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1

Antioxidant Efficacy of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.) Leaves Extract and Powder in Edible Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves was evaluated in rice bran oil (RBO). The oil was subjected to accelerated oxidation at 100° C for 5 days and heat treatment at 180°C for 1 h. In order to examine its potential antioxidant activity, the oxidative stability of the oils was evaluated by employing peroxide value (PV), radical scavenging

Linda Grace Roy; Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2010-01-01

2

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. PMID:20067869

Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

2010-01-01

3

Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect.

Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

2008-01-01

4

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing  

PubMed Central

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas.

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-01-01

5

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

6

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

7

MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.  

PubMed

Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-01-01

8

Ensiling of mulberry foliage (Morus alba) and the nutritive value of mulberry foliage silage for goats in central Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different additives (molasses or rice bran) on quality of silage made from mulberry (Morus alba) foliage. The second experiment was designed as a Latin square (5 x 5) with 5 growing goats with a mean live weight of 17.3 kg to determine effects of mulberry foliage silage on feed intake,

Nguyen Xuan Ba; Vu Duy Giang

9

Aqueous two-phase extraction, identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry ( Morus atropurpurea Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE), identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) were investigated in this study. The optimal differential partitioning of mulberry anthocyanins (MAY) and sugars was achieved in a system (pH 4.5, temperature=35±1°C) composed of 30% (w\\/w) ethanol, 20% (w\\/w) concentration of ammonium sulphate, 10% (w\\/w) mulberry juice and 40% (w\\/w) water. The multiple partitioning

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Ye Zou; Ting Zhao; Jiangli Zhao; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

10

In vitro screening of mulberry ( Morus spp.) for salinity tolerance.  

PubMed

An efficient in vitro screening method has been developed for mulberry ( Morus spp. ) to screen salinity-tolerant genotypes from a large population. Axillary buds from field-grown plants were cultured on MS medium containing five different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) in order to study the shoot growth pattern. Rooting was also tested at four different concentrations of NaCl (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3.%). NaCl has been found to inhibit the growth and development of mulberry shoots and roots in vitro. The survivability of the axillary buds of the genotypes tested was reduced from 83.7% for the controls to 6.1% in 1.0% NaCl. The average number of roots developed by the genotypes ranged from 11.9 (controls) to 0.2 (0.3% NaCl). Out of the 63 genotypes tested, only seven--Rotundiloba, English black, Kolitha-3, Berhampore-A, Kajli, BC(2)59 and C776--developed roots in 0.3% NaCl. Root growth was also reduced drastically from 1.8 cm for the controls to 0.1 cm in 0.3% NaCl. To test the reproducibility of the results in soil, five tolerant and two susceptible genotypes, identified in this in vitro study, were selected and tested under ex vitro conditions. The significant correlation coefficients obtained between the performances of these genotypes under both types of cultural conditions revealed that in vitro screening of mulberry through axillary bud culture is an easy and efficient method to identify salt-adapted genotypes within a limited space and time period. PMID:12942311

Vijayan, K; Chakraborti, S P; Ghosh, P D

2003-12-01

11

Evaluation of feeding value of Eupatorium adenophorum in combination with mulberry leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of sun dried Ea (Eupatorium adenophorum, Ea) leaves in combination with mulberry (Morus alba, Ma) was studied by in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique and in vivo feeding experiment with sheep. The IVGP involved both kinetic assay and ruminal fermentation attributes (gas production, CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA), purines and digestibility parameters). IVGP data from the combined

A. Sahoo; B. Singh; O. P. Sharma

2011-01-01

12

Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus ) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity\\u000a and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust\\u000a alternative, PCR based marker assays

Arvind K Awasthi; GM Nagaraja; GV Naik; Sriramana Kanginakudru; K Thangavelu; Javaregowda Nagaraju

2004-01-01

13

Morus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mulberry (Morus L) is an important tree crop that provides sustainable economic and environmental benefits to a large number of people who\\u000a live in rural areas of several Asian countries. Out of the 68 species that have been recognized widely, only a few species\\u000a such as M. alba, M. bombycis, M. indica, M. latifolia, and M. multicaulis are cultivated for

Kunjupillai Vijayan; Amalendu Tikader; Zhao Weiguo; Chirakkara Venugopalan Nair; Sezai Ercisli; Chi-Hua Tsou

14

Some physico-chemical characteristics of black mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) genotypes from Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some selected physico-chemical properties (antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, fatty acids, fruit colour, fruit juice yield, fruit weight, organic acids, pH, total phenolic and total soluble solid contents) of five black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) genotypes grown in the Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey was investigated. The total phenolic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of black mulberry

Sezai Ercisli; Emine Orhan

2008-01-01

15

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit ( Morus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80mg\\/l ClO2 solutions for 5, 10, and 15min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1min and stored at ?1°C for 14d. ClO2 treatment was effective in retention of

Zhao Chen; Chuanhe Zhu; Ziqiang Han

2011-01-01

16

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

17

Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%), with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid) species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

Awasthi, Arvind K; Nagaraja, GM; Naik, GV; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Thangavelu, K; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2004-01-01

18

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.  

PubMed

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-12-01

19

Volatile glycosides from the leaves of Morus alba with a potential contribution to the complex anti-diabetic activity.  

PubMed

The leaves and root bark of Morus alba, the white mulberry tree, are well-known traditional medicines for the treatment of type II diabetes. Several different types of constituents have been suggested to be responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of mulberry drugs, such as iminosugars, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids. Our group recently suggested that a volatile-oil like fraction of the hot water extract of M. alba leaves, containing several phenyl-propane derivatives, can increase the glucose consumption of adipocytes. Here we report the isolation of three glycosylated volatile constituents from mulberry leaves, two megastigmane derivatives along with the beta-D-glucoside of eugenol. Furthermore, a commercially available mixture of probiotic bacteria was assessed to study the effect of the intestinal flora on the megastigmane derivatives. Significant amounts of the aglycons of both compounds were liberated, suggesting that these compounds can be metabolized in the large intestines and absorbed without the sugar moiety after the consumption of a traditional mulberry tea. Based on literature data, both the glycosides and their aglycons have a potential contribution to the beneficial effects of mulberry leaves in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24689274

Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Veres, Katalin; Erdei, Anna; Simon, András; Tóthb, Gábor

2014-02-01

20

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity.

2014-01-01

21

Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity.

2013-01-01

22

Hypolipidemic effect of flavonoids from mulberry leaves in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of the total flavonoids from mulberry leaves (MTF) in hyperlipidemic mice. The total flavonoids have been isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and purified by macroporous resins. After that, the content of MTF is 581.7 mg g-1 in dried product. The hypolipidemic effect of MTF has been evaluated in triton WR-1339 (400 mg kg-1) induced hyperlipidemic mice. The beneficial effects of MTF on serum lipid levels are more significant at 12h post MTF administration than at 6h. The levels of TG, TC and LDL-C were remarkably reduced to 388, 257 and 189 mg 100 ml-1 in MTF (30 mg kg-1) and triton WR-1339 treated mice, compared with 540, 464 and 299 mg 100 ml-1, respectively, in group treated by triton WR-1339 only. The ratios of HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C were increased to 0.42 and 0.57 post MTF (30 mg kg-1) administration, whereas these two ratios at the low levels of 0.33 and 0.52, respectively, in the reference group. These findings support a serum a lipid-favourable activity for mulberry leaf flavonoids. PMID:17392121

Chen, Jingjing; Li, Xiangrong

2007-01-01

23

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity.  

PubMed

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B; Kachole, Manvendra S

2012-10-01

24

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

25

Investigating Some Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Native Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of seed and seed oil obtained from the native black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) were investigated in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that the seed consisted of 27.5–33% crude oil, 20.2–22.5% crude\\u000a protein, 3.5–6% ash, 42.4–46.6% carbohydrate and 112.2–152.0 mg total phenolics\\/100 g. Twenty different fatty acids were determined,\\u000a with the percentages varying from 0.02% myristic acid (C14:0)

Umit Gecgel; Serap Durakli Velioglu; Hasan Murat Velioglu

26

Metabolic effects of mulberry leaves: exploring potential benefits in type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

Hunyadi, A; Liktor-Busa, E; Márki, A; Martins, A; Jedlinszki, N; Hsieh, T J; Báthori, M; Hohmann, J; Zupkó, I

2013-01-01

27

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

28

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

Liu, Chang-ying; Lu, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

29

Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1?) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food. PMID:24120956

Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il

2013-11-01

30

Foliar application of Azatobactor chroococcum increases leaf yield under saline conditions in mulberry ( Morus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of two nitrogenous fertilizers such as urea and the bacterial bio-fertilizer ‘Azatobactor chroococcum’ on growth and development along with leaf quality was studied under various levels of NaCl in mulberry. Performance of four mulberry varieties, two tolerant and two susceptible to salt, were studied in pot culture. NaCl at different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%

K. Vijayan; S. P. Chakraborti; P. D. Ghosh

2007-01-01

31

Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy.

Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

2014-01-01

32

Effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of the\\u000a mulberry leaf extract (MLE) using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC) assay.\\u000a The MLE was prepared by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min and treated with ?-glucosidase for 9 hr. High pressure liquid chromatography\\u000a (HPLC) analysis showed

Gyo-Nam Kim; Hae-Dong Jang

2010-01-01

33

Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice. PMID:23768383

Wu, Tao; Qi, Xueming; Liu, Yan; Guo, Jun; Zhu, Ruiyu; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2013-11-01

34

Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves on dopaminergic function. Materials and Methods: The effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves was evaluated on haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy, foot shock-induced aggression, amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior and phenobarbitone induced sleeping in mice. In each of these tests, the extract was administered in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before performing the test in mice. Further, the inhibitory effect of the extract on dopamine was studied using isolated rat vas deferens. Results: The extract produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and metoclopramide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice. The extract significantly reduced number of fights and increased latency to fights in foot shock-induced aggression; it also decreased amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. The sleeping time induced by phenobarbitone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) too was prolonged. The extract inhibited contractions produced by dopamine on isolated rat vas deferens. Conclusion: The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. possesses antidopaminergic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to antidopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent.

Yadav, Adhikrao V.; Nade, Vandana S.

2008-01-01

35

Changes in Mulberry Leaf Metabolism in Response to Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the water stress-induced changes in the activities of RuBP carboxylase (RuBPCO) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 activity, and contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch, sucrose, amino acids, free proline, proteins and nucleic acids in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. K-2) leaves. Water stress progressively reduced the activities of RuBPCO and SPS

P. Barathi; D. Sundar; A. Ramachandra Reddy

2001-01-01

36

Overexpression of HVA1 gene from barley generates tolerance to salinity and water stress in transgenic mulberry ( Morus indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are members of a large group of hydrophilic proteins found primarily in plants.\\u000a The barley hva1 gene encodes a group 3 LEA protein and is induced by ABA and water deficit conditions. We report here the over expression\\u000a of hva1 in mulberry under a constitutive promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analysis of the transgenic plants

Shalini Lal; Vibha Gulyani; Paramjit Khurana

2008-01-01

37

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes.

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

38

Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)  

PubMed Central

The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm.

2014-01-01

39

Asymmetrical introgression between two Morus species (M. alba, M. rubra) that differ in abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetrical introgression is an expected genetic consequence of hybridization when parental taxa differ in abundance; however, evidence for such effects in small populations is scarce. To test this prediction, we estimated the magnitude and direction of hybridization between red mulberry ( Morus rubra L.), an endangered species in Canada, and the intro- duced and more abundant white mulberry ( Morus

K. S. BURGESS; M. MORGAN; L. DEVERNO; B. C. HUSBAND

2005-01-01

40

Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.  

PubMed

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

41

Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

El-Sayyad, H.I.H.; El-Sherbiny, M.A.; Sobh, M.A.; Abou-El-Naga, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.A.N.; Mousa, S.A.

2011-01-01

42

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally

Mariko Nakamura; Sadako Nakamura; Tsuneyuki Oku

2009-01-01

43

High-efficiency transformation and selective tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress in mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2, by constitutive and inducible expression of tobacco osmotin.  

PubMed

Osmotin and osmotin-like proteins are stress proteins belonging to the plant PR-5 group of proteins induced in several plant species in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. We report here the overexpression of tobacco osmotin in transgenic mulberry plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV 35S) as well as a stress-inducible rd29A promoter. Southern analysis of the transgenic plants revealed the stable integration of the introduced genes in the transformants. Real-time PCR analysis provided evidence for the expression of osmotin in the transgenic plants under both the constitutive and stress-inducible promoters. Transgenic plants with the stress-inducible promoter were observed to better tolerate salt and drought stress than those with the constitutive promoter. Transgenic plants when subjected to simulated salinity and drought stress conditions showed better cellular membrane stability (CMS) and photosynthetic yield than non-transgenic plants under conditions of both salinity and drought stress. Proline levels were very high in transgenic plants with the constitutive promoter relative to those with the stress-inducible promoter. Fungal challenge undertaken with three fungal species known to cause serious losses to mulberry cultivation, namely, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium, revealed that transgenic plants with osmotin under control of the constitutive promoter had a better resistance than those with osmotin under the control of the stress-inducible promoter. Evaluation in next generation was undertaken by studying bud break in transgenic and non-transgenic plants under simulated drought (2% polyethylene glycol) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) conditions. The axillary buds of the selected transgenic lines had a better bud break percentage under stressed conditions than buds from non-transgenic mulberry lines. A biotic assay with Bombyx mori indicated that osmotin protein had no undesirable effect on silkworm rearing and feeding. We therefore conclude that 35S transgenic plants are better suited for both abiotic stress also biotic challenges (fungal), while the rd29A transgenic plants are more responsive to drought. PMID:20549349

Das, Manaswini; Chauhan, Harsh; Chhibbar, Anju; Rizwanul Haq, Qazi Mohd; Khurana, Paramjit

2011-04-01

44

Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ contents in commercial mulberry products were as low as about 0.1% (100 mg/100 g of dry product), implying that the bioavailability of DNJ might not be expected. We carried out studies in two directions: (1) production of food-grade mulberry powder containing a maximally high DNJ content; (2) determination of the optimal dose of the DNJ-enriched powder for the suppression of the postprandial blood glucose through clinical trials. The following method was used: (1) DNJ concentrations in mulberry leaves from different cultivars, harvest seasons, and leaf locations were determined using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. (2) Healthy volunteers received 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder (corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg of DNJ, respectively), followed by 50 g of sucrose. Before and 30-180 min after the DNJ/sucrose administration, plasma glucose and insulin were determined. The following results were obtained: (1) Young mulberry leaves taken from the top part of the branches in summer contained the highest amount of DNJ. After optimization of the harvesting and drying processes for young mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. var. Shin ichinose), DNJ-enriched powder (1.5%) was produced. (2) A human study indicated that the single oral administration of 0.8 and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder significantly suppressed the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin, revealing the physiological impact of mulberry DNJ (effective dose and efficacy in humans). This study suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus. PMID:17555327

Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Goto, Yuko; Yamagishi, Kenji; Oita, Shigeru; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2007-07-11

45

Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Black mulberry (Morus nigra) is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the

Jacinto Darias-Martín; Gloria Lobo-Rodrigo; José Hernández-Cordero; Eugenio Díaz-Díaz; Carlos Díaz-Romero

46

Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

2010-10-15

47

Hybrid of 1-deoxynojirimycin and polysaccharide from mulberry leaves treat diabetes mellitus by activating PDX-1\\/insulin-1 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of glucokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in alloxan-induced diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevance1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) discovered from mulberry trees has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of intestinal ?-glycosidases (sucrase, maltase, glucoamylase), and many polysaccharides were useful in protecting against alloxan-induced pancreatic islets damage through their scavenging ability. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism(s) of the hybrid of DNJ and polysaccharide (HDP) from mulberry leaves

You-Gui Li; Dong-Feng Ji; Shi Zhong; Zhi-Qiang Lv; Tian-Bao Lin; Shi Chen; Gui-Yan Hu

2011-01-01

48

Antioxidant effect of astragalin isolated from the leaves of Morus alba L. against free radical-induced oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antioxidant properties of mulberry leaves extract (MLE) and flavonoids isolated from MLE. MLE was prepared by extraction with methanol. Flavonoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxidative hemolysis of normal human red blood cells (RBCs) was induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH]. MLE contained three flavonoids in the order quercetin (QC) > kaempferol (KF) > astragalin (AG). Oxidative hemolysis of RBCs induced by AAPH was suppressed by MLE, AG, KF, and QC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MLE and these three flavonoids prevented the depletion of cystosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in RBCs. AG had the greatest protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis and GSH depletion in RBCs. PMID:23512775

Choi, Jiwon; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sung Zoo; Kwon, Tae Oh; Jeong, Seung-Il; Jang, Seon Il

2013-07-01

49

Formation of multiplex lamellae by equilibrium slow freezing of cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry and its possible relationship to freezing tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv. Goroji) become extremely cold hardy in winter and can tolerate equilibrium freezing below -30 °C and subsequent immersion into liquid nitrogen. We show in this ultrastructural study that, in these extremely cold hardy cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry collected in winter, initiation of freezing at -5 °C resulted in the

S. Fujikawa; K. Takabe

1996-01-01

50

A Freeze-Fracture Study Designed to Clarify the Mechanisms of Freezing Injury Due to the Freezing-Induced Close Apposition of Membranes in Cortical Parenchyma Cells of Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing injury in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv. Goroji) collected in autumn and spring was closely associated with the occurence of ultrastructural changes in the plasma membrane, namely, formation of aparticulate domains (APD) with accompanying \\

Seizo Fujikawa

1995-01-01

51

[Resources of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan and strategies for development and utilization].  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis was conducted on resources composition of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan using survey data and related literature. The original plants, germplasm collections, cultivation areas, main cultivated varieties and production sale of crude drugs of Sang in Sichuan were clearly expounded. Strategies for development and utilization of Sichuan mulberry resources were suggested. PMID:19294839

Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, De-Guang

2008-12-01

52

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients.

Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2009-01-01

53

Cytoprotective activity of mulberry leaf extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in rats.  

PubMed

Morus alba Linn. (MA), mulberry leaves have been used as a beverage for prevention of various diseases including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Recently, the antioxidant activities of the MA leaf extract have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the MA leaf extract on free radical-induced cellular injury. In the in vitro models, the extract scavenged stable free radical (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 20.10 ± 0.78 ? g/ml. The extract protected the erythrocytes from free radical (2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; AAPH)-induced hemolysis with an IC(50) of 74.22 ± 9.87 ?g/ml. Additionally, the extract significantly prevented the gastric mucosal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats when given orally at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg/day for 3 consecutive days (p < 0.05; n=7). However, this effect was not found when the higher doses (1 and 2 g/kg/day) of the extract were tested. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MA leaf extract possesses the cytoprotective activity against free radical-induced cell injury. Therefore, when given at the appropriate dose range, the mulberry leaf may potentially be used as a food supplement in patients with certain diseases in which the oxidative stress-induced cellular injury is pathologically involved. PMID:23261743

Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

2013-01-01

54

Antioxidant responses to enhanced generation of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in the copper-stressed mulberry plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of Cu-deficiency or Cu-excess in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva 2 plants. A study of antioxidative responses, indicators of oxidative damage and cellular redox environment in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess mulberry plants was undertaken. While the young

Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

2006-01-01

55

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species  

PubMed Central

Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species into distinct clusters. Conclusion We report a total of 188 genomic and genic SSR markers in Morus alba L. A large proportion of these markers (164) were polymorphic both among mulberry species and genotypes. A substantial number of these markers (149) were also transferable to other related species like Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. The extent of polymorphism revealed and the ability to detect heterozygosity among the cross pollinated mulberry species and genotypes render these markers an invaluable genomic resource that can be utilized in assessing molecular diversity as well as in QTL mapping and subsequently mulberry crop improvement through MAS.

2013-01-01

56

The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoid content of mulberry leaves of 19 varieties of species, determined spectrophotometrically in terms of rutin equivalent, varied from 11.7 to 26.6mgg?1 in spring leaves and 9.84 to 29.6mgg?1 in autumn leaves. Fresh leaves gave more extract than air-dried or oven-dried ones. HPLC showed that mulberry leaves contain at least four flavonoids, two of which are rutin and quercetin. The

Jia Zhishen; Tang Mengcheng; Wu Jianming

1999-01-01

57

Photosynthesis and the Enzymes of Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle in Mulberry During Water Stress and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gS), transpiration rate (E), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), leaf water potential (?w), leaf area, chlorophyll (Chl) content, and the activities of photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) enzymes in two mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivars (drought tolerant Anantha and drought sensitive M-5) were studied during water stress and recovery. During water stress, PN, gS, and

S. Thimmanaik; S. Giridara Kumar; G. Jyothsna Kumari; N. Suryanarayana; C. Sudhakar

2002-01-01

58

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endo- plasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation

Norifumi Ukaji; Chikako Kuwabara; Daisuke Takezawa; Keita Arakawa; Shizuo Yoshida; Seizo Fujikawa

1999-01-01

59

JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression.  

PubMed

Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry) reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM) but not the leaf extract (LEM) reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:23983799

Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

60

Determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat and mulberry by cation exchange HPLC/ESI-Q-MS.  

PubMed

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar first found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) which if used as a dietary supplement or functional food component may reduce the risks of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. As D-fagomine may become increasingly important to the food industry, a reliable analytical method for its determination in natural plant sources and foodstuffs is desirable. We have devised a method to separate D-fagomine from its diastereomers 3-epi-fagomine and 3,4-di-epi-fagomine in a single run by cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection and quantification by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionisation and a simple quadrupole analyser (ESI-Q-MS). The method is validated and applied to the determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat groats (6.7-44 mg kg(-1)), leaves, bran and flour. We show that buckwheat contains 3,4-di-epi-fagomine (1.0-43 mg kg(-1)), which has not previously been reported in this source. The procedure is also applied to mulberry (Morus alba) leaves, which contain D-fagomine and 3-epi-fagomine as minor components. The new method provides a means for convenient and accurate determination of D-fagomine in plant samples and foodstuffs. PMID:22207282

Amézqueta, Susana; Galán, Esther; Fuguet, Elisabet; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Torres, Josep Lluís

2012-02-01

61

Molecular distinction amongst varieties of Mulberry using RAPD and DAMD profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Mulberry trees are the most important host for rearing mulberry silkworms in sericulture. Improved varieties of mulberry tree have been developed through traditional breeding procedures. Not much work, however, has been carried out on the molecular characterization of these varieties. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) methods based on Polymerase Chain Reaction are important tools to analyze genetic diversity of mulberries. These have been used to determine variation amongst nine varieties of Morus spp. maintained at Banthra Research Station of National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. Results and Discussion The varieties were analyzed using 23 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for RAPD, and 3 minisatellite core sequence primers for DAMD reactions. The RAPD and DAMD band data, (a total of 200 bands), were used to determine the pair wise distances according to Jaccard's algorithm. From these distance values Neighbour Joining (NJ) analyses were carried out separately for the RAPD and the DAMD data. The triploid varieties were found to be most similar to each other using RAPD analysis, while the varieties S13 and S34 were more similar using DAMD analysis. Nearly 85% of the RAPD bands and 91% of the DAMD bands were polymorphic across the nine varieties. Conclusions The mulberry varieties could be distinguished by their RAPD and DAMD profiles. As many as five RAPD primers and one DAMD primer generated profiles that can together differentiate all the nine varieties in terms of unique bands.

Bhattacharya, Esha; Ranade, Shirish Anand

2001-01-01

62

Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-05-01

63

A new source of whitening agent from a Thai Mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation.  

PubMed

Protection of human body against the harmful ultraviolet exposure is nowadays more important and interesting. Melanin, a group of bio-pigments, acts as a natural solar filter absorbing and reflecting most of the UV radiation passing through the layer of skin. Over production of the pigments can create a health problem, hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyalanine (L-Dopa), therefore tyrosinase inhibitors are used in various skin preparations due to its pronounced effect on anti-hyperpigment. In this study, an in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity study of the extracts from a hybrid Mulberry plant obtained from Morus alba L. and Morus rotundiloba Koidz, is shown to prove as new source of Thai whitening agent. The presence of betulinic acid, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity agent, is also reported. The study develops the technique of HPLC quantitation of betulinic acid and its relation to anti-tyrosinase activity of the whole parts of Thai Mulberry. PMID:18569714

Nattapong, Snitmatjaro; Omboon, Luanratana

2008-06-15

64

Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

2013-01-01

65

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

PubMed Central

Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent.

2010-01-01

66

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

67

Evaluation of parameters for high efficiency gene transfer via particle bombardment in Indian mulberry.  

