Lattala, Gayatri Manogna; Kandukuru, Kasturaiah; Gangupantula, Shamitha; Mamillapalli, Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous low molecular weight polycationic aliphatic amines involved in diverse cellular processes. Spermidine (Spd), a polyamine, has been proved to be crucial for cell survival in various organisms. Our study reports the effect of Spd on the growth of Bombyx mori. Silkworms showed improved silk gland weight and economic parameters in the fifth instar larval stage when treated with different concentrations of Spd, in the range of 25-75?M. The worms treated with Spd produced 31% more silk when compared with the control worms. Altogether, this study establishes that Spd-treated leaves can be fed into the larvae for better silk production. PMID:25502041

  16. Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

    A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

  17. Adsorption properties of macroporous adsorbent resins for separation of anthocyanins from mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zhang, Min; Li, Jing; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Cobbina, Samuel J; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of mulberry anthocyanins (MA) on five types of macroporous resins (XAD-7HP, AB-8, HP-20, D-101 and X-5) were evaluated, XAD-7HP and AB-8 showed higher adsorption/desorption capacities. On the basis of static adsorption test, XAD-7HP and AB-8 resins were selected for kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics. The adsorption mechanism indicated that the process was better explained by pseudo-first-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the thermodynamics tests showed that the processes were exothermic, spontaneous and thermodynamically feasible. Dynamic tests were performed on a column packed with XAD-7HP and AB-8, and breakthrough volume was reached at 15 and 14 bed volumes of MA solution, respectively. The purity of the fraction by 40% ethanol elution on XAD-7HP reached 93.6%, from which cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The method could be used to prepare high purity anthocyanins from mulberry fruits as well as other plants. PMID:26471611

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in mulberry cells of Saccoglossus and Ptychodera (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta).

    PubMed

    Cameron, C B; Mackie, G O; Powell, J F; Lescheid, D W; Sherwood, N M

    1999-04-01

    Mulberry cells are epidermal gland cells bearing a long basal process resembling a neurite and are tentatively regarded as neurosecretory cells. They occur scattered through the ectoderm of the proboscis, collar, and anterior trunk regions of the acorn worms Saccoglossus, usually in association with concentrations of nervous tissue. They contain secretion granules that appear from electron micrographs to be released to the exterior. The granules are immunoreactive with antisera raised against mammalian and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Similar results were obtained with another enteropneust, Ptychodera bahamensis, using antisera raised against tunicate-1 and mammalian GnRH. Mulberry cells were not found in either Cephalodiscus or Rhabdopleura (Hemichordata: Pterobranchia). Extracts of tissues from 4200 Saccoglossus contain an area of immunoreactive GnRH that is detected by an antiserum raised against lamprey GnRH when characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. This is the first report of the occurrence of GnRH in hemichordates, probably the most primitive group clearly belonging to the chordate lineage. The physiological function of GnRH in enteropneusts is unknown, but an exocrine function appears more likely than an endocrine or neurotransmitter role. PMID:10094853

  19. Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruits protects pancreatic ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Park, Jun Myoung; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin?3?glucoside (C3G), isolated from mulberry fruits, on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of this compound. MIN6N pancreatic ??cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G. In addition, the effects of C3G on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells was evaluated using MTT assay, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometric and western blot analyses. The pancreatic ??cells cultured under high glucose conditions exhibited distinct apoptotic features. C3G decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptosis. C3G also prevented pancreatic ??cell apoptosis induced by high glucose conditions by interfering with the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, C3G treatment resulted in increased insulin secretion compared with treatment with high glucose only. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that C3G obtained from mulberry fruits may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25501967

  20. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Recent worldwide inclination for the consumption of natural compounds has extremely augmented the significance of persistent quality of plant materials. Consequently, there is an escalating scientific concern in the impact of geographical distributions of the plants on their chemical constituents, physical characteristics and biological activities. The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit. The samples were collected from five different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which included districts of D. I. Khan, Karak, Peshawar, Swabi and Swat. The results revealed the considerable impact of geographical locations on the levels of proximate nutrient and selected minerals. Likewise, the concentrations of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and alkaloidal contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to their geographical distributions. The physicochemical characteristic, extraction yields and DPPH scavenging activity of the samples also showed strong link with the sites of their cultivation. The data suggest that geographical distributions affect the levels of phytochemicals and conversely their biological activities. These variations must be taken into consideration while utilizing raw plant materials for industrial applications and traditional therapies. PMID:26408872

  1. Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

  2. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-? production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  3. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-? production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  4. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  5. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  6. Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

    2010-04-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

  7. Energy Expenditure of Free-Ranging Chicks of the Cape Gannet Morus capensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ren A; Mullers, Ralf H E; Meijer, Haro A J; Underhill, Les G

    2015-01-01

    The Cape gannet Morus capensis, a large fish-eating seabird, is endemic to southern Africa. To study the energetics of nestling growth, we used the doubly labeled water technique to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) of nestlings, from hatchings to large partly feathered chicks (n = 17) at Malgas Island, Saldanha Bay, South Africa. At the same time, the growth rate of a large sample of chicks was measured (n = 338). These data, together with literature values on resting metabolic rate and body composition, were used to construct and partition the nestling energy budget. Nestling FMR (kJ d(-1)) increased with body mass according to FMR = 1.23m(0.923), r(2) = 0.944. Mass-specific FMR (FMRratio; kJ d(-1) g(-3/4)) was independent of chick age (r(2) = 0.20, P > 0.05); mean mass-specific FMR was 4.11 1.28, n = 17. Peak daily-metabolized energy (DME), which represents the maximum rate at which parents must supply their nestlings, occurred at age 71 d and was 2,141 kJ d(-1). Between the ages 51 and 92 d (43% of the fledging period), the DME of Cape gannet chicks was equal to or surpassed 90% of adult FMR at the nest. Energy demand during this period of peak DME represented 58% of the total metabolized energy, which was estimated at 150.1 MJ for an average chick during a 97-d period, from hatching to fledging. Sensitivity analysis of the energy budget indicated that the model was robust; the biggest source of error (15%) was for the mass-FMR equation used in the model. PMID:26052637

  8. Value added of mulberry paper waste by carboxymethylation for preparation a packaging film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachtanapun, P.; Kumthai, S.; Mulkarat, N.; Pintajam, N.; Suriyatem, R.

    2015-07-01

    Cellulose from mulberry paper waste was converted to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCm) by etherification using chloroacetic acid and various sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations (30-60 g/100 mL). The degree of substitution of the various CMCm materials produced ranged between 0.33-0.45. The chemical structure of cellulose and the synthesized CMCm materials was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. CMCm films were cast and tested. The tensile strength (TS) and percent elongation at break (EB) of the films were investigated. The highest TS (32.58 MPa) and EB (2.39%) were found using the 50g /100 mL NaOH-synthesized CMCm film. The effect of glycerol as a plasticizer on TS and EB of this CMCm film was also evaluated. Increasing the glycerol content decreased TS and increased EB of the CMCm films.

  9. Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruit protects pancreatic ?-cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam-In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-02-01

    The extract obtained from berries contains high amounts of anthocyanins, and this extract is used as a phytotherapeutic agent for different types of diseases. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) isolated from mulberry fruit against pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. The MIN6 pancreatic ?-cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G on the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cells. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and lipid peroxidation was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis were also used to determine apoptosis and the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis. Our results revealed that H2O2 increased the rate of apoptosis by stimulating various pro-apoptotic processes, such as the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. However, C3G reduced the H2O2-induced cell death in the MIN6N pancreatic ?-cells. In addition, we confirmed that H2O2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. C3G inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 without inducing the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, C3G regulated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway-associated proteins, such as proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family, cytochrome c and caspase-3. Taken together, our results suggest that C3G isolated from mulberry fruit has potential for use as a phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress-induced ?-cell apoptosis. PMID:25435295

  10. Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328 K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  11. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization and Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC) on Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of Mulberry Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Zou, Bo

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) on microbial and nutrient qualities of mulberry juice was evaluated. Results showed that repeated HPH passes at 200 MPa or adding DMDC at 250 mg/L significantly inactivated the indigenous microorganisms in mulberry juice (P < 0.05), whereas some surviving microorganisms recovered to grow during storage of 4 °C. The combined treatment with 3 passes of HPH and 250 mg/L of DMDC (HPH-DMDC) decreased the population of surviving indigenous microorganisms to the level attained by heat treatment at 95 °C for 1 min (HT) with no significant increase (P > 0.05) in the population of microorganisms during subsequent storage at 4 °C. Moreover, no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the physical attributes, including pH, TSS ((o) Brix), L*, a*, and b* values were observed in the samples treated by the HPH-DMDC or by HT. Compared with HT, HPH-DMDC treatment resulted in a higher degree of retention in total phenolics, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, although the treatment led to higher losses in cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and antioxidant capacity. Overall, HPH-DMDC treatment can be a useful alternative to conventional thermal pasteurization of mulberry juice, considering its ability to inactive, and inhibit indigenous microorganisms. PMID:26764561

  12. Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

    2014-06-01

    The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants.

  13. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt. PMID:26877641

  14. Mulberry (桑葚子 Sang Shèn Zǐ) and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Pei; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Mulberry (桑葚子 sāng shèn zǐ), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs) and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. PMID:24716151

  15. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39106.43mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 141.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4C for 1week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P?0.05), but did affect the odor (P?0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.901.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  16. Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress. PMID:25231943

  17. Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

  18. Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.

    PubMed

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

    2013-05-01

    Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 ?g g(-1)) than any other MT chars. PMID:23567680

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure. PMID:24779598

  20. Purification, characterization and anti-diabetic activity of a polysaccharide from mulberry leaf.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Ren, Chunjiu; Lu, Guobing; Cui, Weizheng; Mu, Zhimei; Gao, Huiju; Wang, Yanwen

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a high-purity polysaccharide from mulberry leaf (MLP) was purified and characterized, and its anti-diabetic effects were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results showed that the obtained MLP (purity 99.8%) was determined to be composed of d-arabinose, d-xylose, d-glucose, d-rhamnose and d-mannose with molar ratio of 1:2.13:6.53:1.04:8.73. Oral administration of MLP at 50-200mg/kgbodyweight daily for 5weeks significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP), serum total cholesterol (TC), and serum triglyceride (TG), and increased the body weight, fasting insulin (FINS), C-peptide (C-P), liver glycogen, liver glucokinase, and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, MLP promoted marked pancreatic ?-cell regeneration and insulin secretion, and reduced liver fat accumulation in diabetic rats. The treatment effect of MLP on diabetes was similar to the effect of antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. These results clearly indicated that MLP may have a potential for the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetes. PMID:25455227

  1. Nonmulberry Silk Fibroin Scaffold Shows Superior Osteoconductivity Than Mulberry Silk Fibroin in Calvarial Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Neety; Baligar, Prakash; Midha, Swati; Kundu, Banani; Bhattacharjee, Maumita; Mukherjee, Snehasish; Mukherjee, Souhrid; Maushart, Florian; Das, Sanskrita; Loparic, Marko; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Sourabh; Mukhopadhyay, Asok

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have witnessed the advancement of silk biomaterials in bone tissue engineering, although clinical application of the same is still in its infancy. In this study, the potential of pure nonmulberry Antheraea mylitta (Am) fibroin scaffold, without preloading with bone precursor cells, to repair calvarial bone defect in a rat model is explored and compared with its mulberry counterpart Bombyx mori (Bm) silk fibroin. After 3 months of implantation, Am scaffold culminates in a completely ossified regeneration with a progressive increase in mineralization at the implanted site. On the other hand, the Bm scaffold fails to repair the damaged bone, presumably due to its low osteoconductivity and early degradation. The deposition of bone matrix on scaffolds is evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. These results are corroborated by in vitro studies of enzymatic degradation, colony formation, and secondary conformational features of the scaffold materials. The greater biocompatibility and mineralization in pure nonmulberry fibroin scaffolds warrants the use of these scaffolds as an "ideal bone graft" biomaterial for effective repair of critical size defects. PMID:26084249

  2. Effects of Morus alba L. and Natural Products Including Morusin on In Vivo Secretion and In Vitro Production of Airway MUC5AC Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jae; Ryu, Jiho; Park, Su Hyun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Kim, A Ryun; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Ju-Ock; Hong, Jang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background It is valuable to find the potential activity of regulating the excessive mucin secretion by the compounds derived from various medicinal plants. We investigated whether aqueous extract of the root bark of Morus alba L. (AMA), kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, and morusin significantly affect the secretion and production of airway mucin using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods Effect of AMA was examined on hypersecretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced acute bronchitis in rats. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, or morusin for 30 minutes and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 hours. The MUC5AC mucin secretion and production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results AMA stimulated the secretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis rat model; aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G and morusin inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that extract of the root bark and the natural products derived from Morus alba L. can regulate the secretion and production of airway mucin and, at least in part, explains the folk use of extract of Morus alba L. as mucoregulators in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases. PMID:25237377

  3. Identification and Partial Characterization of Midgut Proteases in the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H.; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50 C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 2.0 M and 116.06 1.96 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

  4. Identification and partial characterization of midgut proteases in the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50 C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5- 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 2.0 M and 116.06 1.96 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

  5. Enhancing Mulberry Leaf Meal with Urea by Pelleting to Improve Rumen Fermentation in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tan, N. D.; Wanapat, M.; Uriyapongson, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Pilajun, R.

