Sample records for mulberry leaves morus

  1. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  2. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect. PMID:21264159

  3. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0±0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92°C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. PMID:26005139

  4. Phenotypic Divergence in Mulberry (Morus spp.) Germplasm Collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Banerjee; S. Roychoudhury; H. Sau; B. K. Das; A. K. Saha; B. Saratchandra; A. K. Bajpai

    2011-01-01

    To improve mulberry foliage productivity, identification of suitable genes related to agronomically important traits in the available mulberry germplasm is essential. Twenty-five indigenous mulberry accessions representing five different species of Morus from seven diverse parts of the India were evaluated via principal component analysis (PCA) for 22 aboveground and underground morphometric traits and silkworm cocoon yield during 2002–2005 in the

  5. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2013-01-01

    Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

  6. Free and Bound Volatile Chemicals in Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ? 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas. PMID:25817411

  7. Diversification of mulberry (Morus indica var. S36), a vegetatively propagated tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vijayan; C. V. Nair; S. N. Chatterjee

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity among plants sprouted from seven year old clones of mulberry (Morus indica var. S36) was studied using molecular markers such as ISSR and RAPD. The clones showed significant variability in sex expression and the sprouting behavior. These changes were appeared after seven years of rigorous pruning and training (pruned once in every 3-4months). Genetic diversity analysis revealed significant

  8. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  9. Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) T. Suzuki acrotonic form, in which only a few upper buds grow out to form branches (Suzuki et al., 1988). In contrast, the majority of the buds of 1 yr old stems, including the basal buds, burst into growth almost simultaneously

  10. Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

    2005-01-01

    A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

  11. Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

  12. Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

  13. Metabolic Effects of Mulberry Leaves: Exploring Potential Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Hunyadi, A.; Liktor-Busa, E.; Márki, Á.; Martins, A.; Jedlinszki, N.; Hsieh, T. J.; Báthori, M.; Hohmann, J.; Zupkó, I.

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

  14. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry ( Morus species)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Mamrutha; T. Mogili; K. Jhansi Lakshmi; N. Rama; Dylan Kosma; M. Udaya Kumar; Matthew A. Jenks; Karaba N. Nataraja

    2010-01-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC,

  15. Effects of Thrips (Pseudodendrothrips mori Niwa) Infested Mulberry Leaves on Silkworm Growth and Commercial Cocoon Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Etebari; A. R. Bizhannia

    2006-01-01

    In mulberry orchards in northern part of Iran, thrips is a dominant pest and causing a lot of damage to the mulberry. The effect of pest on bio-chemical parameters of mulberry leaf of two varieties viz. Kenmochi and Ichenoise and also the effect of feeding of infested leaves on rearing performances have been studied. For the study, six plots of

  16. Status of Sulfur in Mulberry Leaves–Silkworm Cocoon System of Typical Mulberry Gardens in the Lower to Middle Reaches of the Yangtse River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. W. Zhao; Z. H. Cao; Z. Y. Hu; C. K. Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concentration of sulfur (S) in mulberry leaves was 1.44 ? 2.67 g kg (Mean ± SE = 2.03 ± 0.30 g kg) in the six provinces of Jiangxi, Anhui, Hubai, Hunan, Jiangsu, and Fujian, China. Concentration of S in mulberry leaves was influenced significantly by the concentration of available S in soils of mulberry gardens (R = 0.1773**, n =

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Imran; Hamayun Khan; Mohibullah Shah; Rasool Khan; Faridullah Khan

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose,\\u000a the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash,

  18. A hevein-like protein and a class I chitinase with antifungal activity from leaves of the paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Pan, Ying-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Wen-Xia

    2011-08-01

    Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, syn. Morus papyrifera L.) is a Chinese traditional medicine and its low-molecular-weight extracts are reported to have antifungal activity. In this study, two proteins (PMAPI and PMAPII) with activity against Trichoderma viride were obtained from paper mulberry leaves with a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) unit. The purification protocol employed (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography on FPLC. Molecular masses were 18,798?Da for PMAPI, and 31,178?Da for PMAPII determined by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping fingerprint analysis showed that PMAPI has no peptides similar to PMAPII. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that PMAPI is a hevein-like protein, and PMAPII is a class I chitinase. They both had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1?µg/µL against T. viride. This is the first report of high-molecular-weight extracts with antifungal activity from paper mulberry. PMID:21268047

  19. Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy. PMID:24587809

  20. Effect of environmental conditions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Onose, Shinji; Kitahara, Eriko; Chumchuen, Sukunya; Takasaki, Midori; Konishi, Hajime; Kanekatsu, Rensuke

    2011-01-01

    Mulberry leaves have been used as the sole food for silkworms in sericulture, and also as a traditional medicine for diabetes prevention. Mulberry leaf components, for example 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), inhibit the activity of ?-glucosidase and prevent increased blood glucose levels, and they are highly toxic to caterpillars other than silkworms. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves changes with the season, but it is unknown which environmental conditions influence the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We investigated in this study the relationship between the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and environmental conditions of temperature and photoperiod. The results demonstrate that low temperatures induced decreasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while the induction of newly grown shoots by the scission of branches induced increasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was related to the defense mechanism of mulberry plants against insect herbivores. PMID:22146716

  1. Determination of iminosugars in mulberry leaves and silkworms using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Ogawa, Kenta; Higuchi, Ohki; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo; Hori, Masatoshi

    2010-09-15

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, a potent alpha-glycosidase inhibitor) has been investigated thoroughly for its analytical methods and therapeutic potential against diabetes, whereas little attention has been given to other iminosugars such as 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-DNJ (GAL-DNJ) and fagomine. For instance, concentration and composition of these iminosugars in mulberry leaves as well as sericulture products have not been fully characterized due to lack of suitable analytical methods. Here we developed a simultaneous determination method for DNJ, GAL-DNJ, and fagomine using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). When mulberry leaf extracts were subjected to HILIC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), individual iminosugars could be separated and detected. The developed method is sufficiently sensitive for determining iminosugars in mulberry leaves as well as silkworms, providing new information (e.g., different amounts of iminosugars in mulberry leaf varieties; high DNJ and low GAL-DNJ in the silkworm body, especially in the blood) that is useful for producing iminosugar-rich products for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:20470744

  2. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  3. Optimization of 1-deoxynojirimycin extraction from mulberry leaves by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vichasilp, Chaluntorn; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Sookwong, Phumon; Suzuki, Yasuyo; Kimura, Fumiko; Higuchi, Ohki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2009-12-01

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, a potent alpha-glycosidase inhibitor) has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. However, the amount of DNJ in mulberry leaves is low (about 0.1%), and a more effective extraction method is needed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied in this study for mulberry DNJ extraction, and five factors, the percentage of ethanol in the extraction solvent (x(1)), ratio of the extraction solvent to mulberry sample (x(2)), ultrasonic power (x(3)), extraction temperature (x(4)) and extraction time (x(5)), were investigated by fractional factorial 2((5-1)) design (FFD) to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency (DNJ yield, Y(1)) and extraction productivity (total yield, Y(2)). The results showed that x(2), x(3) and x(5) had significant impact on Y(1) and Y(2), and were further optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions (x(2), x(3) and x(5) of 7 ml/g, 180 W and 260 s, respectively), DNJ-enriched powder (0.8%) was produced with high extraction efficiency (98%) and productivity (20%), enabling this product to be used for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:19966480

  4. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

  5. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

  6. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto; Maria Inés Genovese; Franco Maria Lajolo

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of uptake of anthocyanins (as well as the type) from food in the intestine is not clear. Anthocyanin-rich extract from wild mulberry, composed of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) (19%), was orally administered to Wistar rats, and their concentrations were determined in plasma, kidney, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The 2 glycosylated forms showed maximum concentration at 15

  7. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry ( Morus nigra ) juice concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Ghazale Hojjatpanah; Zahra Emam-Djomeh

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating,\\u000a at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes\\u000a of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at\\u000a 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using

  8. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  9. Species Variability for Fruit Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Abilities in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Shivashankara; S. H. Jalikop; T. K. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fruits from five accessions of mulberry (Morussp.) representing Morus nigra, Morus lavigeta, and Morus alba were evaluated for ferric reducing antioxidant potential, diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability, total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid contents. In fresh fruits, higher antioxidant capacity was found in M. nigra followed by M. lavigeta and the lowest capacity was observed in M. alba.

  10. Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm. PMID:24612781

  11. ST2B2-2: Potential Use of Paper Mulberry Leaves for Silage Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnat Jarerat; Vichai Haruthaithanasan; Klanarong Sriroth

    Silage is an important ruminant feed produced by an anaerobic fermentation process of lactic acid bacteria to preserve nutritional values of animal forage. Silage production can be adapted to many animal crops and also some agricultural wastes of high nutritional contents. In this study, a preliminary trial on making well preserved and high nutritional silage of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera)

  12. Characterization of Melanogenesis Inhibitory Constituents of Morus alba Leaves and Optimization of Extraction Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Yeon; Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Jo, Yang Hee; Mo, Eun Jin; Yang, Hyo Hee; Song, Dae Hye; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is a natural pigment that plays an important role in the protection of skin, however, hyperpigmentation cause by excessive levels of melatonin is associated with several problems. Therefore, melanogenesis inhibitory natural products have been developed by the cosmetic industry as skin medications. The leaves of Morus alba (Moraceae) have been reported to inhibit melanogenesis, therefore, characterization of the melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of M. alba leaves was attempted in this study. Twenty compounds including eight benzofurans, 10 flavonoids, one stilbenoid and one chalcone were isolated from M. alba leaves and these phenolic constituents were shown to significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B6F10 melanoma cells. To maximize the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and active phenolic contents, optimized M. alba leave extraction conditions were predicted using response surface methodology as a methanol concentration of 85.2%; an extraction temperature of 53.2 °C and an extraction time of 2 h. The tyrosinase inhibition and total phenolic content under optimal conditions were found to be 74.8% inhibition and 24.8 ?g GAE/mg extract, which were well-matched with the predicted values of 75.0% inhibition and 23.8 ?g GAE/mg extract. These results shall provide useful information about melanogenesis inhibitory constituents and optimized extracts from M. alba leaves as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:26007176

  13. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Chang; Yu-Jen Lo

    2010-01-01

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming

  14. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Chang; Yu-Jen Lo

    2010-01-01

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO2 nanofluid with an average particle size of 25nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO2 nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a

  15. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis between the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) reared on fresh mulberry leaves and on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Yang, Hui-Juan; Chen, Ming; Lou, Cheng-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Zhou; Chen, Ke-Ping; Wang, Yong; Yu, Mei-Lan; Yu, Fang; Li, Jian-Ying; Zhong, Bo-Xiong

    2008-12-01

    To gain an insight into the effects of different diets on growth and development of the domesticated silkworm at protein level, we employed comparative proteomic approach to investigate the proteomic differences of midgut, hemolymph, fat body and posterior silk gland of the silkworms reared on fresh mulberry leaves and on artificial diet. Seventy-six differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, and among them, 41 proteins were up-regulated, and 35 proteins were downregulated. Database searches, combined with GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that some hemolymph proteins such as Nuecin, Gloverin-like proteins, PGRP, P50 and beta/-N-acetylglucosamidase were related to innate immunity of the silkworm, and some proteins identified in silkworm midgut including Myosin 1 light chain, Tropomyosin 1, Profilin, Serpin-2 and GSH-Px were involved in digestion and nutrition absorption. Moreover, two up-regulated enzymes in fat body of larvae reared on artificial diet were identified as V-ATPase subunit B and Arginine kinase which participate in energy metabolism. Furthermore, 6 down-regulated proteins identified in posterior silk gland of silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet including Ribosomal protein SA, EF-2, EF-1gamma, AspAT, ERp57 and PHB were related to silk synthesis. Our results suggested that the different diets could alter the expression of proteins related to immune system, digestion and absorption of nutrient, energy metabolism and silk synthesis poor nutrition and absorption of nutrition in silkworm. The results also confirmed that the poor nutrient absorption, weakened innate immunity, decreased energy metabolism and reduced silk synthesis are the main reasons for low cocoons yield, inferior filament quality, low survival rate of young larvae and insufficient resistance against specific pathogens in the silkworms fed on artificial diet. PMID:18998723

  17. Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chikara; Konno, Kotaro; Wasano, Naoya; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2007-12-01

    Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both larvae diets containing different sugar sources (sucrose, glucose or none) with or without sugar-mimic alkaloids from mulberry latex. In S. ricini, addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the sucrose (the major sugar in mulberry leaves) diet reduced both growth and the absorption ratio of sugar, but it reduced neither in B. mori. The midgut soluble sucrase activity of S. ricini was low and inhibited by very low concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids (IC(50)=0.9-8.2microM), but that of B. mori was high and not inhibited even by very high concentrations (IC(50)>1000microM) of sugar-mimic alkaloids. In S. ricini, the addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the glucose diet still had considerable negative effects on growth, although it did not reduce the absorption ratio of glucose. The hemolymph of S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids contained sugar-mimic alkaloids. The trehalose concentration in the hemolymph increased significantly in S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids, but not in B. mori. The trehalase activities of S. ricini were lower and inhibited by lower concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids than those of B. mori. These results suggest that sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex exert toxicity to S. ricini larvae first by inhibiting midgut sucrase and digestion of sucrose, and secondly, after being absorbed into hemolymph, by inhibiting trehalase and utilization of trehalose, the major blood sugar. Further, our results reveal that B. mori larvae evolved enzymatic adaptation to mulberry defense by developing sucrase and trehalase that are insensitive to sugar-mimic alkaloids. PMID:17967353

  18. Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana Hemsl., M. lhou Koiz. and M. serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot buds and nodal explants from mature trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical shoot buds and nodal explants of Morus cathayana, M. lhou and M. serrata on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5-1.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Addition of gibberellic acid (0.4 mg\\/l) along with BAP induced faster bud break both in apical shoot buds and nodal explants and also enhanced the frequency

  19. Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana HemsL, M. lhou Koiz. and M. serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot buds and nodal explants from mature trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical shoot buds and nodal explants ofMorus cathayana, M. lhou andM. serrata on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5–1.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Addition of gibberellic acid (0.4 mg\\/l) along with BAP induced faster bud break both in apical shoot buds and nodal explants and also enhanced the frequency of bud

  20. Constituents of the cultivated mulberry tree.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Fukai, T; Matsumoto, J; Imashimizu, A; Terada, S; Hama, M

    1982-11-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of root bark of the Japanese cultivated mulberry tree (a variety of Morus alba L.), a novel chalcone derivative with a fused dihydrochalcone partial moiety was isolated and named kuwanon I. The structure was shown to be I on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Kuwanon I (I) is the first example which is regarded biogenetically as a Diels-Alder adduct of a prenylchalcone derivative and a dehydroprenylchalcone derivative. NMR variable temperature studies of I suggested that kuwanon I (I) exists as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers in solution. PMID:17396966

  1. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

  2. Mulberry Shoot Blight: Axenic Culture, Pathogenicity and Plant-Pathogen Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; Vineet Kumar; R. K. Mishra; D. D. Sharma; A. Sarkar; V. Thiagarajan

    2002-01-01

    Occurrence of a new disease, shoot blight was observed afflicting mulberry (Morus spp.) in the southern peninsula of India. The disease initiated as marginal burning or blackening of leaf lamina which later spread across the whole lamina and then to the stems of affected shoots, resulting in the drooping of the entire shoot and complete death of the affected plants.