PubMed

Particle bombardment is a popular method of direct gene delivery into cell, tissue and organs since it requires minimum pre- and post-bombardment manipulation. In addition, this technique is much easier and fast to perform with intact tissue/organ and reduces the period of in vitro culture. Genetic transformation of mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2 was attempted by particle bombardment using hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and leaf callus explants. The effect of various physical and biological parameters during bombardment were studied by the histochemical localization of GUS reporter gene following two days of bombardment and by assessing the number of blue spots per explant. p35SGUSINT was used for optimization of different parameters. The percentage of GUS positive explants was very low with tungsten (20%) as compared to gold particles (36%) indicating tungsten toxicity to the tissue. Maximum GUS activity was observed at 1100 psi helium pressure and 9 cm target distance for hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf. Double bombardment of explants with 10 microg of DNA loaded on macrocarriers clearly yielded a better (up to 56%) result as compared to a single bombardment (30%). Amongst the various plasmids tested, pBI221 gave the highest (100%) GUS positive explants in the leaf callus. PMID:12974402

Bhatnagar, Somika; Kapur, Anita; Khurana, Paramjit

2002-12-01

68

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin.

2010-01-01

69

Mulberry leaf extract reduces postprandial hyperglycemia with few side effects by inhibiting ?-glucosidase in normal rats.  

PubMed

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf extract (MLE) was investigated as a potent plant-derived ?-glucosidase inhibitor with low ?-amylase inhibitory activity. MLE was prepared by heating in an autoclave at 121 °C for 15 minutes, and its in vitro and in vivo antihyperglycemic activities were investigated. The adverse side effects of MLE were analyzed by measuring the weight and volume of the cecum, stool color, starch content in the cecum, and the integrity of intestinal transporting capacity. The in vitro inhibitory activity of MLE on intestinal ?-glucosidase was potent and that on intestinal ?-amylase was very weak compared with acarbose. Sugar loading tests with starch, maltose, and sucrose showed that MLE may reduce postprandial increases in blood glucose by acting as an intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Feeding tests suggested that MLE may exhibit fewer adverse side effects than other ?-glucosidase inhibitors, such as abdominal flatulence and meteorism, which are attributed to the impaired digestion of starch by strong inhibition of intestinal ?-amylase. These results suggest that MLE could be used in the development of pharmaceutical foods to control the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients by inhibiting intestinal ?-glucosidase with reduced side effects. PMID:21631361

Kim, Gyo-Nam; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

2011-01-01

70

Isolation and HPLC-ESI-MS identification of mulberry anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and purification of anthocyanins from mulberry by column chromatography were made, macroporous resins D101 was employed to purify the anthocyanin extracts from mulberry and Sephadex LH-20 was to further separate the anthocyanins in order to obtain more purified or individual anthocyanin. HPLC-ESI\\/MS analysis was used to identify the anthocyanins in mulberry. The results indicated that there exist 14 anthocyanins

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Maomao Zhu; Ye Zou; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

71

Carotenoids of mulberry leaves and of silkworm excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, great attention is being devoted to the search for new cheap sources of carotene [i]. The raw material for this may be certain industrial wastes and, in particular, silkworm excreta (SWE) the complex study of the composition of which has already been carried on over a number of years [2]. In the present communication we present

D. U. Uzakova; A. A. Kolesnik; Yu. L. Zherebin; I. K. Sarycheva

1987-01-01

72

Simultaneous quantitation of nucleosides, nucleobases, amino acids, and alkaloids in mulberry leaf by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method has been established for the simultaneous determination of the 14 nucleosides and nucleobases, 24 amino acids and two main alkaloids in mulberry leaf. In this method, a complicated mobile phase, the flow rate of which was 0.4 mL/min, was applied to the gradient elution, which provided a satisfied separation of the 40 compounds. The present method was validated, and sufficient reproducibility and accuracy were obtained for the quantitative measurement of the 40 compounds. The method was subsequently applied to ten mulberry leaves and the results showed that almost all of these samples were rich in nucleosides, nucleobases, amino acids, and alkaloids. The proposed method, which is convenient and economical, could serve as a prerequisite for the quality control of mulberry leaf herbs and be applied analogously to other Chinese medicines. PMID:24616434

Zhang, Li-Li; Bai, Yong-Liang; Shu, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-06-01

73

Prenylated arylbenzofuran derivatives from Morus mesozygia with antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Five prenylated arylbenzofurans, moracins Q-U, were isolated from Morus mesozygia (Moraceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Along with these compounds, 3beta-acetoxyurs-12-en-11-one, marsformoxide, moracin C, moracin M, moracin K, artocarpesin, cycloartocarpesin, morachalcone A were also isolated. Four of the five compounds, (moracins R-U) displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:19147162

Kapche, Gilbert D W F; Fozing, Christian D; Donfack, Jean H; Fotso, Ghislain W; Amadou, Dawe; Tchana, Angèle N; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Moundipa, Paul F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Abegaz, Berhanu M

2009-01-01

74

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized\\u000a as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk\\u000a fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential,\\u000a fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx

Chitrangada Acharya; Sudip K. Ghosh; S. C. Kundu

2008-01-01

75

Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of anthocyanins of mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) from different varieties mulberry fruit in China.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins, copiously distributed in a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, are probably the most important group of visible plant pigments besides chlorophyll. And the mulberry fruit is one of the anthocyanins-rich fruits. Total flavonols, total phenolic acids and anthocyanins contents of ten varieties mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) were determined. The highest content was 965.63±4.90 mg RE/g, 690.83±7.38 mg GAE/g and 272.00±1.20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g FW, respectively. Moreover, MJP and MMP exhibited high antioxidant activity, including total force reduction (TRP), Fe³? reducing power (FRAP) and DPPH • radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of MJP and MMP was determined through mice-burden swimming experiments. Interestingly, the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of MMP were much higher than those of MJP. The experimental results suggested that the generally discarded mulberry marc had greater value of development and utilization as food processing waste. PMID:23727333

Jiang, Dong-Qing; Guo, Ying; Xu, Dian-Hong; Huang, Ya-Si; Yuan, Ke; Lv, Zhi-Qiang

2013-09-01

76

2-Arylbenzofuran and tyrosinase inhibitory constituents of Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the stem of Morus notabilis led to the isolation and characterization of 10 compounds of 2-arylbenzofurans (1-10), including two new compounds, (2'R)-2',3'-dihydro-2'-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6'-bibenzofuran-6,4'-diol (1) and 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)benzofuran (2). Moracins O (6) and P (10) showed inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase with IC?? values being lower than that of kojic acid. PMID:23088613

Hu, Xiao; Wang, Meng; Yan, Gui-Rui; Yu, Mei-Hua; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

2012-01-01

77

Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.  

PubMed

In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359?kcal could be generated per 100?gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

2011-10-01

78

26. OVERALL VIEW, FROM SOUTH, OF MULBERRY STREET BRIDGE, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. OVERALL VIEW, FROM SOUTH, OF MULBERRY STREET BRIDGE, SHOWING BOTH SHEDS, MAIL CONVEYOR CONNECTING POST OFFICE BUILDING TO LOADING DOCK UNDER WEST SHED (RIGHT SIDE), PLATFORM CANOPIES AND CATENARY SYSTEM. NOTE STATE CAPITOL DOME VISIBLE BEYOND STATION BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

79

Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeographical history of the mulberry family (Moraceae) was investigated using phylogenetic inferences from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, molecular dating with multiple fossil calibrations, and independent geological evidence. The Moraceae are centered in the tropics which has invited the hypothesis that the family has Gondwanan origins and extant distribution is the result of vicariance due to the break-up of Gondwana.

Nyree J. C. Zerega; Wendy L. Clement; Shannon L. Datwyler; George D. Weiblen

2005-01-01

80

Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds

Biman B. Mandal; Subhas C. Kundu

2009-01-01

81

Application of soft X-ray microradiography to observation of cystoliths in the leaves of various higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft X-ray microradiography was applied to observation of the cystoliths, calcified bodies of higher plants, in the leaves\\u000a ofMorus bombycis, Humulus scandens, Ficus elastica, F. retusa (Moraceae),Boehmeria platanifolia, Pilea viridissima (Urticaceae) andMomordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). It was proved that this technique is useful for examination of the shape, size, distribution and number\\u000a of cystoliths in fresh leaves. The microradiographs revealed large

Megumi Okazaki; Hiroaki Setoguchi; Harumi Aoki; Shoichi Suga

1986-01-01

82

Metabolomic analysis reveals the potential metabolites and pathogenesis involved in mulberry yellow dwarf disease.  

PubMed

To analyse the molecular mechanisms of phytoplasma pathogenicity, the comprehensive metabolomic changes of mulberry leaf and phloem sap in response to phytoplasma infection were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolic profiles obtained revealed that the metabolite compositions of leaf and phloem sap were different, and phytoplasma infection has a greater impact on the metabolome of phloem sap than of leaf. Phytoplasma infection brought about the content changes in various metabolites, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, etc. Meanwhile, the results of biochemical analysis showed that the degradation of starch was repressed, and the starch content was increased in the infected leaves. In addition, we found that phytoplasma infection changed the levels of abscisic acid and cytokinin and break phytohormone balance. Interestingly, our data showed that the contents of H2O2 and superoxide were increased in the infected leaves, but not in the phloem saps. Based on the results, the expression levels of the genes involved in the metabolism of some changed metabolites were examined, and the potential molecular mechanisms of these changes were discussed. It can be concluded that both the leaf and phloem saps have a complicated metabolic response to phytoplasma infection, but their response mechanisms were different. PMID:24329897

Gai, Ying-Ping; Han, Xue-Juan; Li, Yi-Qun; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Guo, Fang-Yue; Liu, Qing-Xin; Ji, Xian-Ling

2014-06-01

83

Isolation and characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ripe mulberries in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study.

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-01-01

84

Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: In vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was

L. P. R. Bidel; S. Meyer; Y. Goulas; Y. Cadot; Z. G. Cerovic

2007-01-01

85

White mulberry supplementation as adjuvant treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

Body weight is controlled by our genes and managed by a neuro-hormonal system, in particular by insulin and glucagon. The meristematic extract of Japanese white mulberry blocks the alpha-glucosidase and then the intestinal hydrolysis of polysaccharides, thereby reducing the glycaemic index of carbohydrates. The target of our research was to evaluate the adjuvant slimming effect of the extract of white Japanese mulberry in the dietetic treatment of some patients who are obese or overweight. 46 overweight people were enrolled and divided into two subgroups: the subjects of both subgroups were given an identical balanced diet of 1300 kcal: subjects of the subgroup alpha received 2400 mg of white Japanese mulberry extract, the subgroup b subjects receive placebo. Each subgroup was followed-up every 30 days at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment. Both in the periodic inspections and in the final inspection measurements of body weight and waist circumference in all the subjects and thigh circumference in women only were repeated. All subjects repeated blood tests. In the subgroup alpha, weight loss was about 9 kg in 3 months, equal to approximately 10 percent of the initial weight, significantly higher than subgroup beta (P<0.0001); moreover, the plasma insulin and glucose curves of the volunteers in this subgroup at the end of the trial were lower than those performed at the time of enrolment. In the 20 women of the beta subgroup treated with only low-calorie diet and with placebo, weight reduction was globally of 3.2 kg, approximately equal to 3 percent of the initial weight; moreover, the blood glucose curves and the insulin curves showed a slight decline compared to baseline, but not so significantly as was the case for group alpha. Waist circumference and thigh circumference (in women) decreased in all participants, obviously more evidently in subjects who lost more kg. The extract of white Japanese mulberry may represent a reliable adjuvant therapy in the dietetic treatment of some patients who are obese or overweight. PMID:24750800

Da Villa, G; Ianiro, G; Mangiola, F; Del Toma, E; Vitale, A; Gasbarrini, A; Gasbarrini, G

2014-01-01

86

CONCENTRACIÓN DE CARBONO Y NITRÓGENO A SEIS FRECUENCIAS DE PODA EN Tithonia diversifolia Y Morus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out at EARTH University with the objective to quantify the concentration of carbon and nitrogen in the above-ground plant biomass and in the soil of six frequencies of pruning in Tithonia diversifolia and Morus alba. Random blocks were used with treatments in divided plots, using small parcels of 3 m x 4 m with 36 plants.

Y. Zavala; J. C. Rodríguez; M. Cerrato

87

Elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra and Zizyphus jujuba and their biological activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 616.314-008.92 We have studied the elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra L. and Zizyphus jujuba Mill. and their biological activities in order to determine the desirability of using these fruits as a component of toothpastes. The plants concerned are widely distributed in Uzbekistan and their fruits contain a considerable amount of such biologically active agents as tannin

U. Zh. Zhumatov

1996-01-01

88

DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

89

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion.  

PubMed

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential, fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori are immunologically inert and invoke minimal immune response. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by these fibroin proteins both in solution and in the form of films assayed in terms of nitric oxide and TNFalpha production showed comparable stimulation as in collagen. Kinetics of adhesion of L929 murine fibroblasts, for biocompatibility evaluation, monitored every 4 h from seeding and studied over a period of 24 h, reveal A. mylitta fibroin film to be a better substrate in terms of rapid and easier cellularization. Cell viability studies by MTT assay and flow cytometric analyses indicate the ability of fibroin matrices to support cell growth and proliferation comparable to collagen for long-term culture. This matrix may have potential to serve in those injuries where rapid cellularization is essential. PMID:18322779

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-08-01

90

Mulberry Fruit (Moris fructus) Extracts Induce Human Glioma Cell Death In Vitro Through ROS-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibits Glioma Tumor Growth In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry has been reported to contain wide range of polyphenols and have chemopreventive activity. However, little has been known regarding the effect of mulberry fruit extracts on cell viability in vitro in human glioma cells and the anticancer efficacy in vivo. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of mulberry fruit (Moris fructus; MF) extracts on cell viability in

Ji Cheon Jeong; Sang Won Jang; Thae Hyun Kim; Chae Hwa Kwon; Yong Keun Kim

2010-01-01

91

Anti-diabetic effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharide by inhibiting pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and ameliorating insulin secretory capacity in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a clinically complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII) on pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory function in diabetic rats induced by a high fat diet and streptozotocin. Our results showed that MLPII treatment inhibited pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and ameliorated insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic rats. And further study demonstrated that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with MLPII resulted in up-regulation of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl2-associated X (Bax) and caspase-3 protein in pancreatic islet cells. Moreover, MLPII significantly restored pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) protein nuclear localization, and increased mRNA and protein expression of PDX-1 and its downstream targets, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase (GCK) in pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. These findings suggested that MLPII might play a critical role in protecting pancreatic islet cell from apoptosis via elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and ameliorating insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic ?-cells via restoration of PDX-1 nuclear localization and expression levels in diabetic rats. This is the first report to explore the potential molecular mechanism involved in the hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide from mulberry leaves. PMID:25023123

Zhang, Yao; Ren, Chunjiu; Lu, Guobing; Mu, Zhimei; Cui, Weizheng; Gao, Huiju; Wang, Yanwen

2014-09-01

92

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

93

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

94

Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient.

Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

2012-01-01

95

Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenisation processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200 MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1 min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the anthocyanins, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, and a unknown hydroxycinnamic acid) and quercetin aglycone contents, as well as ORAC value were observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, whereas all reductions above during UHPH processing could be inhibited by adding ascorbic acid to mulberry juice. Besides, no significant change (p>0.05) in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, but showed a 14% reduction in mulberry juice processed by thermal pasteurisation. PMID:24491708

Yu, Yuanshan; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Fu, Mangqin; Zhang, Yousheng

2014-06-15

96

An emerging functional natural silk biomaterial from the only domesticated non-mulberry silkworm Samia ricini.  

PubMed

Mulberry silk fibroin is a widely used biomaterial and recent work on non-mulberry silk fibroin also suggests it may have similar uses. We expect silk fibroin from the only domesticated non-mulberry eri silkworm, Samia ricini, to possess useful properties as a biomaterial. Eri silk gland fibroin is a heterodimeric protein of approximately 450?kDa. Cytocompatibility evaluation with fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells shows good cell attachment, viability and proliferation. The matrices, which have high thermal stability and good swellability, are also haemocompatible. Eri silk production is cost effective as no agronomic practices are required for their host plant cultivation. This fibroin provide new opportunities as an alternative natural functional biomaterial in various biomedical applications. PMID:23733347

Pal, Shilpa; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Thomas, Tintu; Kundu, Subhas C

2013-08-01

97

Results of deep-well injection testing at Mulberry, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Fla., high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. In 1975, a satellite monitor well was drilled 2,291 feet from the injection well and a series of three injection tests were performed. Duration of the tests ranged from 240 to 10,020 minutes and injection rates ranged from 110 to 230 gallons per minute. Based on an evaluation of factors that affect hydraulic response, water-level data suitable for interpretation of hydraulic characteristics of the injection zone were identified to occur from 200 to 1,000 minutes during the 10,020-minute test. Transmissivity of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from 700 to 1,000 feet squared per day and storage coefficient of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from .00001 to .00005. The confining bed accepting most of the leakage appears to be the underlying bed. Also, it appears that the overlying beds are probably relatively impermeable and significantly retard the vertical movement of neutralized waste effluent. (USGS)

Hickey, John J.; Wilson, W. E.

1982-01-01

98

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects.

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

99

Wittiorumins A - F, antioxidant diels-alder-type adducts from Morus wittiorum.  

PubMed

Six new Diels-Alder-type adducts, wittiorumins A-F ( 1 - 6) along with the three known compounds chalcomoracin ( 7), mulberrofuran J ( 8), and mongolicin F ( 9), were isolated from the stem bark of Morus wittiorum. Their structures including their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Some of the isolated compounds ( 1 - 4) were assayed for their antioxidant activities, among which compounds 1 - 3 were active as antioxidants, with inhibitory ratios of 73.0 %, 82.0 %, and 82.0 %, respectively, at a concentration of 10 ( - 5) M. PMID:19137498

Tan, Yong-Xia; Yan, Ren-Yi; Wang, Hong-Qing; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

2009-02-01

100

New isoprenylated flavonoids and adipogenesis-promoting constituents from Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Five new isoprenylated flavonoids, notabilisins A-E (1-5), and two known Diels-Alder adducts (6 and 7), were isolated from the twigs of Morus notabilis. Compounds 4 and 5 possess two novel pyran rings, which may be biogenetically derived from 3. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly promoted adipogenesis, characterized by increased lipid droplet and triglyceride content in 3T3L1 cells, and induced up-regulation of the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, aP2 and GLUT4. PMID:21737271

Hu, Xiao; Ji, Jun; Wang, Meng; Wu, Jin-Wei; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

2011-08-01

101

Correlation between yield and biochemical parameters in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study was carried out on six biochemical parameters and four yield attributes using multiple regression analysis to investigate their relationship in the mulberry silkworm,Bombyx mori. The study generated new information on the importance of digestive amylase activity for the survival of the silkworm and revealed the inability of other enzymes to affect this relationship. Data also substantiate the

S. N. Chatterjee; C. G. P. Rao; G. K. Chatterjee; S. K. Ashwath; A. K. Patnaik

1993-01-01

102

ST2B1-3: Cleaner Technology: Application to Paper Mulberry Pulp and Paper Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to introduce cleaner technology (CT) to paper mulberry pulp and paper industry. By auditing the production process, data was analyzed and recommendation practices or CT-option was introduced in order to reduce wastes at the source and, lower production cost. The case study was a handmade paper operation in Nongmuangkai, Prae Province with a total

Thumrongrut Mungcharoen; Saeksan Papong

103

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

104

Modification of flower sex and acid phosphatase activity by phthalimides in female plants of Morus nigra L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalimide treatments at 125, 250 and 500 mg 1-1 to female plants of dioecious Morus nigra L. induced intersex and male flowers. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of acid phosphatase in male and female flower buds showed that the male flower had significantly higher levels of the enzyme activity than the female flower buds. The level of acid phosphatase activity significantly

Madan Lal; Vijai S. Jaiswal

1988-01-01

105

Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface.  

PubMed

The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C

2014-01-01

106

Quantification of Changes in Mulberry Silk Fabrics due to Different Laundering: Using WAXS Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loom finished mulberry silk fabrics (Taffeta) were machine laundered and hand laundered several times. X-ray diffractograms of pure and laundered fabrics were used to calculate microstructural parameters like average crystallite size (D) and lattice strain (Vegr) employing Williamson-Hall plot. Microstructural parameters were compared with measured mechanical properties like breaking load, tenacity, and elongation of warp yarns unraveled from fabrics. Surface morphology and texture of silk fabrics changed upon washing is evident from SEM images.

Parameswara, P.; Nivedita, S.; Somashekar, R.

2011-07-01

107

Iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel for biosorption of Co(II): biosorption properties and mechanism.  

PubMed

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

108

Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents.

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

109

Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.  

PubMed

Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550?molmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy. PMID:24938741

Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

2014-08-01

110

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with (13)C/(12)C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

111

Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

2014-03-01

112

A new antioxidant stilbene and other constituents from the stem bark of Morus nigra L.  

PubMed

A new stilbene, 2',3,4',5,5'-pentahydroxy-cis-stilbene (1), along with 13 known compounds, resveratrol (2), oxyresveratrol (3), norartocarpetin (4), kuwanon C (5), morusin (6), cudraflavone A (7), kuwanon G (8), albafurane C (9), mulberrofuran G (10), 3-O-acetyl-?-amyrin (11), 3-O-acetyl-?-amyrin (12) ursolic acid-3-O-acetate (13) and uvaol (14), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Compounds 2, 8, 10, 12 and 14 are reported for the first time from this plant. The isolated compounds were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS, as well as by comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds and the different extracts were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(+) radical-scavenging capacity assay and compared with ascorbic acid. The new stilbene (1) exhibited remarkable antioxidant capacity with IC50 of 4.69 ?M. PMID:24673367

Abbas, Ghada M; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Baraka, Hany N; Gohar, Ahmed A; Lahloub, Mohammed-Farid

2014-07-01

113

Biosorption properties of Morus alba L. for Cd (II) ions removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The abundantly available industrial waste product Morus alba L. pomace (MAP) is one of the cost-effective biosorbent for removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to test the ability of MAP to remove Cd(II) ions through batch biosorption process. Firstly, MAP was characterized using several techniques, and then the influence of various experimental parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous solution, initial Cd(II) concentration, contact time, MAP concentration, and temperature were evaluated upon the biosorption process. It was found that the maximum uptake of Cd(II) ions occurred at initial pH 6.0 and optimum contact time was observed as 60 min. Cd(II) ions adsorption on MAP analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of MAP was found to be 21.69 mg?g(-1) by using the Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed to describe the biosorption kinetics. In order to investigate the thermodynamic properties of the biosorption process, the changes in the Gibbs free energy (?G), enthalpy (?H), and entropy (?S) were also evaluated and it has been concluded that the process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in the temperature range of 5-40 °C. PMID:23184397

Serencam, Huseyin; Ozdes, Duygu; Duran, Celal; Tufekci, Mehmet

2013-07-01

114

Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adaptogenic property of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of methanol extract of Morus alba roots against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). Materials and Methods: Rats were exposed to stress procedure for 21 days. The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered for 1 h once daily for 21 days. Rats were administered with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o) 1 h before footshock for 21 days and behavioral parameters were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction and depression using elevated plus maze and despair swim test, respectively. On day 21, rats were sacrificed immediately after stress and blood was collected for biochemical estimation. The adrenal gland and spleen were dissected for organ weight and the stomach was dissected for ulcer score. Results: CS significantly induced cognitive deficit, mental depression and hyperglycemia and increased blood corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations and adrenal gland weight, but decreased the splenic weight. Pre-treatments with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the CS-induced perturbations. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the standard antistress drug. Conclusion: The results indicate that M. alba possesses significant adaptogenic activity, indicating its possible clinical utility as an antistress agent.

Nade, Vandana S.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Naik, Rashmi A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

2009-01-01

115

Bioactive diels-alder type adducts from the stem bark of Morus macroura.  

PubMed

Five new compounds, named guangsangons A (1), B (5), C (6), D (7), and E (8), along with four known compounds, albafuran C (2), kuwanon X (3), kuwanon P (4), and kuwanon Y (9) were isolated from Morus macroura Miq.. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. These compounds were regarded biogenetically as Diels-Al-der type adducts, and 1H-NMR variable temperature experience suggested that they all existed as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers in solution. Compounds 1-3 and 5-9 showed good anti-oxidation activity, with the inhibitory rate of malondialdehyde being from 90.1% to 102.7% at a concentration of 10(-4) mol/L and from 70.9% to 88.1% at a concentration of 10(-5) mol/L. Compounds 1, 5, and 7 showed anti-inflammation activity, with the inhibitory rates of release of lysosome enzyme from polymorphonuclear leukocytes of rats being 19.0% (P > 0.05), 57.3% (P < 0.001) and 24.3% (P < 0.05) at concentrations of 10(-5) mol/L, respectively. PMID:15368673

Dai, Sheng-Jun; Mi, Zhong-Mao; Ma, Zhi-Bo; Li, Shuai; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

2004-08-01

116

[Effects of mulberry-soybean intercropping on carbon-metabolic microbial diversity in saline-alkaline soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the characteristics that mulberry-soybean intercropping could alleviate the damage of saline-alkaline soil, Biolog technique was adopted to study the effects of this intercropping on the diversity of carbon-metabolic microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Under mulberry-soybean intercropping, the average well color development (AWCD) symbolizing the metabolic activity of soil microbes was obviously higher, as compared with that under mulberry or soybean monocropping, being the lowest under mulberry monocropping. The McIntosh index was also higher under intercropping than under monocropping, but the Shannon index and Simpson index had less difference between intercropping and monocropping, indicating that intercropping changed the composition and enhanced the diversity of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the carbon source utilization mode of the soil microbial community differed between intercropping and monocropping, and the main carbon sources were carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and polymers. Soil pH and salinity were the main factors limiting the diversity of the microbial community in saline-alkaline soil, and intercropping could effectively decrease the soil pH and salinity and promote the improvement of soil microbial community diversity. PMID:23173455

Li, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Yue, Bing-Bing; Jin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

117

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

118

Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions  

PubMed Central

Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68–12.7, 0.69–9.86 and 0.05–3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium.