    2012-01-01

    Four, ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman×native) beef cattle with initial body weight of 420±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were mulberry leaf pellet (MUP) supplementation at 0, 200, 400 and 600 g/hd/d with rice straw fed to allow ad libitum intake. All steers were kept in individual pens and supplemented with concentrate at 5 g/kg of body weight daily. The experiment was 4 periods, and each lasted 21 d. During the first 14 d, all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and during the last 7 d, they were moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection. It was found that increasing MUP levels resulted in linearly increasing rice straw and total intakes (p<0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not significantly affected by MUP supplementation while NH3-N concentration was increased (p<0.05) and maintained at a high level (18.5 mg/dl) with supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d. Similarly, viable total bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic bacteria were enriched by MUP supplementation at 600 g/hd/d. However, the rumen microbial diversity determined with a PCR-DGGE technique showed similar methanogenic diversity between treatments and sampling times and were similar at a 69% genetic relationship as determined by a UPGMA method. Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d improved DM intake, ruminal NH3-N, and cellulolytic bacteria thus iimproving rumen ecology in beef cattle fed with rice straw. PMID:25049585

  6. Xylella fastidiosa isolates from mulberry harbor a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian isolates of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  7. Plasmids of Xylella fastidiosa Mulberry-Infecting Strains Share Extensive Sequence Identity and Gene Complement with pVEIS01 From the Earthworm Symbiont Verminephrobacter Eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ~25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  8. Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

  9. Characterization of polysaccharide fractions in mulberry fruit and assessment of their antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai; Li, Chao

    2016-01-20

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the polysaccharide fractions of mulberry fruit, and their antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Mulberry fruit polysaccharides (MFP) were extracted by using hot water as the solvent and fractioned by using a DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column. In total four eluents of water (MFP-1), 0.1 M NaCl (MFP-2), 0.2 M NaCl (MFP-3) and 0.3 M NaCl (MFP-4) were fractionated. Arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose were the main components present in MFP-1, while MFP-2 and MFP-3 were composed of arabinose and galactose, and MFP-4 of arabinose, galactose and glucose. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) analysis indicated a narrower molecular weight distribution in the MFP-1 fraction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited a smooth surface for MFP-1 and MFP-3 fractions, whereas MFP-2 and MFP-4 have pore openings and flocculent fibers on a smooth surface. Tertiary structure analyses indicated that none of the fractions had a triple-helical conformation. On the whole, MFP-3 and MFP-4 showed better antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to MFP-1 and MFP-2. These results show significant potential for the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of MFP-3 and MFP-4 indicating the need for their further exploration as potential antidiabetic agents. PMID:26569512

  10. Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

    2014-06-01

    This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the γ phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in γ phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the γ-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized γ alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the γ fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity.

  11. Mulberry extracts alleviate a? 25-35-induced injury and change the gene expression profile in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against ?-amyloid 25-35- (A? 25-35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200??g/mL) for 24?h were treated with A? 25-35 (20??mol/L) for another 24?h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent A? 25-35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the "Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway" and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit A? 25-35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

  12. Promotion of mitotic catastrophe via activation of PTEN by paclitaxel with supplement of mulberry water extract in bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nien-Cheng; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. Mulberry fruit is rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids and exhibits chemopreventive activities. In this study, mulberry water extract (MWE) was used as a supplement to synergize with the effects of paclitaxel in the treatment of the TSGH 8301 human bladder cancer cell line. Treatment with paclitaxel combined with MWE (paclitaxel/MWE) enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and induced severe G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and subsequent apoptosis, as shown by MTT assay, HE staining and flow cytometry analyses. Differences in the expression and activation of Aurora A and Plk1between cells treated with paclitaxel/MWE and paclitaxel alone suggested that the combined treatment caused a defect in the early steps of cytokinesis. Paclitaxel/MWE decreased EEA1immunofluorescence staining and increased the expression of PTEN, indicating that the regimen inhibited the formation of the recycling endosome, which is required for cytokinesis. Paclitaxel/MWE also retarded tumor growth in a TSGH 8301 xenograft model via activation of PTEN and Caspase 3. These data demonstrated a synergistic effect on the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel through MWE supplementation by promoting mitotic catastrophe through the activation of PTEN, providing a novel and effective therapeutic option for bladder cancer treatment strategies. PMID:26838546

  13. Promotion of mitotic catastrophe via activation of PTEN by paclitaxel with supplement of mulberry water extract in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nien-Cheng; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lee, Yi-Ju; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. Mulberry fruit is rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids and exhibits chemopreventive activities. In this study, mulberry water extract (MWE) was used as a supplement to synergize with the effects of paclitaxel in the treatment of the TSGH 8301 human bladder cancer cell line. Treatment with paclitaxel combined with MWE (paclitaxel/MWE) enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and induced severe G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and subsequent apoptosis, as shown by MTT assay, HE staining and flow cytometry analyses. Differences in the expression and activation of Aurora A and Plk1between cells treated with paclitaxel/MWE and paclitaxel alone suggested that the combined treatment caused a defect in the early steps of cytokinesis. Paclitaxel/MWE decreased EEA1immunofluorescence staining and increased the expression of PTEN, indicating that the regimen inhibited the formation of the recycling endosome, which is required for cytokinesis. Paclitaxel/MWE also retarded tumor growth in a TSGH 8301 xenograft model via activation of PTEN and Caspase 3. These data demonstrated a synergistic effect on the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel through MWE supplementation by promoting mitotic catastrophe through the activation of PTEN, providing a novel and effective therapeutic option for bladder cancer treatment strategies. PMID:26838546

  14. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs) in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Dhanyalakshmi, K. H.; Naika, Mahantesha B. N.; Sajeevan, R. S.; Mathew, Oommen K.; Shafi, K. Mohamed; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; N. Nataraja, Karaba

    2016-01-01

    The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs). Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS), which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface) for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pufas/ and the web service is accessible at http://capservices.ncbs.res.in/help/pufas. PMID:26982336

  15. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  16. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-02-11

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 0.82 and 26.9 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

  17. Morus alba Accumulates Reactive Oxygen Species to Initiate Apoptosis via FOXO-Caspase 3-Dependent Pathway in Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Hwi; Bishayee, Kausik; Rahman, Ataur; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon-Sung; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba root extract (MARE) has been used to treat hyperglycaemic conditions in oriental medicine. Here, we studied whether MARE possesses a cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma. To check the cytotoxicity generated by MARE was whether relatively higher against the cancer cells rather than normal cells, we chose a neuroblastoma cell line (B103) and a normal cell line (Rat-2). A CCK assay revealed that MARE (10 ?g/ml) reduced cell viability to approximately 60% compared to an untreated control in B103 cells. But in Rat-2 cells, MARE induced relatively lower cytotoxicity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of MARE, we used flow cytometry combined with immunoblot analyses. We found that MARE-treatment could accumulate ROS and depolarize mitochondria membrane potential of B103 cells. Further treatment with MARE in B103 cells also could damage DNA and induce apoptosis. An expression study of p-Akt also suggested that there was a reduction in cellular proliferation and transcription along with the process of apoptosis, which was further evidenced by an increase in Bax and cleaved-caspase 3 activity. Together, our findings suggest that MARE produces more cytotoxicity in cancer cells while having a relatively attenuated effect on normal cells. As such, MARE may be a safer option in cancer therapeutics, and it also shows potential for the patients with symptoms of hyperglycemia and cancer. PMID:25921607

  18. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2016-02-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  19. The system Tetrabothrius bassani (Tetrabothriidae)/Morus bassanus (Sulidae) as a bioindicator of marine heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paula; Eira, Catarina; Vingada, Jos; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

    2013-03-01

    Helminths are known to accumulate higher amounts of certain elements than their hosts. The present study assesses the accumulation of heavy metals in Tetrabothrius bassani and in its host, the Atlantic gannet (Morus bassanus) found dead due to bycatch along the seashore in the centre of Portugal. Samples of kidney, liver and pectoral muscle of 23 infected gannets, as well as specimens of T. bassani were analysed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn by ICP-MS. The evidenced lower concentrations of Cr and Pb in tissues of gannets in comparison to an earlier study performed in the same area may reveal a change in the diet of M. bassanus between both study periods. The highest bioaccumulation factor was obtained for Cd with a 12.7-times higher concentration in the cestode than in gannet muscle. Lead concentration in T. bassani was 6.9-times higher than in kidney tissue, 8.5-times higher than in muscle and 9.5-times higher than in liver of M. bassanus. The cestode/seabird system T. bassani/M. bassanus can be considered a promising bioindicator system to monitor environmental Cd and Pb pollution in marine ecosystems. PMID:23377908

  20. RAPD and ISSR based evaluation of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets of Morus alba L. variety S-1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Soumen; Adhikari, Sinchan; Dey, Tulsi; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2015-01-01

    Plant regeneration through rapid in vitro clonal propagation of nodal explants of Morus alba L. variety S-1 was established along with genetic stability analysis of regenerates. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in various culture regimes. Highest number of shoots (5.62 ± 0.01), with average length 4.19 ± 0.01 cm, was initially achieved with medium containing 0.5 mg/l N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Repeated subculturing of newly formed nodal parts after each harvest up to sixth passage, yielded highest number of shoots (about 32.27) per explants was obtained after fourth passage. Rooting of shoots occurred on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). About 90% (89.16) of the plantlets transferred to the mixture of sand:soil:organic manure (2:2:1) in small plastic pots acclimatized successfully. Genetic stability of the discussed protocol was confirmed by two DNA-based fingerprinting techniques i.e. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat). This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies. PMID:26693403

  1. Problematising Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is

  2. In vitro evaluation of a novel non-mulberry silk scaffold for use in tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Musson, David S; Naot, Dorit; Chhana, Ashika; Matthews, Brya G; McIntosh, Julie D; Lin, Sandy T C; Choi, Ally J; Callon, Karen E; Dunbar, P Rod; Lesage, Stephanie; Coleman, Brendan; Cornish, Jillian