  3. An IgE-Mediated Allergic Reaction Caused by Mulberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Sim, Jae Kyoem; Oh, Jee Youn; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sung Yong; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a widespread deciduous tree and its fruit is commonly eaten in Korea and eastern Asia. Some reports demonstrate that mulberry fruit is a food allergen in the Mediterranean area. However, there has been no report of systemic allergic reactions after ingesting mulberry fruit in Korea. An 18-year-old boy with a mulberry fruit allergy visited our allergy clinic. He had experienced generalized urticaria, chest tightness, breathing difficulty, and abdominal cramping after ingesting mulberry fruit. The patient had a positive skin reaction to mulberry fruit extract (mean wheal size, 5 mm). We performed an ELISA to detect specific IgE antibody (Ab) to mulberry fruit extract in the patient's serum compared to those of non-atopic healthy controls and birch-sensitized individuals. Specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit extract was detected in the patient's serum, as compared to non-atopic healthy controls. Another subject, who was strongly sensitized to birch pollen, also had a positive serum-specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit. We performed IgE immunoblot analysis using the patient's and the other subject's sera, who had serum-specific IgE to mulberry fruit, to identify the IgE-binding component. An identical IgE-binding component to mulberry extract was detected in the two subjects at around 17 kDa, and which might be PR 10 of Bet v 1. In conclusion, mulberry fruit could induce a systemic allergic reaction through an IgE-mediated mechanism, and cross-reactivity might occur between mulberry fruit and birch pollen. PMID:25729628

  4. MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/ PMID:25725060

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-12-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)-(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)-(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%-(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and niacin (vitamin B(3)) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)-(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)-(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)-(576±7.37), (260±3.86)-(280±3.50), and (240±3.51)-(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

  6. Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients. PMID:19602243

  7. Integration of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and chemical elicitors for induction of systemic resistance in mulberry against multiple diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; Sidhartha Mishra; N. B. Chowdary; G. S. Vindhya; R. K. Rajan

    2008-01-01

    In mulberry (Morus alba L.), various individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and synthetic analogs of naturally occurring plant activators have demonstrated their potential to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against either brown leaf spot (Cercospora moricola) or leaf rust (Cerotelium fici) diseases. However, these biological and chemical elicitors have not been evaluated so far against multiple infections of

  8. Surface ultrastructure of the uredinial stage of Cerotelium fici and its infection process on mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; S. K. Tewari; R. K. Datta

    1994-01-01

    Surface morphology of uredinia and urediniospores ofCerotelium fici (Cast.) Arth., and its infection process in mulberry (Morus alba L.) have been described using the scanning electron microscope. The uredinia ofC. fici are paraphysate and bear pedicellate urediniospores. The surface morphology of urediniospore is similar to most of the rust fungi which have pedicellate urediniospores. The infection process ofC. fici on

  9. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  10. Effects of mulberry leaf extract rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Hasumi, Keiji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2010-09-01

    Mulberry leaves are rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. We previously showed that DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract suppressed elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract on plasma lipid profiles in humans. An open-label, single-group study was conducted in 10 subjects with initial serum triglyceride (TG) level ?200 mg/dl. Subjects ingested capsules containing DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract at 12 mg three times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Our findings showed a modest decrease in serum TG level and beneficial changes in the lipoprotein profile following 12-week administration of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract. No significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed during the study period; no adverse events associated with DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract occurred. PMID:20838571

  11. Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

  12. The advent of genomics in mulberry and perspectives for productivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Paramjit; Checker, Vibha G

    2011-05-01

    Sericulture in India is a highly remunerative industry, especially for the rural population. Mulberry is an extremely versatile plant, having multifaceted applications, the most important being the sole feed for the monophagus silkworm, Bombyx mori. Profitability of the sericulture industry is directly correlated with production of high-quality mulberry leaves. However, mulberry productivity is severely impacted by abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Therefore, to develop stress-tolerant mulberry with desired characteristics, a comprehensive understanding and utility of biotechnological resources is essential. Research efforts on mulberry encompass broad range of fields in plant biology from breeding, molecular markers, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Additionally, a large number of mulberry germplasm accessions have been maintained and evaluated in several countries. Identification of superior cultivars under stressed regimes is extremely important, and therefore, physiological traits have often been used as proxy genetic markers for assessing stress tolerance index. Mulberry genomic resources have provided a limited but an important list of novel candidate genes, thus enhancing the scope for future investigations for improvement of its productivity. The present review article gives a bird's eye view of current initiatives of genomics advancements in mulberry research and enumerates the prospects for enhancing its productivity. PMID:21431349

  13. In vivo hypoglycaemic effect and inhibitory mechanism of the branch bark extract of the mulberry on STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  14. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  15. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianling Ji; Guobing Lu; Yingping Gai; Huijv Gao; Baoyun Lu; Lingrang Kong; Zhimei Mu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1

  16. Biological and productive characteristics of silkworm mulberry varieties of different ploidy and their use for raising silkworms in different seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Leinveber; V. V. Bogoslovskii; M. I. Selionova

    2011-01-01

    The biological and productive characteristics of heteroploid silkworm mulberry varieties of different ploidy are characterized.\\u000a As a result of feeding silkworm caterpillars the leaves of polyploid mulberry varieties compared with the dip0loid variety\\u000a Pc-109, the caterpillar stage is shortened and the viability of caterpillars and palatability and assimilability of leaves,\\u000a cocoon weight, cocoon yield per gram of caterpillars and per

  17. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

  18. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID:25822202

  19. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. PMID:20854669

  20. Dual inhibition of arachidonic acid pathway by mulberry leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Seema; Devi, Uma; Kumar, Venkatesh R; Kumar, Vikas; Anwar, Firoz; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2015-02-01

    The present work investigates the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of mulberry leaves of variety S-1, S-13 and S-146. The S-146 extract was further evaluated for its efficacy against adjuvant arthritis in albino rats followed by inhibitory potential for COX 1, COX 2 and 5 LOX. The HPLC analysis enumerated the presence of morin, reversterol, scopoletin and 7-hydroxy coumarin as the major constituents. The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity observed in the present experiment could be accredited to the dual inhibition in the AA pathway. The inhibition of COX and LOX enzymes could be imparted to the presence of resveraterol, morin, scopoletin and 7-hydroxy coumarin. PMID:25490949

  1. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming

    2004-01-01

    Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

  2. Mulberry leaf polysaccharides modulate murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ming; Sun, Haiyan; Cao, Yan; Wang, Guangchuan; Meng, Yiming; Wang, Dongmei; Hong, Yansong

    2015-04-01

    Various components of mulberry leaves, such as iminosugars, flavonoids and polysaccharides, have been reported to exert anti-diabetic activity. The purpose of our present study was to examine the modulating effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharides (MLPs) on murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The ultrastructure, phenotype and functional maturation of BMDCs were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ?ow cytometry (FCM), and tested for phagocytosis, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrated that MLPs could markedly induce BMDC maturation by up-regulating the expression of membrane phenotypic markers, such as CD80, CD86, CD83,CD40, and MHC II, down-regulating phagocytosis and ACP activity, and by enhancing the production of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) secreted by BMDCs. We therefore concluded that MLPs can positively modulate BMDCs. PMID:25830302

  3. Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

  4. Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

  5. Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Khaled M.; Mostafa, Ashraf M.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 ?U/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 ?U/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 ?M methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds. PMID:22145117

  6. Cold Acclimation-Induced WAP27 Localized in Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cortical Parenchyma Cells of Mulberry Tree Was Homologous to Group 3 Late-Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that two 27-kD proteins, designated as WAP27A and WAP27B, were abundantly accumulated in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions isolated from cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.) during winter (N. Ukaji, C. Kuwabara, D. Takezawa, K. Arakawa, S. Yoshida, S. Fujikawa [1999] Plant Physiol 120: 480–489). In the present study, cDNA clones encoding WAP27A and WAP27B were isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of WAP27A and WAP27B cDNAs had 12 repeats of an 11-mer amino acid motif that was the common feature of group 3 late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins. Under field conditions, transcripts of WAP27 genes were initially detected in mid-October, reached maximum level from mid-November to mid-December, and then gradually decreased. The transcript levels of WAP27 genes in cortical parenchyma cells harvested in October was drastically induced by cold treatment within a few days, whereas those in cortical parenchyma cells harvested in August were low even by cold treatment for 3 weeks. Immunocytochemical analysis by electron microscopy confirmed that WAP27 was localized specifically in vesicular-form ER and also localized in dehydration-induced multiplex lamellae-form ER. The role of WAP27 in the ER is discussed in relation to acquisition of freezing tolerance of cortical parenchyma cells in mulberry tree during winter. PMID:11500557

  7. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15?53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

  8. Flavonoid 4?-O-Methylkuwanon E from Morus alba Induces the Differentiation of THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bárta, Tomáš; Keltošová, Stanislava; Trnová, Pavlína; Müller Závalová, Veronika; Šmejkal, Karel; Fedr, Radek; Sou?ek, Karel; Hampl, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Aims. In this work we studied cytodifferentiation effects of newly characterized prenyl flavonoid 4?-O-methylkuwanon E (4ME) isolated from white mulberry (Morus alba L.). Main Methods. Cell growth and viability were measured by dye exclusion assay; cell cycle and surface antigen CD11b were monitored by flow cytometry. For the cytodifferentiation of cells the NBT reduction assay was employed. Regulatory proteins were assessed by western blotting. Key Findings. 4ME induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of THP-1 cells, which was not accompanied by toxic effect. Inhibition of cells proliferation caused by 4ME was associated with the accumulation in G1 phase and with downregulation of hyperphosphorylated pRb. Treatment with 4ME led to significant induction of NBT-reducing activity of PMA stimulated THP-1 cells and upregulation expression of differentiation-associated surface antigen CD11b. Our results suggest that monocytic differentiation induced by 4ME is connected with up-regulation of p38 kinase activity. Significance. Our study provides the first evidence that 4ME induces the differentiation of THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells and thus is a potential cytodifferentiating anticancer agent. PMID:25737734

  9. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  10. Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitrangada Acharya; Sudip K. Ghosh; S. C. Kundu

    2008-01-01

    Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized\\u000a as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk\\u000a fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential,\\u000a fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx

  11. Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, João F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

    2013-11-01

    Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28 days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

  12. [Emergy analysis of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingang; Jin, Peihua; Huang, Lingxia; Lu, Xingmeng

    2006-02-01

    Mulberry-silkworm ecosystem is one of the important agro-ecosystems in China. Based on the principles and methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the interior structure of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem and its relationship with exterior environment and economy. Some emergy indices for this ecosystem were quantitatively calculated, and compared with those of the agro-ecosystem in China. The results showed that the emergy investment ratio, emergy yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and emergy sustainability index was 3.78, 4.68, 0.18 and 26.0, respectively, suggesting the low environmental pressure and good ecological benefit in mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China. Hi-technology was required to further decrease the labor force input and enhance the comprehensive utilization of sericultural resources. PMID:16706044

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Morus bombycis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duc Manh Hoang; Tran Minh Ngoc; Nguyen Tien Dat; Do Thi Ha; Young Ho Kim; Hoang Van Luong; Jong Seog Ahn; KiHwan Bae

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform-soluble fraction of Morus bombycis, using an in vitro PTP1B inhibitory assay led to the identification of three 2-arylbenzofurans, albafuran A (1), mulberrofuran W (2) and mulberrofuran D (6), along with three chalcone-derived Diels–Alder products, kuwanon J (3), kuwanon R (4), and kuwanon V (5). Compounds 1–6 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against PTP1B with IC50 values

  14. Antiviral flavonoids from the root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; He, Zhen-Dan; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai; Xu, Hong-Xi; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2003-04-01

    A prenylated flavonoid, moralbanone, along with seven known compounds kuwanon S, mulberroside C, cyclomorusin, eudraflavone B hydroperoxide, oxydihydromorusin, leachianone G and alpha-acetyl-amyrin were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba L. Leachianone G showed potent antiviral activity (IC(50) = 1.6 microg/ml), whereas mulberroside C showed weak activity (IC(50) = 75.4 microg/ml) against herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:12648543

  15. Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2014-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. PMID:25467154

  16. Foraging of a coastal seabird: flight patternsand movementsof breeding Cape gannets Morus capensis

    E-print Network

    Altwegg, Res

    the energeticadvantagesof returningwith the prevailing wind. Keywords.Cape gannet,feeding,Morus capenslsForaging of a coastal seabird: flight patternsand movementsof breeding Cape gannets Morus capensis of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa: now School of Natural Sciences. Unitec, New

  17. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics and leaf protein analyses to track dynamics of photosynthetic performance in mulberry during progressive drought.