KIM, DONG-SEON; KANG, YOUNG MIN; JIN, WEN YI; SUNG, YOON-YOUNG; CHOI, GOYA; KIM, HO KYOUNG

2014-01-01

119

Look at Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

Science Netlinks;

2002-02-14

120

Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

2010-04-01

121

Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was examined in the diet-induced obese mouse model. Mulberry DNJ was administered to the obese mice for 12 weeks. As a result, DNJ decreased both the visceral fat weight and adipocyte size. To determine the influence of DNJ on lipid metabolism, lipid parameters of the plasma and the liver and the activities of several molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver were measured. DNJ activated the ?-oxidation system, suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced plasma triacylglycerol. Since it was thought that the factor activated in the ?-oxidation system was adiponectin, plasma adiponectin levels were measured and it was shown that plasma adiponectin was increased with DNJ. Therefore, it was suggested that DNJ promoted an increase in plasma adiponectin and activated the ?-oxidation system. Overall, it was shown that DNJ prevents diet-induced obesity through an increase in adiponectin. PMID:23561072

Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Ikuko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

2013-08-15

122

Strawberry, loquat, mulberry, and bitter melon juices exhibit prophylactic effects on LPS-induced inflammation using murine peritoneal macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized the juices from strawberry, loquat, mulberry and bitter melon exhibit anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures. Selected juices were administered as a prophylactic, postmortem or concurrent event relative to LPS stimulation to clarify the effective mechanisms. Selected fruits and vegetable juices were administered to macrophage cultures for 24h prior to LPS stimulation (model A). Selected

Jin-Yuarn Lin; Ching-Yin Tang

2008-01-01

123

Amygdalin in Prunus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin was found for the first time in the leaves of mature trees of several Prunus taxa: P. serotina and P. virginiana cv. Schubert of subg. Padus and P. ilicifolia and P. lyonii of subg. Laurocerasus. Leaves of other taxa in both subgenera contained only the monoglucoside prunasin. Amygdalin production was inherited in hybrids between P. padus

Frank S. Santamour

1998-01-01

124

Types of Compound Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of compound leaves. The single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Along with a short description, an illustration that identifies a leaflet and petiole is included for four types of compound leaves.

125

Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  

PubMed

This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

2014-08-01

126

Look At Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will observe, measure, and sort tree leaves. They will examine leaves individually, in groups, and in relationship to the entire tree. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves according to these attributes and consider any patterns that emerge. In addition, they will communicate what they have learned about leaves in quantitative terms. The activities in this lesson will challenge students to consider how standard units of measurement help clarify for others what they are trying to convey. In the second part of the lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves. They will realize that these and other changes repeat themselves and that these patterns of change are called cycles and are part of our environment.

127

Mulberry (??? Sang Sh?n Z?) and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Mulberry (??? s?ng shèn z?), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs) and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases.

Huang, Hui-Pei; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-01-01

128

Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population has increased considerably over the past century, both in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1980, the population in Australian waters has increased threefold, from 6,600 breeding pairs to approximately 20,000 pairs in 1999-2000, a rate of 6% per year. Reasons for the increase in the Australasian gannet population are poorly understood; here we consider

A. Bunce; F. Norman; N. Brothers; R. Gales

2002-01-01

129

Falling for Clay Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

Kernan, Christine

2002-01-01

130

Different plants produce different leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

131

Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity. PMID:24000381

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

2013-10-01

132

The system Tetrabothrius bassani (Tetrabothriidae)/Morus bassanus (Sulidae) as a bioindicator of marine heavy metal pollution.  

PubMed

Helminths are known to accumulate higher amounts of certain elements than their hosts. The present study assesses the accumulation of heavy metals in Tetrabothrius bassani and in its host, the Atlantic gannet (Morus bassanus) found dead due to bycatch along the seashore in the centre of Portugal. Samples of kidney, liver and pectoral muscle of 23 infected gannets, as well as specimens of T. bassani were analysed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn by ICP-MS. The evidenced lower concentrations of Cr and Pb in tissues of gannets in comparison to an earlier study performed in the same area may reveal a change in the diet of M. bassanus between both study periods. The highest bioaccumulation factor was obtained for Cd with a 12.7-times higher concentration in the cestode than in gannet muscle. Lead concentration in T. bassani was 6.9-times higher than in kidney tissue, 8.5-times higher than in muscle and 9.5-times higher than in liver of M. bassanus. The cestode/seabird system T. bassani/M. bassanus can be considered a promising bioindicator system to monitor environmental Cd and Pb pollution in marine ecosystems. PMID:23377908

Mendes, Paula; Eira, Catarina; Vingada, José; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

2013-03-01

133

Enhancing Mulberry Leaf Meal with Urea by Pelleting to Improve Rumen Fermentation in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Four, ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman×native) beef cattle with initial body weight of 420±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were mulberry leaf pellet (MUP) supplementation at 0, 200, 400 and 600 g/hd/d with rice straw fed to allow ad libitum intake. All steers were kept in individual pens and supplemented with concentrate at 5 g/kg of body weight daily. The experiment was 4 periods, and each lasted 21 d. During the first 14 d, all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and during the last 7 d, they were moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection. It was found that increasing MUP levels resulted in linearly increasing rice straw and total intakes (p<0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not significantly affected by MUP supplementation while NH3-N concentration was increased (p<0.05) and maintained at a high level (18.5 mg/dl) with supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d. Similarly, viable total bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic bacteria were enriched by MUP supplementation at 600 g/hd/d. However, the rumen microbial diversity determined with a PCR-DGGE technique showed similar methanogenic diversity between treatments and sampling times and were similar at a 69% genetic relationship as determined by a UPGMA method. Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d improved DM intake, ruminal NH3-N, and cellulolytic bacteria thus iimproving rumen ecology in beef cattle fed with rice straw.

Tan, N. D.; Wanapat, M.; Uriyapongson, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Pilajun, R.

2012-01-01

134

Two Intracellular Symbiotic Bacteria from the Mulberry Psyllid Anomoneura mori (Insecta, Homoptera)  

PubMed Central

We characterized the intracellular symbiotic bacteria of the mulberry psyllid Anomoneura mori by performing a molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with in situ hybridization. In its abdomen, the psyllid has a large, yellow, bilobed mycetome (or bacteriome) which consists of many round uninucleated mycetocytes (or bacteriocytes) enclosing syncytial tissue. The mycetocytes and syncytium harbor specific intracellular bacteria, the X-symbionts and Y-symbionts, respectively. Almost the entire length of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and cloned from the whole DNA of A. mori, and two clones, the A-type and B-type clones, were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that the A-type and B-type 16S rDNAs were derived from the X-symbionts and Y-symbionts, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that these symbionts belong to distinct lineages in the ? subdivision of the Proteobacteria. No 16S rDNA sequences in the databases were closely related to the 16S rDNA sequences of the X- and Y-symbionts. However, the sequences that were relatively closely related to them were the sequences of endosymbionts of other insects. The nucleotide compositions of the 16S rDNAs of the X- and Y-symbionts were highly AT biased, and the sequence of the X-symbiont was the most AT-rich bacterial 16S rDNA sequence reported so far.

Fukatsu, Takema; Nikoh, Naruo

1998-01-01

135

Identification and partial characterization of midgut proteases in the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50° C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5- 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 ± 2.0 µM and 116.06 ± 1.96 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

2013-01-01

136

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

137

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed.

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2011-01-01

138

Legacies and Leaving Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role that mothers' and grandmothers' legacies have in the home-leaving transition of adolescent girls from a rural setting. Results suggest issues that school counselors might explore using the concept of legacy, including: distance from home; attachment to families; adolescent girls' interpretation of what it means to be a woman; and…

Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

1999-01-01

139

Repeated ingestion of the leaf extract from Morus alba reduces insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of diet containing the leaf extract from a Morus alba (LEM) maintains the postprandial hypoglycemic response and suppresses the progression of insulin resistance in high-sucrose diet-fed KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This hypothesis is based on our previous studies where LEM competitively inhibited intestinal disaccharidases and suppressed the elevation of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. Ten KK-Ay mice in each group were raised on 0%, 3%, or 6% LEM powder-containing high-sucrose diets for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels at weeks 2, 4, and 7 after the start of feeding. Urinary glucose excretion was monitored as a parameter of insulin resistance in 3-day intervals. Fasting plasma glucose level and urinary glucose excretion were significantly lower in both 3% and 6% LEM groups compared with the control group throughout the experiment. The plasma insulin of the 6% LEM group was significantly lower compared with the 3% LEM and control groups. Maintenance of low blood glucose and insulin delayed the onset time of urinary glucose excretion and were reflected by the ratio of additional LEM to sucrose in the diet. We observed the suppressive effects on the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet. Namely, repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet reduces insulin resistance and may delay the appearance of DM, especially type 2 DM. Therefore, daily intake of LEM may be suitable for the prevention of obesity and DM. PMID:22118756

Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2011-11-01

140

Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

2014-01-01

141

Parental leave and child health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there

Christopher J. Ruhm

2000-01-01

142

Developmental time and fecundity of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), on potato, kiwi and mulberry hosts in Iran.  

PubMed

The white peach scale (WPS), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is a world wide polyphagous scale insect. It is widely distributed in north of Iran, near the Caspian Sea areas, where it is the main pest of mulberry and kiwi trees. The development and fecundity of P. pentagona were examined at different temperatures and on different hosts in the laboratory. The longevity of WPS decreased with a rise in temperature. At 25 degrees C the largest number of crawlers (76.1 crawlers/female) was observed. The development time of WPS was generally longer on kiwi than mulberry or potato; fecundity was higher on potato than on other hosts, potato tubers and kiwi trees. PMID:19090130

Abbasipour, Habib

2007-09-15

143

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications.

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

2014-01-01

144

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

2014-02-01

145

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin pleiotropically inhibits glucose-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration by activation of AMPK/RhoB and down-regulation of FAK.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, has been reported to help prevent diabetes mellitus and suppress lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry DNJ has pleiotropic effects on the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which mulberry DNJ might inhibit migration of A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic conditions mimicking diabetes were investigated. The antimigratory effects of DNJ on VSMCs were assessed by Western blot analysis of migration-related proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton. Two pathways of DNJ-mediated inhibition of VSMC migration were identified. The first involved AMPK activation to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Akt activity and then RhoB activation to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP) activity. The second involved inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras, and RhoA activity leading to inhibition of F-actin activity. PMID:24050301

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-10-16

146

Who leaves against medical advice?  

PubMed

Patients who leave hospitals against medical advice (AMA) frustrate physicians and may put themselves at medical risk. A case-control study was conducted to characterize the factors associated with AMA discharges from an impatient medical service. Logistic regression analysis indicated that not having a primary care physician and previous AMA discharge were significantly associated with leaving AMA. The patients most often stated that they were leaving because they "felt better" or had personal or financial obligations. However, the patients leaving AMA were more likely to return for care within the next week than were the control patients. PMID:7472691

Jeremiah, J; O'Sullivan, P; Stein, M D

1995-07-01

147

Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2009-01-01

148

See the Colors in Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

149

Thermographic measurements on plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important process of plant physiology is the transpiration of plant leaves. It is actively controlled by pores (stomata) in the leaf and the governing feature for vital factors such as gas exchange and water transport affixed to which is the nutrient transport from the root to the shoot. Because of its importance, the transpiration and water transport in leaves

Christoph Garbe; Ulrich Schurr; Bernd Jaehne

2002-01-01

150

Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the ? phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in ? phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the ?-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized ? alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the ? fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity. The microstructure of the U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy obtained by induction melting method is composed of dendrites, supersatured in the alloys elements, in the as-cast state being necessary to implement homogenization heat treatment. Heat treatment at 1000 °C for 5 h followed by quenching in water was effective to homogenize the alloy (elimination the dendritic structure) and to retain the cubic structure at room temperature. Induction melting followed by casting and homogenization heat treatment with quenching in water, produced a moderate texture with the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. The cold rolled U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy leads to the emergence of a fiber (0 0 1), with higher intensity, unusual in BCC metals and ? (1 1 1) with moderate intensity. These textures confer isotropic mechanical properties which is very important for a nuclear fuel.

Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

2014-06-01

151

Who leaves against medical advice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who leave hospitals against medical advice (AMA) frustrate physicians and may put themselves at medical risk. A case—control\\u000a study was conducted to characterize the factors associated with AMA discharges from an inpatient medical service. Logistic\\u000a regression analysis indicated that not having a primary care physician and previous AMA discharge were significantly associated\\u000a with leaving AMA. The patients most often

Jennifer Jeremiah; Patricia O’Sullivan; Michael D. Stein

1995-01-01

152

5 CFR 630.1004 - Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member...Program § 630.1004 Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member...application to the leave bank board to become a leave contributor. The...

2009-01-01

153

5 CFR 630.1004 - Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member...Program § 630.1004 Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member...application to the leave bank board to become a leave contributor. The...

2010-01-01

154

De Novo assembly of expressed transcripts and global transcriptomic analysis from seedlings of the paper mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera).  

PubMed

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry. PMID:24848504

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

155

De Novo Assembly of Expressed Transcripts and Global Transcriptomic Analysis from Seedlings of the Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera)  

PubMed Central

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry.

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

156

Photopyroelectric Microscopy of Plant Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of photothermal microscopy to obtain superficial and in-depth images, by means of the interaction of a thermal wave with the analyzed material, has reached great interest due to its numerous applications. The application of the photopyroelectric microscopy technique to obtain images of plant leaves is presented in this article. In the experimental setup, a pyroelectric sensor and linear micro-positioners were used to obtain the photothermal signal at each point of the sample. Then it is possible to obtain images of plant leaves through their differences in local thermal properties and thickness.

Briseño-Tepepa, B. R.; Jiménez-Peréz, J. L.; Saavedra, R.; González-Ballesteros, R.; Suaste, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.

2008-12-01

157

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

158

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

159

Inhibitory effects of Morus alba on compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic reactions and anti-chicken gamma globulin IgE- mediated mast cell activation.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of hot-water extract from the root bark of Morus alba (HEMA) on anaphylactic reactions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we examined whether HEMA could inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock and anti-chicken gamma globulin (CGG) IgE-mediated rat peritoneal mast cell activation. HEMA significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by the compound 48/80 in mice. HEMA also significantly inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-CGG IgE. HEMA had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, HEMA dose-dependently inhibited mast cell degranulation, histamine release and calcium uptake into RPMC induced by the compound 48/80 or anti-CGG IgE. When HEMA was added, the level of intracellular cAMP in RPMC showed a transient and significant increase (5-fold) compared with that of control cells. HEMA also inhibited significantly the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggested that HEMA inhibits the compound 48/80- or anti-CGG IgE-induced mast cell activation and its inhibitory effects on mast cell activations were favorably comparable to disodium cromoglycate. And HEMA is a candidate for effective therapeutic tools of allergic diseases. PMID:16204934

Chai, Ok Hee; Lee, Moo Sam; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Song, Chang Ho

2005-10-01

160

Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Root Bark of Morus alba on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test.  

PubMed

In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. PMID:24927367

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

2014-01-01

161

Prenylated Flavonoids from Morus alba L. Cause Inhibition of G1/S Transition in THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells and Prevent the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Morus alba L. (MA) is a natural source of many compounds with different biological effects. It has been described to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of three flavonoids isolated from MA (kuwanon E, cudraflavone B, and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E) and to determine their effects on proliferation of THP-1 cells, and on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Anti-inflammatory effects were also determined for all three given flavonoids. Methods used in the study included quantification of cells by hemocytometer and WST-1 assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, ELISA, and zymography. From the three compounds tested, cudraflavone B showed the strongest effects on cell cycle progression and viability of tumor and/or immortalized cells and also on inflammatory response of macrophage-like cells. Kuwanon E and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E exerted more sophisticated rather than direct toxic effect on used cell types. Our data indicate that mechanisms different from stress-related or apoptotic signaling pathways are involved in the action of these compounds. Although further studies are required to precisely define the mechanisms of MA flavonoid action in human cancer and macrophage-like cells, here we demonstrate their effects combining antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively.

Barta, Tomas; Soucek, Karel; Zavalova, Veronika Muller; Artinian, Shushan; Talhouk, Rabih; Smejkal, Karel; Suchy, Pavel; Hampl, Ales

2013-01-01

162

Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

2005-10-01

163

Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal/family, career, and school…

Cuddapah, Jennifer L.; Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Masci, Frank J.; Hetrick, Monica

2011-01-01

164

Why Leaves Aren't Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physical Review Focus article describes the controversy over the structure of networks that optimize transport of nutrients through the veins in leaves. Images show how vein networks in leaves can provide protection against damage to part of the network. Also, videos show how colored dye moves through the veins of the leaves.

2010-07-30

165

Parental Leave and Productivity. Current Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of papers, commissioned by the Family Work Institute, by expert policy makers in the area of parental leave. The report consists of eight papers: (1) "The Impact of Childbearing on Employment" (James T. Bond); (2) "Fathers and Parental Leave: A Perspective" (Joseph H. Pleck); (3) Parental Leave and Productivity: The…

Friedman, Dana E., Ed.; And Others

166

Mulberry Water Extracts Inhibit Rabbit Atherosclerosis through Stimulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via Activating p53 and Regulating Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in rabbits. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the key determinant of the number of VSMCs in remodeling. To improve the recovery from atherosclerosis pathology, it would be ideal to induce regression of atherosclerotic plaques and apoptosis of VSMCs. In this study, we treated high-cholesterol-diet-fed (HCD-fed) rabbits with MWEs, and we found that the MWEs effectively inhibited HCD-fed-induced intimal hyperplasia of vessel walls. We also found that MWEs initially activate JNK/p38 and p53, which in turn activate both Fas-ligand and mitochondria pathways, thereby causing mitochondria translocation of Bax and the reduction of Bcl-2 that trigger the cleavage of procaspases, finally resulting in apoptosis of VSMCs. In addition, 2.5-5.0 g/day of MWEs for humans may be enough to prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:24833292

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-06-01

167

Resource capture by single leaves  

SciTech Connect

Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Long, S.P.

1992-05-01

168

Combined Treatment of Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook

2013-01-01

169

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract.

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

170

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

171

Thermographic measurements on plant leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important process of plant physiology is the transpiration of plant leaves. It is actively controlled by pores (stomata) in the leaf and the governing feature for vital factors such as gas exchange and water transport affixed to which is the nutrient transport from the root to the shoot. Because of its importance, the transpiration and water transport in leaves have been extensively studied. However, current measurement techniques provide poor spatial and temporal resolution. With the use of one single low-NETD infrared camera important parameter of plant physiology such as transpiration rates, heat capacity per unit area of the leaf and the water flow velocity can be measured to high temporal and special resolution by techniques presented in this paper. The latent heat flux of a plant, which is directly proportional to the transpiration rate, can be measured with passive thermography. Here use is made of the linear relationship between the temperature difference between a non transpiring reference body and the transpiring leaf and the latent heat flux. From active thermography the heat capacity per unit area of the leaf can be measured. This method is termed active, because the response of the leaf temperature to an imposed energy flux is measured. Through the use of digital image processing techniques simultaneous measurements of the velocity field and temporal change of heated water parcels traveling through the leaf can be estimated from thermal image sequences.

Garbe, Christoph; Schurr, Ulrich; Jaehne, Bernd

2002-03-01

172

Edible Leaves of the Tropics (2nd Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The principal edible green leaf herbs of the tropics; Some fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants that also bear edible leaves; Common weeds with edible green leaves; Tropical trees with edible green leaves; Tropical leaves as spices and teas...

F. W. Martin R. M. Ruberte

1979-01-01

173

Hojas Comestibles del Tropico (Edible Leaves of the Tropics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The principal edible green leaf herbs of the tropics; Some fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants that also bear edible leaves; Common weeds with edible green leaves; Tropical trees with edible green leaves; Tropical leaves as spices and teas...

F. W. Martin R. M. Ruberte

1975-01-01

174

Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.  

PubMed

Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

2013-07-25

175

Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability  

PubMed Central

A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers.

Hill, Heather D.

2013-01-01

176

Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

Waters, Megan.

177

When and Why Dropouts Leave High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

2006-01-01

178

A photoacoustic study of water infiltrated leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoacoustic measurements of photosynthetic energy storage were conducted on water infiltrated pea and sugar maple leaves. The samples were vacuum infiltrated with pure water or with a suitable buffer. The use of such methodology permitted an accurate determination of the energy storage parameter at low modulation frequencies, where in non-infiltrated leaves oxygen evolution dominates the photoacoustic signal and does not

Shmuel Malkin; Marc Charland; Roger M. Leblanc

1992-01-01

179

Resilience and Young People Leaving Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

Stein, Mike

2008-01-01

180

Subcellular Metabolite Levels in Spinach Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The alterations of subcellular metabolite levels during the day in spinach leaves have been investigated using nonaqueous density gradient centrifugation to separate chloroplasts, cytosol, and vacuole. The results provide direct evidence for the role of sucrose phosphate synthase and cytosolic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in regulating sucrose synthesis in leaves and also show that the phosphate translocator is kinetically limiting in vivo.

Gerhardt, Richard; Stitt, Mark; Heldt, Hans W.

1987-01-01

181

Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1984-01-01

182

Ribonucleic acids from barley leaves  

PubMed Central

1. The total RNA and the RNA present in 27000g pellet (probably composed of chloroplasts, nuclei and mitochondria) and in 27000g supernatant (probably composed of microsomes and soluble proteins) fractions (separated by centrifugation at 27000g of a leaf homogenate prepared in 0·5m-sucrose–0·02m-tris–HCl, pH7·6) of barley leaves were extracted by phenol–sodium lauryl sulphate and their elution profiles on Sephadex G-200 and on ECTEOLA-cellulose anion-exchanger were examined and their nucleotide compositions and the melting curves were determined. 2. The pellet and the supernatant fractions contained respectively about 55% and 20% of the total RNA, whereas 25% of the total RNA was lost during homogenization of the leaf tissue with sucrose–buffer. 3. The total RNA or the RNA from pellet or supernatant fractions, which by its behaviour on Sephadex G-200 columns was found to be predominantly of high molecular weight (i.e. of ribosomal origin), produced about 13 peaks on ECTEOLA-cellulose columns. The RNA species in the pellet and supernatant fractions probably resembled each other in molecular size or secondary structure or both. However, they were present in relatively different amounts in these fractions. 4. The Tm (i.e. the temperature at which 50% of the maximal increase in extinction had occurred) of total RNA and of RNA from pellet fraction was 64·5° whereas Tm of RNA from the supernatant fraction was 73°. The total RNA and the RNA from pellet fraction also resembled each other in nucleotide composition, and the RNA from the supernatant fraction in accordance with its high Tm had a high GMP+CMP content.

Srivastava, B. I. Sahai

1965-01-01

183

[Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later. PMID:21322232

Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

2010-12-01

184

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

185

Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.  

PubMed

This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719?g/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26?g/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5?g/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219?g/g dry weight), morin (101±68?g/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42?g/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-?+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-?/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

2013-06-01

186

Herbicide Uptake by Leaves and Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.

187

Pharmacognostical studies on Zanthoxylum armatum leaves  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the Pharmacognostical investigations on the leaves of Zanthoxylum armatum along with fluorescence characteristics ash and extractive values with an aim to identify and differentiate if from its possible adulterants and / or substitutes.

Verma, Nitin; Khosa, R. L.

2009-01-01

188

Characteristics of photosynthesis in peach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal photosynthetic patterns of Loring peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) leaves were monitored throughout the 1974 growing season. Using leaves on detached branches, CO2 exchange was measured under controlled light and temperature conditions. Net photosynthesis rate varied from 9 to 12.4 mg CO2 dm-2 leaf area h-1 and was correlated with fruit development, with the highest values occurring during the

C. E. Crews; S. L. Williams; H. M. Vines

1975-01-01

189

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of...

2009-01-01

190

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of...

2010-01-01

191

5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of annual leave. 630.906 Section 630.906 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.906 Transfer of...

2010-01-01

192

5 CFR 550.1207 - Recrediting annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Recrediting annual leave. 550.1207 Section 550.1207 Administrative...Lump-Sum Payment for Accumulated and Accrued Annual Leave § 550.1207 Recrediting annual leave. (a) When an employee pays a full...

2009-01-01

193

5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Transfer of annual leave. 630.906 Section 630.906 Administrative...MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.906 Transfer of...

2009-01-01

194

More Manganese Accumulates in Maple Sun Leaves than in Shade Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season.

McCain, Douglas C.; Markley, John L.