    2015-05-01

    Tearing of the rotator cuff tendon in the shoulder is a significant clinical problem, with large/full-thickness tears present in ?22% of the general population and recurrent tear rates postarthroscopic repair being quoted as high as 94%. Tissue-engineered biomaterials are increasingly being investigated as a means to augment rotator cuff repairs, with the aim of inducing host cell responses to increase tendon tissue regeneration. Silk-derived materials are of particular interest due to the high availability, mechanical strength, and biocompatibility of silks. In this study, Spidrex(), a novel knitted, non-mulberry silk fibroin scaffold was evaluated in vitro for its potential to improve tendon regeneration. Spidrex was compared with a knitted Bombyx mori silk scaffold, a 3D collagen gel and Fiberwire() suture material. Primary human and rat tenocytes successfully adhered to Spidrex and significantly increased in number over a 14 day period (p<0.05), as demonstrated by fluorescent calcein-AM staining and alamarBlue() assays. A similar growth pattern was observed with human tenocytes cultured on the B. mori scaffold. Morphologically, human tenocytes elongated along the silk fibers of Spidrex, assuming a tenocytic cell shape, and were less circular with a higher aspect ratio compared with human tenocytes cultured on the B. mori silk scaffold and within the collagen gel (p<0.05). Gene expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that rat tenocytes cultured on Spidrex had increased expression of tenocyte-related genes such as fibromodullin, scleraxis, and tenomodulin (p<0.05). Expression of genes that indicate transdifferentiation toward a chondrocytic or osteoblastic lineage were significantly lower in tenocytes cultured on Spidrex in comparison to the collagen gel (p<0.05). Immunogenicity assessment by the maturation of and cytokine release from primary human dendritic cells demonstrated that Spidrex enhanced dendritic cell maturation in a similar manner to the clinically used suture material Fiberwire, and significantly upregulated the release of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.05). This suggests that Spidrex may induce an early immune response postimplantation. While further work is required to determine what effect this immune response has on the tendon healing process, our in vitro data suggests that Spidrex may have the cytocompatibility and bioactivity required to support tendon regeneration in vivo. PMID:25604072

  3. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180?>?175?>?170?>?165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0?20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180?>?170?>?175?>?165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180?>?165?>?170?>?175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle ?) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results could provide scientific support for soil and water conservation in the hydro-fluctuation belt and for biological filter construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir area to control the transport of sediment and non-point source pollutants. PMID:26385473

  4. Evaluation of bioactive compounds of black mulberry juice after thermal, microwave, ultrasonic processing, and storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Mantri, Nitin; Hu, Ya; Lu, Jiayin; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Hongfei

    2015-07-01

    The effect of different sterilization methods (thermal, microwave, and ultrasonic processing) on the main bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of black mulberry juice during selected storage time (8 days) and temperatures (5, 15, and 25??) was investigated. The antioxidant activity of thermal-treated juice depleted with storage time, whilst both ultrasound- and microwave-treated juices showed transient increase in antioxidant activity during the first 2 days that later decreased with storage time. Lower temperature storage preserved more bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, especially in ultrasound sterilized samples. The activation energy values were 15.99, 13.07, and 12.81?kJ/mol for ultrasonic, microwave, and thermal pasteurization processes, respectively. In general, ultrasound-sterilized samples showed higher total phenolics, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity compared to the microwave- and thermal-processed juice during the storage time especially at lower temperatures. PMID:24917651

  5. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  6. Mulberry Extracts Alleviate Aβ25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against β-amyloid 25–35- (Aβ25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200 μg/mL) for 24 h were treated with Aβ25–35 (20 μmol/L) for another 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent Aβ25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit Aβ25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

  7. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Two Novel Regio-specific Flavonoid Prenyltransferases from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Ridao; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Xiao; Xie, Kebo; Chen, Dawei; Yin, Yunze; Tao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jianhua; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2014-01-01

    Prenylated flavonoids are attractive specialized metabolites with a wide range of biological activities and are distributed in several plant families. The prenylation catalyzed by prenyltransferases represents a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the flavonoid skeleton in the biosynthesis of natural prenylated flavonoids and contributes to the structural diversity and biological activities of these compounds. To date, all identified plant flavonoid prenyltransferases (FPTs) have been identified in Leguminosae. In the present study two new FPTs, Morus alba isoliquiritigenin 3′-dimethylallyltransferase (MaIDT) and Cudrania tricuspidata isoliquiritigenin 3′-dimethylallyltransferase (CtIDT), were identified from moraceous plants M. alba and C. tricuspidata, respectively. MaIDT and CtIDT shared low levels of homology with the leguminous FPTs. MaIDT and CtIDT are predicted to be membrane-bound proteins with predicted transit peptides, seven transmembrane regions, and conserved functional domains that are similar to other homogentisate prenyltransferases. Recombinant MaIDT and CtIDT were able to regioselectively introduce dimethylallyl diphosphate into the A ring of three flavonoids with different skeleton types (chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MaIDT and CtIDT are distantly related to their homologs in Leguminosae, which suggests that FPTs in Moraceae and Leguminosae might have evolved independently. MaIDT and CtIDT represent the first two non-Leguminosae FPTs to be identified in plants and could thus lead to the identification of additional evolutionarily varied FPTs in other non-Leguminosae plants and could elucidate the biosyntheses of prenylated flavonoids in various plants. Furthermore, MaIDT and CtIDT might be used for regiospecific prenylation of flavonoids to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications due to their high efficiency and catalytic promiscuity. PMID:25361766

  8. Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:24755250

  9. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill......

  10. Legacies and Leaving Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role that mothers' and grandmothers' legacies have in the home-leaving transition of adolescent girls from a rural setting. Results suggest issues that school counselors might explore using the concept of legacy, including: distance from home; attachment to families; adolescent girls' interpretation of what it means to be a woman; and

  11. Leaving a Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banach, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Most school board members and superintendents want to leave a lasting legacy to their district. To do this, they need to acknowledge that large-scale change is complex and takes time and that the system will outlast them. Board members can give their communities the gifts of vision, process, and competence. (MLF)

  12. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  13. Bemoans, Belittles, and Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Biniek, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I examine Lynn Truss's book of punctuation rules and faux pas, "Eats, Shoots & Leaves," contemplating the complex relationships among class, academics, and language snobbery. I don't refute Truss's lessons on punctuation. Instead, I use her text as a jumping-off point for discussion of the social issues embedded in her guide and

  14. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk

  15. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students

  16. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  17. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  18. Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-Franois; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

    2015-02-01

    Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Qubec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

  19. Eri silkworm (Samia ricini), a non-mulberry host system for AcMNPV mediated expression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Hosamani, Madhusudan; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; Sreenivasa, B P; Inumaru, Shigeki; Ballal, Chandish R; Venkataramanan, Ramamurthy

    2015-12-20

    The baculovirus expression system (BVES) based on Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is widely used for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. Several insect cells/larvae that are permissive to AcMNPV have been routinely used as hosts to express heterologous proteins. Domesticated Eri silkworm (Samia ricini), reared in many parts of India, Japan and China, is a non-mulberry silkworm. The present study shows that the Eri silkworm larvae are susceptible to intra-haemocoelical inoculation of AcMNPV. The virus replicates in the larva, as indicated by an increased viral loads in the haemolymph upon injection of a recombinant AcMNPV carrying green fluorescent protein gene. The virus showed localized replication in different tissues including the fat body, haemocytes, tracheal matrix and in the Malphigian tubules. The larval system was successfully used to express heterologous protein, by infecting with a recombinant AcMNPV carrying the 3ABC coding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The study shows that the Eri silkworm larva can be a potential alternative bioreactor, for scaling up of the recombinant proteins employing the baculovirus system. PMID:26467714

  20. Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.

    PubMed

    Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

  1. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  2. Judy Holoviak Leaves AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Judy C. Holoviak, AGU director of publications, leaves AGU on 6 May 2009. Her nearly 45-year career at AGU was recognized when she received the 2008 Edward A. Flinn III Award (see Eos, 89(52), 546, 2008). During her tenure, the journals program grew from 803 articles published per year to an average of 22 articles published per day (about 5670 per year); Eos grew from a quarterly journal (under the title of Transactions, American Geophysical Union) to a monthly magazine, and then to a weekly newspaper; and AGU became recognized as a leader in electronic publication.

  3. De Novo Assembly of Expressed Transcripts and Global Transcriptomic Analysis from Seedlings of the Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera)

    PubMed Central

    Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

    2014-01-01

    The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry. PMID:24848504

  4. Combined Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Improved Early Stage of Cutaneous Wound Healing in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a pandemic that causes many health challenges, including difficulties in achieving proper wound healing without complications. The current study investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in the early stages of cutaneous wound healing and the effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) on cutaneous NLRP inflammasome involvement in delayed wound healing mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After obesity was induced by HFD for 10 weeks, the mice were supplemented with MLFE (at a dose of 500?mg/kg containing 333.3?mg/kg of mulberry leaf extract and 166.7?mg/kg of mulberry fruit extract) by gavage, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. MLFE supplementation ameliorated delayed wound closure in obese mice. While wound size was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose level during the early stage of wound healing, it was strongly correlated with body weight gain and body fat mass during the later stage of wound healing. Under obese conditions, the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome and its related markers (pro-caspase-1 and precursor/mature interleukin 1 beta) were increased at a basal level, but the NLRP3 inflammasome was suppressed during the inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing. However, MLFE supplementation stimulated cutaneous NLRP3 inflammasome in HFD-induced obese mice (day 3). Taken together, stimulating the NLRP3 inflammasome might be beneficial in the early inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing and MLFE could be a potential therapeutic intervention in delayed wound healing through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity. PMID:26491791

  5. A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2009-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  6. Parental Leave Policies and Parents’ Employment and Leave-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time-span is one during which parental leave legislation expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive examination of employment and leave-taking by fathers of infants. Our main finding is that leave expansions are associated with increased leave-taking by both mothers and fathers. The magnitudes of the changes are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline for men and much greater for college-educated or married mothers than for their less-educated or single counterparts. PMID:19090048

  7. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Oge, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Oge J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Oge J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

  8. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

  9. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  10. Use of headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction for characterization of volatile aromas of essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender.

    PubMed

    Won, Mi-Mi; Cha, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a new sampling method called headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction (HS-MPB-mu-SPE) combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied for the analysis of volatile aromas of liquid essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender. The technique uses an adsorbent (Tenax TA) contained in a mulberry paper bag, minimal amount of organic solvent. Linearities for the six-points calibration curves were excellent. LOD values were in the rage from 0.38 ng mL(-1) to 0.77 ng mL(-1). Overall, precision and recovery were generally good. Phenethyl alcohol and citronellol were the main components in the essential oil from Bulgarian rose. Linalyl acetate and linalool were the most abundant components in the essential oils from true lavender or lavandin. Additionally, the relative extraction efficiencies of proposed method have been compared with HS-SPME. The overall extraction efficiency was evaluated by the relative concentration factors (CF) of the several characteristic components. CF values by HS-MPB-mu-SPE were lower than those by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The HS-MPB-mu-SPE method is very simple to use, inexpensive, rapid, requires small sample amounts and solvent consumption. In addition, this method allowed combining of extraction, enrichment, and clean-up in a single step. HS-MPB-mu-SPE and GC/MS is a promising technique for the characterization of volatile aroma compounds from liquid essential oils. PMID:19046678

  11. Enzymatic properties of alpha-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Yezdani, Elham; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zibaee, Arash; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the alpha-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and alpha-amylase activity was assayed using the dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The activity of alpha-amylase in the MG and the SG were 0.011 and 0.0018 micromol/min, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase were 9 for MG at 37-40 degrees C and 10 for SG at 37 degrees C respectively. Various concentrations of compounds (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), Urea, EDTA, SDS and CaCl(2)) had differential effects on the enzyme activity. Plant amylase inhibitors may play an important role against insect pests. Hence, the characterization of digestive enzymes and the examination of their inhibitors may be a useful tool in future management of this important mulberry pest. PMID:20176331

  12. UP1304, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba, Mitigates Pain and Inflammation in Adjuvant-induced Arthritic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Though, the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share pain as the prime complaints. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side effects. Hence, the need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is an overdue. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP1304, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba in adjuvant-induced arthritis models in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the botanical composition were demonstrated in adjuvant-induced arthritis models in rats with oral dose ranges of 50–200 mg/kg. Ibuprofen at a dose of 100 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. Ex vivo sulfated glycosaminoglycan inhibition assays were performed. Results: Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance, suppression of paw edema and ankle thickness were observed in animals treated with UP1304 compared to vehicle-treated diseased rats. These results were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment. Inhibitions of proteoglycan degradation were observed in a range of 37.5–61.7% for concentration of UP1304 at 50–200 μg/mL when compared to interleukin-1α-exposed untreated explants. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP1304, for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, could potentially be considered agent of botanical origin for the improvement of arthritis associated symptoms. SUMMARY Pain is one of the cardinal signs of arthritis.Long term applications of commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief are associated with cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects.Cartilage degradation evidenced as glycosaminoglycan loss from articular cartilage into the synovial fluid has been reported in arthritis patients.Adjuvant–induced arthritis model in rats are among the widely used models for efficacy evaluation of nutraceuticals.Efficacy of UP1304, a composition containing a blend of two standardized extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and root bark of Morus alba, was evaluated in adjuvant–induced arthritis model in rats and in glycosaminoglycan releasing inhibition assays.UP1304 demonstrated its enhanced significance by improving the major cardinal signs of arthritis in vivo and ex vivo.UP1304 could potentially be considered as a dietary supplement product for the management of arthritis.