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Sengupta, Debashree; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of photosynthesis and the underlying mechanisms were studied in mulberry (Morus indica L. genotype V1) under progressive drought stress conditions. Five months old potted mulberry plants were arranged in a semi-controlled glasshouse chamber in completely randomized block design with four replications. On day 1 (D1), the plants were subjected to two watering treatments: well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS). In WS plants, watering was completely withheld for next 10days (D1-D10), whereas the WW plants were maintained at 100% pot water holding capacity. Photosynthetic performance was tracked periodically (from D0 to D10) through measurements of leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and additionally leaf protein analyses were performed on D10. Down-regulation in net CO(2) fixation (P(n)) was primarily mediated through stomatal limitation which concurrently reduced transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). The OJIP transients and other associated biophysical parameters elucidated the events of photoacclimatory changes in photosystem II (PSII) with progressive increase in drought stress. Down-regulation of PSII activity occurred predominantly due to increase in inactive reaction centers (RCs), decrease in electron transport per RC (ET(O)/RC) as well as per leaf cross-section (ET(O)/CS(m)) and enhanced energy dissipation. The L and K-bands appeared only in the stage of extreme drought severity indicating the ability of genotype V1 to resist drought-induced damage on structural stability of PSII and imbalance between the electrons at the acceptor and donor sides of PSII, respectively. Drought-induced changes in leaf protein analyses revealed significant up-regulation of important proteins associated to photostability of thylakoid membrane including oxygen evolving enhancer, chlorophyll a/b binding proteins, rubisco and rubisco activase. Further, the antioxidative defense proteins including peroxiredoxin and NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase were also enhanced. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an integrated down-regulation of the photosynthetic process to maintain intrinsic balance between electron transfer reactions and reductive carbon metabolism without severe damage to PSII structural and functional integrity. PMID:23357190

  18. Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Huang, Weidong; Jin, Wanzhu; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-02-11

    Mulberry extract (ME) has been shown to possess beneficial effects towards obesity, but its mechanism is still unclear. In small mammals, mitochondria enriched brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to convert protein's electrochemical energy to heat and maintain a constant body temperature. Improving the mitochondrial function or increasing the number of mitochondria could promote the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mitochondrial function regulated by ME and mulberry wine extract (MWE) during the brown adipogenesis. The C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell was treated with ME and MWE, both of which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression levels of fatty acid oxidation related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, PR domain-containing 16 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? during brown adipogenesis. These changes were accompanied with increases in mitochondrial oxidative complex proteins upon ME and/or MWE exposure. Notably, ME and/or MWE also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression of the transcription factor A and the nuclear respiratory factor-1, which are the key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis. In parallel, the mitochondrial copy number and brown adipose tissue specific gene-uncoupling protein-1 expression were dramatically (p < 0.05) elevated after ME or MWE treatment. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) was found to be one of the most abundant anthocyanins in ME and MWE. Therefore, the BAT regulatory activity of ME and MWE might be, at least in part, due to the effect of Cy-3-glu. These results suggested that ME and MWE could ameliorate metabolic disease through an improvement in mitochondrial functions. PMID:25554947

  19. Two Distinct Jacalin-Related Lectins with a Different Specificity and Subcellular Location Are Major Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Bark of the Black Mulberry Tree1

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Els J.M.; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research. PMID:12376642

  20. Chalcone dimethylallyltransferase from Morus nigra cell cultures. Substrate specificity studies.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Alberto; Giardina, Bruno; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Rocca, Filippo; Silvestrini, Andrea; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno

    2004-01-16

    A new prenyltransferase (PT) enzyme derived from the microsomal fractions of cell cultures of Morus nigra was shown to be able to prenylate exclusively chalcones with a 2',4'-dihydroxy substitution and the isoflavone genistein. Computational studies were performed to shed some light on the relationship between the structure of the substrate and the enzymatic activity. PT requires divalent cations, particularly Mg(2+), to be effective. The apparent K(m) values for gamma,gamma-dimethylallyldiphosphate and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone were 63 and 142 microM, respectively. The maximum activity of the enzyme was expressed during the first 10 days of cell growth. PMID:14741337

  1. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359?kcal could be generated per 100?gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

  2. Testing various fruits for anti-thrombotic effect: i. Mulberries.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junichiro; Naemura, Aki; Ura, Mayumi; Ijiri, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Kurioka, Akira; Koyama, Akio

    2006-12-01

    Prevention of arterial thrombotic disease has high priority in developed countries. As inappropriate diet predispose to acute thrombotic events, regular intake of an antithrombotic diet may be a convenient and effective way of prevention. The present study was performed to examine antithrombotic effect of mulberry varieties. A shear-induced in vitro platelet reactivity/thrombolysis test (Gorog Thrombosis Test) was used to screen for antiplatelet and thrombolytic activities. In case of effectiveness, it was followed by an in vivo test of laser-induced thrombosis in mice. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by superoxide anion and radical scavenging activities. Total polyphenolics, anthocyanin and citrate contents were also measured. The tested varieties showed different effect in vitro on platelet reactivity and endogenous thrombolytic activity. Varieties inhibiting platelet reactivity were antithrombotic in vivo regardless inhibition or enhancement of thrombolysis. Those mulberry varieties, which enhanced platelet reactivity in vitro, were prothrombotic only if inhibitory activity on endogenous thrombolysis coexisted with the platelet effect. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolics content did not affect platelets and the overall thrombotic status. However, antioxidant activities and polyphenolics content significantly correlated with the endogenous thrombolytic activity. These data showed that mulberry varieties can be grouped into subclasses with either anti- or prothrombotic activities. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents do not affect platelets but may enhance endogenous thrombolysis, thus causing an overall antithrombotic effect. PMID:17127483

  3. Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2014-01-01

    Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220?g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300?mg·kg?1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

  4. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  5. Assessment of fodder quality of leaves of multipurpose trees in subtropical humid climate of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chander Datt; M. Datta; N. P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of 12 species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Gliricidia maculata, Leucaena leucocephala, Samanea saman, Azadirachta\\u000a indica, Eucalyptus hybrida, Gmelina arborea, Michelia champaca, Morus alba, and Tectona grandis) of Multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) grown in the agroforestry arboretum were evaluated for their nutritional characteristics\\u000a in terms of proximate composition, cell wall constituents, total tannins, major (Ca and

  6. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  7. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  8. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  9. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  10. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  11. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants. PMID:25647798

  12. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  13. A novel gelatin crosslinking method retards release of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin providing a prolonged hypoglycaemic effect.

    PubMed

    Vichasilp, Chaluntorn; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Sookwong, Phumon; Higuchi, Ohki; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2012-10-15

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent ?-glycosidase inhibitor, has therapeutic potency in the suppression of postprandial blood glucose levels thereby possibly preventing diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ has a relatively short half-life in vivo (about 2 h). Therefore, several doses of mulberry DNJ are required to achieve optimal therapeutic results. This study aimed to delay the release of mulberry DNJ with biodegradable matrices to maintain the intestinal DNJ concentration and prolong the hypoglycaemic effect in vivo. A novel, simple, and commercially viable method was adopted to develop DNJ-entrapped microspheres (DNJ-MSs). A higher extent of crosslinking and the larger sized DNJ-MS decreased the rate of mulberry DNJ release in vitro. Consequently, an in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats over a 6 h period. The area under curve (AUC) of rats with DNJ-MS was significantly increased, compared to animals dosed with mulberry powder (control). DNJ-MS suppressed postprandial glucose from sucrose administration at the initial and 3 h time points indicating a prolonged hypoglycaemic effect. PMID:23442626

  14. LEAVE POLICIES LEAVE REPORTING

    E-print Network

    ://taurus.cnr.colostate.edu/apps/saleave by selecting "Receive My Report Via E-mail." If an employee does not have an e-mail address, the report://taurus.cnr.colostate.edu/apps/saleave using your eID. If you are unable to submit your leave electronically, send a hardcopy report fax or e-mail to CEMML Human Resources. These forms are also available on the CEMML website at http

  15. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

  16. An emerging functional natural silk biomaterial from the only domesticated non-mulberry silkworm Samia ricini.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shilpa; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Thomas, Tintu; Kundu, Subhas C

    2013-08-01

    Mulberry silk fibroin is a widely used biomaterial and recent work on non-mulberry silk fibroin also suggests it may have similar uses. We expect silk fibroin from the only domesticated non-mulberry eri silkworm, Samia ricini, to possess useful properties as a biomaterial. Eri silk gland fibroin is a heterodimeric protein of approximately 450?kDa. Cytocompatibility evaluation with fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells shows good cell attachment, viability and proliferation. The matrices, which have high thermal stability and good swellability, are also haemocompatible. Eri silk production is cost effective as no agronomic practices are required for their host plant cultivation. This fibroin provide new opportunities as an alternative natural functional biomaterial in various biomedical applications. PMID:23733347

  17. Genetic analysis of Indian mulberry varieties through molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, K; Awasthi, A K; Srivastava, P P; Saratchandra, B

    2004-01-01

    India is one of the countries where sericulture is being practiced traditionally. Due to the higher economic return and the greater employment potential, attempts are being made to increase the productivity by developing high yielding mulberry varieties. At the present, Mysore local, Bomaypiasbari, Kanva-2, Bilidevalaya, Kajli, S1, BC(2)59, C776, RFS-175, S-36 and Victory-1 are being cultivated extensively in different parts of India for rearing the silkworm Bombyx mori L. Using 17 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 11 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers the genetic relationships among these varieties were analyzed. The RAPD and ISSR primers revealed more than 75% polymorphism among the varieties. The genetic similarity estimated from RAPD markers varied from 0.645, between Kajli and Victory-1 to 0.887, between Kanva-2 and Bilidevalaya. Similarly, the genetic similarity estimated from the ISSR markers ranged from 0.600, between Kajli and Victory-1, to 0.873 between Kanva-2 and BC(2)59. The dendrogram constructed from these markers grouped the varieties into three major groups comprising the low yielding, medium yielding and high yielding. The low genetic similarity between the group of varieties originating from the eastern regions with that of the southern region encourages formation of extensive breeding programs between these groups as to transfer the high yield potential of the southern varieties to the low yielding but highly adaptive eastern varieties. PMID:15383066

  18. Results of deep-well injection testing at Mulberry, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.; Wilson, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Fla., high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. In 1975, a satellite monitor well was drilled 2,291 feet from the injection well and a series of three injection tests were performed. Duration of the tests ranged from 240 to 10,020 minutes and injection rates ranged from 110 to 230 gallons per minute. Based on an evaluation of factors that affect hydraulic response, water-level data suitable for interpretation of hydraulic characteristics of the injection zone were identified to occur from 200 to 1,000 minutes during the 10,020-minute test. Transmissivity of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from 700 to 1,000 feet squared per day and storage coefficient of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from .00001 to .00005. The confining bed accepting most of the leakage appears to be the underlying bed. Also, it appears that the overlying beds are probably relatively impermeable and significantly retard the vertical movement of neutralized waste effluent. (USGS)

  19. Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R.; Manjunath, Nanjappa C.; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-01-01

    Aim The dietary contents have a very important role in the management of metabolic syndrome along with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indian diet contains a large amount of carbohydrates that set off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations and leads to increased risk of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of mulberry tea in the reduction of abnormally high postprandial blood glucose (PPG) levels in T2DM patients. Methods The study design was follow-up T2DM, 20 diabetic patients were given plain tea (control) and 28 diabetic patients were given mulberry tea (test subject) to measure the effect of mulberry tea on fasting blood glucose and PPG levels. Fasting blood glucose samples were collected after a standard breakfast. The PPG levels were recorded after the consumption of 70 ml tea along with 1 teaspoon of sugar after 90 min in all 48 patients. Results Fasting blood glucose levels in control and test group samples were found to be 178.55 ± 35.61 and 153.50 ± 48.10, respectively. After the consumption of plain tea and mulberry tea, the PPG values were recorded as 287.20 ± 56.37 and 210.21 ± 58.73, respectively. A highly significant (p < 0.001) change in the PPG level was observed in response to mulberry tea in all the test patients compared with control. Moreover, the effect size was also found to be very large (1.31). Conclusion Mulberry tea suppresses postprandial rise of blood glucose levels after 90 min of its consumption. PMID:25561880

  20. Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

    A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

  1. Chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts as NF-?B inhibitors from Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thi Xuan Binh; Tran, Thi Hong Hanh; Dan, Thi Thuy Hang; Chau, Van Minh; Hoang, Thanh Huong; Nguyen, Tien Dat

    2012-01-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation of the methanol extract of the Morus alba root barks led to the isolation of two chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated as kuwanon J 2,4,10?-trimethyl ether (1) and kuwanon R (2) by means of spectroscopic methods. Both compounds strongly inhibited nuclear transcription factor.?B activity with the IC?? values of 4.65 and 7.38 ?M, respectively. PMID:22587800

  2. Chalcone-derived Diels–Alder adducts as NF-?B inhibitors from Morus alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thi Xuan Binh Phung; Thi Hong Hanh Tran; Thi Thuy Hang Dan; Van Minh Chau; Thanh Huong Hoang; Tien Dat Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation of the methanol extract of the Morus alba root barks led to the isolation of two chalcone-derived Diels–Alder adducts (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated as kuwanon J 2,4,10?-trimethyl ether (1) and kuwanon R (2) by means of spectroscopic methods. Both compounds strongly inhibited nuclear transcription factor.?B activity with the IC50 values of 4.65 and

  3. Micropropagation of a fruit tree, Morus australis Poir. syn. M. acidosa Griff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; Y. Sahoo; P. K. Chand

    1996-01-01

    High frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in nodal explants collected between November to February from a 5 year old tree of Morus australis Poir syn. M. acidosa Griff. on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (1.0 mg\\/1). Incorporation of gibberellic acid (0.3 mg\\/l) along with BAP (1.0 mg\\/l) not only induced faster bud break from nodal

  4. Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

  5. Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

  6. Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface

    PubMed Central

    Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2014-01-01

    The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

  7. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigation on sun and solar drying of white mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kavak Akpinar

    2008-01-01

    The drying kinetics of white mulberry was investigated in a solar dryer with forced convection and under open sun with natural\\u000a convection. The constant rate period is absent from the drying curve. The drying process took place in the falling rate period.\\u000a The drying data were fitted to the different mathematical models. The performance of these models was investigated by

  8. Optimization for ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry fruits with antioxidant and hyperglycemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69°C, ultrasonic power 190W and extraction time 75min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions. PMID:26076608

  9. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

  10. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo degradations of silk fibroin scaffolds from mulberry and nonmulberry silkworms.

    PubMed

    You, Renchuan; Xu, Yamei; Liu, Yi; Li, Xiufang; Li, Mingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Degradation behavior is very important in the field of silk-based biomaterials. Mulberry and nonmulberry silk fibroins are structurally and functionally distinguishable; however, no studies have examined the differences in the degradation behaviors of silk materials from various silkworm species. In this study, Ca(NO3)2 was used as a uniform solvent to obtain regenerated mulberry and nonmulberry (Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai) silk fibroin (SF) solutions, and the degradation behaviors of various SF scaffolds were examined. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that regenerated mulberry SF scaffolds exhibited significantly higher mass loss and free amino acid content release than did nonmulberry SF scaffolds. The differences in the primary structures and condensed structures between mulberry and nonmulberry SF contributed to the significant difference in degradation rates, in which the characteristic (-Ala-)n repeats, compact crystal structure and high ?-helix and ?-sheet contents make nonmulberry SF more resistant than mulberry SF to enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai SFs possess similar primary structures and condensed structures, although a slight difference in degradation was observed; this difference might depend on the differences in molecular weight following the regeneration process. The results indicate that the original sources of SF significantly influence the degradation rates of SF-based materials; therefore, the original sources of SF should be fully considered for preparing tissue engineering scaffolds with matched degradation rates. PMID:25532470

  11. Habitat use by the golden-cheeked warbler in Texas

    E-print Network

    Newnam, John Calvin

    2009-05-15

    grandidentatum), Texas mountain laurel (Sophora secundiflora). poison ivy (Rhus toxicondendron), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), grape (Vitis spp.), black haw (Viburnum rufidulum), springherald (Forestieria pubescens), and Texas mulberry (Morus...

  12. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

  13. C-prolinylquercetins from the yellow cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikara Hirayama; Hiroshi Ono; Yasumori Tamura; Masatoshi Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    Two flavonoids containing the l-proline moiety, 6-C-[(2S,5S)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin A) and 6-C-[(2S,5R)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin B), were isolated from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Their structural elucidation was achieved by application of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods. These compounds were not found in the leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.), the host plant of the silkworm, suggesting that

  14. Identification and synthesis of insect pheromone XXX. Sex pheromone of mulberry clearwing moth Paradoxecia pieli Lieu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Zhong-Xin; Lin Guo-Qiang; Liu Han-Quan; Pu Guan-Qin; Du He-Ming; Mao Jian-Pin; Meng Lian-Zhong; Wu Cai-Hong

    1992-01-01

    (E,Z)-3,13-OctadecadienyI acetate (1a) and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol(2a) were identified from the sex pheromone gland of the virgin female mulberry clearwing mothParadoxecia pieli L., by GC analysis, EAG, SCR survey, and field bioassay. One female equivalent contained 250 ng of1a and 30 ng of2a. In the field tests, 100µg of synthetic1a was attractive to male moths of the species.