1989-01-01

195

The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

2013-08-01

196

Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1  

PubMed Central

In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield.

Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, Maria Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

2002-01-01

197

Catabolism of Adenine Derivatives in Leaves  

PubMed Central

The in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.37) was followed in leaf discs excised from illuminated or darkened plants. In cotyledons of Pharbitis nil, 24 hours of darkness enhanced the in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase which increased between 2 to 5-fold depending on the concentration of hypoxanthine of the solution where cotyledon discs were incubated. The same effect occurred in leaves of several other species, in plants with both high and low ureide content. However, the effect of light was not observed in leaves of Zea mays, Pennisetum americanum and Atriplex spongiosa, whereas, it appeared very clearly in other C4 plants such as Sorghum sudanense and Portulaca oleracea. This enzymic activity in chlorophyll-deficient tobacco leaves was the same both for illuminated and darkened plants. In addition, the in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase in roots of Pharbitis nil was not dependent upon the light conditions applied to leaves. In cotyledons of Pharbitis nil, the level of the in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase was influenced by the energy of light and the duration of illumination. The supply of carbohydrates to darkened cotyledons had the same effect as light on the in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase. It is proposed that the effect of light on the in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase in leaves is mainly due to the production of photosynthates which changes the osmotic state of leaf tissue and thus modifies the level of the in vivo activity of xanthine dehydrogenase.

Nguyen, Jacqueline

1980-01-01

198

Gene Expression in Autumn Leaves1  

PubMed Central

Two cDNA libraries were prepared, one from leaves of a field-grown aspen (Populus tremula) tree, harvested just before any visible sign of leaf senescence in the autumn, and one from young but fully expanded leaves of greenhouse-grown aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Expressed sequence tags (ESTs; 5,128 and 4,841, respectively) were obtained from the two libraries. A semiautomatic method of annotation and functional classification of the ESTs, according to a modified Munich Institute of Protein Sequences classification scheme, was developed, utilizing information from three different databases. The patterns of gene expression in the two libraries were strikingly different. In the autumn leaf library, ESTs encoding metallothionein, early light-inducible proteins, and cysteine proteases were most abundant. Clones encoding other proteases and proteins involved in respiration and breakdown of lipids and pigments, as well as stress-related genes, were also well represented. We identified homologs to many known senescence-associated genes, as well as seven different genes encoding cysteine proteases, two encoding aspartic proteases, five encoding metallothioneins, and 35 additional genes that were up-regulated in autumn leaves. We also indirectly estimated the rate of plastid protein synthesis in the autumn leaves to be less that 10% of that in young leaves.

Bhalerao, Rupali; Keskitalo, Johanna; Sterky, Fredrik; Erlandsson, Rikard; Bjorkbacka, Harry; Birve, Simon Jonsson; Karlsson, Jan; Gardestrom, Per; Gustafsson, Petter; Lundeberg, Joakim; Jansson, Stefan

2003-01-01

199

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

200

School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with…

Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

2009-01-01

201

University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

2013-01-01

202

Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves.  

PubMed

Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and Central Portugal (Covilhã) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3- O-, 4- O- and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3- O-galactoside, quercetin-3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3- O-glycoside, kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside. 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound (36.2%), followed by quercetin 3- O-rutinoside (21.1%). Quince leaves are characterized by higher relative contents of kaempferol derivatives than fruits (pulps, peels, and seeds), especially in what concerns kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside (12.5%). C. oblonga leaves total phenolic content was very high, varying from 4.9 to 16.5 g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.3 g/kg dry matter), indicating that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. Significantly differences were observed in 3- O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acids contents, according to geographical provenance and harvesting month, suggesting a possible use of these compounds as geographical origin and/or maturity markers. PMID:17711340

Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

2007-09-19

203

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2010-07-01

204

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2009-07-01

205

The geometry of unfolding tree leaves  

PubMed Central

Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

1998-01-01

206

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

207

Practical Approaches for Teaching Leave No Trace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As participation in outdoor recreation grows, natural resources suffer a variety of environmental and social impacts. A minimum-impact back country educational program first developed during the 1970s, Leave No Trace (LNT), has been revitalized by the National Outdoor Leadership School, six federal agencies, and members of the outdoor products…

Attarian, Aram

208

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF AVOCADO LEAVES IN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) leaves of 'Tonnage' trees growing on sand, muck, and calcareous rock soils and 'Lula,' 'Taylor,' and 'Booth 8' trees on sand and rock were collected in 1974 and 1975 and analyzed for concns of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Differences, in levels of the 9 elements occurred with differences in soil

T. W. Young

209

Employing Linear Regression in Regression Tree Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The advantage of using linear regressionin the leaves of a regression tree is analysed in thepaper. It is carried out how this modification affectsthe construction, pruning and interpretation of a regressiontree. The modification is tested on artificialand real-life domains. The results show that the modificationis beneficial as it leads to smaller classificationerrors of induced regression trees. Keywords: machinelearning, TDIDT,

Aram Karalic

1992-01-01

210

Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-01-01

211

Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010…

Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

2012-01-01

212

Paid Educational Leave: A Partnership Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humberside (England) City Council and Hull University collaborated on a project to offer paid educational leave to manual and lower-grade white-collar council staff. The program was aimed at those who had derived little benefit from formal education and provided a supportive environment for working class women who made up the bulk of the…

Somerton, Michael

1994-01-01

213

[Polyphenolic substances of Cynara scolymus L. leaves].  

PubMed

From the leaves of Cynara scolymus the following substances where isolated: apigenin, luteolin, luteolin-4'-glucoside, cynaroside, scolimoside, cosmoside, quercetin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-gentiobioside, along with the more uncommon scopoletin, hesperitin, hesperidoside, esculetin-6-O-beta-glucoside; more over maritimein was for the first time isolated and identified in the genus. PMID:2610472

Hinou, J; Harvala, C; Philianos, S

1989-01-01

214

Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

Olsen, Glenn

215

Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

2000-01-01

216

Inhibitory effects of mulberry fruit extract in combination with naringinase on the allergic response in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic action of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) or MFE in combination with naringinase (MFEN) in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-allergic effects of MFEN. ?-hexosaminidase release assay was used to measure the amount of ?-hexosaminidase released from the cells, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We found that MFE significantly reduced the release of ?-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 10.59 mg/ml) and TNF-? (IC(50), 4.87 mg/ml). Moreover, MFEN enhanced the inhibitory effects on the release of ?-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 123.10 µg/ml) and TNF-? (IC(50), 65.01 µg/ml). Furthermore, MFEN had no cytotoxicity at the concentration range used to exert the anti-allergic effects. In addition, we evaluated the effects of MFEN on the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MFEN markedly reduced the formation of PGD(2) (IC(50), 6.47 µg/ml) and LTC(4) (IC(50), 0.31 µg/ml), but not LTB(4) (IC(50), 25.75 µg/ml). In mechanistic analyses, we measured the phosphorylation of Syk, Lyn and Fyn by immunoblot analysis. MFEN significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not that of Lyn or Fyn. MFEN also suppressed the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?1/2, protein kinase C (PKC)?, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, JNK, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, these results suggest that MFEN exerts potent inhibitory effects on allergic response through the suppression of the activation of the Fc?RI signaling cascade. Our data demonstrating the anti-allergic effects of MFEN may provide further insight into the therapeutic application of MFEN or its use as a functional food. PMID:24336971

Yoo, Jae-Myung; Kim, Na Yeon; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Hyung Don; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Mee Ree

2014-02-01

217

Developmental studies on microbodies in wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves, the development of the microbody enzymes catalase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, and glycolate oxidase was specifically stimulated by short treatments of the seedlings with red light, although the increases were less than observed after treatment with continuous white light. A comparison of the effects of short red and far-red exposures indicated the involvement of phytochrome.2.Continuous

J. Feierabend

1975-01-01

218

Inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis from Lawsonia inermis leaves.  

PubMed

Ten phenolic compounds (1-10) were isolated from a methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves including two new ones, lawsoniasides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR and FTICRMS) in combination with acid hydrolysis and GC analyses. Compounds 4 and 5 showed a significant inhibition on receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone-marrow macrophages. PMID:20634065

Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Dat, Nguyen Tien; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Huong, Le Mai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Won, Ji-Hee; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Young Ho

2010-08-15

219

Sick leave patterns in common musculoskeletal disorders - a study of doctor prescribed sick leave  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative data on sick leave within musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is limited. Our objective was to give a descriptive overview of sick leave patterns in different MSDs. Methods Using electronic medical records, we collected information on dates and diagnostic codes for all available sick leave certificates, during 2 years (2009–2010), in the North Western part of the Skåne region in Sweden (22 public primary health care centres and two general hospitals). Using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes on the certificates we studied duration, age and sex distribution and recurrent periods of sick leave for six strategically chosen MSDs; low back pain (M54) disc disorders (M51), knee osteoarthritis (M17) hip osteoarthritis (M16) rheumatoid arthritis (M05-M06) and myalgia (M79). Results All together 20 251 sick leave periods were issued for 16 673 individuals 16–64 years of age (53% women). Out of the selected disorders, low back pain and myalgia had the shortest sick leave periods, with a mean of 26 and 27 days, respectively, while disc disorders and rheumatoid arthritis had the longest periods with a mean of 150 and 147 days. For low back pain and myalgia 27% and 26% of all sick leave was short (8–14 days) and only 11% and 13%, were long (?90 days). For the other selected MSDs, less than 5% of the periods were short. For disc disorders, hip osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, more than 60% of the periods were long (p?>?0.001). For back disorders and myalgia most periods were issued in the age groups between 40–49, with similar patterns for women and men. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis had most periods in the age groups of 50–64, and patterns for women and men differed. Low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis and myalgia had the greatest share of recurrent sick leave (31%, 34% and 32% respectively). Conclusion Duration, age and sex distribution and numbers of recurrent sick leave varies considerably between different MSDs. This underscores the importance of using specified diagnosis, in sick leave research as well as in planning of treatment and rehabilitation and evaluation of prognosis.

2014-01-01

220

Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves  

PubMed Central

The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks.

Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre

1992-01-01

221

Enumerating All Rooted Trees Including k Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an efficient algorithm to generate all (unordered) rooted trees with exactly n vertices including exactly k leaves. There are known results on efficient enumerations of some classes of graphs embedded on a plane, for instance, biconnected and triconnected triangulations [3], [6], and floorplans [4]. On the other hand, it is difficult to enumerate a class of graphs without a fixed embedding. The paper is on enumeration of rooted trees without a fixed embedding. We already proposed an algorithm to generate all “ordered” trees with n vertices including k leaves [11], while the algorithm cannot seem to efficiently generate all (unordered) rooted trees with n vertices including k leaves. We design a simple tree structure among such trees, then by traversing the tree structure we generate all such trees in constant time per tree in the worst case. By repeatedly applying the algorithm for each k=1,2,...,n-1, we can also generate all rooted trees with exactly n vertices.

Ishikawa, Masanobu; Yamanaka, Katsuhisa; Otachi, Yota; Nakano, Shin-Ichi

222

Isocitrate Lyase in Green Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) has been demonstrated in crude dialyzed extracts of healthy spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves from commercial sources and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) leaves stored in darkness in the cold room for 1 week. The products of the reaction were identified as glyoxylate and succinate, the former by its phenylhydrazone, and the latter traced by isotopic labeling and cochromatography. Fresh spinach extracts contain a mixture of at least two endogenous inhibitors of isocitrate lyase activity and one of them is proteinaceous. The endogenous inhibitor(s) is thermostable and retains 50% of its inhibitory effect even after boiling for 10 minutes. Dark starvation of the leaves removes the inhibition, due possibly to autolysis of the inhibitor(s). The inhibitor(s) can also be removed by filtration through Sephadex gels. The crude extract from spinach shows double pH optima in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. The apparent Km at pH 7.4 was 0.1 mm. Oxaloacetate, dl-malate, succinate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and glycolate at 10 mm concentration inhibited, but ribulose 1,5-diphosphate activated enzymic activity. Images

Godavari, H. R.; Badour, S. S.; Waygood, E. R.

1973-01-01

223

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Holidays for Contractor employees serving overseas should take into consideration local practices and shall be established in collaboration with the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any...

2013-10-01

224

46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motion for leave to intervene. 502.68 Section...PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.68 Motion for leave to intervene. (a) Filing....

2013-10-01

225

Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

Furbish, Dale S.

2009-01-01

226

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of leave. 825.200 Section 825.200 Labor Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical...

2010-07-01

227

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Amount of leave. 825.200 Section 825.200 Labor Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical...

2009-07-01

228

Physically Based Real-Time Translucency for Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new shading model for real-time rendering of plant leaves that reproduces all important attributes of a leaf and allows for a large number of leaves to be shaded. In particular, we use a physically based model for accurate subsurface scattering on the translucent side of directly lit leaves. For real-time rendering of this model, we formulate

Ralf Habel; Alexander Kusternig; Michael Wimmer

2007-01-01

229

Parents' Workplace Situation and Fathers' Parental Leave Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how the workplace situation of both parents affects fathers' parental leave use. We used parental leave-taking register data from Statistics Sweden for dual-earner couples who resided in Stockholm and had children in 1997 (n=3,755). The results indicate that fathers shorten their parental leave if their workplaces are such that…

Bygren, Magnus; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

2006-01-01

230

Tannin Composition Affects the Oxidative Activities of Tree Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether tannin composition plays an important role in explaining the oxidative activities of tree leaves of Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Quercus rubra (red oak). Sugar maple leaves contained substantial amounts of ellagitannins, condensed tannins, and galloyl glucoses, whereas red oak leaves contained almost exclusively condensed tannins. Oxidative activities of the crude phenolics from both species, and the

Raymond V. Barbehenn; Christopher P. Jones; Maarit Karonen; Juha-Pekka Salminen

2006-01-01

231

Factors Predicting Staff's Intentions to Leave the University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The survey of University of Bergen (Norway) teaching staff (N=601) found the leading reason for intending to leave the institution was collegial relations. Other reasons predicting intention to leave were in the area of general job satisfaction with staff who found their work less intrinsically satisfying more likely to plan on leaving.…

Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan

1990-01-01

232

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee...Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount...State which has a family and medical leave statute. The State...or an employer closing the plant for retooling or...

2013-07-01

233

Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

2002-01-01

234

Teachers' Professional Identity and Job-Leaving Inclination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the intrinsic motives that account for teachers leaving their profession. Former teachers in the Haifa area of Israel participated in interviews, giving reasons for leaving teaching that correlated with those found in a study of the literature. The most frequently mentioned reasons for leaving teaching were: (1) burnout and…

Kremer, Lya; Hofman, John E.

235

Molluscicidal saponins from leaves of Hedera canariensis.  

PubMed

Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Hedera canariensis (var. Gloire de Maringo) Wild leaves afforded five saponins 1-5. Chemical and spectral methods (MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) showed that they are glycosides of hederagenin and oleanolic acid. The results showed that 4,5 exhibited molluscicidal properties, compound 1 was inactive. Mortality rate of exposed snails increased by increasing plant extract concentration. Lymnaea cailliaudi was more sensitive to plant extract than Biomphalaria alexandrina. The histopathological study revealed distinct damage in the structure of the stomach and ovotestis of treated L. cailliaudi snails. Saponin content was determined in term of haemolytic index. PMID:19143139

Abdel Rahman, E H; Hassan, Soad E

2008-04-01

236

Bioactive terpenoids from sunflower leaves cv. Peredovick.  

PubMed

The CH(2)Cl(2) extract of dried leaves of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick(R) has yielded, in addition to the known sesquiterpene lactones annuolide E and leptocarpin, and the sesquiterpenes heliannuols A, C, D, F, G, H, I, the new bisnorsesquiterpene, annuionone E, and the new sesquiterpenes heliannuol L, helibisabonol A and helibisabonol B. Structural elucidation was based on extensive spectral (one and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and theoretical studies. The sesquiterpenes heliannuol A and helibisabonol A and the sesquiterpene lactone leptocarpin inhibited the growth of etiolated wheat coleoptiles. PMID:12423890

Macías, Francisco A; Torres, Ascensión; Galindo, José L G; Varela, Rosa M; Alvarez, José A; Molinillo, José M G

2002-11-01

237

Amino Acid Metabolism of Pea Leaves  

PubMed Central

In the young leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants, there was a diurnal variation in the levels of amino acids. In the light, total amino nitrogen increased for the first few hours, then stabilized; in the dark, there was a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery. Asparagine, homoserine, alanine, and glutamine accounted for much of these changes. The incorporation of 15N into various components of the young leaves was followed after supply of 15N-nitrate. 15N appeared most rapidly in ammonia, due to reduction in the leaf, and this process took place predominantly in the light. A large proportion of the primary assimilation took place through the amide group of glutamine, which became labeled and turned over rapidly; labeling of glutamic acid and alanine was also rapid. Asparagine (amide group) soon became labeled and showed considerable turnover. Slower incorporation and turnover were found for aspartic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, and homoserine. Synthesis and turnover of all of the amino acids continued at a low rate in the dark. ?-Aminobutyric acid was the only compound found to label more rapidly in the dark than in the light.

Bauer, Alfred; Urquhart, Aileen A.; Joy, Kenneth W.

1977-01-01

238

Antibacterial compounds from Siraitia grosvenorii leaves.  

PubMed

Luo Han Guo (LHG) fruits (Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle) have been used as traditional medicine in China for centuries to treat sore throats and coughs. However, LHG leaves are seldom used and minimal scientific information is available on them. In our recent study on the leaves of S. grosvenorii, the bioactive compounds ?-amyrin (2), aloe emodin (5), aloe-emodin acetate (6), 5?,8?-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (7) and p-hydroxyl benzyl acid (8), accompanied by n-hexadecaoic acid (1), 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4) and daucosterol (9) were first obtained. Their structures have been identified on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The activities of these compounds were evaluated in vitro against the growth of oral bacterial species Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and the yeast Candida albicans, and their minimum inhibition concentrations were determined. Furthermore, the activity against S. mutans is likely to be due to the inhibition of glucosyltransferase. The experimental data provide important information on bioactive phytochemicals in the leaf of S. grosvenorii, which shows that the leaf can be a new resource as an antibacterial agent. PMID:21547839

Zheng, Yan; Huang, Wen; Yoo, Jae-Gil; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Huang, Chifu Brad

2011-05-01

239

Intention to leave, anticipated reasons for leaving, and 12-month turnover of child care center staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job turnover among a sample of 169 child care workers from rural and semi-rural parts of Pennsylvania was examined in relation to demographic, work related and nonwork related factors. Findings indicate that the perceived choice of other jobs and job tenure both have an impact on intention to leave, as well as on actual 12 month turnover. Turnover in this

Elizabeth E. Manlove; Jacqueline R. Guzell

1997-01-01

240

Metabolic Regulation in Diseased Leaves II. Changes in Nicotinamide Nucleotide Coenzymes in Barley Leaves Infected With Powdery Mildew 1  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide nucleotide coenzymes were estimated spectrophotometrically in noninfected barley leaves and leaves infected with Erysiphe graminis var hordei (powdery mildew). Amounts of NADH, NADP+ and NADPH were not altered by infection. In contrast, the NAD+ content rose sharply and at 144 hours was 100% greater than in noninfected leaves. The respiratory rate was increased in infected leaves and the pattern of this increase was similar to that of NAD+. The effect of infection on the intracellular distribution of NADP+ was examined by fractionating lyophilized leaves in a nonaqueous medium. In noninfected leaves almost all of the NADP+ was localized in the chloroplasts. In infected leaves where some chloroplast breakdown occurs, about 60% of the NADP+ was detected in the nonchloroplast part of the cell. This intracellular redistribution of NADP+ is discussed in relation to the increased pentose-P pathway activity occuring after infection.

Ryrie, I. J.; Scott, K. J.

1968-01-01

241

Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.3 to 38 ?g g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.4 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can be successfully modeled only if stomatal conductance and compound solubility are taken into account, emissions on longer time scales will be determined by rates of methanol production, controls over which remain to be investigated.

Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, Ü.; Guenther, A.

2007-08-01

242

Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 ?g g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can be successfully modeled only if stomatal conductance and compound solubility are taken into account, emissions on longer time scales will be determined by rates of methanol production, controls over which remain to be investigated.

Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, É.; Guenther, A.

2007-12-01

243

Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.  

PubMed

On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order. PMID:10917840

Pennisi, E

2000-07-14

244

Flavonoids from mango leaves with antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five flavonoids, viz. (-)-epicatechin-3-O-?-glucopyranoside (1), 5-hy- droxy-3-(4-hydroxylphenyl)pyrano(3,2-g)chromene-4(8H)-one (2), 6-(p-hyd- roxybenzyl)taxifolin-7-O-?-D-glucoside (tricuspid) (3), quercetin-3-O-?-glu- copyranosyl-(1?2)-?-glucopyranoside (4) and (-)-epicatechin(2-(3,4-dihyd- roxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,5,7-triol) (5), were isolated from the leaves of mango (Mangifera indica L.). The antibacterial activity of different concentrations of these flavonoids (100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm) was evaluated against four bacterial species, namely Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and

Qudsia Kanwal; Ishtiaq Hussain; HAMID LATIF SIDDIQUI; Arshad Javaid

2009-01-01

245

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory constituents of henna leaves.  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.; syn. Lawsonia alba L.) leaves resulted in the isolation of seven compounds; three have been isolated for the first time from the genus, namely p-coumaric acid, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and apiin, along with the previously isolated compounds: lawsone, apigenin, luteolin, and cosmosiin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was based upon their physical, chemical as well as spectroscopic characters. Their immuomodulatory profile was studied using an in vitro immunoassay, the lymphocyte transformation assay. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], free radical scavenging assay depicted that all isolated compounds exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. PMID:15813363

Mikhaeil, Botros R; Badria, Farid A; Maatooq, Galal T; Amer, Mohamed M A

2004-01-01

246

Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID:15777222

Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

2005-03-01

247

Buckling cascade in thin sheets and leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The edge of torn plastic sheet displays a fractal pattern composed of superimposed wrinkles at different scales, like the edges of some leaves do (lettuce for example). We show that in the plastic sheet, this pattern is self-similar with up to 6 generations of waves and is due to the very large plastic deformations in the sheet when torn : the distances on the sheet are redefined, the edge being as much as twice longer as before. This actually defines a new metric that is similar to that of the hyperbolic plane. Because the sheet is thin, the equilibrium shape (elastic energy minimization) will satisfy the metric at the cost of bending energy that is preferred to costy in-plane stretching energy. But imposing such metric is a very strong constraint, that may not have solution in physical space. It is known for example that the hyperbolic plane is not imbedable as a whole in euclidean space E^3. These geometric constraints make it necessary a superposition of wavelength. It is interesting to note that similar metrics can be the result of other phenomena, for example the growth of biological tissue. Simple growth law, (for example, a growth rate proportional to the cell density) will give such an hyperbolic metric. This suggests that the very complex pattern observed in leaves, for example in lettuce can be the result of an extremely simple process (growth law), and not of a complex process of construction after very large quantity of information stored in DNA. Said differently, there is no need to store the complex and exhaustive map of the lettuce shape in its genetic information, elasticity can construct it out of a simple growth law.

Roman, Benoît

2003-03-01

248

[Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents, twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 1-undecanol (3), 1-eicosanol (4), daucosterol (5), 6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6), 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7), rhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11), hyperoside (12), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13), astragalin (14), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 6)-[alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside] (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), quercetin (19), kaempferol (20), dehydronuciferine (21), roemerine (22), stigmast-7-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (24), and benzene-1,2-diol (25) on the basis of spectral data analysis. Compounds 1, 6, 7, 8, 24 and 25 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 15-18 were isolated from the leaves for the first time. Compounds 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 showed inhibitory activities against beta amyloid (1-42) by A-beta aggregation method with inhibition rates of (63.99 +/- 24.29)%, (79.61 +/- 4.49)%, (49.96 +/- 12.61)%, (101.19 +/- 8.19)%, (88.41+/-6.76)% and (72.48 +/- 8.97)%, respectively. PMID:23724680

Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jing, Wen-Guang; Liu, An

2013-03-01

249

Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood  

PubMed Central

Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums.

Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

2013-01-01

250

5 CFR 630.403 - Substitution of sick leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember.  

...leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember. 630.403...leave for unpaid family and medical leave to care for a covered servicemember. The...S.C. 6382(a)(3) for leave to care for a covered servicemember may...

2014-01-01

251

Growth correlations in Bryophyllum leaves and exogenous growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth correlations in leaves ofBryophyllum may be recognized by the development of marginal shoots varying in their particular lamina regions, the correlative inhibition\\u000a increasing from the top to the base. Cytokinins extend their promoting action inB. crenatum leaves farther in the apical than in the basal direction. In the uppermost leaves ofB. daigremontianum they evoke the development of marginal shoots

R. Dostál

1970-01-01

252

Evidence on paid sick leave: Observations in times of crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of governments in all regions of the world have recognised the need for paid sick leave although the benefit\\u000a schedules vary widely. International data show that the incidence of paid sick leave is closely associated with overall economic\\u000a developments. What are the patterns of paid sick leave and its incidence around the world, and how have these

Xenia Scheil-Adlung; Lydia Sandner

2010-01-01

253

Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves.  