  13. Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

  14. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  15. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  19. Geranylated 2-arylbenzofurans from Morus alba var. tatarica and their α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Ten new geranylated 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives, including two monoterpenoid 2-arylbenzofurans (1 and 2), two geranylated 2-arylbenzofuran enantiomers (3a and 3b), and six geranylated 2-arylbenzofurans (4-9), along with four known 2-arylbenzofurans (10-13) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures and relative configurations were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 3-7 with one asymmetric carbon at C-7″ were supposed to be enantiomeric mixtures confirmed by chiral HPLC analysis, and the absolute configurations of each enantiomer in 3-7 were determined by Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD and Snatzke's method. The enantiomers with the substituting group at C-2' exhibited better resolutions on a Chiralpak AD-H column than those with the substituting group at C-4'. Compounds 1-7, 10, 11 and 13, showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 11.9-131.9 μM, and compounds 1 and 9-13 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 7.9-38.1 μM. PMID:24216050

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Wound Healing of Morus alba Root Extract by Up-Regulating Keratin Filament and CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Hoon; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Yoomi; Kim, Ki-Suk; Lee, In-Seung; Park, Ji Young; Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Na, Yun-Cheol; Lee, Chang-Hun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Facilitation of the wound healing process is important because a prolonged wound site increases pain and the risk of infection. In oriental medicine, an extract of Morus alba root (MA) has usually been prescribed as traditional treatment for accelerating wound healing, and it has been proven to be safe for centuries. To study the molecular mechanism of MA-mediated skin wound healing, we performed a primary cell culture and a skin explant culture and observed significant difference between the groups with and without MA extract. In the cellular system, a real-time cell analysis and real-time quantitative PCR were performed. It was found that MA extract enhanced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner on Kera-308 cell line, and up-regulated keratin expression including wound-induced Krt6a. In skin explant culture, the mRNA level derived from cell outgrowth displayed a tendency toward more up-regulated mRNA associated keratin filaments and toward a more up-regulated mRNA level of C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) and a chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis signaling pathway downstream. In this process, we concluded that MA extract had a scientific possibility of wound repair by increasing intracellular and extracellular supports and by inducing a CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling pathway. PMID:26014513

  1. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), ?-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:21772233

  2. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. PMID:24927367

  3. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2−) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin. PMID:26203268

  4. Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Liu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Chen, Mu; Zeng, Yun; Liu, Jiajun; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy for the preparation of mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers (MLDC NCs) with high drug loading and adjustable dual-drug ratio was developed. First, apogossypolone (ApoG2) amphiphilic starch micelles (AASt MCs) were prepared by self-assembly process, and doxorubicin (DOX) hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (DHA NPs) were prepared by DOX absorption with excess HA by electrostatic absorption. MLDC NCs were obtained by adsorption of 8-9 DHA NPs around one AASt MC via electrostatic interaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometers were used to measure the entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of the two drugs. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering method were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of the particles. The tumor-targeting feature caused by HA-receptor mediation was confirmed by invitro cell uptake and invivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. MLDC NCs were found to possess a mulberry-like shape with a dynamic size of 83.16.6nm. The final encapsulation efficiencies of ApoG2 and DOX in MLDC NCs were 941.7% and 875.8% with respect to drug-loading capacities of 13.31.2% and 13.13.7%, respectively. Almost no ApoG2 release was found within 80h and less than 30% of DOX was released into the outer phase even after 72h. Invivo fluorescence imaging revealed that MLDC NCs had highly efficient targeting and accumulation at the tumor invivo and was maintained for 96h after being injected intravenously in mice. Low LD50 for the two drugs in MLDC NCs was found after acute toxicity test. One-fifth normal dosage of the two drugs in MLDC NCs exhibited significantly higher anti-tumor efficiency in reducing tumor size compared with free drugs combination or single drug-loaded nanoparticles individually, indicating that the mulberry-like dual-drug nanoplatform has a great potential in tumor therapy. PMID:25477180

  5. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  6. A polysaccharide extract of mulberry leaf ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat-diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunjiu; Zhang, Yao; Cui, Weizheng; Lu, Guobing; Wang, Yanwen; Gao, Huiju; Huang, Lu; Mu, Zhimei

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry leaf is a traditional medicine used to treat diabetes in the clinic. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII), improves hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and streptozotocin (STZ). MLPII was administered for 6 weeks after establishment of type 2 diabetes in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance, liver glycogen content, glucose synthase (GS) activity and insulin resistance were determined. Expression patterns of proteins and genes associated with insulin signaling as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed. Compared with normal control rats, MLPII treatment significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01) and restored the glycogen level (P < 0.01) and GS activity (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats. Insulin resistance was improved in MLPII-treated diabetic rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) involved in insulin signaling were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while proteintyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in livers of the MLPII-treated group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), while activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The results clearly indicate that MLPII treatment effectively normalizes hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling by inhibiting the expression of PTP1B, activating the PI3KAKT pathway and mitigating oxidative stress in the livers of rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and STZ. PMID:25316427

  7. Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

    2011-01-01

    The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 1 C, 75 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC?? and LC?? values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC?? treatment was prolonged (5.8 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC?? treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC?? dose was the least (4.53 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC?? was recorded as 105.6 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

  8. Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Rajasekhar, Sowmya Bandhisara; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition site-selection in insects is mediated through innate recognition templates (IRTs) tuned to specific chemical cues. These cues aid gravid insects in choosing suitable oviposition sites and may even enhance the fitness of their offspring by warding off predators and parasitoids. However, studies on the evolution of oviposition site-selection and cues instigating oviposition in domesticated insects remain elusive. Using the interaction between the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and its host plant mulberry, Morus alba, as a model system, we demonstrate that centuries of domestication of silkmoth has not impaired its oviposition site-selection function. Silkmoths significantly preferred mulberry leaves to filter paper as oviposition sites. Oviposition assays with filter paper, filter paper treated with leaf volatiles and leaf alone proved that surface texture was not a significant criterion for oviposition site-selection, but volatile cues were. Oviposition assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from mulberry revealed that two of the volatiles, valencene and ?-humulene, aided moths in choosing suitable oviposition sites and enhanced egg-laying significantly. Moreover, we show that generalist egg-parasitoids are strongly repelled by valencene and ?-humulene. Our results demonstrate that IRTs tuned to cues that aid crucial functions like oviposition site-selection are less likely to be impaired even after centuries of domestication. PMID:25503440

  9. Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Rajasekhar, Sowmya Bandhisara; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition site-selection in insects is mediated through innate recognition templates (IRTs) tuned to specific chemical cues. These cues aid gravid insects in choosing suitable oviposition sites and may even enhance the fitness of their offspring by warding off predators and parasitoids. However, studies on the evolution of oviposition site-selection and cues instigating oviposition in domesticated insects remain elusive. Using the interaction between the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, and its host plant mulberry, Morus alba, as a model system, we demonstrate that centuries of domestication of silkmoth has not impaired its oviposition site-selection function. Silkmoths significantly preferred mulberry leaves to filter paper as oviposition sites. Oviposition assays with filter paper, filter paper treated with leaf volatiles and leaf alone proved that surface texture was not a significant criterion for oviposition site-selection, but volatile cues were. Oviposition assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from mulberry revealed that two of the volatiles, valencene and ?-humulene, aided moths in choosing suitable oviposition sites and enhanced egg-laying significantly. Moreover, we show that generalist egg-parasitoids are strongly repelled by valencene and ?-humulene. Our results demonstrate that IRTs tuned to cues that aid crucial functions like oviposition site-selection are less likely to be impaired even after centuries of domestication. PMID:25503440

  10. 75 FR 70845 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... NDAA legislation. DOL issued its final regulations on November 17, 2008, (73 FR 67934) to implement the... proposed FMLA regulations on August 26, 2009, (74 FR 43064, at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9... leave may be found in the DOL proposed regulations published on February 11, 2008, at 73 FR 7876...

  11. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Director shall issue procedures to administer the accrual and use of student leave. Such procedures shall... leave at any time subject to approval by the Center Director. Annual leave with transportation at... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual leave. 638.532 Section...

  12. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  13. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent...

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  16. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  17. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  18. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  19. Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mrcia H.

    2005-10-01

    Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

  20. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  1. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J.; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2−/− mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2−/− mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:26615818

  2. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

  3. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-?B/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2(-/-) mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-?) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-?B/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2(-/-) mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:26615818

  4. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > WHD > FMLA Wage and Hour Division (WHD) Family and Medical Leave Act Overview The FMLA entitles ... to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health ...

  5. Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddapah, Jennifer L.; Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Masci, Frank J.; Hetrick, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal/family, career, and school…

  6. Parental Leave and Productivity. Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E., Ed.; And Others

    This report consists of papers, commissioned by the Family Work Institute, by expert policy makers in the area of parental leave. The report consists of eight papers: (1) "The Impact of Childbearing on Employment" (James T. Bond); (2) "Fathers and Parental Leave: A Perspective" (Joseph H. Pleck); (3) Parental Leave and Productivity: The

  7. Pregnancy, Teaching, and Leaving before Year's End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulrashid, Jamila

    This essay highlights one pregnant middle school teacher's experiences with taking a mid-year leave. She used entries from her personal diary to reflect on how she felt about her leave, while her students wrote letters and notes expressing their anxieties about her leaving. The discussion of planning a pregnancy and the stages of pregnancy, along

  8. Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, James

    1986-01-01

    Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus! Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

  9. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hassan, Syed Imran

    2002-06-01

    Three pentacyclic triterpenoids including one new guajavanoic acid (2) and two known obtusinin (1) and goreishic acid I (3) have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. The new constituent 2 has been characterized as 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-p-E-coumaroyloxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (broad band and DEPT). This is the first report of isolation of compound 1 and 3 from the genus Psidium. PMID:12049217

  10. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under 630... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual..., by transfer to the annual leave accounts of leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is...

  12. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under 630... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual..., by transfer to the annual leave accounts of leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is...

  13. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under 630... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual..., by transfer to the annual leave accounts of leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is...

  14. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor....207 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Generally, FMLA leave is unpaid leave. However, under the... leave for FMLA leave. If an employee does not choose to substitute accrued paid leave, the employer...

  15. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor....207 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Generally, FMLA leave is unpaid leave. However, under the... leave for FMLA leave. If an employee does not choose to substitute accrued paid leave, the employer...