  15. Iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel for biosorption of Co(II): biosorption properties and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  16. Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruits protects pancreatic ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Park, Jun Myoung; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin?3?glucoside (C3G), isolated from mulberry fruits, on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of this compound. MIN6N pancreatic ??cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G. In addition, the effects of C3G on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells was evaluated using MTT assay, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometric and western blot analyses. The pancreatic ??cells cultured under high glucose conditions exhibited distinct apoptotic features. C3G decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptosis. C3G also prevented pancreatic ??cell apoptosis induced by high glucose conditions by interfering with the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, C3G treatment resulted in increased insulin secretion compared with treatment with high glucose only. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that C3G obtained from mulberry fruits may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25501967

  17. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

  18. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Audomkasok, Suthin; Singpha, Waraporn; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Somsak, Voravuth

    2014-01-01

    Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000?mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:25485155

  19. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  20. Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

    2010-04-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

  1. Venturia inaequalis-inhibiting Diels-Alder adducts from Morus root bark.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Judith M; Spitaler, Renate; Menz, Magdalena; Marschall, Klaus; Zelger, Roland; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Schneider, Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2006-11-01

    In organic apple orcharding there is a continuous need for natural fungicides effective against Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, the causal agent of apple scab. In this study an in vitro assay is presented for determining the germination inhibitory potential of extracts and pure compounds. From a screening of plant extracts, the methanol extract of Morus root bark revealed distinct V. inaequalis inhibiting qualities, which were subjected to a bioguided fractionation. Among the isolated metabolites [moracins M (1), O/P (2), kuwanon L (3), and sanggenons D (4), B (5), G (6), O (7), E (8), and C (9)] all the Diels-Alder adducts (3-9) showed an antifungal activity with IC50 values between 10 and 123 microM. The in vitro activity of the most active fraction (A5, IC50 39.0 +/- 4.2 microg/mL) was evaluated in vivo, confirming a distinct antifungal activity against V. inaequalis for the tested natural material. PMID:17061817

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

  3. Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Ikuko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was examined in the diet-induced obese mouse model. Mulberry DNJ was administered to the obese mice for 12 weeks. As a result, DNJ decreased both the visceral fat weight and adipocyte size. To determine the influence of DNJ on lipid metabolism, lipid parameters of the plasma and the liver and the activities of several molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver were measured. DNJ activated the ?-oxidation system, suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced plasma triacylglycerol. Since it was thought that the factor activated in the ?-oxidation system was adiponectin, plasma adiponectin levels were measured and it was shown that plasma adiponectin was increased with DNJ. Therefore, it was suggested that DNJ promoted an increase in plasma adiponectin and activated the ?-oxidation system. Overall, it was shown that DNJ prevents diet-induced obesity through an increase in adiponectin. PMID:23561072

  4. Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruit protects pancreatic ?-cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam-In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-02-01

    The extract obtained from berries contains high amounts of anthocyanins, and this extract is used as a phytotherapeutic agent for different types of diseases. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) isolated from mulberry fruit against pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. The MIN6 pancreatic ?-cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G on the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cells. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and lipid peroxidation was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis were also used to determine apoptosis and the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis. Our results revealed that H2O2 increased the rate of apoptosis by stimulating various pro-apoptotic processes, such as the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. However, C3G reduced the H2O2-induced cell death in the MIN6N pancreatic ?-cells. In addition, we confirmed that H2O2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. C3G inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 without inducing the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, C3G regulated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway-associated proteins, such as proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family, cytochrome c and caspase-3. Taken together, our results suggest that C3G isolated from mulberry fruit has potential for use as a phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress-induced ?-cell apoptosis. PMID:25435295

  5. Effect of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizers on mulberry leaf quality and silkworm cocoon characters under semiarid conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Ram Rao; J. Kodandaramaiah; M. P. Reddy; R. S. Katiyar

    2007-01-01

    The influence of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizer (BBF) with 50% reduction in the recommended dose of (N and P) chemical fertilizers on leaf quality traits of mulberry variety (S-13) and its impact on silkworm (PM × NB4D2) growth and cocoon characters were studied under semi-arid conditions. Four different treatments were imposed i.e., T1: Control (only 100% NPK); T2: VAM

  6. Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease.

    PubMed

    Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants. PMID:24946736

  7. Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, P.-Y.; Lin, K.-H.; Chiu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Huang, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-?-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR ? DNA binding in 50??g/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation. PMID:24371453

  8. Energy Expenditure of Free-Ranging Chicks of the Cape Gannet Morus capensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, René A; Mullers, Ralf H E; Meijer, Haro A J; Underhill, Les G

    2015-01-01

    The Cape gannet Morus capensis, a large fish-eating seabird, is endemic to southern Africa. To study the energetics of nestling growth, we used the doubly labeled water technique to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) of nestlings, from hatchings to large partly feathered chicks (n = 17) at Malgas Island, Saldanha Bay, South Africa. At the same time, the growth rate of a large sample of chicks was measured (n = 338). These data, together with literature values on resting metabolic rate and body composition, were used to construct and partition the nestling energy budget. Nestling FMR (kJ d(-1)) increased with body mass according to FMR = 1.23m(0.923), r(2) = 0.944. Mass-specific FMR (FMRratio; kJ d(-1) g(-3/4)) was independent of chick age (r(2) = 0.20, P > 0.05); mean mass-specific FMR was 4.11 ± 1.28, n = 17. Peak daily-metabolized energy (DME), which represents the maximum rate at which parents must supply their nestlings, occurred at age 71 d and was 2,141 kJ d(-1). Between the ages 51 and 92 d (43% of the fledging period), the DME of Cape gannet chicks was equal to or surpassed 90% of adult FMR at the nest. Energy demand during this period of peak DME represented 58% of the total metabolized energy, which was estimated at 150.1 MJ for an average chick during a 97-d period, from hatching to fledging. Sensitivity analysis of the energy budget indicated that the model was robust; the biggest source of error (±15%) was for the mass-FMR equation used in the model. PMID:26052637

  9. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ? 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ? 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  10. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ? 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ? 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  11. Non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices for potential biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Biman B; Ghosh, Borna; Kundu, S C

    2011-08-01

    This study reports a novel biopolymeric matrix fabricated by chemically cross-linking poly (vinyl alcohol) with silk sericin protein obtained from cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta. Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent with hydrochloric acid acting as an initiator. The matrices were biophysically characterized and the cytocompatibility of the matrices was evaluated for their suitability as biomaterials. The surface morphology was assessed using atomic force microscopy while the changes taking place after cross-linking were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced thermal stability of the constructs was assessed by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that sericin was chemically cross-linked with poly (vinyl alcohol) using glutaraldehyde. Silk sericin protein demonstrated a favorable effect on animal cell culture by successfully improving the adhering and spreading of cells on the poorly adhering surface of poly (vinyl alcohol). Confocal microscopy revealed cell spreading and actin filament development in sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices. These findings prove the potential of non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices to be used as biocompatible and biopolymeric material for tissue-engineering and biotechnological applications. PMID:21549749

  12. Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

  13. Hydrologic responses of streams to mining of the Mulberry coal reserves in eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the hydrologic responses of streams with respect to coal-mining activities in the Mulberry coal reserves of Miami, Linn, and Bourbon Counties, eastern Kansas. Results of a low-flow water-quality reconnaissance showed that small streams draining previously coal-mined areas generally have relatively large concentrations of sulfate. Large streams in the study area have been relatively unaffected by coal mining. A comparison of two small drainage basins showed that the basin affected by an active strip mine had less high flow and more low flow because of the regulating effects of sediment ponds. Effluent pumped from the strip mine increased the load of sulfate by 244 percent, the load of dissolved solids by 41 percent, and occasionally transported relatively large concentrations of iron, lead, manganese, and zinc to the receiving stream. Accelerated erosion caused by the exposure and disturbance of soil during clearing and excavation increased the sediment load of the receiving stream by 25 percent even though sediment ponds were installed. (USGS)

  14. Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kang, Young Min; Jin, Wen Yi; Sung, Yoon-Young; Choi, Goya; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68-12.7, 0.69-9.86 and 0.05-3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium. PMID:25054010

  15. Gut colonization by an ice nucleation active bacterium, Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas reduces the cold hardiness of mulberry pyralid larvae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Sato, M

    1999-06-01

    To evaluate the suitability of using ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria for the biological control of insect pests, the supercooling point (SCP) of larvae of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes duplicalis, and silkworm, Bombyx mori, ingesting INA strains of Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas and Pseudomonas syringae was determined. Mean SCP of the guts of silkworm larvae ingesting INA strains of E. ananas ranged from -2.5 to -2.8 degrees C, being 5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. Similarly, mean SCP of mulberry pyralid larvae ingesting INA strain of E. ananas, which can grow well in the gut, was -4.7 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, being 6.5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. On the other hand, mean SCP of the larvae-ingesting INA strain of P. syringae, which cannot grow in the gut, was -9.0 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, rising by only 2.5 degrees C higher than that in the control treatments. In addition, more than 80% of the larvae of mulberry pyralid ingesting the INA strain of E. ananas froze and eventually died when exposed to -6 degrees C for 18 h, while only 36% of the larvae ingesting the INA strain of P. syringae, or approximately 20% of the control larvae, froze and died. Thus, the gut colonization by INA strains of E. ananas reduced remarkably the cold hardiness of the insects. These findings suggest that INA strains of E. ananas could be effective as a potential biological control agent of insect pests. PMID:10413571

  16. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Zal, Fatemeh; Jafarian, Aida; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE) has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts) as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde) in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg) diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. PMID:24644381

  17. Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

  18. Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

  19. Mulberry Extracts Alleviate A?25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against ?-amyloid 25–35- (A?25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200??g/mL) for 24?h were treated with A?25–35 (20??mol/L) for another 24?h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent A?25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit A?25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

  20. Separation and identification of anthocyanin extracted from mulberry fruit and the pigment binding properties toward human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Yuning; Zhao, Xingchen; Tian, Na; Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia

    2014-07-16

    Purple pigments were isolated from mulberry extracts using preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified by ESI-MS/MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The solvent system containing methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (10:30:10:50:0.05; %, v/v) was developed in order to separate anthocyanins with different polarities. Cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-galactopyranoside) (also known as keracyanin) is the major component present in mulberry (41.3%). Other isolated pigments are cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) and petunidin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside. The binding characteristics of keracyanin with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that HSA fluorescence quenched by keracyanin follows a static mode. Binding of keracyanin to HSA mainly depends on van der Waals force or H-bonds with average binding distance of 2.82 nm. The results from synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra show that adaptive structure rearrangement and decrease of ?-helical structure occur in the presence of keracyanin. PMID:24930424

  1. Donated Leave ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    absence from work due to the donation of an organ (which shall include, for example, the donation of bone resulting from a serious health condition or injury, or donation of an organ. 2. When the DepartmentDonated Leave 1 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/9/2010 DONATED LEAVE PROGRAM DONATED LEAVE PROCEDURES

  2. In vitro evaluation of a novel non-mulberry silk scaffold for use in tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Musson, David S; Naot, Dorit; Chhana, Ashika; Matthews, Brya G; McIntosh, Julie D; Lin, Sandy T C; Choi, Ally J; Callon, Karen E; Dunbar, P Rod; Lesage, Stephanie; Coleman, Brendan; Cornish, Jillian

    2015-05-01

    Tearing of the rotator cuff tendon in the shoulder is a significant clinical problem, with large/full-thickness tears present in ?22% of the general population and recurrent tear rates postarthroscopic repair being quoted as high as 94%. Tissue-engineered biomaterials are increasingly being investigated as a means to augment rotator cuff repairs, with the aim of inducing host cell responses to increase tendon tissue regeneration. Silk-derived materials are of particular interest due to the high availability, mechanical strength, and biocompatibility of silks. In this study, Spidrex(®), a novel knitted, non-mulberry silk fibroin scaffold was evaluated in vitro for its potential to improve tendon regeneration. Spidrex was compared with a knitted Bombyx mori silk scaffold, a 3D collagen gel and Fiberwire(®) suture material. Primary human and rat tenocytes successfully adhered to Spidrex and significantly increased in number over a 14 day period (p<0.05), as demonstrated by fluorescent calcein-AM staining and alamarBlue(®) assays. A similar growth pattern was observed with human tenocytes cultured on the B. mori scaffold. Morphologically, human tenocytes elongated along the silk fibers of Spidrex, assuming a tenocytic cell shape, and were less circular with a higher aspect ratio compared with human tenocytes cultured on the B. mori silk scaffold and within the collagen gel (p<0.05). Gene expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that rat tenocytes cultured on Spidrex had increased expression of tenocyte-related genes such as fibromodullin, scleraxis, and tenomodulin (p<0.05). Expression of genes that indicate transdifferentiation toward a chondrocytic or osteoblastic lineage were significantly lower in tenocytes cultured on Spidrex in comparison to the collagen gel (p<0.05). Immunogenicity assessment by the maturation of and cytokine release from primary human dendritic cells demonstrated that Spidrex enhanced dendritic cell maturation in a similar manner to the clinically used suture material Fiberwire, and significantly upregulated the release of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.05). This suggests that Spidrex may induce an early immune response postimplantation. While further work is required to determine what effect this immune response has on the tendon healing process, our in vitro data suggests that Spidrex may have the cytocompatibility and bioactivity required to support tendon regeneration in vivo. PMID:25604072

  3. CSU Leave Program Types of Leave Programs

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    · Family Medical Leave Act ­ 29 United States Code, Sections 2601 et seq. · California Family Rights Act duty, or call to active duty, in the U.S. Armed Forces in support of a contingency operations as spouse, parent, child, or domestic partner · Medical, dental, and vision benefits continue while on FML

  4. Evaluation of bioactive compounds of black mulberry juice after thermal, microwave, ultrasonic processing, and storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Mantri, Nitin; Hu, Ya; Lu, Jiayin; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Hongfei

    2015-07-01

    The effect of different sterilization methods (thermal, microwave, and ultrasonic processing) on the main bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of black mulberry juice during selected storage time (8 days) and temperatures (5, 15, and 25??) was investigated. The antioxidant activity of thermal-treated juice depleted with storage time, whilst both ultrasound- and microwave-treated juices showed transient increase in antioxidant activity during the first 2 days that later decreased with storage time. Lower temperature storage preserved more bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, especially in ultrasound sterilized samples. The activation energy values were 15.99, 13.07, and 12.81?kJ/mol for ultrasonic, microwave, and thermal pasteurization processes, respectively. In general, ultrasound-sterilized samples showed higher total phenolics, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity compared to the microwave- and thermal-processed juice during the storage time especially at lower temperatures. PMID:24917651

  5. [Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

  6. Morus alba Accumulates Reactive Oxygen Species to Initiate Apoptosis via FOXO-Caspase 3-Dependent Pathway in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Hwi; Bishayee, Kausik; Rahman, Ataur; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon-Sung; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-07-31

    Morus alba root extract (MARE) has been used to treat hyperglycaemic conditions in oriental medicine. Here, we studied whether MARE possesses a cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma. To check the cytotoxicity generated by MARE was whether relatively higher against the cancer cells rather than normal cells, we chose a neuroblastoma cell line (B103) and a normal cell line (Rat-2). A CCK assay revealed that MARE (10 ?g/ml) reduced cell viability to approximately 60% compared to an untreated control in B103 cells. But in Rat-2 cells, MARE induced relatively lower cytotoxicity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of MARE, we used flow cytometry combined with immunoblot analyses. We found that MARE-treatment could accumulate ROS and depolarize mitochondria membrane potential of B103 cells. Further treatment with MARE in B103 cells also could damage DNA and induce apoptosis. An expression study of p-Akt also suggested that there was a reduction in cellular proliferation and transcription along with the process of apoptosis, which was further evidenced by an increase in Bax and cleaved-caspase 3 activity. Together, our findings suggest that MARE produces more cytotoxicity in cancer cells while having a relatively attenuated effect on normal cells. As such, MARE may be a safer option in cancer therapeutics, and it also shows potential for the patients with symptoms of hyperglycemia and cancer. PMID:25921607

  7. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-02-11

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

  8. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  9. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  10. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  11. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  12. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  13. A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinxin Yang; Pihui Pi; Xiufang Wen; Dafeng Zheng; Mengyi Xu; Jiang Cheng; Zhuoru Yang

    2009-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO3\\/SiO2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164±2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro–submicro–nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite

  14. Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

  15. Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin pleiotropically inhibits glucose-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration by activation of AMPK/RhoB and down-regulation of FAK.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2013-10-16

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, has been reported to help prevent diabetes mellitus and suppress lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry DNJ has pleiotropic effects on the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which mulberry DNJ might inhibit migration of A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic conditions mimicking diabetes were investigated. The antimigratory effects of DNJ on VSMCs were assessed by Western blot analysis of migration-related proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton. Two pathways of DNJ-mediated inhibition of VSMC migration were identified. The first involved AMPK activation to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Akt activity and then RhoB activation to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP) activity. The second involved inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras, and RhoA activity leading to inhibition of F-actin activity. PMID:24050301

  16. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aaron D. Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students pondered the mechanics of leaves' solar-collecting abilities, they began to understand plant behavior in a meaningful way.