PubMed

The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from fresh leaves, but late in the season more tannin was extracted from fresh leaves. At all times, more tannin was extracted with aqueous acetone than with aqueous or acidic methanol. PMID:24275992

Hagerman, A E

1988-02-01

254

Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats  

PubMed Central

Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.

Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

2011-01-01

255

Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.  

PubMed

Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

2014-01-01

256

Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

2013-02-01

257

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

Weber, Andreas P.M.

2008-04-25

258

Amino Acid Metabolism of Pea Leaves  

PubMed Central

Short term (2-hour) incorporation of nitrogen from nitrate, glutamine, or asparagine was studied by supplying them as unlabeled (14N) tracers to growing pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves, which were previously labeled with 15N, and then following the elimination of 15N from various amino components of the tissue. Most components had active and inactive pools. Ammonia produced from nitrate was assimilated through the amide group of glutamine. When glutamine was supplied, its nitrogen was rapidly transferred to glutamic acid, asparagine, and other products, and there was some transfer to ammonia. Nitrogen from asparagine was widely distributed into ammonia and amino compounds. There was a rapid direct transfer to glutamine, which did not appear to involve free ammonia. Alanine nitrogen could be derived directly from asparagine, probably by transamination. Homoserine was synthesized in substantial amounts from all three nitrogen sources. Homoserine appears to derive nitrogen more readily from asparagine than from free aspartic acid. A large proportion of the pool of ?-aminobutyric acid turned over, and was replenished with nitrogen from all three supplied sources.

Bauer, Alfred; Joy, Kenneth W.; Urquhart, Aileen A.

1977-01-01

259

Photosynthetic strategies in leaves and stems of Egeria densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic mechanisms have been compared in leaves and, separately, in stems of Egeria densa Planch. In order to correlate the structural and functional characteristics of the two organs (1) the ultrastructural features of leaves and stems have been studied and (2) their photosynthetic activity has been evaluated by measuring in vivo both oxygen evolution and the kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence.

Nicoletta Rascio; Paola Mariani; Emanuela Tommasini; Maria Bodner; Walter Larcher

1991-01-01

260

Multitasking Is Multitaxing: Why Special Educators Are Leaving the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to provide insight into the inability to retain qualified special education teachers. Why do special educators say they want to leave? What conditions would encourage them to stay? Nearly half of the teachers reported they planned to leave the field in the next 5 years. They cited three areas of concern: administrative…

Kaff, Marilyn S.

2004-01-01

261

SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

1996-01-01

262

Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

2000-01-01

263

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

264

Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

2013-01-01

265

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa  

PubMed Central

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-01-01

266

Flavonoid variation in the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genistein, pinocembrin, prunetin, 6-prenylnaringenin, licoflavanone and wighteone were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra collected on the west coast of Anatolia, whereas lupiwighteone was found only in the leaves of G. glabra growing in middle or east Anatolia. The G. glabra plants growing in different areas of Turkey could be classified into two types according to the occurrence of

Hiroaki Hayashi; Miyako Yasuma; Noboru Hiraoka; Yasumasa Ikeshiro; Hirobumi Yamamoto; Erdem Ye?ilada; Ekrem Sezik; Gisho Honda; Mamoru Tabata

1996-01-01

267

Carbon monoxide photoproduction from rice and maize leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated CO photoproduction from intact leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) by laboratory experiments. CO photoproduction showed positive correlation with light intensity and was positively dependent on oxygen concentration. The average CO photoproduction was 2.6±0.3×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from rice leaves and 2.2±0.1×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from maize leaves ( n=5) at a radiation intensity of 49 mW cm -2. CO photoproduction from senescent rice leaves was 9 times greater (25.7±1.5×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1, n=2) at the same radiation intensity than from live leaves, and responded slowly to changes in oxygen concentration and light intensity. CO photoproduction showed no correlation with CO 2 concentration or humidity. This indicates that CO photoproduction in leaves is not directly controlled by carbon metabolism or stomatal conductance. The lack of dependence on stomatal conductance leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of CO from inside the leaves to the atmosphere is not a controlling factor for CO photoproduction from rice and maize leaves.

Yonemura, S.; Morokuma, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

268

Identification of Factors Influencing Vocational Agriculture Teachers to Leave Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal interviews were conducted with 26 former teachers (agricultural education graduates of the University of Nebraska) to identify reasons for leaving the teaching profession. Sixteen factors were given as the number one reason for leaving. Factors relating to the opportunity to begin farming and ranching accounted for the majority of the…

Dillon, Roy D.

1978-01-01

269

Iron distribution in vine leaves with HCO3 induced chlorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the investigation was to examine whether iron chlorosis in grape vine grown on calcareous soils was related to the Fe distribution in the leaf.Leaf samples collected from three different sites showed in most cases higher Fe contents in the chlorotic leaves as compared with healthy leaves. The solubility of leaf Fe in diluted HC1, however, was lower

K. Mengel; W. Bubl; H. W. Scherer

1984-01-01

270

Light-dependent modification of Photosystem II in spinach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dark-adapted spinach leaves approximately one third of the Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers are impaired in their ability to transfer electrons to Photosystem I. Although these ‘inactive’ PS II centers are capable of reducing the primary quinone acceptor, QA, oxidation of QA- occurs approximately 1000 times more slowly than at ‘active’ centers. Previous studies based on dark-adapted leaves

Kevin Oxborough; Ladislav Nedbal; Roger A. Chylla; John Whitmarsh

1996-01-01

271

Leave Tracker for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Home Page  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Log In Leave Tracker for The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Leave Tracker is intended for use by fellows in the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. If you are not a fellow in this program but are a NIH employee, please see

272

Volatile oils in leaves of Bauhinia (Fabaceae Caesalpinioideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of seven species of Bauhinia (B. aculeata, B. alata, B. brevipes, B. forficata, B. longifolia, B. outimouta, B. pentandra, B. rufa and B. variegata) were submitted to volatile oil extraction by steam distillation. B. alata and B. outimouta, both of subgenus Phanera, failed to yield detectable volatile oils. Among the other species, all of subgenus Bauhinia, leaves of B.

Joaquim M Duarte-Almeida; Giuseppina Negri; Antonio Salatino

2004-01-01

273

Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

274

Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

Gerner, Jennifer

275

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

276

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-07-01

277

Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

2014-01-01

278

Factors Influencing Year 9 Students' Intentions to Leave School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Victoria, Australia, to examine the factors that influence Year 9 students' intentions to leave secondary school. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the effects of family background variables, school characteristics, significant others, personal assessments, and attitudes on school-leaving intentions of…

Schrom, Linda K.

279

Efflux of sucrose from minor veins of tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature leaves import limited amounts of nutrient when darkened for prolonged periods. We tested the hypothesis that import is restricted by the apoplast-phloem loading mechanism, ie., as sucrose exits the phloem of minor veins it is retrieved by the same tissue, thus depriving the mesophyll of nutrient. When single, attached, mature leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were darkened,

Robert Turgeon

1984-01-01

280

Energy budgets and temperatures of nyctinastic leaves on freezing nights.  

PubMed

Temperatures of exposed horizontal and vertical soybean leaves (Glycine max [L.] Merr. var. Chippewa) were measured on calm, clear nights with temperatures near freezing. Average leaf-air temperature differences for 5 nights were -1.5 C and -1.0 C for horizontal and vertical leaves respectively. The horizontal leaves were cooler than the vertical leaves. The mean of all observed horizontal-vertical leaf temperature differences was -0.5 C with a maximum average for 1 night of -0.8 C, while maximum differences theoretically attainable in similar leaves were calculated to be -1.7 C. No differences were observed in the extent of frost damage in horizontal and vertical leaves. The apparent reduction in frost damage in vertical leaves observed by Charles Darwin was probably caused by his method of using corks to hold the horizontal leaves and not by leaf orientation. Theoretical considerations and the experimental results indicate that nyctinastic leaf movements probably do not provide significant protection from frost for any plants. PMID:16657763

Schwintzer, C R

1971-08-01

281

Response of the Succulent Leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia to Dehydration  

PubMed Central

Relative water content, solute concentrations, and osmolality were determined in the water storage tissue (hydrenchyma) and the assimilatory tissue (chlorenchyma) of the succulent leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jac) (Piperaceae) during slow desiccation. Relative water loss was significantly greater for the hydrenchyma than for the chlorenchyma. When whole leaves had lost 50% of their initial water content, the concomitant decrease of the relative water content of the hydrenchyma was 75 to 85%, but of the chlorenchyma only 15 to 25%. In spite of this differential water loss, the osmolality in both tissues increased to the same extent, indicating solute flow from the hydrenchyma to the chlorenchyma during desiccation. Solute translocation appeared to be unspecific, probably reflecting symplastic mass flow from one tissue to the other. The observed volume preservation of the chlorenchyma stabilized photosynthesis of Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jac) leaves, which was less inhibited by a given decrease of the relative water content of the whole leaves than in nonsucculent leaves.

Schmidt, Jutta E.; Kaiser, Werner M.

1987-01-01

282

The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

283

Acetaldehyde and Ethanol Biosynthesis in Leaves of Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N2 and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N2, all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation.

Kimmerer, Thomas W.; MacDonald, Robert C.

1987-01-01

284

Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components.

Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

2013-01-01

285

Plantlet regeneration from cultured leaves of Cydonia oblonga L. (quince).  

PubMed

Adventitious shoots of Cydonia oblonga Quince A were obtained from leaves cultured on MS-N6 medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The frequency of regeneration was high (78% of the cultured leaves with 3.2 shoots per regenerating leaf) at 32 ?M TDZ plus 0.3 ?M NAA on young leaves obtained from micropropagated shoots. Shoots were rooted by culturing them first on medium containing 5 ?M NAA for one week and then on auxinfree medium for four weeks. The regeneration protocol may be useful for selection of somaclonal variants with increased tolerance to low Fe and for transformation mediated by Agrobacterium. PMID:24221587

Dolcet-Sanjuan, R; Mok, D W; Mok, M C

1991-08-01

286

Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

1997-03-01

287

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.  

PubMed

An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

2014-01-01

288

GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN RIVER AT BARGES LEAVING THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN RIVER AT BARGES LEAVING THE LOCKS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

289

Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. PMID:24583325

Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzi?ska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

2014-06-01

290

Pharmacognostical studies on leaves of commiphora caudata (wight & arn) engl.  

PubMed

Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied. PMID:22557220

Latha, S; Selvamani, P; Pal, T K; Gupta, J K; Ghosh, L K

2006-07-01

291

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF COMMIPHORA CAUDATA (WIGHT & ARN) ENGL  

PubMed Central

Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied.

Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Pal, T.K.; Gupta, J.K.; Ghosh, L.K.

2006-01-01

292

Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

293

Implications for Reducing Sick Leave through Improved Managerial Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study demonstrated significant relationships between specific managerial practices and sick leave use and other personnel indicators of organizational effectiveness. The research used a nation-wide sample of approximately 1500 employees in 235 work gr...

R. L. Ellison D. G. Fox K. E. Coray M. T. King

1986-01-01

294

Morphogenesis of Simple and Compound Leaves: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves.

Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

2010-01-01

295

Don't Let the Warm Weather Leave You Snakebitten  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Don't Let the Warm Weather Leave You Snakebitten If bitten, call 911 but ... the bite. A large number of bites are dry -- with no venom injected -- or are from nonpoisonous ...

296

25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term contract are authorized the...appointments should be scheduled after instructional time. (i) Sick leave shall accrue at...

2011-04-01

297

A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2011-10-05

298

Stress May Leave You Heading to The Cookie Jar  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stress May Leave You Heading to the Cookie Jar ... July 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Body Weight Stress Women's Health MONDAY, July 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

299

Induced fluctuations of electric potentials in the apoplast of leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular recordings of electrical potential in leaves of different species by means of band-pass amplifiers showed the\\u000a occurrence of fast, small changes (spikes) with an amplitude below 1 mV. Local illumination of leaves induced temporal patterns\\u000a of spikes outside the illuminated region. The light-induced patterns recorded by a given electrode in a particular experimental\\u000a setup were similar for successive illuminations.

K. Glebicki; Z. Hejnowicz; A. Pijanowski

1989-01-01

300

Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude

K. J. Umar; L. G. Hassan; S. M. Dangoggo; M. J. Ladan

2007-01-01

301

Plant regeneration from leaves of sweet and sour cherry cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves excised from shoot cultures of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Burlat’, ‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Napoleon’ and ‘Schneiders’ and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cv. ‘Beutal Spacher Rexelle’ and ‘Morellenfeuer’ developed shoots on Lloyd and McCown woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 2mgl?1 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5–1mgl?1 ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). After cutting the leaves into three segments perpendicular to the midrib

Haoru Tang; Zhenglong Ren; Göts Reustle; Gabi Krczal

2002-01-01

302

The mechanism of kinetin-induced transport in corn leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Kinetin-induced transport of P32 in detached corn leaves is shown to be limited to the axial direction of the leaves, i.e. along the axis of the vascular bundles. It is not apparently dependent on the water flow in the xylem, and it can be blocked by steam-killed zones or by metabolic inhibitors. It is concluded that kinetin-induced redistribution of phosphates

K. Müller; A. C. Leopold

1966-01-01

303

Antibacterial Activity of Leaves of Cadaba trifoliata (Roxb.) Wt. & Arn  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Cadaba trifoliata was evaluated by cup plate method against bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia and Escherichia coli. The ethanol extract of the leaves demonstrated a high degree of activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Erwinia and Acinetobacter, whereas the aqueous extract of the leaves showed moderate activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and Staph. aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes.

Mythreyi, R.; Sasikala, E.; Geetha, A.; Madhavan, V.

2009-01-01

304

Antibacterial Activity of Leaves of Cadaba trifoliata (Roxb.) Wt. & Arn.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Cadaba trifoliata was evaluated by cup plate method against bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia and Escherichia coli. The ethanol extract of the leaves demonstrated a high degree of activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Erwinia and Acinetobacter, whereas the aqueous extract of the leaves showed moderate activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and Staph. aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes. PMID:20336203

Mythreyi, R; Sasikala, E; Geetha, A; Madhavan, V

2009-03-01

305

Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

306

Negative regulation of KNOX expression in tomato leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of seed plants can be described as simple, where the leaf blade is entire, or dissected, where the blade is divided\\u000a into distinct leaflets. Both simple and dissected leaves are initiated at the flanks of a pluripotent structure termed the\\u000a shoot apical meristem (SAM). In simple-leafed species, expression of class I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins is confined\\u000a to the

Sophie Jasinski; Hardip Kaur; Alexander Tattersall; Miltos Tsiantis

2007-01-01

307

Phytochemical and Nutrient Evaluation of Spondias Mombin Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sample of Spondias Mombin leaves was analyzed for the phytochemical composition, vitamins and minerals constituents. Phytochemical screening and subsequent quantification revealed the presence of bioactive compounds tannins 3.82%; Saponins 7.60%; Flavonoids 3.00%, alkaloids 6.00% and phenols 1.00%. Vitamin results showed the plant leaves contained ascorbic acid 19.35mg100 g; Niaci n -1 3.75mg100 g. Riboflavin 0.25 mg100 g and Thiamine 0.05

P. C. Njoku; M. I. Akumefula

2007-01-01

308

Contrasts among bidirectional reflectance of leaves, canopies, and soils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple models are presented for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for soils and plant canopies viewed from various directions. BRDFs are predicted for bare soil, individual leaves, and plant canopies, and the results are compared with measurements and a three coefficient empirical equation. BRDF measurements for corn and soybean leaves are presented to contrast with canopy and soil distributions. Estimates of the soil, canopy, and leaf BRDFs are combined into a model called Cupid to predict BRDFs for complex natural surfaces.

Norman, J. M.; Walter, E. A.; Welles, J. M.

1985-01-01

309

1-Methylcyclopropene prevents ethylene induced yellowing of rocket leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully expanded rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) leaves were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™) at a concentration of 0.5?ll?1 for 4h at 10°C before storage for 10 days in air or in air with ethylene (1?ll?1). The untreated leaves stored in air showed a progressive yellowing during storage, resulting in a shelf life of about 10 days. The presence of exogenous

Athanasios Koukounaras; Anastasios S. Siomos; Evangelos Sfakiotakis

2006-01-01

310

Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

1993-01-01

311

76 FR 63354 - Proposed Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave) Activity: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans...needed to evaluate a trainee's request for leave from Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment...technology. Title: Trainee Request for Leave--Chapter 31, Title 38, U. S....

2011-10-12

312

5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630...Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. ...application to his or her employing agency to become an emergency leave recipient. If...

2009-01-01

313

5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630...Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. ...application to his or her employing agency to become an emergency leave recipient. If...

2010-01-01

314

Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1973-01-01

315

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.  

PubMed

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

2008-01-01

316

Stress Induction of Mitochondrial Formate Dehydrogenase in Potato Leaves1  

PubMed Central

In higher plants formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2.) is a mitochondrial, NAD-dependent enzyme. We previously reported that in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) FDH expression is high in tubers but low in green leaves. Here we show that in isolated tuber mitochondria FDH is involved in formate-dependent O2 uptake coupled to ATP synthesis. The effects of various environmental and chemical factors on FDH expression in leaves were tested using the mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase as a control. The abundance of FDH transcripts is strongly increased under various stresses, whereas serine hydroxymethyltransferase transcripts decline. The application of formate to leaves strongly enhances FDH expression, suggesting that it might be the signal for FDH induction. Our experiments using glycolytic products suggest that glycolysis may play an important role in formate synthesis in leaves in the dark and during hypoxia, and in tubers. Of particular interest is the dramatic accumulation of FDH transcripts after spraying methanol on leaves, as this compound is known to increase the yields of C3 plants. In addition, although the steady-state levels of FDH transcript increase very quickly in response to stress, protein accumulation is much slower, but can eventually reach the same levels in leaves as in tubers.

Hourton-Cabassa, Cecile; Ambard-Bretteville, Francoise; Moreau, Francois; de Virville, Jacques Davy; Remy, Rene; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine

1998-01-01

317

Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties.  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties and use of aqueous extracts of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and fenugreek leaves (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as source of natural antioxidant in raw chicken meat were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat +2% salt), II.BHT (meat +2% salt +0.1% BHT), III. CLE (meat +2% salt +2% curry leaves extract) and IV. FLE (meat +2% salt +2% fenugreek leaves extract) were compared for lipid oxidation during eight days refrigerated storage. The average phenolic content was 59.2 and 52.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in CLE and FLE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 61.4 and 64.2% in CLE and FLE, respectively. CLE had significantly (P?leaves and fenugreek leaves could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24293699

Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod R; Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

2012-12-01

318

Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

2013-01-01

319

Proteomic analysis of strawberry leaves infected with Colletotrichum fragariae.  

PubMed

Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes. To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection, proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification. Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (>1.5-fold, p<0.05) in mock- and C. fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point. Notably, 2-DE analysis revealed that C. fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves, and western blotting confirmed the induction of ?-1,3-glucanase and a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C. fragariae infection. During the late phase of infection, proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression. The abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogen-responsive protein network in C. fragariae-infected strawberry leaves. Together, these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, especially those found in non-model plant species. PMID:22634039

Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Xin, Ya; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Yu, Hong; Liu, Hui; Xiao, Wenfei; Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Guizhen; Liu, Hongbo; Jin, Liang; Ma, Huasheng; Ruan, Songlin

2012-07-16

320

Intercellular Diffusion Limits to CO2 Uptake in Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

We studied plants of five species with hypostomatous leaves, and six with amphistomatous leaves, to determine the extent to which gaseous diffusion of CO2 among the mesophyll cells limits photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In helox (air with nitrogen replaced by helium), the diffusivities of CO2 and water vapor are 2.3 times higher than in air. For fixed estimated CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf (pi), assimilation rates in helox ranged up to 27% higher than in air for the hypostomatous leaves, and up to 7% higher in the amphistomatous ones. Thus, intercellular diffusion must be considered as one of the processes limiting photosynthesis, especially for hypostomatous leaves. A corollary is that CO2 pressure should not be treated as uniform through the mesophyll in many leaves. To analyze our helox data, we had to reformulate the usual gas-exchange equation used to estimate CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf; the new equation is applicable to any gas mixture for which the diffusivities of CO2 and H2O are known. Finally, we describe a diffusion-biochemistry model for CO2 assimilation that demonstrates the plausibility of our experimental results.

Parkhurst, David F.; Mott, Keith A.

1990-01-01

321

Falling Leaves, Flapping Flight, and Making a Virtual Insect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects are fascinating to watch but difficult to catch, so are falling leaves. The diverse maneuver executed by insects and the flutter and tumbling motion of leaves are manifestations of complex interactions between the moving surfaces and the surrounding unsteady air. Despite the long tradition in fluid dynamics, relatively few quantitative descriptions and basic mechanisms are known about these two everyday phenomena. In this talk, I will describe some of the lessons we learned by analyzing them. In particular, I will show 1)a basic two dimensional mechanism of insect hovering and the associated vortical flow and forces, 2) the use of drag in insect hovering, in contrast to helicopter,3) the rise of falling leaves and the lift mechanism which is responsible for the center of mass elevation, 4) a model of fluid forces, different from the classical theory, for falling objects in fluid, and 5) computer experiments of three dimensional elastic flapping wings driven by muscles.

Wang, Z. Jane

2004-03-01

322

Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

Escalona-Arranz, Julio Cesar; Peres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodriguez-Amado, Jesus; Licea-Jimenez, Irina

2010-01-01

323

[Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women. PMID:21222323

Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

2010-09-01

324

Physicochemical characterization of cellulose from perennial ryegrass leaves (Lolium perenne).  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties of the cellulosic preparations obtained from both untreated perennial ryegrass leaves and de-juiced leaves. It was found that treatment at 22 degrees C with 18% NaOH and 18% KOH for 2h, and 10% NaOH and 10% KOH for 16 h yielded 28.2%, 28.8%, 22.7%, 23.4%, respectively, of 'cellulose' residue from untreated ryegrass leaves and 35.7%, 36.8%, 32.8% and 34.6%, respectively, from the de-juiced leaves. For each cellulosic fraction, the glucose content was 71.6%, 69.6%, 67.8%, 66.7%, 69.7%, 68.6%, 63.9% and 61.7%, respectively. The structure of the cellulose samples was examined using FTIR and CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cellulosic preparations were free of bound lignin except for noticeable amounts of residual hemicelluloses (28.4-38.3%), and had intrinsic viscosities between 275.1 and 361.0 mL/g, along with molecular weights from 144,130 to 194,930 g/mol. This study found that the cellulose samples isolated from both de-juiced ryegrass leaves and the untreated leaves had a much lower percent crystallinity (33.0-38.6%) than that from wood-based fibres (60-70%) and had much shorter fibres (0.35-0.49 mm) than those of either cereal straws, bagasse or wood. In addition, a partial disruption of the hydrogen bonds and microfibrils may occur during the de-juicing process by mechanical activity, which results in a decreased cellulose crystallinity and fibre length. These findings are significant in relation to hydrolysing ryegrass cellulose for bio-ethanol production. PMID:16934239

Liu, C F; Xu, F; Sun, J X; Ren, J L; Curling, S; Sun, R C; Fowler, P; Baird, M S

2006-11-27

325

Induced fluctuations of electric potentials in the apoplast of leaves.  

PubMed

Extracellular recordings of electrical potential in leaves of different species by means of band-pass amplifiers showed the occurrence of fast, small changes (spikes) with an amplitude below 1 mV. Local illumination of leaves induced temporal patterns of spikes outside the illuminated region. The light-induced patterns recorded by a given electrode in a particular experimental setup were similar for successive illuminations. The patterns recorded at different sites on the same leaf were different. Locally repetitive patterns of spikes at the electrode outside the illuminated region indicate the occurrence of some signals transmitted from this region to the cells in the neighborhood of the electrode. PMID:24201837

Glebicki, K; Hejnowicz, Z; Pijanowski, A

1989-12-01

326

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

327

G-MG How many leaves on a tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Amy and Greg are raking up leaves from a large maple tree in their yard and Amy remarks "I'll bet this tree has a million leaves." Greg is skeptical an...

328

Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-?-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-?-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-?-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds.

Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

2010-01-01

329

Degree of polarization model for leaves and discrimination between pea and rice types leaves for estimation of leaf area index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to estimate leaf area index(LAI) by measuring spectral reflectance from nadir view only. BRDF might help to estimate LAI in some sense. It is still difficult to estimate LAI precisely. Shape of pea and rice types of leaves is different. It might be helpful to descriminate between both. Meanwhile, degree of polarization is different between both so that it is possible to descriminate each other by using degree of polarization. Model of degree of polarization of leaves is proposed. Theoretical background of degree of polarization of leaves is described followed by some examples of simulation studies. Experimental degree of polarization is described to show a validity of the proposed model followed by estimation accuracy of leaf area index.