  16. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature. PMID:26694893

  17. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  18. Microbial population dynamics on leaves.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, L L

    1997-01-01

    Microbial population dynamics on leaves in time and space are a function of immigration, emigration, growth, and death. Insight into the relative significance of each population process to the generation of specific dynamics for individual microorganisms is necessary to understanding the ecology and life history strategy of the microorganism and to developing effective control strategies. Additionally, information on the significance of within-leaf versus extra-leaf processes to the generation of phyllosphere dynamics is important to determining the range of spatial scales over which a population should be studied. Unfortunately, such information is difficult to obtain due to the lack of effective methodologies for distinguishing these processes within phyllosphere populations. Future research efforts should focus on the quantification of immigration, emigration, growth, and death relative to the population dynamics of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:15012527

  19. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  20. Proteases of Senescing Oat Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Drivdahl, Rolf H.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1977-01-01

    Two proteases active in the senescing first leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa cv. Victory) have been purified approximately 500-fold by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on hemoglobin-Sepharose, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. The enzymes show pH optima of 4.2 and 6.6 with denatured hemoglobin as substrate, and the molecular weights of both are about 76,000. Their optimum temperatures are close to 50 C. Small amounts of a third enzyme, active at pH 3.5, may also be present. The enzyme active at pH 6.6 shows evidence of a sulfhydryl residue in the active site. Images PMID:16659993

  1. The cardioprotective power of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boncler, Magdalena; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity, smoking and/or inappropriate diet can contribute to the increase of oxidative stress, in turn affecting the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Strong anti-oxidant properties of plant polyphenolic compounds might underlie their cardioprotective activity. This paper reviews recent findings on the anti-oxidant activity of plant leaf extracts and emphasizes their effects on blood platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells – the targets orchestrating the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We also review the evidence linking supplementation with plant leaf extracts and the risk factors defining the metabolic syndrome. The data point to the importance of leaves as an alternative source of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26322095

  2. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D. PMID:22474520

  3. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  4. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Talla, E; Djamen, D; Djould, D; Tatsadjeu, L; Tantoh, D; Mbafor, J T; Fomum, Z T

    2002-07-01

    Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:12234581

  6. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to

  7. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leave. 310.8 Section 310.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Regulations and Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges 310.8 Leave. (a) Enrolled...

  8. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across

  9. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  10. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,

  11. Extended Leaves of Absence for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Extended leave of absence policies for classroom teachers in 129 school systems with enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. A table lists, in order of descending frequency, the following purposes for which leaves are granted: (1) Military service, (2) professional study, (3) maternity, (4) exchange teaching

  12. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and

  13. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leave. 310.8 Section 310.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Regulations and Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges 310.8 Leave. (a) Enrolled before April 1, 1982. Limitations on cadet...

  14. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their

  15. Why Are Experienced Teachers Leaving the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Barbara Benham; O'Brien, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several reasons teachers give for leaving or considering leaving the profession: Pressures of increased accountability, workload issues, student attitudes, lack of parent support, tension between faculty and administration, and low status of the profession. Suggests strategies to improve working conditions for teachers. (Contains 23

  16. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... reduced leave schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the..., special rules for schools. (2) If an employer has made a permanent or long-term change in the...

  17. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... reduced leave schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the..., special rules for schools. (2) If an employer has made a permanent or long-term change in the...

  18. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., employees may not be charged FMLA leave for periods during which they are working. (2) Where it is physically impossible for an employee using intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to... schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the...

  19. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., employees may not be charged FMLA leave for periods during which they are working. (2) Where it is physically impossible for an employee using intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to... schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the...

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... reduced leave schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the..., special rules for schools. (2) If an employer has made a permanent or long-term change in the...

  1. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  2. Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: in vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species.

    PubMed

    Bidel, L P R; Meyer, S; Goulas, Y; Cadot, Y; Cerovic, Z G

    2007-09-25

    Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was used to assess the difference in epidermal absorbance (EAbs). EAbs increased with increasing solar irradiance intercepted for the three species. This epidermal localisation of UV-absorbers was confirmed by the removal of the epidermis. It was possible to simulate EAbs as a linear combination of major phenolic compounds (Phen) identified in leaf methanol extracts by HPLC-DAD. Under UV-free radiation conditions, shaded leaves of M. nigra accumulated chlorogenic acid. Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives greatly increased with increasing PAR irradiance under the low UV-B conditions found in the greenhouse. These traits were also observed for the HCA of the two other species. Flavonoid (FLAV) accumulation started under low UV-A irradiance, and became maximal in the adaxial epidermis of sun-exposed leaves outdoors. A decrease in the amount of HCA was observed concomitantly to the intense accumulation of FLAV for both leaf sides of the three species. Judging from the logFER, under low UV-B conditions, larger amounts of HCA are present in the epidermis in comparison to FLAV for the three species. Upon transition from the greenhouse to full sunlight outdoors, there was a decrease in leaf-soluble HCA that paralleled FLAV accumulation in reaction to increasing solar UV-B radiation in the three species. In M. nigra, that contains large amounts of HCA, the logFER analysis showed that this decrease occurred in the adaxial epidermis, whereas the abaxial epidermis, which is protected from direct UV-B radiation, continued to accumulate large amounts of HCA. PMID:17720509

  3. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employers perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38?000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval?=?0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  4. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later. PMID:21322232

  5. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiov, Renata; Slvikov, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  6. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  7. Credit BG. View looking southeast (136) at the north facade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looking southeast (136) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  9. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  10. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  11. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  12. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  13. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  14. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  15. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  16. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  17. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  19. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided in... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205...) An employee may elect to substitute the following paid leave for any or all of the period of...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  1. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided in... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205...) An employee may elect to substitute the following paid leave for any or all of the period of...

  2. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  3. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  4. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  5. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10?mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

  6. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  7. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. PMID:26004982

  8. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  9. Biosynthesis of Caffeine in Leaves of Coffee.

    PubMed Central

    Ashihara, H.; Monteiro, A. M.; Gillies, F. M.; Crozier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The levels of endogenous caffeine and theobromine were much higher in buds and young leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv Kent than in fully developed leaves. Biosynthesis of caffeine from 14C-labeled adenine, guanine, xanthosine, and theobromine was observed, whereas other studies (H. Ashihara, A.M. Monteiro, T. Moritz, F.M. Gillies, A. Crozier [1996] Planta 198: 334-339) have indicated that there is no detectable incorporation of label into caffeine when theophylline and xanthine are used as substrates for in vivo feeds with leaves of C. arabica. The capacity for caffeine biosynthesis, especially from guanine and xanthosine, was reduced markedly in both fully developed mature and aged leaves. Data obtained in pulse-chase experiments with young leaves indicate the operation of an AMP -> IMP -> xanthosine 5[prime]-monophosphate (or GMP -> guanosine) -> xanthosine -> 7-methylxanthosine -> 7-methylxanthine -> theobromine -> caffeine pathway. The data obtained provide strong evidence against proposals by G.M. Nazario and C.J. Lovatt ([1993] Plant Physiol 103: 1203-1210) concerning the independence of caffeine and theobromine biosynthesis pathways and the role of xanthine as a key intermediate in caffeine biosynthesis. PMID:12226327

  10. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  11. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator. PMID:25772371

  12. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with

  13. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  14. Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, Jos A; Andrade, Paula B; Valento, Patrcia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2007-09-19

    Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragana and Carrazeda de Ansies) and Central Portugal (Covilh) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3- O-, 4- O- and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3- O-galactoside, quercetin-3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3- O-glycoside, kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside. 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound (36.2%), followed by quercetin 3- O-rutinoside (21.1%). Quince leaves are characterized by higher relative contents of kaempferol derivatives than fruits (pulps, peels, and seeds), especially in what concerns kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside (12.5%). C. oblonga leaves total phenolic content was very high, varying from 4.9 to 16.5 g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.3 g/kg dry matter), indicating that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. Significantly differences were observed in 3- O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acids contents, according to geographical provenance and harvesting month, suggesting a possible use of these compounds as geographical origin and/or maturity markers. PMID:17711340

  15. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualifying exigency leave. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Qualifying exigency leave. (a) An employee may take...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifying exigency leave. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Qualifying exigency leave. (a) An employee may take...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualifying exigency leave. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Qualifying exigency leave. (a) An employee may take...

  20. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single method of determining the...

  1. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single method of determining the...

  2. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  3. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  4. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  5. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  6. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  7. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries PMID:17385479

  8. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls

  9. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract. PMID:22557233

  10. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in

  11. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  12. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at

  13. Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

    2012-01-01

    For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010

  14. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee and the care of such son or daughter... date of birth or placement. Leave for a birth or placement must be concluded within this 12-month... date of birth or placement for adoption or foster care, and the 12-month period, referred to...

  15. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary

  16. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.

  17. Comparative ionomes of rice leaves and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The project is investigating the possibility of using the mineral (ionomics) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict varieties that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their seeds. This information will be used for improving our understanding of the mineral physi...

  18. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  19. Geometric Probability and the Areas of Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoiberg, Karen Bush; Sharp, Janet; Hodgson, Ted; Colbert, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a group of fifth-grade mathematics students measured irregularly shaped objects using geometric probability theory. After learning how to apply a ratio procedure to find the areas of familiar shapes, students extended the strategy for use with irregularly shaped objects, in this case, leaves. (Contains 2 tables and 8

  20. Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

    2000-12-01

    The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

  1. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  2. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  3. Effects of blackberry (Morus nigra L.) consumption on serum concentration of lipoproteins, apo A-I, apo B, and high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein and blood pressure in dyslipidemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaee, Sahar Keshtkar; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Katebi, Davod; Mohammadi, Vida

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated blackberry (Persian mulberry) effects on apo A-I, apo B, high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in dyslipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this 8-week randomized clinical trial, 72 dyslipidemic patients were randomly divided into two groups: Intervention (300 mL/day blackberry juice with pulp) and control group (usual diets). Before and after the intervention, fasting blood samples were taken from both groups and serum concentration of lipoprotein, apo A-I and apo B, serum lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and triglyceride), hs-CRP were measured. Blood pressure before and after the study was measured with a mercury manometer. Results: At week 8 in the intervention group, apo A-I and HDL increased significantly (P = 0.015, P = 0.001, respectively), apo B and hs-CRP decreased significantly (P = 0.044, P = 0.04, respectively). Mean changes in apo A-I and HDL and apo B/apo A-I ratio were significant between the groups (P = 0.005, P = 0.014, and P = 0.009, respectively). After 8 weeks, there was a significant difference between hs-CRP mean values (P = 0.01) of the groups. At week 8, SBP decreased significantly (P = 0.005) in the intervention group with no significant differences for SBP mean values between the groups. No significant changes were observed in other lipid parameters and DBP in the intervention group and between the groups. Conclusion: Blackberry consumption may exert beneficial effects on apolipoproteins, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers in individuals with lipid disorders. PMID:26622259

  4. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves.

    PubMed

    Frankiewicz, C; Attinger, D

    2016-02-11

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces. PMID:26537609

  5. Family medical leave--management strategies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Judy A; Strasser, Patricia B

    2004-12-01

    Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor. PMID:15635929

  6. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Influence of the reaction parameters (temperature, concentration, time) on the surface texture and wettability, the estimation of roughness and solid fraction, drop impact measurements, EDS measurements, and durability tests. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04098a

  7. Diterpenes from the leaves of Croton zambesicus.

    PubMed

    Block, Sebastien; Baccelli, Chiara; Tinant, Bernard; Van Meervelt, Luc; Rozenberg, Raoul; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Llabrès, Gabriel; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle

    2004-04-01

    Two new trachylobane- and one isopimarane-type diterpenoids: ent-18-hydroxy-trachyloban-3-one; ent-trachyloban-3-one; isopimara-7,15-dien-3beta-ol, were isolated from the leaves of Croton zambesicus, together with trans-phytol, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amyrin and stigmasterol. The structures were determined by extensive NMR techniques and X-ray analysis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been evaluated on cancer and non-cancer cell-lines. PMID:15110699

  8. Sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H

    1998-06-26

    Two new compounds, a germacrane sesquiterpene, 1-acetyltagitinin A (1), and a guaianane sesquiterpene, 8beta-isobutyryloxycumambranolide (2), were isolated from leaves of Tithonia diversifolia, together with two known compounds, methyl 3alpha-acetoxy-4alpha-hydroxy-11(13)-eudesmen-12-oa te and tagitinin A. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:9644077

  9. Isocitrate Lyase in Green Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Godavari, H. R.; Badour, S. S.; Waygood, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) has been demonstrated in crude dialyzed extracts of healthy spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves from commercial sources and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) leaves stored in darkness in the cold room for 1 week. The products of the reaction were identified as glyoxylate and succinate, the former by its phenylhydrazone, and the latter traced by isotopic labeling and cochromatography. Fresh spinach extracts contain a mixture of at least two endogenous inhibitors of isocitrate lyase activity and one of them is proteinaceous. The endogenous inhibitor(s) is thermostable and retains 50% of its inhibitory effect even after boiling for 10 minutes. Dark starvation of the leaves removes the inhibition, due possibly to autolysis of the inhibitor(s). The inhibitor(s) can also be removed by filtration through Sephadex gels. The crude extract from spinach shows double pH optima in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. The apparent Km at pH 7.4 was 0.1 mm. Oxaloacetate, dl-malate, succinate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and glycolate at 10 mm concentration inhibited, but ribulose 1,5-diphosphate activated enzymic activity. Images PMID:16658428

  10. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  11. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees working under this contract vacations of reasonable duration in accordance with the Contractor's practice for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26...