  17. Leaves and Air Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

  18. MEDICAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    MEDICAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your Supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence, and to obtain the UCF Medical Leave Request of Medical Leave Request Form" which is part of the Request form. Be sure you understand your

  19. Inbreeding Effects on Quantitative Traits in Random Mating and Selected Populations of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Jamuna; Gopal, Subramanya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the level of inbreeding coefficient during inbreeding of the pedigree of random mating and selected populations of two distinct races of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), in the silkworm germplasm. The six generation data of the two races, namely multivoltine Pure Mysore and bivoltine NB4D2, were studied for inbreeding depression coefficient using the residual maximum likelihood method, utilizing two statistical models by analyzing six quantitative traits, namely, larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio, pupation rate, and filament length. The results of the present experiment demonstrated that the inbreeding coefficient was significant in Model 1 for most of the economic traits in the random mating populations of both the races compared to those of selected populations. These results suggest that during stock maintenance, application of rigid selection for increased numbers of generations helps to retain original characteristics of the pure races while reducing the deleterious effects of inbreeding. The significance of inbreeding coefficient is discussed with reference to the inbreeding of silk moths in the silkworm germplasm. PMID:23461728

  20. A novel TATA-box-binding factor from the silk glands of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Gopinathan, Karumathil P

    2002-01-01

    The presence of one or more TATATAA motifs in the flanking sequences of individual members of a multi-gene tRNA(Gly)(1) family from the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, negatively modulated the transcription of the gene copies. Characterization of proteins from posterior silk gland nuclear extracts, binding to the TATATAA motif, identified a novel 43 kD protein, designated here as P43 TATA-box-binding factor (TBF). The protein was purified to homogeneity. P43 TBF binding was highly sequence-specific and showed a 100-fold-higher affinity for binding than the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP). The protein also showed binding to the TATAAA sequence of the actin5C promoter. P43 TBF inhibited transcription of all the tRNA genes examined, as well as RNA polymerase II transcription from the actin5C promoter. The amino acid sequence of eleven peptides generated from P43 TBF did not share homology with proteins that bind the TATA box, such as TBP, TRF (TBP-related factor) or TLFs (TBP-like factors) reported from other sources. Inhibition of transcription of tRNA genes by P43 TBF could not be reversed by TBP. The inhibitory effect appeared to be exerted through sequestration of the associated transcription factors. PMID:11964150

  1. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  2. Paper Chromatography with Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-08

    In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

  3. Matric Potentials of Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, J. S.

    1967-01-01

    A pressure chamber was used to measure matric potentials of frozen and thawed leaves. Significant matric potentials were demonstrated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), yew (Taxus cuspidata Sieb. and Zucc.), and rhododendron (Rhododendron roseum Rehd.). Matric potentials were particularly negative in rhododendron and were correlated with the amount of cell wall present and with the volume of water outside the leaf protoplasts at comparable matric potentials. It was concluded that matric forces in leaves are associated mainly with cell walls, at least within the physiological range of water contents. Calculations indicated that the water potential of the solution in the cell wall could be estimated for living tissue from the sum of matric and osmotic potentials acting on water outside the protoplasts. PMID:16656497

  4. Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

    2015-02-01

    Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

  5. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  6. Rev: Leaving Home

    E-print Network

    Armitage, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    for the evolution of dis­ persal. It describes especially how those models apply to presaturation dispersal: dispersers that leave home before the habitat's carrying capacity is reached. Part six consists of chapters on 170 Bioscience Vol. 43 No. 3 dispersal... with the various contrivances by which seeds and fruits are moved about. Because of the near ubiquity of dis­ persal in the life histories of organ­ isms, I was surprised to find no refer­ ences to it in the index of a recent book on the evolution of life...

  7. Classify the trees/Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Walsh

    This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

  8. Policy Guidelines Faculty Development Leave

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    "FDL Policy Guidelines" and "Department & College Application Procedures" · Leave Period for FacultyPolicy Guidelines Faculty Development Leave Program FY 14 Updated 9/3/2012 #12;Texas A&M System. #12;· All Faculty Development Leave FY14 guidelines are located at http://dof.tamu.edu/node/13 under

  9. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Ogée J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Ogée J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

  10. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  11. Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Liu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Chen, Mu; Zeng, Yun; Liu, Jiajun; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy for the preparation of mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers (MLDC NCs) with high drug loading and adjustable dual-drug ratio was developed. First, apogossypolone (ApoG2) amphiphilic starch micelles (AASt MCs) were prepared by self-assembly process, and doxorubicin (DOX) hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (DHA NPs) were prepared by DOX absorption with excess HA by electrostatic absorption. MLDC NCs were obtained by adsorption of 8-9 DHA NPs around one AASt MC via electrostatic interaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometers were used to measure the entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of the two drugs. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering method were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of the particles. The tumor-targeting feature caused by HA-receptor mediation was confirmed by in vitro cell uptake and in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. MLDC NCs were found to possess a mulberry-like shape with a dynamic size of 83.1 ± 6.6 nm. The final encapsulation efficiencies of ApoG2 and DOX in MLDC NCs were 94 ± 1.7% and 87 ± 5.8% with respect to drug-loading capacities of 13.3 ± 1.2% and 13.1 ± 3.7%, respectively. Almost no ApoG2 release was found within 80 h and less than 30% of DOX was released into the outer phase even after 72 h. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed that MLDC NCs had highly efficient targeting and accumulation at the tumor in vivo and was maintained for 96 h after being injected intravenously in mice. Low LD50 for the two drugs in MLDC NCs was found after acute toxicity test. One-fifth normal dosage of the two drugs in MLDC NCs exhibited significantly higher anti-tumor efficiency in reducing tumor size compared with free drugs combination or single drug-loaded nanoparticles individually, indicating that the mulberry-like dual-drug nanoplatform has a great potential in tumor therapy. PMID:25477180

  12. A polysaccharide extract of mulberry leaf ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat-diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunjiu; Zhang, Yao; Cui, Weizheng; Lu, Guobing; Wang, Yanwen; Gao, Huiju; Huang, Lu; Mu, Zhimei

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry leaf is a traditional medicine used to treat diabetes in the clinic. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII), improves hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and streptozotocin (STZ). MLPII was administered for 6 weeks after establishment of type 2 diabetes in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance, liver glycogen content, glucose synthase (GS) activity and insulin resistance were determined. Expression patterns of proteins and genes associated with insulin signaling as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed. Compared with normal control rats, MLPII treatment significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01) and restored the glycogen level (P < 0.01) and GS activity (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats. Insulin resistance was improved in MLPII-treated diabetic rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) involved in insulin signaling were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while protein–tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in livers of the MLPII-treated group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), while activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The results clearly indicate that MLPII treatment effectively normalizes hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling by inhibiting the expression of PTP1B, activating the PI3K–AKT pathway and mitigating oxidative stress in the livers of rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and STZ. PMID:25316427

  13. See the Colors in Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-22

    Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

  14. Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

  15. Effect of Kuwanon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba on ovalbumin-induced allergic response in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-11-01

    The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10?mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7?days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. PMID:25116225

  16. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2?) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.

  17. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...an employee for his or her own medical, dental, or optical examination or treatment...leave for an employee's own medical, dental or optical examination or treatment...or a family member receiving medical, dental or optical examination or...

  18. Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors

    E-print Network

    Saffman, Mark

    Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors As a supervisor, it is important for you to know how & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) &/or Wisconsin Family & Medical Leave Act (WFMLA) and to know what to do with confidential medical information. FMLA and WFMLA are leave entitlements for reasonable, job-protected leave

  19. Analgesic and anti-Inflammatory effect of UP3005, a botanical composition Containing two standardized extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and synovial inflammation exhibited by clinical symptoms such as joint swelling, synovitis, and inflammatory pain. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes detrimental gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. As a result, the need for evidence based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is a necessity. Materials and Methods: Describe the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP3005, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, abdominal constriction (writhing’s) and ear swelling assays in mouse with oral dose ranges of 100–400 mg/kg. Results: In vivo, statistically significant improvement in pain resistance, and suppression of paw edema and ear thickness in animals treated with UP3005 were observed compared with vehicle-treated diseased rats and mice. Ibuprofen was used a reference compound in all the studies. In vitro, enzymatic inhibition activities of UP3005 were determined with IC50 values of 12.4 ?g/ml, 39.8 ?g/ml and 13.6 ?g/ml in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1), COX-2 and lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity assay, respectively. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP3005, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin with balanced dual COX-LOX inhibition activity, could potentially be used for symptom management of OA.

  20. Pay Plus for leave Request for additional leave Under Pay Plus for leave, the University provides a number of days of additional leave to the employee.

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    Pay Plus For Leave. Pay Plus for leave ­ Request for additional leave Under Pay Plus for leave considered to be about 1/260th of a year. You are able to join Pay Plus for leave by 30 September, to claimJob and on your payslip as `Employee Number'. #12;2 I confirm that I want to participate in Pay Plus for leave. I

  1. Why Are Programs Leaving CEDA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Gary

    A survey of all 38 current members of the (newly formed) National Educational Debate Association investigated why these directors opted to drop their Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) programs. Responses were received from 20 directors. The use of excessive speed in CEDA debate was mentioned as a reason for leaving CEDA by more of the…

  2. Benefits Briefing Faculty Development Leave

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    Benefits Briefing Faculty Development Leave August and September 2012 HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION OF FINANCE #12;Human Resources Benefits Briefing August and Sept ember 2012 Page 2 Division of Finance Or ­ One-half academic year at full salary #12;Human Resources Benefits Briefing August and Sept ember 2012

  3. Mulberry water extracts inhibit atherosclerosis through suppression of the integrin-??/focal adhesion kinase complex and downregulation of nuclear factor ?B signaling in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Chien-Ning; Huang, Hui-Pei; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in vivo and in vitro through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Histological analysis was performed on atherosclerotic lesions from high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed rabbits after treatment with 0.5-1% MWEs for 10 weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of SMA, Ras, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the VSMCs were dose-dependently inhibited after MWE treatment. The antimigratory effects of MWEs on A7r5 VSMCs were assessed by western blot analysis of migration-related proteins, visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MWEs inhibited VSMC migration through reducing interactions of the integrin-?3/focal adhesion kinase complex, alterations of the cytoskeleton, and downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3?/nuclear factor ?B signaling. Taken together, MWEs inhibited HCD-induced rabbit atherogenesis through blocking VSMC migration via reducing interactions of integrin-?3 and focal adhesion kinase and downregulating migration-related proteins. PMID:25197764

  4. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4?mg/100?g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30?min before and 1?h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1?h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30?min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

  5. Comparison of 1-deoxynojirimycin and aqueous mulberry leaf extract with emphasis on postprandial hypoglycemic effects: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Chung, Ji Young; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-04-13

    Carbohydrate digestion by ?-glucosidase and subsequent glucose uptake at the brush border are critical for postprandial blood glucose control. Any specific inhibitors are useful as hyperglycemia modulating agents. In this study, it was postulated that an array of active components in mulberry leaf extract (MLE) may provide higher potency in inhibiting intestinal glucose absorption compared to the single component 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is recognized as a promising inhibitor of intestinal glucose absorption. Both MLE and DNJ were active in inhibiting ?-glucosidase. However, in Caco-2 cells, only MLE showed significant inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose uptake, whereas DNJ was ineffective. For glucose loading, co-administration of MLE resulted in potent inhibitions of glucose responses compared to those by DNJ in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, but this was not found for maltose loading. These novel findings add evidence that the unabsorbed phytochemicals in MLE compete with glucose for intestinal glucose transporters, but DNJ itself does not. We also evaluated the timing of MLE consumption. By administering MLE for 30 min before glucose loading, the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was significantly lowered in the rats, as compared to a simultaneously administered group. Similarly, cellular glucose uptake was significantly reduced in Caco-2 cells following pretreatment. PMID:21370820

  6. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  7. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

  9. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

  10. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hassan, Syed Imran

    2002-06-01

    Three pentacyclic triterpenoids including one new guajavanoic acid (2) and two known obtusinin (1) and goreishic acid I (3) have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. The new constituent 2 has been characterized as 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-p-E-coumaroyloxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (broad band and DEPT). This is the first report of isolation of compound 1 and 3 from the genus Psidium. PMID:12049217

  11. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, James

    1986-01-01

    “Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

  13. Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

    2011-12-01

    Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n?=?57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n?=?57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40?L-NEG and 33?L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32?L-NEG and 34?L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P?