Arai, Kohei

330

Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The UV-B radiation (e.g. 337 nm) induced blue fluorescence (BF) and red chlorophyll fluorescence spectra (RF) of green leaves from plants with different leaf structure were determined and the possible nature and candidates of the blue fluorescence emission investigated. The blue fluorescence BF is characterized by a main maximum in the 450 nm region and in most cases by

M. Lang; F. Stober; H. K. Lichtenthaler

1991-01-01

331

Polyphenols in Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Leaves Induced by Plant Activators.  

PubMed

Strawberry leaves contain high amounts of diverse phenolic compounds potentially possessing defensive activities against microbial pathogens and beneficial properties for human health. In this work, young strawberry plants were treated with two plant activators, S-methylbenzo-1,2,3-thaidiazole-7-carbothiate (BTH) and birch wood distillate. Phenolic compounds from activator-treated and control leaves were subjected to quantitative analyses by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and microQTOF ESI-MS. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were detected and characterized, and 21 different ellagitannins constituted the largest group of compounds in the strawberry leaves (37.88-45.82 mg/g dry weight, 47.0-54.3% of total phenolics). Treatment with BTH resulted in higher levels of individual ellagitannins, whereas treatment with birch wood distillate strongly increased the levels of chlorogenic acid in strawberry leaves compared with the control. The results suggest that different plant activators may be useful tools for the activation of different branches in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in strawberry. PMID:24819677

Kårlund, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Koskinen, Piia; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Karonen, Maarit; Tiilikkala, Kari; Karjalainen, Reijo O

2014-05-21

332

When the Leader Leaves: Sustaining Success at Romero High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study asks readers to consider what leadership actions might help to sustain success for immigrant students in a small urban high school when the leader leaves. Principal Michael Perez, the founding principal of Romero High School, has been recruited to become the superintendent of a first-ring suburban district with rapidly changing…

Johnson, Lauri; Sillman, Kathryn

2012-01-01

333

Physical aspects of the internal water relations of plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between the water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential, and relative water content have been derived on the basis of 2 simple assumptions. Measurements of these quantities were made on leaves of cotton, sunflower, pepper, and birdsfoot trefoil to test the validity of these relations. Within the precision of the data, the assumption that the osmotic potential is inversely proportional

W. R. Gardner; C. F. Ehlig

1965-01-01

334

Leaving Care: Retrospective Reports by Alumni of Israeli Group Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the retrospective reports of alumni of Israeli group homes on their experiences of leaving care, taking into account possible gender differences as well as associations with their experiences while in care. The reports of 94 alumni (38 men and 56 women) interviewed by phone revealed major difficulties associated with the…

Schiff, Miriam

2006-01-01

335

Growth and regeneration of waxes on the leaves of Eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of wax morphology to wax chemistry and the effects of light intensity on wax development were investigated using rubbing techniques to produce nearly wax free cuticular surfaces. Wax regeneration took place rapidly on leaves which were in their exponential stage of expansion, but only slowly on those that had fully expanded. The pattern of wax development suggested that

N. D. Hallam

1970-01-01

336

Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

2010-01-01

337

Why Some Students Leave College during Their Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during…

Hunt, Patricia F.; Boyd, Vivian S.; Gast, Linda K.; Mitchell, Alice; Wilson, Wendy

2012-01-01

338

Strong Electrical Currents Leave the Primitive Streak of Chick Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical fields above chick embryos were explored with a vibrating probe. These fields indicate that steady currents with exit densities of the order of 100 microamperes per square centimeter leave the whole streak and return elsewhere through the epiblast. The epicenter of these strong exit currents lies near Hensen's node. They are probably pumped into the intraembryonic space by

Lionel F. Jaffe; Claudio D. Stern

1979-01-01

339

Voices from the Darkness: A House of Leaves Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

House of Leaves is both a love letter to the written word and a demonstration of its inadequacies, a cautionary tale, a horror story, a romance, a bildungsroman, an eloquent mockery of literary criticism, and much else besides. It incorporates postmodern poly-vocal framing techniques, which are sort of a literary version of Russian nesting dolls, if the dolls all talked

Waltman Melanie

2009-01-01

340

Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.  

PubMed

Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells. PMID:24266393

Zhang, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Bao, Mei-Fen; Liu, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Xiang-Hai

2013-01-01

341

Child health: An underplayed variable in parental leave policy debates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines parental leave policy from the perspective of infant and young child health. Factors assisting the successful integration of breastfeeding and maternal employment are outlined. Health effects of day care attendance are also explored as an integral component of this assessment. It is suggested that the potential health disadvantages associated with lack of, or inability to access, parental

Judith Galtry

2002-01-01

342

Distribution of Peltate Glandular Trichomes on Developing Leaves of Peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of peltate glandular trichome initiation and ontogeny on expanding peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita) leaves was defined by surveying the populations of peltate glands in each of seven developmental stages within sampling areas of leaf apical, mid-, and basal zones for both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. It was shown that new peltate glands continue to form until leaf expansion

Glenn W. Turner; Jonathan Gershenzon; Rodney B. Croteau

2000-01-01

343

Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that ac- cumulate during development and are thought to function as con- stitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita L.) leaves and investigated

Jonathan Gershenzon; Marie E. McConkey; Rodney B. Croteau

2000-01-01

344

Distribution of cadmium in leaves of Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the intracellular distribution of Cd in leaves is necessary in order to understand the mech- anisms of hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens. Ganges and Prayon, two ecotypes accumulating Cd to different levels, were grown in nutrient medium containing varying concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 lM) of Cd. Several different approaches were com- bined in this study to

Claudia Cosio; Laura DeSantis; Beat Frey; Saliou Diallo; Catherine Keller

2005-01-01

345

Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involved in the treatment and man-Aagement of a patient is on sick leave. In the Netherlands a

E. Faber

2007-01-01

346

Characteristics of Opiate Users Leaving Detoxification Treatment Against Medical Advice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance-dependent patients leaving against medical advice (AMA) pose a unique challenge to detoxification programs. Most notably, AMA patients fail to access residential or outpatient treatment needed after detoxification and often return to detoxification treatment multiple times which has deleterious results for the patient and is taxing to the healthcare system. Using retrospective data from 89 daily opiate-using detoxification patients completing

Deric R. Kenne; Alec P. Boros; Rebecca L. Fischbein

2010-01-01

347

Why do student nurses leave? Suggestions from a Delphi Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high dropout rate of nursing students is a major concern. However, there is little research available about the reasons why students leave. Universities collect some information from ‘exit’ interviews but, due to ethical sensitivities, it is not made available for research analysis. The purpose of this study was to establish a consensus view of the reasons why student nurses

Paul Fulbrook

2003-01-01

348

Fluoride content in khat ( Catha edulis) chewing leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khat (qat) leaves are chewed for their psychostimulative effects; there is an unconfirmed suggestion that they contain a high concentration of fluoride (F). Khat samples from Yemen were suspended in deionized water, spun, and the supernatants exposed to a chelator that decomplexes F, which was assayed with an F?-electrode coupled to an ion analyser. F released into whole saliva after

Faiez N Hattab; Birgit Angmar-Månsson

2000-01-01

349

Toxicological evaluation of a tea from leaves of Vernonia condensata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teas of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae) are widely used in Brazil for gastro-intestinal disorders and to treat several other diseases. In this study, we evaluated the acute toxicity, embryotoxicity and mutagenicity of a lyophilized aqueous extract (LAE) from V. condensata leaves. Single doses of LAE, up to 5000 mg\\/kg body weight, were given orally or intraperitoneally to male and female

M. H. D. Monteiro; M. R. Gomes-Carneiro; I. Felzenszwalb; I. Chahoud; F. J. R. Paumgartten

2001-01-01

350

Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1972-01-01

351

Oviposition by butterflies on young leaves: Investigation of leaf volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Various butterflies select young foliage on which to lay their eggs; volatiles emitted by young and old leaves have been compared (by sorption enrichment, followed by GC-MS) to gauge possible qualitative and quantitative differences between the two age groups. The plants investigated are cabbage (Brassica oleracea), two milkweeds (Asclepias syriaca andA. curassavica), the bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and the

Gunnar Bergström; Miriam Rothschild; Inga Groth; Cathy Crighton

1994-01-01

352

Tannin composition affects the oxidative activities of tree leaves.  

PubMed

We examined whether tannin composition plays an important role in explaining the oxidative activities of tree leaves of Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Quercus rubra (red oak). Sugar maple leaves contained substantial amounts of ellagitannins, condensed tannins, and galloyl glucoses, whereas red oak leaves contained almost exclusively condensed tannins. Oxidative activities of the crude phenolics from both species, and the phenolic fractions from sugar maple, were measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The two assays produced similar results: (1) sugar maple phenolics produced larger semiquinone radical concentrations,and higher semiquinone decay rates and browning rates than did red oak phenolics; (2) ellagitannin levels were positively associated with the three measures of oxidative activity; and (3) condensed tannin and galloyl glucose levels were negatively associated with these measures. The negative relationship between condensed tannin levels and oxidative activity resulted from the antioxidant effects of condensed tannins on hydrolyzable tannins; several purified condensed tannins significantly decreased the concentrations of semiquinone radicals and browning rates of pedunculagin (an ellagitannin) and pentagalloyl glucose. As expected, whole-leaf extracts from sugar maple produced elevated levels of semiquinone radicals, but none were observed in red oak extracts when the two species were compared with an EPR time-course assay. We conclude that the oxidative activities of tree leaves may be affected by tannin composition, and that the prooxidant activity of ellagitannins may be decreased by co-occurring condensed tannins. PMID:17031601

Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jones, Christopher P; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2006-10-01

353

COLOR CHANGE KINETICS OF CELERY LEAVES UNDERGOING MICROWAVE HEATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microwave output power and sample amount on color change kinetics of celery leaves (Apium graveolens L.) during microwave heating. The color parameters of the materials were quantified by the Hunter Lab system. These values were also used for calculation of the total color change, chroma, hue angle, and browning

Elçin Dem?rhan; Belma Özbek

2011-01-01

354

Evaluation of Alstonia scholaris leaves for broncho-vasodilatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that the ethanol extract of Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) leaves induced pronounced bronchodilatory activity in anaesthetized rats with the probable involvement of prostaglandins. However, in vitro preparations of guinea-pig trachea did not confirm this property, indicating that bronchodilation is not due to the direct tracheal smooth muscle relaxation. The vasodilatory activity of the extract was independent of

Shabana Channa; Ahsana Dar; Shakeel Ahmed; Atta-ur-Rahman

2005-01-01

355

Beginning Teachers: Are They Still Leaving the Profession?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines attitudes of beginning teachers toward their current support systems and compares those attitudes with factors previously identified as predictors of attrition. Notes that this sample of teachers is not predisposed to leaving the profession. Suggests that administrators should strongly support teachers' new ideas. (RS)

Marlow, Leslie; And Others

1997-01-01

356

The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves  

PubMed Central

Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development.

Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C.; Ambrose, Barbara A.

2013-01-01

357

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves  

PubMed Central

The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves.

Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

2008-01-01

358

Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

Devor, Kenneth A.

1979-01-01

359

Leaving Teaching in the UK: A Duration Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors analyze the decision by teachers to leave the profession. Their results affirm the importance of relative earnings in the tenure and turnover decisions of teachers. The econometric modeling approach used yields important insights into the appropriateness of adopting a flexible, semiparametric specification of the duration dependence structure and of the unobserved heterogeneity distribution in duration

Peter J Dolton; Wilbert van der Klaauw

1995-01-01

360

LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

361

"Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

2012-01-01

362

Trace Element Conient ol Leaves of Desert Shrubs in  

Microsoft Academic Search

lntroduclion Measurements of the mineral content of leaves of desett shrubs gtowing io the shrub steppe region of south-central Vashington have generally centered upon mineral cycling behavior (Mack 1977, Rickard 1965, Rickard and Keough 1968, Cline and Rickard 1974) and have been mostly coocerned with the behavior of maclooutrient elemeots and sodium rather than trace metals. In lecent years considerable

T. R. Garland

363

Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)

Koman, Michael

2003-01-01

364

Photosynthetic pigments and mineral composition of iron deficient pear leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in the pigment content of pear (Pyrus communis L.) leaves, thought to be related to Fe deficiency, occurs in northeastern Spain where is usually called “pear yellowness”;. A nutritional study has been carried out on a pear orchard affected by this physiological “disease”; and growing in the medium Jalón river valley. Total Fe contents were high both in

Anunciación Abadía; Manuel Sanz; Javier de las Rivas; Javier Abadía

1989-01-01

365

Ethical capital: 'what's a poor man got to leave?'.  

PubMed

For those of little or no means, leaving one's mark through financial assets, social connections, and human investment is difficult. Using secondary analysis of transcripts from face-to-face interviews with 33 terminally-ill patients from an outpatient clinic at a public hospital serving the disadvantaged in the southern United States, we examine the legacy participants wish to leave behind. As part of this process, participants assess life circumstances to try and generate a legacy allowing them to remain personally relevant to loved ones after death. For the low-SES terminally ill persons in this study, the desire to leave a material legacy and the means to do so are not congruous. In the absence of economic resources to bequeath loved ones, participants describe their desire to leave loved ones some form of ethical currency to facilitate interactions with others and protect them against social marginalisation. We call this concept ethical capital. We then argue ethical capital is a way for disadvantaged people to find dignity and to affirm their lives. PMID:20633241

Williams, Beverley; Woodby, Lesa; Drentea, Patricia

2010-09-01

366

Challenges in implementation of the maternity leave in Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to analyze the implementation of Labor Law in Kosovo, with a particular attention towards Article 49th which regulates the issue of maternity leave. Labor Law in Kosovo has been in force only for a year, and as such it has been a matter of discussion because of the challenges that have hampered its successful implementation. The study

Argjiro Ramosaj

2012-01-01

367

Maintenance Carbon Cycle in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant.

Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.

1985-01-01

368

Control of Chlorophyll Production in Rapidly Greening Bean Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The possible involvement of nucleic acid and protein synthesis in light-regulated chlorophyll formation by rapidly greening leaves has been studied. Removing leaves from illumination during the phase of rapid greening results in a reduction in the rate of pigment synthesis; cessation occurs within 2 to 4 hours. Etiolated leaves which exhibit a lag in pigment synthesis when first placed in the light do not show another lag after a 4 hour interruption of illumination during the phase of rapid greening. Actinomycin D, chloramphenicol, and puromycin inhibit chlorophyll synthesis when applied before or during the phase of rapid greening. Application of ?-amino-levulinic acid partially relieves the inhibition by chloramphenicol. It is suggested that light regulates chlorophyll synthesis by controlling the availability of ?-aminolevulinic acid, possibly by mediating the formation of an enzyme of ?-aminolevulinate synthesis. This process may result from gene activation or derepression; the involvement of RNA synthesis of some sort is suggested by the inhibitory effect of actinomycin D on chlorophyll production by rapidly greening leaves.

Gassman, Merrill; Bogorad, Lawrence

1967-01-01

369

Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

Hoover, James P.

2012-01-01

370

Expedition Five crew is ready to leave KSC for Houston  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition Five crew are ready to leave KSC for Houston. From left are Science Officer Peggy Whitson, Commander Valery Korzun and Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev. The three returned to Earth on Endeavour Dec. 7, with the STS-113 crew, after six months on the International Space Station.

2002-01-01

371

Modeling photosynthesis in olive leaves under drought conditions.  

PubMed

We quantified parameters for a model of leaf-level photosynthesis for olive, and tested the model against an independent dataset. Specific temperature-dependence parameters of the model for olive leaves were measured, as well as the relationship of the model parameters with area-based leaf nitrogen (N) content. The effect of soil water deficit on leaf photosynthesis was examined by applying two irrigation treatments to 29-year-old trees growing in a plantation: drip irrigation sufficient to meet the crop water requirements (I) and dry-farming (D). In both treatments, leaves had a higher photosynthetic capacity in April than in August. In August, photosynthetic capacity was lower in D trees than in I trees. Leaf photosynthetic capacity was linearly and positively related to leaf N content on an area basis (N(a)) and to leaf mass per unit area (LMA), and the regression slope varied with irrigation treatment. The seasonal reduction in N(a) was used in the model to predict photosynthesis under drought conditions. Olive leaves showed a clear limitation of photosynthesis by triose phosphate utilization (TPU) even at 40 degrees C, and the data suggest that olive invests fewer resources in TPU than other species. The seasonal decrease in photosynthetic capacity moderated the stomatal limitation to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fixation as soil water deficit increased. Further, it enabled leaves to operate close to the transition point between photosynthetic limitation due to RuBP carboxylation capacity and that due to RuBP regeneration capacity, and resulted in a near constant value of internal CO(2) concentration from April to August. Under well watered conditions, N-use efficiency of the olive leaves was enhanced at the expense of reduced water-use efficiency. PMID:16877329

Díaz-Espejo, A; Walcroft, A S; Fernández, J E; Hafridi, B; Palomo, M J; Girón, I F

2006-11-01

372

Radiative properties of hardwood leaves to ultraviolet irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance and transmittance of leaves to ultraviolet irradiation were determined under laboratory conditions for seven species of hardwood trees, namely red oak ( Quercus rubra, L), black oak ( Q. velutina, Lamarch), white oak ( Q. alba, L.), sugar maple ( Acer saccharum), Norway maple ( A. plantanoides), hickory ( Carya tomemtosa), sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua), and black oak litter. The experimental system consisted of a solar simulator, an integrating sphere, and a spectroradiometer. Experiments were repeated three to five times for both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of fresh leaves chosen at randomly. The spectral distributions and simple averages of the radiative properties in the wavelength ranges of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280 320 nm) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A, 320 400 nm) were determined. The spectral distributions of reflectance were similar between adaxial and abaxial surfaces, although the magnitude varied among tree species. Leaf reflectance was very low for the ultraviolet spectrum in general and varied among species and between adaxial and abaxial surfaces. It was generally higher over the UV-A waveband compared to UV-B, and higher on the abaxial than adaxial surface. The broadband reflectance in the UV-A range (over all species) was 5.0 and 3.9% for abaxial and adaxial surface, respectively, compared to 3.5 and 2.8% in UV-B. The transmittance through leaves was extremely small in the UV-B (<0.1%) and nearly zero in the UV-A spectral range. Consequently, the absorptance of ultraviolet radiation by leaves, as determined from the measured reflectance and transmittance, was quite high, being more than 90% for all the combinations of species and wavebands examined. The reported results are useful for studies requiring spectral radiative properties of the examined leaves with respect to ultraviolet irradiation.

Yang, Xiusheng; Heisler, Gordon M.; Montgomery, Michael E.; Sullivan, Joseph H.; Whereat, Edward B.; Miller, David R.

1995-06-01

373

Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of Red-Osier Dogwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated

Taylor S. Feild; David W. Lee; N. Michele Holbrook

2001-01-01

374

Movement of water from old to young leaves in three species of succulents.  

PubMed

A hypothetical adaptive response of succulent plants to drought-stress is the redistribution of water from old to young leaves. We examined the effects of possible movement of water from old to young leaves in three succulent species, Carpobrotus edulis (weak CAM-inducible), Kalanchoe tubiflora (CAM) and Sedum spectabile (possibly a CAM-cycler or CAM-inducible). Old leaves were removed from plants, and photosynthesis, transpiration, f. wt : d. wt ratios, diurnal acid fluctuations, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentrations of the remaining young leaves were measured during drought-stress. Comparison was made with plants retaining old leaves. There was no evidence that water moved from old to young leaves during drought-stress as previously hypothesized. Only in drought-stressed plants of K. tubiflora, were photosynthetic and transpiration rates of young leaves greater on shoots with old leaves removed compared with attached. There was a trend in all species for greater fluctuations in acidity in young leaves on shoots that lacked older leaves. For two of the three species studied, the f. wt : d. wt ratios of young leaves were greater under drought-stress, on shoots with old leaves removed than with them attached. Absence of old leaves may reduce competition for water with young leaves, which consequently have higher water content and greater photosynthetic rates. PMID:12907468

Rabas, A R; Martin, C E

2003-10-01

375

Histone Deacetylases and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 Are Involved in the Establishment of Polarity in Leaves of Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

We show that two Arabidopsis thaliana genes for histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDT1/HD2A and HDT2/HD2B, are required to establish leaf polarity in the presence of mutant ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) or AS1. Treatment of as1 or as2 plants with inhibitors of HDACs resulted in abaxialized filamentous leaves and aberrant distribution of microRNA165 and/or microRNA166 (miR165/166) in leaves. Knockdown mutations of these two HDACs by RNA interference resulted in phenotypes like those observed in the as2 background. Nuclear localization of overproduced AS2 resulted in decreased levels of mature miR165/166 in leaves. This abnormality was abolished by HDAC inhibitors, suggesting that HDACs are required for AS2 action. A loss-of-function mutation in HASTY, encoding a positive regulator of miRNA levels, and a gain-of-function mutation in PHABULOSA, encoding a determinant of adaxialization, suppressed the generation of abaxialized filamentous leaves by inhibition of HDACs in the as1 or as2 background. AS2 and AS1 were colocalized in subnuclear bodies adjacent to the nucleolus where HDT1/HD2A and HDT2/HD2B were also found. Our results suggest that these HDACs and both AS2 and AS1 act independently to control levels and/or patterns of miR165/166 distribution and the development of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity and that there may be interactions between HDACs and AS2 (AS1) in the generation of those miRNAs.

Ueno, Yoshihisa; Ishikawa, Takaaki; Watanabe, Keiro; Terakura, Shinji; Iwakawa, Hidekazu; Okada, Kiyotaka; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

2007-01-01

376

Using excised leaves to screen lucerne for salt tolerance  

PubMed Central

Salinity affects many physiological processes at all levels of plant structural organization. Being a physiologically and genetically complex trait, salinity tolerance implies a coordinated contribution of multiple mechanisms, making plant screening for salt tolerance extremely difficult. In this work, we show how the use of excised leaves can fulfill that task. We argue that, by adding NaCl directly to the transpiration stream, the protective effects of several mechanisms regulating Na+ delivery to the shoot are eliminated, enhancing PSII exposure to salinity treatment and resulting in a significant decline in leaf photochemistry (Fv/Fm characteristics). We suggest that measuring Fv/Fm characteristics on excised salt-treated leaves provides an opportunity to evaluate the efficiency of vacuolar Na+ compartmentation, arguably the most important feature for salt tolerance. We also explain the observed decline in Fv/Fm values as salt-induced structural damage to chloroplasts caused by oxidative stress.

Smethurst, Christiane F; Gill, Warwick M

2009-01-01

377

Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes  

PubMed Central

The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots.

Pereira, Caio G.; Almenara, Daniela P.; Winter, Carlos E.; Fritsch, Peter W.; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S.

2012-01-01

378

Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.  

PubMed

Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

2012-01-01

379

Bioactive molecules in Kalanchoe pinnata leaves: extraction, purification, and identification.  

PubMed

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (syn. Bryophyllum pinnatum; family Crassulaceae) is a popular plant used in traditional medicine in many temperate regions of the world and particularly in South America. In Guyana, the leaves are traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic to treat coughs, ulcers, and sores. The purpose of this study was to implement a method for targeting and identifying molecules with antimicrobial activity, which could replace chemical preservatives in cosmetic applications. The leaves were extracted by a method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using different solvents. A study of antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity tests were performed to select the most interesting extract. To isolate one or more active molecules, the selected crude extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and then antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of each fraction were tested under the same procedure. The last step consisted of identifying the main compounds in the most active fraction by LC-MS/MS. PMID:20714893

El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Destandau, Emilie; Toribio, Alix; Elfakir, Claire; Lafosse, Michel; Renimel, Isabelle; André, Patrice; Cancellieri, Perrine; Landemarre, Ludovic

2010-10-01

380

A new diterpene from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees yielded a minor, new diterpene, 21-nor-3,19-isopropylidine-14-deoxy-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide (1), together with five known labdane type diterpenes, andrographolide 3, 14-deoxyandrographolide 4, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide 5, 14-deoxy-11,12-dihydroandrographolide 6, neoandrographolide 7, and two acids, cinnamic acid 8, and ferulic acid 9. The chemical structures were established by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic experiments, and on the basis of HR-ESI MS analyses. The methanolic extract of the leaves exhibited moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities at a dose of 200 microg/mL in comparison with the reference standards. PMID:22574448

Radhika, Parvataneni; Prasad, Yejella Rajendra; Sowjanya, Kattupalli

2012-04-01

381

Fractal Structures of Zinc Metal Leaves Grown by Electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc metal leaves are grown two-dimensionally by electrodeposition. The structures clearly remind us of the random patterns simulated by computer according to the Witten-Sander diffusion-limited-aggregation model. The scale invariance is tested by computing the density-density correlation function for the digitized patterns of the photographs. The Hausdorff dimension averaged over many examples is D=1.66+\\/-0.03, which is in excellent agreement with that

M. Matsushita; M. Sano; Y. Hayakawa; H. Honjo; Y. Sawada

1984-01-01

382

New phenolic compounds from Camellia sinensis L. fermented leaves.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic compounds (1 and 2, named as teasperol and teasperin, respectively) were isolated from fermented tea (Camellia sinensis L.) products, together with known phenolic compounds. Teasperol (1) was isolated from Chinese traditional post-fermented tea leaves (Liu-pao tea) and teasperin (2) was from a Japanese tea product which was selectively fermented with Aspergillus sp. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated based on the analyses of their spectroscopic data. PMID:22972630

Kanegae, Ayaka; Sakamoto, Arisa; Nakayama, Hideyuki; Nakazono, Yoko; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ishimaru, Kanji

2013-07-01

383

Microwave drying characteristics of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of microwave power output on effective moisture diffusivity, colour parameters and rehydration characteristics of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) was investigated by using a microwave drier. Within the range of microwave power values, 180–360W, effective moisture diffusivities were found to be 6.3×10?11–2.19×10?10m2\\/s and the result could successfully be presented with the model suggested by Midilli et al. No significant

Ayse Sarimeseli

2011-01-01

384

IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave  

SciTech Connect

When selecting minimum ventilation rates, employers should balance the well-recognized energy costs of providing higher minimum ventilation rates with the expected, but less well quantified, health benefits from a higher ventilation rate. This is a summary of the paper by Milton, et al. that found low employee sick leave associated with high ventilation rates in a set of buildings located in Massachusetts. A simple cost-benefit analysis also is presented.

Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

2002-08-01

385

Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.  

PubMed

Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

2008-02-15

386

Dried leaves — Novel reductant for acid leaching of manganese ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation results on the use of dried leaves as a reductant for manganese ore leaching is reported. A complete\\u000a flow-sheet consisting of steps such as reductive acid leaching, enrichment of leach solution by recycling, iron removal and\\u000a crystallization has been developed for the preparation of manganese sulphate monohydrate from manganese ore of Gujarat Mineral\\u000a Development Corporation (GMDC),

D. Hariprasad; M. K. Ghosh; S. Anand

2009-01-01

387

New triterpenoids from the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus.  

PubMed

Six new triterpenoids including four new secodammarane triterpenoid glycosides (1-4), an epoxydammarane triterpenoid glycoside (5), and a new secodammarane triterpenoid (6) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis methods. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against ?-glucosidase, lipase, DPP-IV, and aldose reductase. PMID:22161740

Li, Shuai; Cui, Baosong; Liu, Quan; Tang, Li; Yang, Yongchun; Jin, Xiangju; Shen, Zhufang

2012-02-01

388

Triterpenes and triterpenoid saponins from the leaves of Ilex kudincha.  

PubMed

One new triterpene, kudinchalactone A (1), and four new triterpenoid saponins, ilekudinchosides A-D (2- 5), were isolated from the leaves of Ilex kudincha C.?J. Tseng along with eight known triterpenoids. These new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and CD spectra. Compounds 2, 3, 12, and 13 showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:21870320

Zuo, Wen-Jian; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hui-Qin; Zhao, You-Xing; Mei, Wen-Li; Li, Xian; Wang, Jin-Hui

2011-11-01

389

Cadinane sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum.  

PubMed

Four new cadinane sesquiterpenes (1- 4), including a dimeric cadinane derivative (2) and a peroxide cadinane analogue (3), have been isolated from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 4 showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the HCT-8, Bel-7402, and A2780 cancer cell lines. PMID:18620454

He, Lan; Hou, Jing; Gan, Maoluo; Shi, Jiangong; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Williams, Ian D; Sung, Herman H-Y

2008-08-01

390

In vitro Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Nauclea orientalis Leaves  

PubMed Central

Antianthelmintic activity of successive extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous) of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) and compared with that of albendazole. It was found that the extracts exhibited, respectively dose-dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. The results indicated that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were more potent.

Raghavamma, S. T. V.; Rao, N. Rama

2010-01-01

391

Membrane concentration of antioxidants from Castanea sativa leaves aqueous extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extraction of Castanea sativa leaves (CsL) was scaled up and the extract was processed in a series of two UF membranes (5 and 10kDa) with the aim of concentrating the active phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. Due to the occurrence of adsorptive fouling of the phenolic compounds found in one membrane's configuration assayed (Configuration I), batch dilution of the

Beatriz Díaz-Reinoso; Andrés Moure; Herminia Domínguez; Juan Carlos Parajó

2011-01-01

392

Transcriptome Analysis of Cytokinin Response in Tomato Leaves  

PubMed Central

Tomato is one of the most economically and agriculturally important Solanaceous species and vegetable crops, serving as a model for examination of fruit biology and compound leaf development. Cytokinin is a plant hormone linked to the control of leaf development and is known to regulate a wide range of genes including many transcription factors. Currently there is little known of the leaf transcriptome in tomato and how it might be regulated by cytokinin. We employ high throughput mRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatic methodologies to robustly analyze cytokinin regulated tomato leaf transcriptomes. Leaf samples of two ages, 13d and 35d were treated with cytokinin or the solvent vehicle control dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 2 h or 24 h, after which RNA was extracted for sequencing. To confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing results, we performed qPCR analysis of select transcripts identified as cytokinin regulated by the RNA sequencing approach. The resulting data provide the first hormone transcriptome analysis of leaves in tomato. Specifically we identified several previously untested tomato orthologs of cytokinin-related genes as well as numerous novel cytokinin-regulated transcripts in tomato leaves. Principal component analysis of the data indicates that length of cytokinin treatment and plant age are the major factors responsible for changes in transcripts observed in this study. Two hour cytokinin treatment showed a more robust transcript response indicated by both greater fold change of induced transcripts and the induction of twice as many cytokinin-related genes involved in signaling, metabolism, and transport in young vs. older leaves. This difference in transcriptome response in younger vs. older leaves was also found to a lesser extent with an extended (24 h) cytokinin treatment. Overall data presented here provides a solid foundation for future study of cytokinin and cytokinin regulated genes involved in compound leaf development or other developmental processes in tomato.

Shi, Xiuling; Gupta, Sarika; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; Cameron, Connor T.; Mudge, Joann; Rashotte, Aaron M.

2013-01-01

393

Two new tirucallane triterpenoids from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis.  

PubMed

Two new tirucallane triterpenoids, aquilacallanes A-B (1-2), together with 15 known compounds (3-17) were isolated from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines. The known compounds, ursolic acid (7) and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (14), exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against some cells. PMID:23508744

Cheng, Jin Tang; Han, Ya Qiong; He, Juan; De Wu, Xing; Dong, Liao Bin; Peng, Li Yan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qin Shi

2013-09-01

394

[Constituents of the leaves of Daphne pseudo-mezereum].  

PubMed

Three new phenolic compounds were isolated from methanol extracts of the leaves of Daphne pseudo-mezereum (Thymelaeaceae) and characterized as (-)-pinoresinol di-O-glucoside (1), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy coumarin 8-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), diosmetin 7-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->6) beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), respectively, together with six known compounds, using 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra. PMID:8229666

Konishi, T; Wada, S; Kiyosawa, S

1993-09-01

395

Extraction of nettle leaves using synthetic esters of fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extractive power of synthetic esters of higher fatty acids, widely used as emollients in cosmetics, has been studied.\\u000a Three popular emollients — isopropyl myristate (IPM), capryl-caprinic triglycerides (CCT) and soybean oil (SO) — were used\\u000a to isolate biologically active substances from nettle leaves (Folia urtica). The qualitative compositions of lipophilic biologically active compounds in all extracts have proved to

A. V. Belyakova; V. A. Vainshtein; K. V. Markova; Yu. T. Demchenko; T. H. Chibilyaev

2005-01-01

396

Auxin Control of Protein-Levels in Detached Autumn Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well established that when mature leaves are detached from the plant the protein-level in the blade falls1. It has also been demonstrated by both Vickery, Pucher, Wakeman and Leavenworth2 and Mothes and Engelbrecht3 that an external supply of carbohydrate or of nitrogenous substances such as nitrates, ammonium salts or urea, will only slow down the rate of the

Daphne J. Osborne

1960-01-01

397

Variegation in Arum italicum leaves. A structural-functional study.  

PubMed

The presence of pale-green flecks on leaves (speckling) is a frequent character among herbaceous species from shady places and is usually due to local loosening of palisade tissue (air space type of variegation). In the winter-green Arum italicum L. (Araceae), dark-green areas of variegated leaf blades are ca. 400 ?m thick with a chlorophyll content of 1080 mg m?² and a palisade parenchyma consisting of a double layer of oblong cells. Pale-green areas are 25% thinner, have 26% less chlorophyll and contain a single, loose layer of short palisade cells. Full-green leaves generally present only one compact layer of cylindrical palisade cells and the same pigment content as dark-green sectors, but the leaf blade is 13% thinner. A spongy parenchyma with extensive air space is present in all leaf types. Green cells of all tissues have normal chloroplasts. Assays of photosynthetic activities by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and O? exchange measurements showed that variegated pale-green and dark-green sectors as well as full-green leaves have comparable photosynthetic activities on a leaf area basis at saturating illumination. However, full-green leaves require a higher saturating light with respect to variegated sectors, and pale-green sectors support relatively higher photosynthesis rates on a chlorophyll basis. We conclude that i) variegation in this species depends on number and organization of palisade cell layers and can be defined as a "variable palisade" type, and ii) the variegated habit has no limiting effects on the photosynthetic energy budget of A. italicum, consistent with the presence of variegated plants side by side to full-green ones in natural populations. PMID:22078376

La Rocca, Nicoletta; Rascio, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo

2011-12-01

398

Bioactive limonoids from the leaves of Azaridachta indica (Neem).  

PubMed

Eight new limonoids (1-8) and one new phenol glycoside (9), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Azaridachta indica. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds isolated were assayed for their cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Moreover, their ability to interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, affecting its biological activity, was tested. PMID:24499352

Gualtieri, Maria J; Malafronte, Nicola; Vassallo, Antonio; Braca, Alessandra; Cotugno, Roberta; Vasaturo, Michele; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio

2014-03-28

399

Quantitative determination of phenolic compounds in Mentha piperita leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method using a dual-wavelength Firordt method that enabled simultaneous determination of the flavonoid\\u000a and phenolic-acid contents was developed for quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae) leaves. Hesperidin and rosmaric acid were used as standards. The optimal extraction parameters of the phenolic\\u000a compounds were determined. Metrological analysis of the developed method was performed. It was

D. N. Olennikov; L. M. Tankhaeva

2010-01-01

400

Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Verbena officinalis L. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were\\u000a also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered\\u000a as excellent and readily available

E. Casanova; J. M. García-Mina; M. I. Calvo

2008-01-01

401

Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their

G. J. Wagner

1984-01-01

402

Systemic signalling of environmental cues in Arabidopsis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light intensity and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure are two environmental signals known to regulate stomatal numbers. It has previously been shown that if a mature Arabidopsis leaf is supplied with either elevated CO2 (750 ppm instead of ambient at 370 ppm) or reduced light levels (50 lmol m22 s21 instead of 250 lmol m22 s21), the young, developing leaves that

S. A. Coupe; B. G. Palmer; J. A. Lake; S. A. Overy; K. Oxborough; F. I. Woodward; J. E. Gray; W. P. Quick

2010-01-01

403

Diuretic activity of the leaves of Coleus aromaticus Benth.  

PubMed

The aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Coleus aromaticus was evaluated for diuretic activity. Both extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in albino rats. Results revealed that both the aqueous and ethanolic extract at dose 500mgl kg showed significant diuretic activity by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration electrolyte. Furosamide (10 mg/kg) was used as reference drug while normal saline (0.9%) solution was used as control. PMID:22557339

Choudhary, G P

2009-07-01

404

Diuretic activity of the leaves of Coleus aromaticus Benth  

PubMed Central

The aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Coleus aromaticus was evaluated for diuretic activity. Both extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in albino rats. Results revealed that both the aqueous and ethanolic extract at dose 500mgl kg showed significant diuretic activity by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration electrolyte. Furosamide (10 mg/kg) was used as reference drug while normal saline (0.9%) solution was used as control.

Choudhary, G.P.

2009-01-01

405

Characterization of the epidermis from barley primary leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cation and anion distribution between the epidermis and mesophyll of primary leaves of 10-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was studied in relation to growth conditions. A new method was employed to isolate epidermal protoplasts. The following observations were made: (i) Under standard hydroponic growth conditions, K+ was the dominant cation and NO33-the predominant anion, both in epidermal and

K. J. Dietz; M. Schramm; B. Lang; A. Lanzl-Schramm; C. Dürr; E. Martinoia

1992-01-01

406

Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.  

PubMed

An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%). PMID:16401556

Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

2006-03-01

407

Two new triterpenoid isomers from Nerium oleander leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new triterpenoid isomers ?-neriursate (1) and ?-neriursate (2) have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?-acetophenoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid and 3?-acetophenoxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively. The structure elucidation is based on spectroscopic methods, including 1D (H NMR, C NMR) and 2D (H-H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC and J-resolved) NMR data and chemical transformation.

Bina S. Siddiqui; Nasima Khatoon; Sabira Begum; Saima A. Durrani

2009-01-01

408

An Assessment of Wound Healing Potential of Argyreia speciosa Leaves  

PubMed Central

In North India, poultice of young unfolded leaves of Argyreia speciosa Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is used for healing wounds. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of leaves of A. speciosa in wound healing, this investigation was carried out. A linear incision wound of about 3?cm in length and 2?mm in depth and circular excision wound of 177?mm2 full thickness were made on the dorsal region of separate groups (n = 5) of anesthetized Swiss albino mice. A simple ointment, developed by including ethanol, ethanol-water, and water extracts (10% each, separately) of A. speciosa, was applied topically to mice once daily for 14 days after wounding. To evaluate the effect of each extract, wound contraction, epithelization period, wound breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content were determined. The water extract of A. speciosa showed accelerated wound healing activity as evidenced by fast wound contraction (96.30 ± 0.52%; P < 0.01), rapid epithelization period (11.40 ± 0.60 days; P < 0.001), greater wound breaking strength (376.56 ± 21.16?g; P < 0.001), and higher hydroxyproline content (16.49 ± 1.12?mg/g; P < 0.05) of granulation tissue. The present report supports the traditional use of Argyreia speciosa leaves for wound healing and signify its relevant therapeutic potential.

Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rawat, Bindu; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Venkateswara Rao, Chandana

2014-01-01

409

Phloem Unloading in Developing Leaves of Sugar Beet 1  

PubMed Central

Phloem unloading in developing leaves of Beta vulgaris L. (`Klein E' multigerm) occurred from successively higher order branches of veins as leaves matured. Phloem unloading was studied in autoradiographs of leaf samples taken at various times during the arrival of a pulse of 14C-labeled photoassimilate. Extension of mass flow of sieve element contents into leaf vein branches was determined from the high level of radiolabel in veins soon after first arrival of the pulse. Rapid entry, indicative of mass flow through open sieve pores, occurred down to the fourth division of veins in young, importing leaves and to the fifth or terminal branch in importing regions near the zone of transition from sink to source. The rate of unloading decreased with leaf age, as evidenced by the increased time required for the vein-mesophyll demarcation to become obscured. The rate of import per unit leaf area, measured by steady state labeling with 14CO2 also decreased as a leaf matured. The decline in import appeared to result from progressive changes that increased resistance to unloading of sieve elements and eventually terminated phloem unloading. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Schmalstig, J. Gougler; Geiger, Donald R.

1987-01-01

410

Chloroplast DNA in mature and senescing leaves: a reappraisal.  

PubMed

The fate of plastid DNA (ptDNA) during leaf development has become a matter of contention. Reports on little change in ptDNA copy number per cell contrast with claims of complete or nearly complete DNA loss already in mature leaves. We employed high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, semithin sectioning of leaf tissue, and real-time quantitative PCR to study structural and quantitative aspects of ptDNA during leaf development in four higher plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, sugar beet [Beta vulgaris], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and maize [Zea mays]) for which controversial findings have been reported. Our data demonstrate the retention of substantial amounts of ptDNA in mesophyll cells until leaf necrosis. In ageing and senescent leaves of Arabidopsis, tobacco, and maize, ptDNA amounts remain largely unchanged and nucleoids visible, in spite of marked structural changes during chloroplast-to-gerontoplast transition. This excludes the possibility that ptDNA degradation triggers senescence. In senescent sugar beet leaves, reduction of ptDNA per cell to ?30% was observed reflecting primarily a decrease in plastid number per cell rather than a decline in DNA per organelle, as reported previously. Our findings are at variance with reports claiming loss of ptDNA at or after leaf maturation. PMID:24668747

Golczyk, Hieronim; Greiner, Stephan; Wanner, Gerhard; Weihe, Andreas; Bock, Ralph; Börner, Thomas; Herrmann, Reinhold G

2014-03-01

411

Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by Urtica dioica leaves extracts.  

PubMed

Platelet hyperactivity plays an important role in arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different extracts of Urtica dioica leaves on platelet aggregation. Rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different concentrations of the tested extracts and aggregation was induced by different agonists including thrombin (0.5 U/mL), ADP (10 microm), epinephrine (100 microm) and collagen (5 mg/mL). The crude aqueous extract inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At 1 mg/mL, the percent inhibition was 17.1 +/- 4.2%. Soxhlet extraction of the plant leaves with different successive solvents showed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most antiaggregant effect with an inhibition of 76.8 +/- 6.1% at 1 mg/mL. Flavonoids isolated from the plant leaves, produced a strong inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 0.25 +/- 0.05 and 0.40 +/- 0.04 mg/mL for genins and heterosidic flavonoids, respectively. Flavonoids also markedly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. It is concluded that Urtica dioica has an antiplatelet action in which flavonoids are mainly implicated. These results support the traditional use of Urtica dioica in the treatment and/or prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16619332

El Haouari, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Bendahou, Mourad; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Mekhfi, Hassane

2006-07-01

412

Antifreeze Proteins in Winter Rye Leaves Form Oligomeric Complexes1  

PubMed Central

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) similar to three pathogenesis-related proteins, a glucanase-like protein (GLP), a chitinase-like protein (CLP), and a thaumatin-like protein (TLP), accumulate during cold acclimation in winter rye (Secale cereale) leaves, where they are thought to modify the growth of intercellular ice during freezing. The objective of this study was to characterize the rye AFPs in their native forms, and our results show that these proteins form oligomeric complexes in vivo. Nine proteins were separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from apoplastic extracts of cold-acclimated winter rye leaves. Seven of these proteins exhibited multiple polypeptides when denatured and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After isolation of the individual proteins, six were shown by immunoblotting to contain various combinations of GLP, CLP, and TLP in addition to other unidentified proteins. Antisera produced against individual cold-induced winter rye GLP, CLP, and TLP all dramatically inhibited glucanase activity in apoplastic extracts from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves, and each antiserum precipitated all three proteins. These results indicate that each of the polypeptides may be exposed on the surface of the protein complexes. By forming oligomeric complexes, AFPs may form larger surfaces to interact with ice, or they may simply increase the mass of the protein bound to ice. In either case, the complexes of AFPs may inhibit ice growth and recrystallization more effectively than the individual polypeptides.

Yu, Xiao-Ming; Griffith, Marilyn

1999-01-01

413

Characteristics of opiate users leaving detoxification treatment against medical advice.  

PubMed

Substance-dependent patients leaving against medical advice (AMA) pose a unique challenge to detoxification programs. Most notably, AMA patients fail to access residential or outpatient treatment needed after detoxification and often return to detoxification treatment multiple times which has deleterious results for the patient and is taxing to the healthcare system. Using retrospective data from 89 daily opiate-using detoxification patients completing detoxification and 95 patients leaving AMA, we sought to identify patient characteristics useful in predicting AMA discharges from detoxification. Bivariate analyses indicated that AMA patients reported drug use did not impair their health, were injection drug users, younger and had fewer previous treatment admissions. Binomial logistic regression indicated that AMA patients were more likely to be unemployed and report that drug use did not impair their health. Patients completing detoxification were less likely to be injection drug users and less likely to be self-referred to treatment. Identifying patients at risk of leaving AMA provides an opportunity for clinicians to intervene in an effort to increase treatment engagement for these patients. PMID:20635287

Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Fischbein, Rebecca L

2010-07-01

414

Evolution of asexual reproduction in leaves of the genus Kalanchoë.  

PubMed

Plant somatic cells have the remarkable ability to regenerate an entire organism. Many species in the genus Kalanchoë, known as "mother of thousands," develop plantlets on the leaf margins. Using key regulators of organogenesis (STM) and embryogenesis (LEC1 and FUS3) processes, we analyzed asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë leaves. Suppression of STM abolished the ability to make plantlets. Here, we report that constitutive plantlet-forming species, like Kalanchoë daigremontiana, form plantlets by coopting both organogenesis and embryogenesis programs into leaves. These species have a defective LEC1 gene and produce nonviable seed, whereas species that produce plantlets only upon stress induction have an intact LEC1 gene and produce viable seed. The latter species are basal in the genus, suggesting that induced-plantlet formation and seed viability are ancestral traits. We provide evidence that asexual reproduction likely initiated as a process of organogenesis and then recruited an embryogenesis program into the leaves in response to loss of sexual reproduction within this genus. PMID:17893341

Garcês, Helena M P; Champagne, Connie E M; Townsley, Brad T; Park, Soomin; Malhó, Rui; Pedroso, Maria C; Harada, John J; Sinha, Neelima R

2007-09-25

415

Chlorophyll breakdown and chlorophyll catabolites in leaves and fruit†  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyll metabolism probably is the most visible manifestation of life. Total annual turnover of chlorophyll has been estimated to involve more than 1000 million tons. Surprisingly, chlorophyll catabolism has remained an enigma until less than twenty years ago, when a colorless chlorophyll catabolite from senescent plant leaves was identified and its structure was elucidated. In the meantime, chlorophyll breakdown products have been identified in a variety of plant leaves and their structural features have been elucidated. Most recently, chlorophyll breakdown products have also been identified in some ripening fruit. Chlorophyll breakdown in vascular plants only fleetingly involves enzyme-bound colored intermediates. The stage of fluorescent catabolites is also passed rapidly, as these isomerize further to colorless nonfluorescent tetrapyrrolic catabolites. The latter accumulate in the vacuoles of de-greened leaves and are considered the final products of controlled chlorophyll breakdown. The same tetrapyrroles are also found in ripening fruit and are effective antioxidants. Chlorophyll breakdown leads to tetrapyrroles that appear to have physiologically beneficial chemical properties, and it may thus not merely be a detoxification process.

Krautler, Bernhard

2010-01-01

416

Photosynthetic energy storage in aquatic leaves measured by photothermal deflection.  

PubMed

In a study of photosynthetic energy storage efficiency (ES), the adaxial surface of the leaves of Vallisneria americana exhibited the highest ES values (22%) of the four aquatic plants examined. V. americana leaves have a dispersed structure and it was possible to measure the energy storage properties of the epidermal cells independently of the rest of the leaf. The abaxial epidermis had a higher value of ES at zero light fluence than the adaxial epidermis but ES in the abaxial epidermis declined much more rapidly with light fluence. Thus the abaxial epidermis is more suited to lower light fluences than the adaxial epidermis. ES declined as the pH rose from 4.0 to 8.0 at a constant dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This paralleled the change from carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and suggests that these leaves utilise CO2 more efficiently than bicarbonate. ES increased by about 50% at pH 8.0 as leaf sections further from the leaf tip were examined which demonstrates that the older epidermal cells are less well able to use bicarbonate. Exposure to 30 min of a saturating light fluence caused the epidermal chloroplasts to move from the periclinal walls to the anticlinal walls. This decreased the photothermal signal by increasing the thermal diffusion distance and lowering the light fluence due to greater chloroplast shading. The latter effect increased ES. It appears that chloroplast movement could assist the epidermis to survive harmful light fluences. PMID:24301482

Sinclair, J; Hall, C E

1995-08-01

417

Cellular proton dynamics in Elodea canadensis leaves induced by cadmium.  

PubMed

Our earlier investigations showed that Elodea canadensis shoots, grown in the presence of cadmium (Cd), caused basification of the surrounding medium. The present study was aimed to examine the proton dynamics of the apoplastic, cytosolic and vacuolar regions of E. canadensis leaves upon Cd exposure and to establish possible linkage between cellular pH changes and the medium basification. The changes in cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]cyt was also investigated as the [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt homeostasis are closely linked. The cellular H(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations were monitored by fluorescence microscopy and ion-specific fluorescent dyes. Cadmium concentration of leaf-cell walls was measured after plant cultivation at different fixed levels of starting pH. The protoplasts from E. canadensis leaves were isolated by use of a newly developed enzymatic method. Upon Cd addition, both cytosolic and vacuolar pH of leaf protoplasts increased with a concomitant rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Time course studies revealed that changes in [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt followed similar dynamics. Cadmium (0.5 ?M) exposure decreased the apoplastic pH by 0.85 units. The maximum cell wall bound Cd-contents were obtained in plants grown at low starting pH. It is concluded that Cd treatment causes apoplastic acidosis in E. canadensis leaves associated with enhanced Cd binding to the cell walls and, consequently, reduced Cd influx into the cytosol. PMID:24525352

Tariq Javed, M; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

2014-04-01

418

Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint1  

PubMed Central

Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that accumulate during development and are thought to function as constitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) leaves and investigated several physiological processes that could regulate their accumulation: the rate of biosynthesis, the rate of metabolic loss, and the rate of volatilization. Monoterpene accumulation was found to be restricted to leaves of 12 to 20 d of age, the period of maximal leaf expansion. The rate of monoterpene biosynthesis determined by 14CO2 incorporation was closely correlated with monoterpene accumulation, as determined by gas chromatographic analysis, and appeared to be the principal factor controlling the monoterpene level of peppermint leaves. No significant catabolic losses of monoterpenes were detected throughout leaf development, and monoterpene volatilization was found to occur at a very low rate, which, on a monthly basis, represented less than 1% of the total pool of stored monoterpenes. The composition of volatilized monoterpenes differed significantly from that of the total plant monoterpene pool, suggesting that these volatilized products may arise from a separate secretory system. With the demonstration that the rate of biosynthesis is the chief process that determines monoterpene accumulation in peppermint, efforts to improve production in this species can now focus on the genes, enzymes, and cell differentiation processes that regulate monoterpene biosynthesis.