  12. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees working under this contract vacations of reasonable duration in accordance with the Contractor's practice for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26...

  13. 46 CFR 502.72 - Petition for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petition for leave to intervene. 502.72 Section 502.72 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.72 Petition for leave to intervene. (a) A petition for leave to intervene may be filed in...

  14. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other

  15. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY.... Similarly, an employee using accrued paid vacation leave who seeks an extension of unpaid leave for a...

  16. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY.... Similarly, an employee using accrued paid vacation leave who seeks an extension of unpaid leave for a...

  17. Methods of Reducing Sick Leave Abuse. An ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    A perennial concern to educational administrators is the abuse of sick leave by school employees. Numerous suggestions have been offered for reducing the abuse of sick leave both within education and industry. This publication reviews 12 research studies that evaluate plans for reducing sick leave abuse among various categories of employees. Also

  18. 46 CFR 201.78 - Petition for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petition for leave to intervene. 201.78 Section 201.78 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) 201.78 Petition for leave to intervene. A petition for leave...

  19. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  20. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  1. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  2. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  3. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  4. Random walks between leaves of random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, David

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by the desire to model internet traffic we consider random walks that start and are absorbed on the leaves of random networks and study the length of such walks. We present and test two techniques to analyse these walks. On Erd?s-Rnyi random graphs where the probability of a walk decays exponentially with its length, the methods give indistinguishable results for the decay exponent. This simple form of decay is not apparent on heterogeneous networks such as Barabsi-Albert scale free networks and in this case each technique is demonstrated to have a different strength.

  5. Dihydrostilbene derivatives from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Daniela M; Rocco, Concetta; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2005-07-01

    Four new dihydrostilbenes, alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4'-acetoxy-5'-isopentenylstilbene (1), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3',4'-trihydroxy-5-O-isopentenyl-6-isopentenylstilbene (2), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (3), and alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3'-dihydroxy-5beta-d-O-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), together with seven known flavonoids, glabranin isomer, naringenin, lupiwighteone, pinocembrin 7-O-glucoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, vicenin II, and the inositol, pinitol, were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra grown in Sicily. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16038558

  6. Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

    2011-11-01

    Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

  7. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  8. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  9. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  10. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Sergio O.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1983-01-01

    In air largely freed from CO2, senescence of isolated oat (Avena sativa cv Victory) seedling leaves is no longer prevented by white light; instead, the leaves lose both chlorophyll and protein as rapidly as in the dark. Senescence in light is also accelerated in pure O2, but it is greatly delayed in N2; 100% N2 preserves both protein and chlorophyll in light and in darkness. In light in air, most of the compounds tested that had previously been found to delay or inhibit senescence in darkness actually promote the loss of chlorophyll, but they do not promote proteolysis. Under these conditions, proteolysis can therefore be separated from chlorophyll loss. But in light minus CO2, where chlorophyll loss is rapid in controls, two of these same reagents prevent the chlorophyll loss. Unlike the many reagents whose action in light is thus the opposite of that in darkness, abscisic acid, which promotes chlorophyll loss in the dark, also promotes it in light with or without CO2. Kinetin, which prevents chlorophyll loss in the dark, also prevents it in light minus CO2. In general, therefore, the responses to light minus CO2 are similar to the responses to darkness, and (with the exception of abscisic acid and kinetin) opposite to the response to light in air. PMID:16662800

  11. Synthetic Leaves: Pumping at Negative Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Tobias; Stroock, Abraham; Havenstrite, Karen

    2004-03-01

    A common process that is rarely considered in detail is the circulation of fluid in trees. As with most multi-cellular organisms, the internal convective transport of nutrients and the evacuation of waste are essential to their survival. What is unique to flowering plants is that the convectively transported fluid (water) is under tension. According to the Cohesion-Tension Theory (Dixon & Joly), this tension is induced by siphoning: capillary forces replenish water lost to evaporation at the air-water interface in leaves. Intermolecular forces between water molecules ensure that the column of water suspended from the air-water interface remains continuous. Integral to this passive pumping is a dynamic meniscus, which changes curvature and thereby the capillary pressure at the interface to allow the leaf to pump against variable loads as environmental conditions (convection, relative humidity) change. I will present our efforts to harness the capabilities of dynamic menisci in a synthetic system. We use hydraulic resistances as loads to assess the pumping ability of these systems and their susceptibility to cavitation. The goal is to understand the physico-chemical aspects of pumping in plants and the design constraints of vascular networks of leaves.

  12. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID:15777222

  13. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  14. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory constituents of henna leaves.

    PubMed

    Mikhaeil, Botros R; Badria, Farid A; Maatooq, Galal T; Amer, Mohamed M A

    2004-01-01

    The immunomodulatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.; syn. Lawsonia alba L.) leaves resulted in the isolation of seven compounds; three have been isolated for the first time from the genus, namely p-coumaric acid, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and apiin, along with the previously isolated compounds: lawsone, apigenin, luteolin, and cosmosiin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was based upon their physical, chemical as well as spectroscopic characters. Their immuomodulatory profile was studied using an in vitro immunoassay, the lymphocyte transformation assay. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], free radical scavenging assay depicted that all isolated compounds exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. PMID:15813363

  15. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  16. Antiviral sesquiterpenes from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Xing-Meng; Sun, Han-Dong; Pu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Miao, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yong-Kuan; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Three unreported sesquiterpenes possessing two new skeletons, tabasesquiterpenes A-C (1-3), together with three known sesquiterpenes (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Their structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compound 2 exhibited high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.2%, which were higher than that of positive control (ningnanmycin). The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 20.5-28.6%. PMID:26581121

  17. The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyung T.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1975-01-01

    The changes in chlorophyll and protein in senescing chloroplasts isolated from the first leaves of 7-day-old oat (Avena sativa) seedlings have been investigated. In darkness the chlorophyll in these plastids is highly stable, losing only 5 to 10% of its content after 7 days at 26 C. This result contrasts with the behavior of chlorophyll in intact leaves, in which about 80% of the pigment would have disappeared in that time. The protein is less stable than the chlorophyll, though more stable than in the leaf; probably a small amount of protease is present in the plastids. Some protein is also being synthesized in the chloroplasts along with its breakdown; gains of up to 38% in protein and 13% in chlorophyll were observed under different conditions. l-Serine, which actively promotes senescence in the leaf, has only a very slight effect on the chloroplasts, and kinetin antagonizes it. Kinetin also has a small but significant effect in preserving the protein from breakdown. Acid pH somewhat promotes the breakdown, both of chlorophyll and protein. A loss of chlorophyll and protein comparable to that occurring in the senescence of the leaf could not be induced in the chloroplasts by suspending them in malate, in cytoplasmic extract, or in any of a number of enzymes tested alone. Incubation with a mixture of four enzymes was the only treatment which approximated the senescent process in the leaf, causing 34% loss of chlorophyll at pH 5 and 40% loss of protein at pH 7.4, both in 72 hours. In white light, the chlorophyll and the carotenoids, but not the protein, disappear rapidly. This disappearance was shown to be prevented in an atmosphere of nitrogen or in air by a number of reducing agents, of which ascorbic acid was the most effective. It is, therefore, ascribed to photooxidation rather than to normal senescence. PMID:16659176

  18. Abdominal sepsis managed by leaving abdomen open.

    PubMed

    Duff, J H; Moffat, J

    1981-10-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis and necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall are usually fatal unless adequate drainage and wide debridement are possible. To follow these principles, we managed 18 seriously ill patients with abdominal sepsis by leaving the abdomen completely open. All except two of the patients had severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Eight patients had full-thickness wound infections and intra-abdominal infections refractory to the usual surgical drainage techniques. Two had necrotizing wound infections only. In 12 an upper abdominal incision was managed open, and in six the open incision was lower. As part of the initiating illness, there were eight small bowel and six colon fistulas. They were managed by colostomy in five patients and ileostomy in two. More than one organism was cultured in all patients and 12 of 18 had a positive blood culture. Respiratory failure made mechanical ventilation necessary in 13 patients for an average of 44 days. Previous adhesions, usually present, or an intact greater omentum, were necessary to prevent bowel evisceration, but three patients required paralysis and mechanical ventilation until adhesions became strong enough to prevent evisceration. There were seven deaths (39%), six caused by continuing sepsis and one from hemorrhage. In those surviving, granulation tissue grew over omentum or bowel loops to eventually seal the abdominal cavity. The late management was split-skin grafting in five and secondary closure in two. Four healed by second intention. We conclude that leaving the abdomen completely open facilitates the widest possible drainage, uncompromising debridement of the abdominal wall, and is compatible with good recovery. The ultimate result in survivors is acceptable. This technique is preferable to closing an abdominal wall of questionable viability in the face of intraperitoneal sepsis. PMID:6456563

  19. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Nasir S. A.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1980-01-01

    The ATP content of 7-day-old Avena sativa leaves during senescence in dark and in light, and after treatment with cytokinins and other reagents, has been determined by the luciferin-luciferase method. Special care was taken to avoid decomposition of the ATP, and a detailed procedure is presented for ATP analysis at the picomole level. Preliminary experiments with several inhibitors of photophosphorylation suggest, though not conclusively, that the delaying effect of light on senescence is mediated by photophosphorylation. The ATP values of the leaves senescing in darkness are found to increase in parallel with the large increase in respiratory rate, and kinetin prevents this increase just as completely as it prevents the respiratory rise. It is concluded that the respiratory increase in senescence cannot be simply due to uncoupling. In light the ATP level also rises, though more slowly, and again kinetin prevents this rise. l-Serine, which promotes dark senescence, does not significantly modify the dark ATP level, but both arginine and kinetin, which antagonize the action of serine on senescence, greatly lower the ATP level below that on serine alone. Cycloheximide has a similar effect, and the combination of cycloheximide and kinetin lowers the ATP level drastically. Fusicoccin, which opens stomata in the dark, correspondingly maintains the ATP at a low level. Thus, in general, a low level of ATP is associated with the prevention of dark senescence, i.e. probably with ATP utilization, and the ATP level at any time may thus be determined more by the rate of utilization than by the efficiency of respiratory coupling. PMID:16661296

  20. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  1. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  2. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  3. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  4. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  5. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  6. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  7. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  8. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Veierskov, Bjarke; Satler, Sergio O.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism whereby l-serine specifically promotes the dark senescence of detached oat (Avena) leaves has been examined. The fact that this promotion is strong in darkness but very weak in white light has been explained, at least in part, by the finding that added serine is partly converted to reducing sugars in light. Labeled serine gives rise to 14C-sugars and 14CO2. In the absence of CO2, serine does cause chlorophyll loss in light and undergoes a decreased conversion to sugar. As to the large promotion of protease activity which accompanies senescence in the dark, reported earlier, careful purification of the proteases shows that the l-[14C]serine is not incorporated into these enzymes, although it is incorporated into the total protein. Cycloheximide decreases the overall synthesis both of protease and of total protein, but again [14C]serine does not impart radioactivity to the purified acid proteases. Even when serine is simply added to the protease assay the proteolysis is significantly increased. It is concluded that serine promotes the protease activity by synergizing with the enzyme, or by activating an apoenzyme. PMID:16664237