  14. Comparative analysis of the development of the mandibular salivary glands and the labial silk glands in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Gopinathan, Karumathil P

    2005-02-01

    The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori has a pair of salivary glands arising from the mandibular segment, in addition to the labial silk glands which are generally considered as modified salivary glands. Here we report the characterization of salivary glands and the comparative gene expression profiling of the silk and salivary glands. The two independent salivary glands made up by 330 cells, grow about 1000 fold during larval development. These individual glands extend up to the T(1) thoracic segment unlike silk glands with fused anterior ends and extending up to the caudal region. The salivary glands also undergo endomitosis resembling the silk glands. The B. mori homologue of the homeotic gene Deformed (BmDfd) was expressed in the mandibular and maxillary segments in stage 17 embryo and got localized to the centre of the mandibular segment at stage 18 to form the salivary gland placodes. The expression was also seen in the distal ends of the leg appendages after blastokinesis (stage 22). Only low variations in BmDfd expression ranging from 1.6 to 2.1 fold were apparent during embryonic development. BmDfd expression was observed in the salivary glands all through the larval instars but not in the silk glands. The transcription factor, Forkhead and the segment polarity gene, Wingless were expressed throughout the salivary glands, the latter confirming the absence of physiological compartmentation within these glands unlike the silk glands. The expression of Amylase and Fibrohexamerin was restricted to the salivary and silk glands, respectively and therefore, served as molecular markers for these tissues. PMID:15661638

  15. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  16. Paid Leave Programs Policy 6.27

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    vacation, sick, parental, jury duty/court appearance and organ donation leave to respond to employee needs. Vacation donation provides financial assistance during approved unpaid leaves for: life- threatening

  17. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  18. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  19. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  20. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  1. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1?:?1?:?1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6?g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75?g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D. PMID:22474520

  2. Rapid separation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside from crude mulberry extract using high-performance countercurrent chromatography and establishment of a volumetric scale-up process.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Choi, Janggyoo; Lee, Chang Uk; Yoon, Shin Hee; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the rapid separation of mulberry anthocyanins; namely, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, using high-performance countercurrent chromatography, and the establishment of a volumetric scale-up process from semi-preparative to preparative-scale. To optimize the separation parameters, biphasic solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate, sample amount and rotational speed were evaluated for the semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography. The optimized semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography parameters (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 4.0 mL/min; sample amount, 200-1000 mg; rotational speed, 1600 rpm) were transferred directly to a preparative-scale (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 28 mL/min; sample amount, 5.0-10.0 g; rotational speed, 1400 rpm) to achieve separation results identical to cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The separation of mulberry anthocyanins using semi-preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography and its volumetric scale-up to preparative-scale was addressed for the first time in this report. PMID:25800228

  3. FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE (FML) INFORMATION SHEET

    E-print Network

    Gleixner, Stacy

    FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE (FML) INFORMATION SHEET HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One with the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the California Family Rights Act (CFRA). All leaves. ELIGIBILITY An employee may be eligible for FML for any of the following reasons: · To care for a child after

  4. University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    1/07 University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE Employee Information Name: Empl ID #: Home Address: City: ST: ZIP: Email Address: Phone: Type of Military Leave Dates of Leave Annual Reservist Training Military Duty Begin Date Expected End Date _____/_____/_____ _____/_____/_____ Certification

  5. Inhibitory effects of mulberry fruit extract in combination with naringinase on the allergic response in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Kim, Na Yeon; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Hyung Don; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic action of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) or MFE in combination with naringinase (MFEN) in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-allergic effects of MFEN. ?-hexosaminidase release assay was used to measure the amount of ?-hexosaminidase released from the cells, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We found that MFE significantly reduced the release of ?-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 10.59 mg/ml) and TNF-? (IC(50), 4.87 mg/ml). Moreover, MFEN enhanced the inhibitory effects on the release of ?-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 123.10 µg/ml) and TNF-? (IC(50), 65.01 µg/ml). Furthermore, MFEN had no cytotoxicity at the concentration range used to exert the anti-allergic effects. In addition, we evaluated the effects of MFEN on the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MFEN markedly reduced the formation of PGD(2) (IC(50), 6.47 µg/ml) and LTC(4) (IC(50), 0.31 µg/ml), but not LTB(4) (IC(50), 25.75 µg/ml). In mechanistic analyses, we measured the phosphorylation of Syk, Lyn and Fyn by immunoblot analysis. MFEN significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not that of Lyn or Fyn. MFEN also suppressed the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?1/2, protein kinase C (PKC)?, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, JNK, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, these results suggest that MFEN exerts potent inhibitory effects on allergic response through the suppression of the activation of the Fc?RI signaling cascade. Our data demonstrating the anti-allergic effects of MFEN may provide further insight into the therapeutic application of MFEN or its use as a functional food. PMID:24336971

  6. Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waters, Megan.

    This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

  7. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  8. Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

  9. Characteristics of the pigments from anthocyan-containing food plants, raw material for production of bioflavonoid dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Kananykhina; I. V. Pilipenko

    2000-01-01

    Data are presented on the composition of anthocyans of the fruits and pulp of the food plants bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L), high-bush cranberry (Viburnum opulus L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Mill.), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.), cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris Pers.), currant (Ribes nigrum L.), and mulberry (Morus nigra L.) growing in the Ukraine. The anthocyan pigments differ qualitatively

  10. PVAc TUTKALI KULLANILARAK YAPI?TIRILMI? LAM?NE AH?AP YAPI ELAMANLARININ YANMA ÖZELL?KLER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramazan ÖZEN; Burhanettin UYSAL; Z. K. Ü. Safranbolu; Meslek Yüksekokulu

    In this study, the combustion properties of three ply laminated wood material has been searched. In the produce of laminated wood material, scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been used for faces ply. Lime-tree (Morus alba L.), white mulberry (Tillia perfifolia Ehrh), white oak (Quercus petraea spp.) and Uluda? fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) have been used for core ply of

  11. 5 CFR 630.1113 - Using donated annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...leave recipient for advanced annual or sick leave used because of the adverse effects...emergency. The agency may advance annual or sick leave, as appropriate (even if the employee has available annual and sick leave), so that the emergency...

  12. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an...

  13. 5 CFR 630.209 - Refund for unearned leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.209 Refund for unearned leave. (a) When an employee who is indebted for unearned leave is...

  14. Extended Leaves of Absence for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Extended leave of absence policies for classroom teachers in 129 school systems with enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. A table lists, in order of descending frequency, the following purposes for which leaves are granted: (1) Military service, (2) professional study, (3) maternity, (4) exchange teaching…

  15. Department of Genetics Graduate Student Leave Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Department of Genetics Graduate Student Leave Guidelines The Department's graduate student leave provisions are in alignment with those of the Graduate School, and are universally applied to all Genetics' graduate students, even if they are not financially supported through the Department or University. When

  16. FLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program)

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    and values by themselves. Program overview This program is based on the gap year system of universitiesFLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program) The University of Tokyo introduces the new FLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program), starting from the 2013 academic year. This program enables undergraduate

  17. A versatile scattering model for deciduous leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa A. Karam; GenCorp Aerojet

    1998-01-01

    A versatile, multi-frequency scattering model is developed for deciduous leaves. The model gains its versatility from estimating the field inside the leaves, which are represented by elliptic discs, through employing a technique bridging the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) and the physical optics (PO) approximations. Analytic and numerical results are presented to illustrate the model versatility

  18. Why Are Experienced Teachers Leaving the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Barbara Benham; O'Brien, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several reasons teachers give for leaving or considering leaving the profession: Pressures of increased accountability, workload issues, student attitudes, lack of parent support, tension between faculty and administration, and low status of the profession. Suggests strategies to improve working conditions for teachers. (Contains 23…

  19. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  20. Brody School of Medicine Faculty Vacation Leave and Travel Policy

    E-print Network

    Brody School of Medicine Faculty Vacation Leave and Travel Policy Recommended by the Executive for Annual leave / Vacation Leave, Community Service Leave, Administrative or Professional Service Activities Leave and Professional Leave. According to the ECU Faculty Manual, Part VI, II.K. "Vacation and Sick

  1. Division of Human Resources COMPLETION OF LEAVE DOCUMENTS

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources COMPLETION OF LEAVE DOCUMENTS Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Completion of Leave Documents Form questions: (813) 974-5717 Rev. 8/2008 Hours Worked - for Staff and represented on the applicable leave documents. Leave Balances Recorded in ALT- sick leave balances are carried

  2. MEDICAL LEAVE/CRISIS RESPONSE POLICIES Mandated Medical Leave of Absence for Physiological Reasons Policy

    E-print Network

    MEDICAL LEAVE/CRISIS RESPONSE POLICIES Mandated Medical Leave of Absence for Physiological Reasons Policy A student will be placed on mandatory medical leave if the following has occurred: · It has been determined by a Health Service clinician (NP or MD) that the student requires more intensive medical care

  3. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...leave may be taken for absences where the employee...the birth of a healthy child or placement of a healthy...after the birth of a child, or takes leave in several...leave during which the mother has a serious health...with the birth of her child or if the newborn...

  4. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  5. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers’ access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employer’s perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38?000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval?=?0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  6. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10?mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

  7. Why Women Leave Interview Protocol Demographics: Name

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Why Women Leave Interview Protocol Demographics: Name Age Length of time at UW Promoted? Title in the [NAME] department. Best things, worst things. 3. Describe your experience on campus. Best things, worst

  8. Revised February 2013 UF Paid Parental Leave

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    or adoption of a child or the initial placement of a child in the foster care of the employee. Who is Eligible months from the first date of absence. If being used for foster care, the paid parental leave must

  9. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  10. Biosynthesis of Caffeine in Leaves of Coffee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ashihara; Ana Maria Monteiro; Fiona M. Gillies; Alan Crozier

    lhe levels of endogenous caffeine and theobromine were much higher in buds and young leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv Kent than in fully developed leaves. Biosynthesis of caffeine from 14C-labeled adenine, guanine, xanthosine, and theobromine was observed, whereas other studies (H. Ashihara, A.M. Monteiro, 1. Moritz, F.M. Cillies, A. Crozier (19961 Planta 198: 334-339) have indicated that there is

  11. Polar Concentration of Elements in Tree Leaves

    E-print Network

    James D. Brownridge

    2003-08-25

    A long-term study of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, S, Cl, Fe and Mn in leaves is in progress. The objective of this study is to develop a week-by-week profile of these elements in leaves during several growing seasons. The profile includes the following information: (1) Which elements each tree collects in its leaves. (2) The location in the leaf with the highest concentration, top side, under side or interior. (3) The week during the growing season when each element first appears in the leaves of each tree. (4) The change in the relative concentration from week to week. (5) The source of the element i.e., deposition from the atmosphere or the root system of the tree. This information is profile for each year and will be correlated with environmental conditions for that year. Leaves are collected weekly from first unfolding in early spring until leaf drop in the fall. They are from the 31 trees and 26 species in Broome County, NY. From time to time leaves from most of the 26 species are being randomly collected from trees growing throughout the northeastern US.

  12. More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.

    PubMed

    McCain, D C; Markley, J L

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

  13. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave recredit. 630.502 Section...LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.502 Sick leave recredit. (a) When an employee...employee transfers shall certify his or her sick leave account to the employing agency...

  14. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  15. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  16. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  17. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  18. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  19. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  20. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.208 Reduction in leave credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) Accrued or accumulated annual or sick leave under subchapter I of chapter 63 of title...regulations governing the granting and use of annual or sick leave; (2) Advanced annual or sick leave approved under the same terms and...

  2. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  3. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  4. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  5. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  6. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

  7. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

  8. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

  9. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

  10. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

  11. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

  12. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  13. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act)

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) OMB in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: ______________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  14. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  15. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1499-1504. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25772371

  16. Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave (http://handbook.unc.edu/medical.html)

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    1 Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs, Graduate School, CB 4010, 203 Bynum Hall. Date of application: __________________________________________ and academic department: ___________________________________________ Graduate School Parental Leave Application

  17. Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

    2012-01-01

    For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010…

  18. Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula S. R. Rose; Ara Manukian; Robert R. Heath; James H. Tumlinson

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that at- tract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. lhe release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3

  19. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  20. Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

  1. Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    ) immediately. Your DDR is a trained professional appointed to manage FMLA and medical leave in your division as needed. All confidential medical information is shared directly with the DDR. The DDR will provide you the job, etc. All Medical Information is Confidential. All medical information is shared directly

  2. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  3. SQL APPLICATION FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Mariana MARCU

    2003-01-01

    This paper main objective is to present SQL power of use for a case of data management with heterogeneous data classification. The article is based on a PHP application developed to manage a real situation of secondary school leaving examination in August 2003 at Bra?ov city, Romania at exams center no. 29, where the first author was president of the

  4. PROCEDURAL MODELING AND CONSTRAINED MORPHING OF LEAVES

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    and support he has provided over years and most importantly for introducing me to my wife. Navendu Singh thank my wife for being so encouraging and supportive in last couple of years. Without her unconditional to use. With these methods, leaves of different shapes are either reconstructed from images individually

  5. New steroids from Solenostemma argel leaves.

    PubMed

    Hamed, A I

    2001-11-01

    Two new pregnane ester glycosides, named stemmoside A (1) and stemmoside B (2) and a third new polyhydroxy pregnane, named stemmin C (3), were isolated from Solenostemma argel leaves. The structures were achieved by extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. PMID:11677012

  6. Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn – leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

  7. Disaster Leave Office of Human Resources

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    Disaster Leave 6.28 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty, staff, and graduate associates for further direction and compensation information 1 . The Ohio State University ­ Office of Human Resources of Human Resources 614-292-2800 ohrc@hr.osu.edu hr.osu.edu/elr Benefits Customer Service Center, Office

  8. Stomata of apple leaves cultured in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Blanke; Ann R. Belcher

    1989-01-01

    Examination by scanning electron microscopy showed abaxial stomata on in vitro cultured apple (Malus pumila Mill.) leaves. With leaf ontogeny, most of these stomata appeared to lose their regulatory ability while developing wide vestibules of up to 20 µm in diameter. It is proposed that these deformed stomata may be a possible cause for the excessive transpirational water loss and

  9. HR & Payroll 05.16.2011 LEAVE OPTIONS @ MASON

    E-print Network

    Sickness and Disability Program depends upon the retirement option you select when hired.) ·Sick leave Leave ·Amount of leave is based upon court documentation ·Leave taken to serve on a jury, to appear as a witness in a court proceeding or deposition, as compelled by a subpoena or summons, or to accompany

  10. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...or used to liquidate an indebtedness for advanced annual or sick leave granted on or after a date fixed by the leave recipient's...period of medical emergency for which LWOP or advanced annual or sick leave was granted. (f) A leave recipient's employing...

  11. Medical Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Medical Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University Employee Name Request Justification: Medical leave without pay: Medical leave without pay may be granted for reasons including extenuating personal health problems or immediate family issues. Medical leaves of absence without

  12. Research progresses of the Surface Similar to Lotus Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su Changhong; Chen Qingmin

    The self-cleaning effect of lotus leaves has attracted great attention due to potential application in daily life and industrial processes. The self-cleaning effect of lotus leaves has been demonstrated to be cooperative effect of the surface structure and low surface energy material on the lotus leaves. Recently, many methods have developed to fabricate the surface similar to lotus leaves. In

  13. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  14. Constituents of the leaves of Verbascum blattaria.