Gershenzon, Jonathan; McConkey, Marie E.; Croteau, Rodney B.

2000-01-01

419

Revising Himself : Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An impressive feat of literary collation, the Library of Congress presents this exhibition on Walt Whitman, probably America's first superstar author, and Whitman's book of poetry, _Leaves of Grass_. Initially published in 1855, _Leaves of Grass_ contained 12 poems. Whitman continuously revised it until his death in 1892, when it contained 400 poems. The poet added new poems, renamed older ones, reworded lines, changed punctuation, and regrouped poems (through the 1881 edition), as well as inventing typography, and posing for frontispiece portraits wearing various styles of clothing and props. (front and back views of a cardboard butterfly that Whitman posed with in 1877 are included in the show). The exhibition traces this evolution of _Leaves of Grass_ and Whitman's life, as a poet and a person, from the first appearance of the lines "I am the poet of the body, And I am the poet of the soul" in a notebook dating 1847-1950s, to the final "Deathbed edition" of 1891-1892. A wealth of interesting biographical material on Whitman, his friends and associates, his work as a teacher, tending the wounded during the Civil War, and for the federal government, also appears in the exhibit.

420

An assessment of wound healing potential of Argyreia speciosa leaves.  

PubMed

In North India, poultice of young unfolded leaves of Argyreia speciosa Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is used for healing wounds. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of leaves of A. speciosa in wound healing, this investigation was carried out. A linear incision wound of about 3 cm in length and 2 mm in depth and circular excision wound of 177 mm(2) full thickness were made on the dorsal region of separate groups (n = 5) of anesthetized Swiss albino mice. A simple ointment, developed by including ethanol, ethanol-water, and water extracts (10% each, separately) of A. speciosa, was applied topically to mice once daily for 14 days after wounding. To evaluate the effect of each extract, wound contraction, epithelization period, wound breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content were determined. The water extract of A. speciosa showed accelerated wound healing activity as evidenced by fast wound contraction (96.30 ± 0.52%; P < 0.01), rapid epithelization period (11.40 ± 0.60 days; P < 0.001), greater wound breaking strength (376.56 ± 21.16 g; P < 0.001), and higher hydroxyproline content (16.49 ± 1.12 mg/g; P < 0.05) of granulation tissue. The present report supports the traditional use of Argyreia speciosa leaves for wound healing and signify its relevant therapeutic potential. PMID:24688387

Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rawat, Bindu; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Venkateswara Rao, Chandana

2014-01-01

421

Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that frequent-, short-term sick leave is associated with work environment factors, whereas long-term sick leave is associated mainly with health factors. However, studies of the hypothesis of an association between a poor working environment and frequent short spells of sick leave are few and results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to explore associations between self-reported psychosocial work factors and workplace-registered frequency and length of sick leave in the eldercare sector. Methods Employees from the municipal eldercare in Aarhus (N?=?2,534) were included. In 2005, they responded to a work environment questionnaire. Sick leave records from 2005 were dichotomised into total sick leave days (0–14 and above 14 days) and into spell patterns (0–2 short, 3–9 short, and mixed spells and 1–3 long spells). Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations; adjusted for age, gender, occupation, and number of spells or sick leave length. Results The response rate was 76%; 96% of the respondents were women. Unfavourable mean scores in work pace, demands for hiding emotions, poor quality of leadership and bullying were best indicated by more than 14 sick leave days compared with 0–14 sick leave days. For work pace, the best indicator was a long-term sick leave pattern compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. A frequent short-term sick leave pattern was a better indicator of emotional demands (1.62; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5) and role conflict (1.50; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) than a short-term non-frequent pattern. Age (=?40 years) statistically significantly modified the association between the 1–3 long-term sick leave spell pattern and commitment to the workplace compared with the 3–9 frequent short-term pattern. Conclusions Total sick leave length and a long-term sick leave spell pattern were just as good or even better indicators of unfavourable work factor scores than a frequent short-term sick leave pattern. Scores in commitment to the workplace and quality of leadership varied with sick leave pattern and age. Thus, different sick leave measures seem to be associated with different work environment factors. Further studies on these associations may inform interventions to improve occupational health care.

2013-01-01

422

Mineral Composition of Two Populations of Leaves - Green and Iron Chlorotic - of the Same Age All from the Same Tree.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since carefully washed Fe chlorotic leaves often contain more total Fe on the dry weight basis than do green leaves, a population of leaves of the same age representing chlorotic leaves from each of two lemon trees and green leaves also of the same age an...

J. Procopiou A. Wallace

1981-01-01

423

NADH-Nitrate Reductase Inhibitor from Soybean Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

A NADH-nitrate reductase inhibitor has been isolated from young soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Var. Amsoy) leaves that had been in the dark for 54 hours. The presence of the inhibitor was first suggested by the absence of nitrate reductase activity in the homogenate until the inhibitor was removed by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose chromatography. The inhibitor inactivated the enzyme in homogenates of leaves harvested in the light. Nitrate reductases in single whole cells isolated through a sucrose gradient were equally active from leaves grown in light or darkness, but were inhibited by addition of the active inhibitor. The NADH-nitrate reductase inhibitor was purified 2,500-fold to an electrophoretic homogeneous protein by a procedure involving DEAE- cellulose chromatography, Sephadex G-100 filtration, and ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by dialysis. The assay was based on nitrate reductase inhibition. A rapid partial isolation procedure was also developed to separate nitrate reductase from the inhibitor by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and elution with KNO3. The inhibitor was a heat-labile protein of about 31,000 molecular weight with two identical subunits. After electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel two adjacent bands of protein were present; an active form and an inactive form that developed on standing. The active factor inhibited leaf NADH-nitrate reductase but not NADPH-nitrate reductase, the bacterial nitrate reductase or other enzymes tested. The site of inhibition was probably at the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide-NR reaction, since it did not block the partial reaction of NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The inhibitor did not appear to be a protease. Some form of association of the active inhibitor with nitrate reductase was indicated by a change of inhibitor mobility through Sephadex G-75 in the presence of the enzyme. The inhibition of nitrate reductase was noncompetitive with nitrate but caused a decrease in Vmax. The isolated inhibitor was inactivated in the light, but after 24 hours in the dark full inhibitory activity returned. Equal amounts of inhibitor were present in leaves harvested from light or darkness, except that the inhibitor was at first inactive when rapidly isolated from leaves in light. Photoinactivation of yellow impure inhibitor required no additional components, but inactivation of the purified colorless inhibitor required the addition of flavin. Preliminary evidence and a procedure are given for partial isolation of a component by DEAE-cellulose chromatography that stimulated nitrate reductase. The data suggest that light-dark changes in nitrate reductase activity are regulated by specific protein inhibitors and stimulators.

Jolly, S. Omata; Tolbert, N. E.

1978-01-01

424

Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking  

PubMed Central

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 ?Sv/y (average 79.7 ?Sv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 ?Sv/y (average 67.1 ?Sv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 ?Sv/y (average 104.7 ?Sv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 ?Sv/y (average 251.5 ?Sv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y).

Papastefanou, Constantin

2009-01-01

425

Influence of harvest season on antioxidant activity and constituents of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaves.  

PubMed

To select rabbiteye blueberry leaves from an appropriate harvest season to develop functional foods, this paper studied the bioactive secondary metabolites and the antioxidant capacity of rabbiteye blueberry leaves from May, September, and November. The results showed the leaves from May had the highest content of total flavonoids (114.21 mg/g) and the leaves from November had the highest content of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (425.24 and 243.29 mg/g, respectively). It was further found that blueberry leaves from different seasons have similar bioactive constituents, but their contents are obviously different by HPLC. The rabbiteye blueberry leaves from November had the highest antioxidant capacity, which was well correlated with their highest proanthocyanidin content. The results clarify that the blueberry leaves from different seasons have different contents of bioactive secondary metabolites and different antioxidant activities, which implied that leaves from November should be selected first for utilization in functional foods. PMID:24175648

Zhu, Liancai; Liu, Xi; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu

2013-11-27

426

29 CFR 2590.701-8 - Interaction With the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...29 Labor 9 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Interaction With the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved] 2590...Nondiscrimination, and Renewability § 2590.701-8 Interaction With the Family and Medical Leave Act....

2009-07-01

427

75 FR 8424 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Leaves From an Austrian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Leaves From an Austrian Mahzor'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Leaves from an Austrian Mahzor,'' imported from abroad for...

2010-02-24

428

Are sucrosyl-oligosaccharides synthesized in mesophyll protoplasts of mature leaves of Cucumis melo ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthesis of sucrosyl-oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose) was traced in source leaves of Cucumis melo after 14C-photoassimilation. The main carbon compound exported was 14C-labeled stachyose. No oligosaccharide synthesis was detected in young, importing leaves. Mesophyll protoplasts, isolated from mature leaves which had previously photosynthesized 14CO2, did not contain 14C-oligosaccharides but contained [14C]-sucrose and 14C-hexoses. Isolated minor-vein-enriched fractions from the same leaves, however,

K. Schmitz; U. Holthaus

1986-01-01

429

Life after Vouchers: What Happens to Students Who Leave Private Schools for the Traditional Public Sector?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few school choice evaluations consider students who leave such programs, and fewer still consider the effects of leaving these programs as policy-relevant outcomes. Using a representative sample of students from the citywide voucher program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, we analyze more than 1,000 students who leave the program during a 4-year period.…

Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.

2013-01-01

430

When Academics Become Parents: An Overview of Family Leave Policies at Canadian Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews family leave policies in Canadian universities through March 2002. Analysis of pregnancy, adoption, and partner (paternity) leave policies reveal that most Canadian university policies produce income loss and disruption and are characterized by gender regulation and familialism. The paper proposes that improving faculty family leave

Prentice, Susan; Pankratz, Curtis J.

2003-01-01

431

Polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars in air-cured tobacco leaves injured by ozone air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves of several production types were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of ozone-induced weather fleck on polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. Seven domestic cultivars provided leaf samples for analysis of polyphenols and phytosterols. Quantities of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, free quinic acid, and phytosterols were higher in severely flecked leaves than in leaves flecked

H. A. Menser; J. F. Chaplin; A. L. S. Cheng; T. Sorokin

1977-01-01

432

77 FR 3845 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for Credit of Annual Leave) Activities Under OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Claim for Credit of Annual Leave) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY...INFORMATION: Title: Claim for Credit of Annual Leave, VA Form 0862. OMB Control Number: 2900-0669...former employee's who were charged annual leave on a non-workday while on active...

2012-01-25

433

77 FR 323 - Agency Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave): Activity Under OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...INFORMATION: Title: Trainee Request for Leave--Chapter 31, Title 38, U. S. C...complete VA Form 28-1905h to request leave from their Vocational Rehabilitation...

2012-01-04

434

76 FR 70830 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Credit of Annual Leave) Activity: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Claim for Credit of Annual Leave) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human...employee's claims for restored annual leave charged on a nonworkday while on military...technology. Title: Claim for Credit of Annual Leave, VA Form 0862. Type of Review:...

2011-11-15

435

Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

2010-01-01

436

25 CFR 39.119 - When must a student leave a gifted and talented program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false When must a student leave a gifted and talented...Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 39.119 When must a student leave a gifted and talented program? A student must leave the gifted...

2011-04-01

437

Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Rome based on the magnetic properties of tree leaves.In a first step, magnetic properties of leaves from different tree species from the same location were compared. It was observed that leaves of evergreen species, like Quercus ilex, present much higher magnetic intensities than those of deciduous species, like Platanus sp., suggesting

Eva Moreno; Leonardo Sagnotti; Jaume Dinarès-Turell; Aldo Winkler; Antonio Cascella

2003-01-01

438

A role for decaying leaves in mitigating the harmful effects of acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmful effects of acid rain have been considered a serious problem. In this paper we have studied the ability of several common types of leaves to mitigate the effect of acid rain via the ability of these leaves to act as buffers in water.The pH of leaf suspensions of cypress, pine, oak, cinchona and ficus leaves has been determined and

Radi Salim; Shukri Khalaf

1994-01-01

439

Correlations between resistance of tobacco to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and chemical components of tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim for the resistance mechanism of tobacco to Bemisia tabaci , we determined the chlorophyll content of tobacco leaves, the chemical components and amino acid content in fresh or cured tobacco leaves, and analyzed the correlations between resistance of tobacco to Bemisia tabaci and chemical components of tobacco leaves. Results show that significantly negative correlation occurs between the

Ren Guang-wei; Chen Dan; Wang Ying

2011-01-01

440

Nutrient uptake by leaves and roots of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of ammonium and phosphate uptake by leaves and roots of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were investigated in laboratory experiments. Uptake in leaves of plants from 3 different locations, covering the range from coastal to oceanic conditions in the region of investigation (Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia), was compared. The leaves from all plant samples showed a clear

J. Stapel; Aarts L. T; Van Duynhoven H. M. B; DeGroot D. J; Van den Hoogen H. W. P; M. A. Hemminga

1996-01-01

441

Effects of simulated acid rain on the surface tension of selected leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effect of simulated acid rain on the surface tension of leaves of selected crop plants is reported. The contact angle measurements of liquids (water and n-propanol mixtures) on various plant leaves (bean, mustard, lettuce, cress) showed that the acid rain effect can be investigated when analyses of the surface tension of leaves are estimated. Acid rain

K. S. Birdi; B. R. Larsen; R. Sanchez

1987-01-01

442

Monocot Leaves are Eaten Less than Dicot Leaves in Tropical Lowland Rain Forests: Correlations with Toughness and Leaf Presentation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) the leaves of most monocots differ from those of most dicots in two ways that may reduce attack by herbivores. Firstly, they are tougher. Secondly, the immature leaves are tightly folded or rolled until 50–100 % of their final length. It was hypothesized that (a) losses of leaf area to herbivorous invertebrates are generally greatest during leaf expansion and smaller for monocots than for dicots, and (b) where losses after expansion are appreciable any difference between monocots and dicots then is smaller than that found during expansion. Methods At six sites on four continents, estimates were made of lamina area loss from the four most recently mature leaves of focal monocots and of the nearest dicot shoot. Measurements of leaf mass per unit area, and the concentrations of water and nitrogen were made for many of the species. In Panama, the losses from monocots (palms) and dicots were also measured after placing fully expanded palm leaflets and whole dicot leaves on trails of leaf-cutter ants. Key Results At five of six sites monocots experienced significantly smaller leaf area loss than dicots. The results were not explicable in terms of leaf mass per unit area, or concentrations of water or nitrogen. At only one site was the increase in loss from first to fourth mature leaf significant (also large and the same in monocots and dicots), but the losses sustained during expansion were much smaller in the monocots. In the leaf-cutter ant experiment, losses were much smaller for palms than for dicots. Conclusions The relationship between toughness and herbivory is complex; despite the negative findings of some recent authors for dicots we hypothesize that either greater toughness or late folding can protect monocot leaves against herbivorous insects in tropical lowland rain forest, and that the relative importance varies widely with species. The difficulties of establishing unequivocally the roles of leaf toughness and leaf folding or rolling in a given case are discussed.

Grubb, Peter J.; Jackson, Robyn V.; Barberis, Ignacio M.; Bee, Jennie N.; Coomes, David A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; De La Fuente, Marie Ann S.; Lucas, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Turner, Ian M.; Vargas, Orlando

2008-01-01

443

Method for Determining Solutes in the Cell Walls of Leaves  

PubMed Central

A perfusion method is described whereby large discs of amphistomatous leaves are vacuum-perfused with water so that either successive fractions of perfusate may be analyzed for solutes or the infused water may be displaced and collected after equilibration with the leaf cells. With castor bean leaves, estimates of electrolyte concentration in cell wall water by the two methods were similar. Total electrolytes in leaf cell wall water of castor beans (Ricinus communis), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata) from nonsaline cultures were about 2, 2, and 10 milliequivalents per liter, respectively, increasing to 4, 10, and 30 milliequivalents per liter under saline conditions. Electrolytes recovered in successive fractions were similar in composition, and continuous perfusion resulted in a steady release of solutes, the concentration in the perfusate varying inversely with the perfusion rate. Diffusional release of solutes from cells was less than expected at low perfusion rates, suggesting that solute reabsorption may increase as solute concentration in the perfusate increases with decreased perfusion rates. Perfusate concentration and composition were essentially unaffected by temperature (2 and 23 C) or by perfusing with 0.5 mm CaSO4 rather than with water. Electrolytes in perfusates on an equivalent basis were Ca2+, 30%; Mg2+, 10%; and Na+ + K+, 60%, the proportions of sodium increasing from 10 to 50% in leaves (cabbage) that accumulated sodium under saline conditions. Salinity (added NaCl) of the root culture medium caused a 3- to 5-fold increase in total cell wall electrolyte concentration, but this amounted to an increase from less than 1 or a few per cent to no more than 7% (in cabbage) of the cell sap electrolyte concentrations. Solutes in the cell wall appear to be in dynamic equilibrium with intracellular solutes.

Bernstein, Leon

1971-01-01

444

Condensed lignins are synthesized in poplar leaves exposed to ozone.  

PubMed

Poplar (Populus tremula x alba) trees (clone INRA 717-1-B4) were cultivated for 1 month in phytotronic chambers with two different levels of ozone (60 and 120 nL L(-1)). Foliar activities of shikimate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.25), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) were compared with control levels. In addition, we examined lignin content and structure in control and ozone-fumigated leaves. Under ozone exposure, CAD activity and CAD RNA levels were found to be rapidly and strongly increased whatever the foliar developmental stage. In contrast, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities were increased in old and midaged leaves but not in the youngest ones. The increased activities of these enzymes involved in the late or early steps of the metabolic pathway leading to lignins were associated with a higher Klason lignin content in extract-free leaves. In addition, stress lignins synthesized in response to ozone displayed a distinct structure, relative to constitutive lignins. They were found substantially enriched in carbon-carbon interunit bonds and in p-hydroxyphenylpropane units, which is reminiscent of lignins formed at early developmental stages, in compression wood, or in response to fungal elicitor. The highest changes in lignification and in enzyme activities were obtained with the highest ozone dose (120 nL L(-1)). These results suggest that ozone-induced lignins might contribute to the poplar tolerance to ozone because of their barrier or antioxidant effect toward reactive oxygen species. PMID:14730080

Cabané, Mireille; Pireaux, Jean-Claude; Léger, Eric; Weber, Elisabeth; Dizengremel, Pierre; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine

2004-02-01

445

The role of ethylene in the senescence of oat leaves.  

PubMed

The evolution of ethylene, both from the endogenous source and from added 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), has been followed in close relationship with the senescent loss of chlorophyll from seedling oat leaves. In white light, where chlorophyll loss is slow, the ethylene evolution increases slowly at first, but when the loss of chlorophyll becomes more rapid, ethylene evolution accelerates. CoCl(2) inhibits this increase and correspondingly maintains the chlorophyll content, with an optimum concentration of 10 micromolar. The rapid rate of chlorophyll loss in the dark is slightly decreased by 3-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), by cobalt, and slightly stimulated by ACC. The slower chlorophyll loss in white light, however, is almost completely inhibited by silver ions, greatly decreased by cobalt and by AVG, and strongly increased by ACC. Since the chlorophyll loss is accompanied by proteolysis, it represents true senescence. Chlorophyll loss in light is also strongly antagonized by CO(2), 1% CO(2) giving almost 50% chlorophyll maintenance in controls, while in the presence of added ACC or ethylene gas, the chlorophyll loss is 50% reversed by about 3% CO(2). The ethylene system in leaves is thus more sensitive to CO(2) than that in fruits. Indoleacetic acid also clearly decreases the effect of ACC. It is shown that kinetin, CO(2), Ag(+), and indoleacetic acid, all of which oppose the effect of ethylene, nevertheless increase the evolution of ethylene by the leaves, and it is suggested that ethylene evolution may, in many instances, mean that its hormonal metabolism is being prevented.Abscisic acid somewhat increases ethylene evolution also, but its action in promoting senescence in light is antagonized only partially by Ag(+), Co(2+), or AVG. For this and a number of other reasons it is concluded that ethylene and abscisic acid both independently control leaf senescence in the light. PMID:16661915

Gepstein, S; Thimann, K V

1981-08-01

446

Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don  

PubMed Central

Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.

2013-01-01

447

Host sex discrimination by an egg parasitoid on Brassica leaves.  

PubMed

Egg parasitoids are able to find their hosts by exploiting their chemical footprints as host location cues. In nature, the apolar epicuticular wax layer of plants that consists of several classes of hydrocarbons serves as the substrate that retains these contact kairomones. However, experiments on chemical footprints generally have used filter paper as substrate to study insect behavior. Here, we explored the ability of Trissolcus basalis (Scelionidae) females to discriminate between footprint cues left by male and female Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae) on leaves of their host plant Brassica oleracea (broccoli). Furthermore, we analyzed the chemical composition of the outermost wax layer of broccoli leaves to evaluate the degree of overlap in insect and plant cuticular hydrocarbons that could lead to masking effects in the detection of footprint cues. Our results showed that B. oleracea epicuticular wax retains the chemical footprints of adult bugs and allows T. basalis females to differentiate hosts of different sex. Traces of female bugs elicited more extensive searching behavior in egg parasitoids than traces of males. The application of n-nonadecane, a compound specific to male N. viridula, on the tarsi of female bugs prevented parasitoid females from distinguishing between host male and host female footprints. Analyses of B. oleracea leaves revealed that epicuticular waxes were mainly composed of linear alkanes, ketones, and secondary alcohols. Alkanes were dominated by n-nonacosane (nC29) and n-hentriacontane (nC31), while male-specific n-nonadecane (nC19) was absent. The ecological significance of these results for parasitoid host location behavior is discussed. PMID:21547535

Lo Giudice, Daniela; Riedel, Michael; Rostás, Michael; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

2011-06-01

448

Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.  

PubMed

For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention. PMID:17177209

Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

2007-01-01

449

Inhibition of Photosynthesis by Carbohydrates in Wheat Leaves  

PubMed Central

The rate of net CO2 assimilation of mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves in ambient air (21% O2, 340 microbars CO2) declined with time of illumination at temperatures lower than 25°C, but not at higher temperatures, and the rate of decline increased when maintained in air with higher CO2 concentration (700-825 microbars). In this latter case, the decline in the rate of net CO2 assimilation also occurred at high temperatures. Stomatal conductance also declined with time in some cases and stomata became more sensitive to CO2, but this was not the primary cause of the decrease in CO2 assimilation because internal partial pressure of CO2 remained constant. Treatments which reduced the rate of translocation (e.g. lower temperatures, chilling the base of the leaf) produced a marked decline in CO2 assimilation of leaves in atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations. The decreased net CO2 assimilation was correlated with carbohydrate accumulation in each case, suggesting end product inhibition of photosynthesis. Analysis of CO2 assimilation in high carbohydrate leaves as a function of intercellular CO2 partial pressure showed reduction in the upper part of the curve. The initial slope of this curve, however, was not affected. Photosynthetic rates in the upper part of this curve generally recovered after a short period in darkness in which carbohydrates were removed from the leaf. The stimulation of net CO2 assimilation by 2% O2 (Warburg effect), and the apparent quantum yield, decreased after several hours of light.

Azcon-Bieto, Joaquin

1983-01-01

450

Bioactive lignans from the leaves and stems of Schisandra wilsoniana.  

PubMed

Three new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, marlignans M-O (1-3), together two known ones, were isolated from the leaves and stems of Schisandra wilsoniana. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compound 2 showed anti-HIV-1 activity with an EC50 value of 5.82 microg/mL and a therapeutic index (TI) of more than 12.8. Compound 3 showed obvious bioactivity in inhibiting Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation. PMID:23738455

Yang, Guang-Yu; Wang, Rui-Rui; Gao, Zhong-Hua; Lia, Yin-Ke; Yang, Liu-Meng; Li, Xiao-Nian; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Sun, Han-Dong

2013-04-01

451

Bioactive sesquiterpene polyol esters from the leaves of Tripterygium wilfordii.  

PubMed

Tripterygium wilfordii, a member of Celastraceae family, has been used as a traditional plant insecticide and a medicinal plant. Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of T. wilfordii has resulted in the isolation of eight sesquiterpene polyol esters triptersinines M-T (1-8) and one sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid (9). The structures of the compounds were elucidated on