  9. Cytotoxic limonoids from Trichilia americana leaves.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kai-Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiao-Nian; Guo, Juan; Hu, Hua-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Fen; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Xu, You-Kai

    2015-10-01

    Ten cedrelone limonoids were isolated from the leaves of Trichilia americana. These compounds include americanolides A-D (1-4), 1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (5), 1?-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (6), 1?-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrohirtin (7), 1?-methoxy-1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (8), 11?-hydroxy-12?-propanoyloxycedrelone (9), and 1?,11?-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrocedrelone (10), as well as two previously reported compounds, deacetylhirtin (11) and hirtin (12). Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic studies, and the assignment of the absolute configuration of americanolide A (1) was supported by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxic activities of all isolated compounds were also evaluated against five human tumour cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480) using an MTS assay. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 ?M, and compounds 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 exhibited potent or selective cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 39.6 ?M. PMID:26330216

  10. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal. PMID:26233737

  11. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    PubMed

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions. PMID:15027834

  12. Glutamate Synthase from Rice Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akira; Gadal, Pierre

    1982-01-01

    Ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.7.1) from rice leaves (Oryza sativa L. cv Delta) was purified 206-fold with a final specific activity of 35.9 ?moles glutamate formed per min per milligram protein by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration, and ferredoxin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme yielded a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 224,000 daltons by Sepharose 6B gel filtration. Electrophoresis of the dissociated enzyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel gave a single protein band which corresponds to the subunit molecular weight of 115,000 daltons. Thus, it is concluded that the glutamate synthase is composed of two polypeptidic chains exhibiting the same molecular weight. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the enzyme is free of iron-sulfide and flavin. The pH optimum was 7.3. The enzyme had a negative cooperativity (Hill number of 0.70) for glutamine, and its Km value increased from 270 to 570 ?m at a glutamine concentration higher than 800 ?m. Km values for ?-ketoglutarate and ferredoxin were 330 and 5.5 ?m, respectively. Asparagine and oxaloacetate could not be substituted for glutamine and ?-ketoglutarate, respectively. Enzyme activity was not detected with pyridine nucleotides as electron donors. Azaserine and several divalent cations were potent inhibitors. The purified enzyme was stabilized by dithiothreitol. Images PMID:16662307

  13. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  14. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

  15. Morus spp. as a New Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generating enthusiasm from political or business entities to promote conservation requires economic viability in times of economic downturn. Massive reforestation is being considered as a governmental policy to address the climate crisis. It offers an enormous opportunity to redefine forestry plan...

  16. Carbon balance in leaves of young poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, S; Heizmann, U; Magel, E; Eiblmeier, M; Mller, A; Rennenberg, H; Hampp, R; Schnitzler, J-P; Kreuzwieser, J

    2004-11-01

    In the present study, important components of carbon metabolism of mature leaves of young poplar trees (Populus x canescens) were determined. Carbohydrate concentrations in leaves and xylem sap were quantified at five different times during the day and compared with photosynthetic gas exchange measurements (net assimilation, transpiration and rates of isoprene emission). Continuously measured xylem sap flow rates, with a time resolution of 15 min, were used to calculate diurnal balances of carbon metabolism of whole mature poplar leaves on different days. Loss of photosynthetically fixed carbon by isoprene emission and dark respiration amounted to 1% and 20%. The most abundant soluble carbohydrates in leaves and xylem sap were glucose, fructose and sucrose, with amounts of approx. 2 to 12 mmol m(-2) leaf area in leaves and about 0.2 to 15 mM in xylem sap. Clear diurnal patterns of carbohydrate concentration in xylem sap and leaves, however, were not observed. Calculations of the carbon transport rates in the xylem to the leaves were based on carbohydrate concentrations in xylem sap and xylem sap flow rates. This carbon delivery amounted to about 3 micromol C m(-2) s(-1) during the day and approx. 1 micromol C m(-2) s(-1) at night. The data demonstrated that between 9 and 28 % of total carbon delivered to poplar leaves during 24 h resulted from xylem transport and, hence, provide a strong indication for a significant rate of carbon cycling within young trees. PMID:15570479

  17. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  18. 46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... notice of the filing of the complaint. Motions filed after that date must show good cause for the failure... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motion for leave to intervene. 502.68 Section 502.68... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies 502.68 Motion for leave to intervene. (a) Filing. A motion...

  19. Secondary metabolite profiles in HLB-affected sweet orange leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary analyses of methanolic extracts of orange leaves that are either healthy or symptomatic of citrus greening (HLB) have shown consistent differences in the profiles of important classes of phytochemicals. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and healthy leaves were monitored in the HPLC chro...

  20. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  1. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was

  2. Pregnant Staff and Parental Leave: Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla Jo

    1995-01-01

    Reviews health concerns and considerations for pregnant child care staff and discusses elements to include when developing or revising parental leave policies and procedures. Summarizes the elements of an exemplary comprehensive leave policy and supports the positions presented with the related federal legislation. (AA)

  3. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  4. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results. PMID:24135861

  5. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  6. Leaving the Parental Home: Patterns in Six Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Used mid-1970s World Fertility Survey cross-sectional data to analyze sociodemographic determinants of home-leaving by young Latin American adults (N=68,534). Found marriage as major reason for home-leaving and sex, urban/rural residence, education, and work as other important determinants. Noted international differences. (Author/CM))

  7. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their

  8. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  9. Early iron deficiency stress response in leaves of sugar beet.

    PubMed Central

    Winder, T L; Nishio, J N

    1995-01-01

    Iron nutrient deficiency was investigated in leaves of hydroponically grown sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) to determine how ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) gene expression is affected when thylakoid components of photosynthesis are diminished. Rubisco polypeptide content was reduced by 60% in severely iron-stressed leaves, and the reduction was directly correlated to chlorophyll content. The concentration of Rubisco protein in iron-stressed leaves was found to be regulated by availability of mRNAs, and CO2 fixation by Rubisco was reduced from 45 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1 in extracts from iron-sufficient leaves to 20 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1 in extracts from severely stressed leaves. The rate of CO2 fixation was directly correlated to leaf chlorophyll content. Rubisco in iron-sufficient control leaves was 59% activated, whereas in severely stressed leaves grown under the same light, Rubisco was 43% activated. RNA synthesis was reduced by about 50% in iron-deficient leaves, but 16S and 25S rRNA and ctDNA were essentially unaffected by iron stress. PMID:7659749

  10. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time. PMID:11038902

  11. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  12. PHARMACOGNOSY OF LEAVES OF WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. BR.

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, N.; Moorthy, K.; Perumal, P.; Raju, S. Varadha

    1998-01-01

    Wrightia tinctora is a tree widely used by the peoples of Tamil Nadu as a traditional medicine for pain and inflammations. Latex form the plant especially from leaves is directly applied on inflammation. This plant is very closely related to other species of Wrightia and hence pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Wrightia tinctoria leaves were carried out. PMID:22556873

  13. Pharmacognosy of leaves of wrightia tinctoria R. Br.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, N; Moorthy, K; Perumal, P; Raju, S V

    1998-07-01

    Wrightia tinctora is a tree widely used by the peoples of Tamil Nadu as a traditional medicine for pain and inflammations. Latex form the plant especially from leaves is directly applied on inflammation. This plant is very closely related to other species of Wrightia and hence pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Wrightia tinctoria leaves were carried out. PMID:22556873

  14. Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dern, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and

  15. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Grkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  16. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  17. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any, are in a fully... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaving a lock. 401.47 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a)...

  18. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:

  19. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 8960) requesting public comments on the proposed revisions to the regulations. Interested... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012,...

  20. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social

  1. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  2. The Librarian and the Leaver: Who Leaves the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Olson, Josephine E.

    1991-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of graduates of the University of Pittsburgh's Masters of Library Science (M.L.S.) program that was conducted to investigate reasons for leaving the profession for other fields or to leave the workforce entirely. Highlights include characteristics and attitudes of at-home versus employed women and their educational

  3. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  14. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out

  15. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;

  16. Towards a More Telling Way of Understanding Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research into early school leaving. A narrative interview approach was used to document and analyse the experiences, processes and decisions that a small sample of boys made prior to leaving school, in this case, before completing year 10 and 11. Data collected in 2004 indicate that schools along with students

  17. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  18. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  19. 4-Methyleneglutamine Amidohydrolase from Peanut Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harry C.; Dekker, Eugene E.

    1991-01-01

    4-Methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase has been extracted and purified over 1000-fold from 14-day-old peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves by modification of methods described previously. The purified enzyme shows two bands of activity and three to four bands of protein after electrophoresis on nondenaturing gels. Each of the active bands is readily eluted from gel slices and migrates to its original position on subsequent electrophoresis. Although they are electrophoretically distinct, the two forms of the enzyme are immunologically identical by Ouchterlony double-diffusion techniques and have similar catalytic properties. Activity toward glutamine that has a threefold lower Vmax and a four-fold higher Km value copurifies with MeGln aminohydrolase activity. 4-Methyleneglutamine and 4-methyleneglutamic acid inhibit the hydrolysis of glutamine while glutamine inhibits 4-methyleneglutamine hydrolysis, further indicating the identity of the activity toward both substrates. Amidohydrolase activity is stimulated up to threefold by preincubation with either ionic or non-ionic detergents (0.1%) and also by added proteins (0.5% bovine serum albumin or whole rabbit serum); it is inhibited 50% by 1 millimolar borate or the glutamine analog, albizziin (10 millimolar). Rabbit antiserum to the purified peanut enzyme cross-reacts with one or more proteins in extracts of some plants but not others; in no instance, however, was 4-methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase activity detected in other species. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that 4-methyleneglutamine supplies N, via its hydrolysis by the amidohydrolase, to the growing shoots of peanut plants, whereas glutamine hydrolysis is prevented by the prepon-derance of the preferred substrate. Some results also suggest that this amidohydrolase activity may be regulated by metabolites and/or by association with other cellular components. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667952

  20. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic α-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-α-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

  1. The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

  2. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  4. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  5. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 l GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  6. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  7. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components. PMID:23637874

  8. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid. PMID:16665768

  9. Acetaldehyde and ethanol biosynthesis in leaves of plants.

    PubMed

    Kimmerer, T W; Macdonald, R C

    1987-08-01

    Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N(2) and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N(2), all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation. PMID:16665585

  10. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

  11. [Fluorescence of higher plant leaves at raised temperatures].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A

    1982-01-01

    Red fluorescence (lambda approximately 630 divided by 760 nm) of naked-spermous (Gimnospermae) plant leaves in the state of winter rest and in the summer period, and also green and etiolated angiospermous (Angiospermae) plant leaves at different developmental stages (from embryonic to mature state) was investigated in the temperature range 20-96 degrees C. At the temperature about 60 degrees C a fluorescence "flash" develops avalanche-lookingly, its intensity being the higher, the younger is the angiospermous plant leaf. In the naked-spermous plant leaves an intensive avalanche-looking process is observed only in the winter-spring period. PMID:7138929

  12. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  13. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  14. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  15. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  16. Effect of microbial fermentation on caffeine content of tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Hu, Shuxia; Wan, Xiaochun; Pan, Caiyuan

    2005-09-01

    Caffeine is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For safety concerns, natural caffeine is preferred over synthetic products despite of its high cost. To explore more economical methods of acquiring natural caffeine, we adopted a microbial fermentation technique to increase the caffeine content of tea leaves. Our studies showed that the caffeine content in tea leaves increased reasonably after treating leaves with microorganisms for a period of time (i.e. orthodox pile-fermentation), and the amount of caffeine content increase varied significantly between black and green teas (27.57% and 86.41%). These results suggested that the change of caffeine content in tea leaves during the pile-fermentation depended not only on the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also on the tea composition. PMID:16131136

  17. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance. PMID:26751036

  18. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child fails to pursue a vocational training program. For prolonged periods of absence, the VR&E case...

  20. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  1. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California study found hospital admissions for abuse-linked ... baby. Head injuries are the leading cause of child abuse-related deaths in the United States, the researchers ...