    PubMed

    Youn, I-Soo; Han, Ah-Reum; Roh, Mark S; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the dried leaves of Verbascum blattaria L. (Scrophulariaceae) led to the isolation and identification of five known compounds, E-harpagoside, laterioside, kaempferol 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and (2S)-liquiritigenin. The structures of these compounds were determined by physical and spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds were isolated from V blattaria for the first time. PMID:25924525

  15. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them. PMID:12345402

  16. Pregnene derivatives from Solenostemma argel leaves.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H A; Hame, A I; El-Emary, N A; Springue, I V; Mitome, H; Miyaoka, H

    2001-06-01

    Two new pregnene derivatives 14beta-15alpha-dihydroxy-delta4pregnene-3,20 dione and 3beta-14beta,15alpha-16alpha hydroxy-20-oxo-delta5pregnene-tetra-ol, in addition to alpha- and beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol, were isolated from Solenostemma argel leaves. The structures were established by extensive spectral analysis as well as comparison with reference materials. PMID:11394848

  17. Characterization of ?-Galactosidase from Cucumber Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Elizabeth L.; Pharr, David M.

    1980-01-01

    Two forms of ?-galactosidase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.22) which differed in molecular weight were resolved from Cucumis sativus L. leaves. The enzymes were partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weights of the two forms, by gel filtration, were 50,000 and 25,000. The 50,000-dalton form comprised approximately 84% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in crude extracts from mature leaves and was purified 132-fold. The partially purified 25,000-molecular weight form rapidly lost activity unless stabilized with 0.2% albumin and accounted for 16% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in the crude extract. The smaller molecular weight form was not found in older leaves. The two forms were similar in several ways including their pH optima which were 5.2 and 5.5 for the 50,000- and 25,000-dalton form, respectively, and activation energies, which were 15.4 and 18.9 kilocalories per mole for the larger and smaller forms. Both enzymes were inhibited by galactose as well as by excess concentrations of p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactoside sub-strate. Km values with this substrate and with raffinose and melibiose were different for each substrate, but similar for both forms of the enzyme. With stachyose, Km values were 10 and 30 millimolar for the 50,000- and 25,000- molecular weight forms, respectively. PMID:16661511

  18. Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillère, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

  19. Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed

    Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms. PMID:12223757

  20. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Hassan, Syed Imran; Siddiqui, Bina S; Shaheen, Farhana; Ghayur, M Nabeel; Gilani, Anwar H

    2002-10-01

    Two triterpenoids, 20beta-acetoxy-2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (guavanoic acid, 3), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxy-24-p-z-coumaroyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (guavacoumaric acid, 7), along with six known compounds 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid (1), jacoumaric acid (2), isoneriucoumaric acid (4), asiatic acid (5), ilelatifol D (6) and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic methods. Compound 5 showed dose-dependent (10-500 microg/ml) spasmolytic activity in spontaneously contracting isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. PMID:12377233

  1. Antifungal amide from leaves of Piper hispidum.

    PubMed

    Alécio, A C; da Silva Bolzani, V; Young, M C; Kato, M J; Furlan, M

    1998-05-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) yielded a new pyrrolidine amide, N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine 1, in addition to two known amides N-[5-(3', 4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E)-pentadienoyl] pyrrolidine and N-[2-(3', 4'-methylenedioxy-6'-methoxyphenyl)-2(Z)-propenoyl]pyrrolidine. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of spectral data, including ES-MS. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:9599264

  2. Iridoids from Spathodea campanulata P. Beauvais leaves.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Yaser G

    2009-06-01

    Three new and four known iridoids have been isolated from the leaves of Spathodea campanulata, the structures of the new compounds were determined as 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-decinnamoyl globularimin, 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-asystasioside E and 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside and provisionally named as spatheosides A (1), B (2) and C (3) respectively. The known iridoids were identified as verminoside (4), 6'-O-trans-caffeoyl-loganic acid (5), catalpol (6) and ajugol (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic methods. PMID:19634315

  3. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  4. Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

    2014-01-01

    The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves. PMID:25493183

  5. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  6. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section 831.302...Credit for Service § 831.302 Unused sick leave. (a) For annuity computation...annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal...

  7. PERSONAL LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type, or Write Legibly

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    PERSONAL LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type, or Write Legibly Check one: New Leave of Absence: ________________________________ For Use by Department and Human Resources Department (Supervisor) must complete (Please type or print: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ For HR/Provost Use Only The Provost has Final Approval for all Faculty personal leave of absence requests

  8. LSUHSC Department of Genetics Request for Leave Graduate Students

    E-print Network

    LSUHSC Department of Genetics Request for Leave ­ Graduate Students SECTION I. TO BE COMPLETED of Genetics Graduate Student Leave Guidelines The Department's graduate student leave provisions are in alignment with those of the Graduate School, and are universally applied to all Genetics' graduate students

  9. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...proposes revisions to the Family and Medical Act (FMLA...implement amendments to the military leave provisions of...availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of...provisions; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain...

  10. P-83 OLVERSION 5/2012 Employee Request for Leave

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    days) Court Leave Military Leave Death in Family FMLA (___Self ___Family Member ___Military with appropriate attachments to the Benefits Office. Beginning Date: Ending Date: Total Hours Requested: Brief. Signature of Employee (Sign original in blue ink) Date Sick leave of over three (3) days must be submitted

  11. Georgia Southern University Medical Leave Assistance Program Membership Form

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Georgia Southern University Medical Leave Assistance Program Membership Form Name of Donor (Print: ____________________________________________________ Telephone #: _______________________________ I wish to become a member of the Medical Leave Assistance- transferable and cannot be withdrawn. I will abide by the Medical Leave Assistance Program policy (LINK

  12. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  13. Azoxyglycoside content and ?-glycosidase activities in leaves of various cycads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Yagi

    2004-01-01

    Azoxyglycoside contents in leaves of 32 cycad species belonging to 10 cycad genera and the seeds of 4 Encephalartos species were analyzed by HPLC with a YMC-PA03 amide column. Azoxyglycosides were detected in mature leaves of 14 cycad species including 2 Bowenia, 2 Lepidozamia, 1 Microcycas, and 1 Stangeria species, but not in mature leaves of 18 other cycad species;

  14. The Economic Consequences Of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons From Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the economic consequences of rights to paid parental leave in nine European countries over the 1969 through 1993 period. Since women use virtually all parental leave in most nations, men constitute a reasonable comparison group, and most of the analysis examines how changes in paid leave affect the gap between female and male labor market outcomes. The

  15. RESTORATION OF ANNUAL LEAVE CHECKLIST Exigency of the Smithsonian

    E-print Network

    RESTORATION OF ANNUAL LEAVE CHECKLIST Exigency of the Smithsonian Employee schedules use year. Employee submits a request for restoration because of exigency through the supervisor of the leave year, but no later than January 31 of the new leave year The request for restoration should

  16. Parents' Workplace Situation and Fathers' Parental Leave Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how the workplace situation of both parents affects fathers' parental leave use. We used parental leave-taking register data from Statistics Sweden for dual-earner couples who resided in Stockholm and had children in 1997 (n=3,755). The results indicate that fathers shorten their parental leave if their workplaces are such that…

  17. Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty Human Resources / Attendance and Leave recalled to active duty, it is critical that the Division of Human Resources is immediately notified. A military leave impacts terms and conditions of employment and staff and the Division of Human Resources

  18. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...conductor is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time, the entire period that the employee is forced to be absent is designated as...

  19. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time and no equivalent position is available, the entire period that the employee...

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time and no equivalent position is available, the entire period that the employee...

  1. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...conductor is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time, the entire period that the employee is forced to be absent is designated as...

  2. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...conductor is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time, the entire period that the employee is forced to be absent is designated as...

  3. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  4. Three chromone components from Aloe vera leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Okamura; Noriko Hine; Satomi Harada; Toshihiro Fujioka; Kunihide Mihashi; Akira Yagi

    1996-01-01

    Three new chromone components, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera. Their structures have been established from spectroscopic studies; the structures of 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were shown to be 8-C-?-d- glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone and 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-cinnamoyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, respectively. The inhibitory action of these compounds against tyrosine oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase was examined.

  5. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol ? methyl viologen ? O2) and PS II (H2O ? parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH ? O2; succinate ? O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and reduction of O2. PMID:25366828

  6. CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE DUTY

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE by THE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS/LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OR OTHER WORK UNIT NAME OF UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITY that you submit a timely, complete, and sufficient certification to support a request for FMLA leave due

  7. BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Leave CPT Comp time taken MTH Military Leave-Temp DNO Organ Donation-Temp-Salary MTS Military Leave-Temp-Salary DNR Organ Donor-Regular OCE On Call Earned DNA Organ Donor-Salary OCH On Call Hours-Paid DNT Organ

  8. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division. PMID:15161195

  9. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    PubMed

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions. PMID:15027834

  10. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  11. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  12. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, ?ukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  13. Reversal of chromoplasts to chloroplasts in Buxus leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Koiwa; Taiji Ikeda; Yoshio Yoshida

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in plastids ofBuxus sempervirens L. leaves were observed during their seasonal yellowing and regreening. The disintegration of chloroplasts into globular\\u000a type chromoplasts in yellowing leaves and their direct restoration to functional chloroplasts again in regreening leaves were\\u000a followed.\\u000a \\u000a The results presented an example of recent information indicating the essential sense of the reversible reciprocation of plastid\\u000a transformation.

  14. Leaf life span of floating-leaved plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tsuchiya

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of floating-leaved plants is relatively high comparable with terrestrial herbaceous plants, though floating-leaved plants have a much smaller biomass with a leaf area index seldom exceeding 2m2m-2. Their rather small biomass accumulation is related to higher turnover of leaf biomass or shorter leaf life span. Life span of floating leaves reported in the literature ranged mostly from 13

  15. The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

    1989-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

  16. Succession of microfungal communities on decaying leaves of Castanopsis fissa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alvin M C; Jeewon, Rajesh; Hyde, Kevin D

    2005-11-01

    A total of 38 fungal taxa were identified on senescent untreated and autoclaved Castanopsis fissa leaves during a 4-month study period. Seventy-six percent of the fungal genera found in this survey have not previously been recorded from Castanopsis. Frequency and time of occurrence of fungal taxa occurring on untreated senescent leaves were clustered into four groups when analyzed by cluster analysis, suggesting the replacement of microfungi in stages of succession on naturally senescent leaves. Autoclaved leaves revealed significantly different fungal communities, with only 26% of overlap with the natural ones and no clear patterns of replacement of fungal communities. Factors regulating the rates of decomposition are also discussed. PMID:16333336

  17. Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, UK; Gomathi, P; Selvan, V Thamil

    2006-01-01

    Backround Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models. Methods Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w) and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w). Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively. Results The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of MEPA (500 mgkg-1 b.w) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of indomethacin a prototype of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent. Conclusion The results obtained in this study indicated that the methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata possess potent antiinflammatory activity in both acute and chronic models. PMID:17081283

  18. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

  19. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. 630.403 Section 630.403...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant...

  20. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  2. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  4. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  5. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  8. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  9. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  10. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  11. Fluidized and vibrofluidized shallow beds of fresh leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata de Aquino Brito Lima; Maria do Carmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamics behavior of shallow fluidized and vibrofluidized beds operating with fresh leaves was investigated with the aim of exploring drying applications in a modified conveyor belt (MCB) system, which may be operated in a fixed- or fluidized-bed mode. Leaves of the specimens Duranta repens, Schinus molle, Coleus barbatus, Buxus sempervirens, and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested with a range

  12. Your Rights Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

    E-print Network

    Your Rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 FMLA requires covered employers reasons: · to care for the employee's child after birth, or placement for adoption or foster care certification to support a request for leave because of a serious health condition, and may require second

  13. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  14. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    McGaughey, Alan

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on covered active duty or call to covered active duty

  15. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you can; terms: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  16. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  17. First Grade Collecting Leaves with the book Leaf Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.

  18. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  19. HYL1 gene maintains venation and polarity of leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Yu; Xuhong Yu; Ruijuan Shen; Yuke He

    2005-01-01

    For genetic analysis of the mechanism of leaf curvature, we chose hyl1 mutant of Arabidopsis as a model for dissection of leaf venation pattern and adaxial\\/abaxial polarity. In leaves of hyl1 mutants that were hyponastic and curved upward, the complexity of the secondary veins was reduced, and the discontinuity of veins increased. In the lateral areas of the leaves where

  20. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  1. Page 1 of 8 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Page 1 of 8 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances of eligible faculty and staff: The Gift-Endowment Program (GEP. IMPLEMENTATION In order to ensure that campus records reflect an accurate furlough accrual balance, Departments

  2. ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances for faculty: The Clinical Coverage Program (CCP) is being used they are paid. This document will provide guidance only for manually adjusting furlough balances as a result

  3. Page 1 of 7 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Page 1 of 7 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances for faculty: Over-the-cap ("NIH-OTC") DOS codes are used, as in the example below, the increase to an individual's furlough accrual balance will be negligible (less than one

  4. Leave of Absence Policies in Business and Education. Administrative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Doug

    Leave of absence policies in business and education and the rationale for offering these policies are examined. Most businesses and education agencies allow extended personal leaves of absence, which are usually unpaid. Most companies prefer to use general policy statements and to consider each request on an individual basis. According to a survey…

  5. Carbon monoxide photoproduction from rice and maize leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, S.; Morokuma, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

    We investigated CO photoproduction from intact leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) by laboratory experiments. CO photoproduction showed positive correlation with light intensity and was positively dependent on oxygen concentration. The average CO photoproduction was 2.6±0.3×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from rice leaves and 2.2±0.1×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from maize leaves ( n=5) at a radiation intensity of 49 mW cm -2. CO photoproduction from senescent rice leaves was 9 times greater (25.7±1.5×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1, n=2) at the same radiation intensity than from live leaves, and responded slowly to changes in oxygen concentration and light intensity. CO photoproduction showed no correlation with CO 2 concentration or humidity. This indicates that CO photoproduction in leaves is not directly controlled by carbon metabolism or stomatal conductance. The lack of dependence on stomatal conductance leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of CO from inside the leaves to the atmosphere is not a controlling factor for CO photoproduction from rice and maize leaves.

  6. Leaving home: A study of laboratory mouse pup independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Bechard; Georgia Mason

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile wild house mice leave their mothers at 8 weeks (+). In contrast, laboratory strains of mice (lab mice) are typically ‘weaned’ at postnatal day (PND) 21. Lab mice might mature faster than their wild forebears; but if they do not, standard laboratory weaning likely involves maternal deprivation. We therefore investigated when lab mice voluntarily leave their mothers. C57BL\\/6J families

  7. Disability & Medical Leave Resources A Guide for Employees

    E-print Network

    Saffman, Mark

    Disability & Medical Leave Resources A Guide for Employees This guide is a resource for you if you are experiencing difficulties at work related to a disability or chronic medical condition. For example, you may: have a serious health condition and need medical leave be returning to work with restrictions

  8. POLICY ON INVOLUNTARY LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR MEDICAL REASONS

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    for possible Involuntary Medical Leave if the Assistant Vice President for Student Development or a designee- 1 - POLICY ON INVOLUNTARY LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR MEDICAL REASONS POLICY STATEMENT The University a student's behaviors associated with a psychiatric, psychological, or other medical condition interferes

  9. Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Kenagy

    1972-01-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

  10. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Unused sick leave. 29.332 Section 29.332 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary...for Credit Must Be Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees...