  3. Paid Sick Leave Can Be Crucial When Cancer Strikes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients nearly twice as likely to keep their jobs if they had the benefit, study found To ... their financial struggles and helps them keep their jobs, a new study shows. "Paid sick leave allows ...

  4. Biophysical limitation of cell elongation in cereal leaves.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland

    2002-08-01

    Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall-yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

  5. Polyhydroxytriterpenoids and Phenolic Constituents from Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl Leaves.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Wang, Yazhen; Chen, Pingping; Wang, Yufang; Hou, Congcong; Wu, Yibing; Zhang, Manli; Li, Ligeng; Huo, Changhong; Shi, Qingwen; Gao, Haixia

    2016-01-13

    Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl leaves have been consumed in China as a health-promoting functional tea for centuries. Three new polyhydroxytriterpenoid glycosides named suspensanosides A-C (1-3), seven known polyhydroxytriterpenoids (4-10), and 12 known phenolics (11-22) were identified from F. suspensa leaves. Compounds 1-10, 15-17, and 22 have not been found in the Forsythia genus previously, whereas compound 14 was first reported to be isolated from the leaves of F. suspensa. All isolates were tested for their antiproliferative activities on BGC-823 and MCF-7 human tumor cell lines, whereas all phenolics were further investigated for their antioxidant activities by a DPPH assay. The results clearly demonstrate that triterpenoids, especially ursane-type triterpenoids, and the diverse phenolic components are crucial for the beneficial effects of F. suspensa leaves. PMID:26694205

  6. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  7. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  8. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  9. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  10. Short Lunch Periods Leave Kids Eating Less, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_154588.html Short Lunch Periods Leave Kids Eating Less, Study Finds Schools should take steps ... In order to investigate how the timing of kids' lunches affects their nutrition, the researchers analyzed the ...

  11. Biophysical Limitation of Cell Elongation in Cereal Leaves

    PubMed Central

    FRICKE, WIELAND

    2002-01-01

    Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall‐yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

  12. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN RIVER AT BARGES LEAVING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN RIVER AT BARGES LEAVING THE LOCKS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  13. Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030

  14. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P.

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  15. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  16. Long-term declines in nutritional quality of tropical leaves.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Struhsaker, Thomas T; Raubenheimer, David; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Waterman, Peter G

    2015-03-01

    Global change is affecting plant and animal populations and many of the changes are likely subtle and difficult to detect. Based on greenhouse experiments, changes in temperature and rainfall, along with elevated CO2, are expected to impact the nutritional quality of leaves. Here, we show a decline in the quality of tree leaves 15 and 30 years after two previous studies in an undisturbed area of tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda. After 30 years in a sample of multiple individuals of ten tree species, the mature leaves of all but one species increased in fiber concentrations, with a mean increase of 10%; tagged individuals of one species increased 13% in fiber. After 15 years, in eight tree species the fiber of young leaves increased 15%, and protein decreased 6%. Like many folivores, Kibale colobus monkeys select leaves with a high protein-to-fiber ratio, so for these folivores declining leaf quality could have a major impact. Comparisons among African and Asian forests show a strong correlation between colobine biomass and the protein-to-fiber ratio of the mature leaves from common tree species. Although this model, predicts a 31% decline in monkey abundance for Kibale, we have not yet seen these declines. PMID:26236882

  17. Metabolic Regulation in Diseased Leaves. I. The Respiratory Rise in Barley Leaves Infected with Powdery Mildew 1

    PubMed Central

    Scott, K. J.; Smillie, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Photosynthetic and respiratory activities have been measured in leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. var. Manchuria (barley) after infection with Erysiphe graminis var. hordei (powdery mildew). Two isogenic lines, one resistant to infection and the other highly susceptible, were examined. These isogenic lines showed very different physiological responses following infection. Photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content of resistant leaves was unaffected by infection. Respiration increased slightly and this was accompanied by small increases in activities of enzymes of glycolysis, the pentose-P pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The infection of susceptible leaves resulted in a slight increase in photosynthesis 48 hours after inoculation, but subsequently there was a progressive decrease in the photosynthesis of these leaves compared with that of noninfected leaves. The capacity of infected leaves for partial reactions of photosynthesis such as the Hill reaction and the photoreduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP1) decreased during the later stages of infection. The levels of chlorophyll, NADPH-diaphorase and aldolase also declined. There was no detectable difference in the respiration of infected and noninfected leaves until 48 hours after inoculation. After this time, the infected leaves showed a higher respiration, the maximum difference occurring about 144 hours after inoculation. The respiratory increase was not accompanied by significant changes in the levels of enzymes of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with the exception of malate dehydrogenase which was lower in infected leaves. In contrast, the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase showed changes similar to that observed for respiration. The respiration and the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase did not increase in infected leaves of etiolated plants, even when excellent growth of the fungus was established by growing the plants in White's basal medium supplemented with sucrose. The respiration of a susceptible mutant barley (the yellow-green virescent mutant of the variety Himalaya) when grown in the light at 11 was not changed by infection although the characteristic respiratory rise occurred in plants grown at 15. At the lower temperature chloroplasts fail to develop in this mutant, although development is normal at 15. It is suggested that the pathogen is not directly responsible for the increase in respiration in green leaves, rather that this is a response in the host cells to a loss of photosynthetic capacity. Images PMID:16656253

  18. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and

  19. GPs negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners (GPs) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 3265), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

  20. Emission of isoprene from salt-stressed Eucalyptus globulus leaves.

    PubMed

    Loreto, F; Delfine, S

    2000-08-01

    Eucalyptus spp. are among the highest isoprene emitting plants. In the Mediterranean area these plants are often cultivated along the seashore and cope with recurrent salt stress. Transient salinity may severely but reversibly reduce photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of Eucalyptus globulus leaves but the effect on isoprene emission is not significant. When the stress is relieved, a burst of isoprene emission occurs, simultaneously with the recovery of photosynthetic performance. Later on, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and isoprene emission decay, probably because of the onset of leaf senescence. Isoprene emission is not remarkably affected by the stress at different light intensities, CO(2) concentrations, and leaf temperatures. When CO(2) was removed and O(2) was lowered to inhibit both photosynthesis and photorespiration, we found that the residual emission is actually higher in salt-stressed leaves than in controls. This stimulation is particularly evident at high-light intensities and high temperatures. The maximum emission occurs at 40 degrees C in both salt-stressed and control leaves sampled in ambient air and in control leaves sampled in CO(2)-free and low-O(2) air. However, the maximum emission occurs at 45 degrees C in salt-stressed leaves sampled in CO(2)-free and low-O(2) air. Our results suggest the activation of alternative non-photosynthetic pathways of isoprene synthesis in salt-stressed leaves and perhaps in general in leaves exposed to stress conditions. The temperature dependence indicates that this alternative synthesis is also under enzymatic control. If this alternative synthesis still occurs in the chloroplasts, it may involve a thylakoid-bound isoprene synthase. PMID:10938376

  1. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  2. Ethnic differences in leaving home: timing and pathways.

    PubMed

    Zorlu, Aslan; Mulder, Clara H

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999-2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving home for union formation, to live independently, and to share with others. Migrant youth, and particularly Turkish and Moroccan youth, leave home at a significantly younger age than Dutch youth, given the relevant background variables. This is remarkable, given the older ages at which young people in the origin countries leave the parental home. The result may be seen as evidence of how the potential effects of cultural norms are counter-affected by other factors, such as the facilities of the welfare state and the awkward position of migrant youth between two cultures. Considering the pathways out of home, the analysis largely confirms the expected pattern: Turkish and Moroccan youth leave home more often for union formation and particularly marriage, while this pathway is of minor importance for Dutch youth at early ages. PMID:21290208

  3. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf. PMID:11577394

  4. [Sick-leave during pregnancy--focusing on textile workers].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, O; Kristiansen, J L

    1992-08-17

    In order to illustrate the conditions involved in sick-leave during pregnancy, 593 consecutive parturient women received a questionnaire on the day after delivery. 48% of the pregnant women were certified as sick and 16% were admitted to hospital during pregnancy. The most common reasons for sick-leave were threatening abortion (19%), haemorrhage (18%) and threatening premature delivery (15%). The duration of sick-leave averaged 15 weeks as compared with 7.3 weeks in Denmark as a whole. In the subgroup of textile workers, 71% considered that the work was physically stressing and 70% were certified sick. Compared with all of the other occupationally active women, textile workers were more frequently certified sick, considered that their work was more physically stressing and had more frequently required sick-leave but were more rarely admitted to hospital. Similarly, textile workers had a greater risk for sick-leave on account of threatening abortion, pelvic loosening or pain in the locomotor system. PMID:1413139

  5. PROFILE OF PATIENTS ON SICK LEAVE WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Judson Welber Veríssimo; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Nascimento, Valdênia das Graças; de Paiva, Henver Ribeiro; Viecili, Leandro; Rocha, Murilo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) on sick leave admitted in a University Hospital. Methods: This is a transversal study conducted with patients admitted sequentially over 18 years of age, without distinction of gender and race in the period between September and November 2014. Patients answered a questionnaire and underwent physical examination carried out by the authors. Results: Twenty-five patients were admitted within three months, all females, the mean age was 50.24 years old (standard deviation 10,39) . Among the professions they performed, general and cleaning services were the most prevalent. Most patients featured obesity, followed by depression and systemic arterial hypertension. Approximately half of them were on sick leave. Sleep disorders were also a frequent complaint. Conclusion: CTS is a frequent cause of sick leave and it is related to obesity, dyslipidemia and depression. Level of Evidence IV, Series of Cases. PMID:26981030

  6. Ethylene evolution from tobacco leaves irradiated with UV-B.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akira; Takeuchi, Yuichi

    2002-08-01

    Seedlings of Nicotiana tabacum L. (cv. Petit Havana SR1) were grown in the presence or absence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 290-320 nm) irradiation. The evolution of ethylene from the leaves, the content of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), an endogenous precursor of ethylene, and the activity of ACC synthase, a rate-limiting step in the production of ethylene, were increased by UV-B irradiation. The time course of these increases was parallel with the emergence of damage that was estimated by measuring the chlorophyll (Chl) content and the leakage of ions from leaf cells. Treatment of leaves with aminoethoxy-vinyl-glycine (AVG), a specific inhibitor of ACC synthase, reduced the extent of damage caused by UV-B. These results suggest that ethylene acts on certain processes to cause damage in tobacco leaves irradiated with UV-B. PMID:12582726

  7. Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545

  8. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R 2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding. PMID:24302710

  9. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9. PMID:25055683

  10. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species. PMID:27013790

  11. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  12. Is there spectral variation in the polarized reflectance of leaves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  13. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  14. Immediate IPTV channel leave by explicit user tracking in PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Yoshiuchi, Hideya; Yoshizawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel IPTV channel leave mechanism for Passive Optical Network (PON). By explicit user tracking and automatic differentiation of IGMP v2 and v3 users, the proposed mechanism can realize immediate channel leave in both Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) while avoiding removing the channel which still has users. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can significantly save the bandwidth consumption during "channel surf" by users, compared to the standard IGMP timeout mechanism.

  15. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  16. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability

  17. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate paid leave if the employee has earned or accrued it, for up to a total of 12 workweeks in any 12... a covered employer may take job-protected, unpaid leave, or substitute appropriate paid leave if the... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Family and Medical Leave Act. 825.100 Section...

  18. Ages, Reasons and Sex Differences for Children Leaving Home: Observations From Survey Data for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Overall, daughters leave home when about two years younger than sons, and a higher proportion of daughters leave home for marriage than for other reasons. For each sex, the average age at leaving home is youngest when the reason for leaving is education or a job, and oldest when the reason is marriage. (Author)

  19. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.

  20. Paid Educational Leave. NIE Papers in Education and Work: Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Herbert A.

    This report is a digest of a larger work, "Developments in Paid Leave of Absence," a report including case studies and analysis of the collective experience of nine European countries and the United States with paid educational leave. Section I defines paid educational leave as "leave given to an employee for educational purposes for a specified