  11. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) CERTIFICATION FORM Employee's Section

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) CERTIFICATION FORM Employee's Section Employee's Name): ______________________________________________________________ Medical Release-My signature authorizes the release of any medical information needed by the College __________________ (if patient is not employee): Reason for FMLA Leave: a. Employee's (your) own medical condition. b

  12. Reduction of nitrate in leaves of tomato during vegetative growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bellaloui; D. J. Pilbeam

    1990-01-01

    Activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase was shown to increase in young leaves of tomato until the leaves reached full expansion, and then it declined. The increase in activity was shown to be due both to an increase in enzyme activity per gram fresh weight and an increase in leaf weight, and the decline in activity was due to a

  13. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  14. Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of leaves or nodes in a rational tree. Let s be an IN-rational sequence of nonnegative numbers, that is a se in "Theoretical Computer Science 221, 1-2 (1999) 41-60" #12;A rational tree is a tree which has only a nite numberEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Frederique Bassino Institut Gaspard

  15. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in willow leaves under field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erling Ögren

    1988-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence of leaves of a willow (Salix sp.) stand grown in the field in northern Sweden was measured on several occasions during the growing season of 1987. For leaves that received mostly full daylight, the FV\\/FP ratio declined roughtly 15% in the afternoon on cloudless days in July (FP is the fluorescence at the peak of the induction curve

  16. Division of Human Resources Compensatory Leave Pay Out

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Compensatory Leave Pay Out Questions (813) 974-7955 Payroll by the practice of the organizational unit. The maximum cash out of overtime compensatory leave is not to exceed of being earned should be cashed-out); · upon an employee's appointment to another organizational unit

  17. Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures Page | 1 Questions (813) 974 to access the HR A&L Website Home > A-Z Index > type in Human Resources in search box > HR Services/or the supervisor. #12;Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures Page | 2 Questions (813) 974

  18. Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, R R; Loewel, C; Gross, R; Dötterl, S; Keller, A; Blüthgen, N

    2011-11-01

    The epiphytic bacterial communities colonising roots and leaves have been described for many plant species. In contrast, microbiologists have rarely considered flowers of naturally growing plants. We identified bacteria isolated from the surface of petals and leaves of two plant species, Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae). The bacterial diversity was much lower on petals than on leaves of the same plants. Moreover, the bacterial communities differed strongly in composition: while Pseudomonadaceae and Microbacteriaceae were the most abundant families on leaves, Enterobacteriaceae dominated the floral communities. We hypothesise that antibacterial floral volatiles trigger the low diversity on petals, which is supported by agar diffusion assays using substances emitted by flowers and leaves of S. officinalis. These results suggest that bacteria should be included in the interpretation of floral traits, and possible effects of bacteria on pollination are proposed and discussed. PMID:21972888

  19. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  20. The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

  1. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

  2. Monocot Leaves are Eaten Less than Dicot Leaves in Tropical Lowland Rain Forests: Correlations with Toughness and Leaf Presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER J. G RUBB; ROBYN V. J ACKSON; I G NAC; IO M. BA; J E NN; IE N. B E E

    † Background and Aims In tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) the leaves of most monocots differ from those of most dicots in two ways that may reduce attack by herbivores. Firstly, they are tougher. Secondly, the immature leaves are tightly folded or rolled until 50 -100 % of their final length. It was hypothesized that (a) losses of leaf area

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  4. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  5. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  6. Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Cultivated Lycium barbarum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Z. Dong; Da Y. Lu; Y. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated\\u000a and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified\\u000a as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03–16.33 mg\\/g).

  7. Testing for correlates of intent to leave one's job versus intent to leave one's occupation among cancer registrars.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Susan A; Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert S; Lindler, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation involved a field study of cancer registrars (CRs), who collect data used by the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to study trends in cancer incidence and outcomes. Because of the forecasted shortage of CRs due to the aging of the CR workforce, the professional organization of CRs needed to research the factors related to the recruitment and retention of this workforce. From a national database of 3,393 CRs, data regarding intent to leave one's job and occupation, along with occupational commitment, were obtained from a sample of 374 CRs to meet this research need. The focus of this field study was to assess patterns of association between the correlates of "intent to leave" variables, including measures of job satisfaction and occupational commitment. Results showed that satisfaction with job rewards, interpersonal relations, and fringe benefits had a stronger negative relationship to intent to leave one's job compared with intent to leave one's occupation. Affective and normative occupational commitment facets had a stronger negative relationship to intent to leave one's occupation compared with intent to leave one's job. Beyond demographic control and perceptual variables, these attitudinal job satisfaction and occupational commitment variables together explained the greatest amount of variance in both "intent to leave" measures. PMID:19361020

  8. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological processes and key functional pathways in rice. PMID:21407816

  9. Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

  10. Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

  11. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...members deployed to duty in international waters have access to qualifying exigency leave...United States, including international waters. (4) A call to covered active duty...removing the phrase ``paragraph (c)'' everywhere it appears in newly designated...

  12. Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures 1. Introduction has significantly strengthened the legal protections for students during periods of pregnancy who is pregnant or has decided to terminate a pregnancy. The arrangements and procedures detailed

  13. Gemini 9 astronauts leave suiting trailer for launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the Gemini 9-A space flight, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (front), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 in full space suits during prelaunch countdown.

  14. A flavonoid glycoside from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense (II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Sik Kang; Won Sick Woo

    1982-01-01

    Quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucofuranoside, mp 243?6°, was isolated from leaves ofPolygonum sachalinense Fr. Schm. and characterized on the basis of its spectral data. This is the second report of its occurrence in nature.

  15. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  16. A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

    2011-10-05

    This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

  17. Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

    1993-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

  18. QUALITY PARAMETERS OF CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS LEAVES DURING AMBIENT STORAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Martinazzo; E. C. Melo; A. Barbosa; F. F. Soares; R. P. Rocha; L. L. Randuz; P. A. Berbert

    The effects of storage in different packages on the essential oil content and humidity of Brazilian lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves were studied. Lemon grass leaves were dried at 50°C to moisture content of 11% (d.b.) and stored for one year in three different plastic and paper packages. Oil content and its principal compounds were isolated by the hydro-distillation method

  19. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds from daylily ( Hemerocallis fulva) leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanjun Zhang; Robert H Cichewicz; Muraleedharan G Nair

    2004-01-01

    Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used as food and in traditional medicine for thousands of years in eastern Asia. The leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation and jaundice. In studies of the aqueous methanol extracts of fresh Hemerocallis fulva leaves, 1?,2?,3?,4?-tetrahydro-5?-deoxy-pinnatanine (1), pinnatanine (2), roseoside (3), phlomuroside (4), lariciresinol (5), adenosine (6), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucoside (7),

  20. Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

  1. Optimisation of Extraction and Identification of Gallotannins from Sumac Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Zalacain; M Prodanov; M Carmona; G. L Alonso

    2003-01-01

    The extraction of gallotannins from sumac leaves (Rhus coriaria L.) was studied and the best extraction conditions were found to be maceration of the ground leaves in water at 45°C for 60min without agitation. A full-scale pilot extraction plant with four vessels was designed to simulate a counter-current procedure. Water was added always to the vessel containing the almost fully

  2. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Andrén; Thomas Andrén

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick

  3. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  4. Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pieruschka, Roland; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study homobaric leaves of Vicia faba or heterobaric leaves of Glycine max were illuminated with lightflecks of different sizes, mimicking sunflecks. Photosynthetic properties of the lightfleck areas were assessed with combined gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Lateral diffusion in homobaric leaves with an interconnected intercellular air space stimulated photosynthesis and the effect was largest in small lightfleck areas, in particular when plants were under drought stress. Such effects were not observed in the heterobaric leaves with strongly compartmented intercellular gas spaces. It is concluded that lateral diffusion may significantly contribute to photosynthesis of lightfleck areas of homobaric leaves depending on lightfleck size, lateral diffusivity, and stomatal conductance. Since homobaric leaf structures have been reported for many plant species, it is hypothesized that leaf homobary may have an impact on overall plant performance under conditions with a highly heterogeneous light environment. PMID:20008895

  5. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  6. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  7. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.

    PubMed

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  8. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    SciTech Connect

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  9. Intercellular Diffusion Limits to CO2 Uptake in Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, David F.; Mott, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    We studied plants of five species with hypostomatous leaves, and six with amphistomatous leaves, to determine the extent to which gaseous diffusion of CO2 among the mesophyll cells limits photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In helox (air with nitrogen replaced by helium), the diffusivities of CO2 and water vapor are 2.3 times higher than in air. For fixed estimated CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf (pi), assimilation rates in helox ranged up to 27% higher than in air for the hypostomatous leaves, and up to 7% higher in the amphistomatous ones. Thus, intercellular diffusion must be considered as one of the processes limiting photosynthesis, especially for hypostomatous leaves. A corollary is that CO2 pressure should not be treated as uniform through the mesophyll in many leaves. To analyze our helox data, we had to reformulate the usual gas-exchange equation used to estimate CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf; the new equation is applicable to any gas mixture for which the diffusivities of CO2 and H2O are known. Finally, we describe a diffusion-biochemistry model for CO2 assimilation that demonstrates the plausibility of our experimental results. PMID:16667792

  10. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  11. Effects of epiphyton onPotamogeton crispus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K H; Breen, C M

    1981-12-01

    Potamogeton crispus L. grows as a winter producing annual in the shallow lakes of the Pongolo Floodplain, South Africa. Colonization of leaves by algal and bacterial epiphytes, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, followed the established pattern of increasing diversity and density with leaf age. It was apparent from the micrographs that the primary and subsequent colonizers were present even after death of the host leaf. Cross sections of leaves, viewed by transmission electron microscopy, illustrated that bacterial attachment did not damage the surface of young leaves. There was, however, extensive inward swelling and disorganization of the epidermal walls, characteristic of a reaction to invasion by pathogens. In older leaves the swelling was also present in mesophyll cells, while bacteria had invaded and degraded the epidermal cell wall. The bacterial invasion was concomitant with signs of senescence, and in dead leaves the organisms had penetrated and degraded the epidermis and mesophyll cell walls. The epiphyton/ host relationship may therefore be considered necrotrophic with important consequences for the transfer of energy from producers to consumers during decomposition. PMID:24227551

  12. Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G J

    1972-12-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

  13. 76 FR 63354 - Proposed Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...2900-0034] Proposed Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave) Activity: Comment...comments for information needed to evaluate a trainee's request for leave from Vocational...forms of information technology. Title: Trainee Request for Leave--Chapter 31,...

  14. Certification of Adoption or Foster Care Placement Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Certification of Adoption or Foster Care Placement Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) SECTION I Foster care placement Date leave to begin: Date leave to end: Signature of employee: Date signed: SECTION

  15. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. (a) When an employee leaves...or her civilian position to enter the military service, the employing agency...

  16. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every manufacturer importing or manufacturing from raw coca leaves shall submit information...

  17. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every manufacturer importing or manufacturing from raw coca leaves shall submit information...

  18. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every manufacturer importing or manufacturing from raw coca leaves shall submit information...

  19. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child. PMID:11712459

  20. Goniometric observations of light scattered from soils and leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestner, Joann M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Irons, James R.; Smith, James A.; Brakke, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The laboratory established at NASA-Goddard to measure and model the light-scattering properties of soil samples and individual plant leaves employs two goniometers: one for the measurement of directional reflectance and transmittance from vertically-mounted leaf samples, and the other for measurement of directional reflectance from such horizontal, semiinfinite particulate surfaces as soil samples. Sample observations of various soil minerals and plant leaves are presented; these goniometric data are compared to the results of a reflectance model from particulate surfaces and those of a ray-tracing model of leaf reflectance and transmittance.

  1. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

  2. Immediate IPTV channel leave by explicit user tracking in PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Yoshiuchi, Hideya; Yoshizawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel IPTV channel leave mechanism for Passive Optical Network (PON). By explicit user tracking and automatic differentiation of IGMP v2 and v3 users, the proposed mechanism can realize immediate channel leave in both Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) while avoiding removing the channel which still has users. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can significantly save the bandwidth consumption during "channel surf" by users, compared to the standard IGMP timeout mechanism.

  3. The uptake of elemental iodine vapour by bean leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. A.; Cox, L. C.

    Deposition of iodine vapour to leaves of phaseolus vulgaris was measured over a range of conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were used to deduce stomatal opening. The results showed that stomatal resistance controlled iodine absorption at relative humidities below 40 per cent, but that the rate of absorption of iodine increased by an order of magnitude when the relative humidity was raised to 80 per cent, presumably due to cuticular absorption. After exposure to iodine at high humidity, a substantial fraction of the iodine could be washed from the leaves. In Britain, cuticular uptake would probably dominate stomatal uptake of iodine on most occasions.

  4. Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

    2000-08-01

    The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll Â? giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

  5. Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized Cycad Leaves

    E-print Network

    Hermsen, Elizabeth; Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2007-09-01

    to extant genera (Pant 1987, 2002). While cuticular anatomy may provide diagnostic fea- tures (e.g., of stomata and epidermal cells), cuticle is lacking in many fossil leaves. Compounding the problem is the fact that leaves of some other groups...). An additional specimen was collected from Triassic Fremouw Formation strata at the base of Mount Falla, also in the Beardmore Glacier area (Barrett et al. 1986). Peat blocks were cut into sections, and the flat surfaces were polished and then etched in 48...

  6. Volume 3, Chapter 9: The Method for Making Strings Note: In addition to the original text, please see a modern commentary at the end of this

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    with it after the strings are made. The method for matching up the cords: Silkworms make their cocoons out is made from the che (#) tree. 1 The next best is made from silkworms fed on mulberry leaves. The third best is made from original silkworms, [ second silkworms]. 2 The che kind is clear and the mulberry

  7. Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    1984-01-01

    High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

  8. Rutin and Luteolin from Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bimakr; R. A. Rahman; F. S. Taip; L. T. Chuan; A. Ganjloo; J. Selamat; A. Hamid

    In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO ) extraction conditions were optimized for the 2 simultaneous separation of four bioactive flavonoids (catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; rutin, RU; luteolin, LU) contained in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaves. SC-CO extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature 2 and dynamic extraction time were optimized by Complete Randomize Design (CRD) full factorial. The optimum condition

  9. The analysis of pecan leaves by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris W. Smith; J. Benton Storey

    1971-01-01

    The analysis of plant tissue, generally leaves, is considered to be an important step in diagnosing and confirming a mineral element deficiency. The mineral element status of the plant can be accurately measured by the analysis of plant tissue if the tissue is properly sampled. Tissue analysis is often the best indication for recommending fertilizer or supporting nutrient spray treatments.The

  10. Compartmental distribution and redistribution of abscisic acid in intact leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Slovik; Wolfram Hartung

    1992-01-01

    A computer model written for whole leaves and described in the preceding publication (Slovik et al. 1992, this volume) has been developed for calculating the distribution and fluxes of weak acids or bases amongst different leaf tissues and their compartments, considering membrane transport, transpiration-driven mass transport, symplasmic and apoplasmic diffusion, and metabolic turnover rates in specified compartments. The model is

  11. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  12. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  13. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  14. Leave of Absence Request Checklist Student Name: _____________________________________ WSU ID: ____________________________

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    a cancellation form to the Office of Records and Registration (318 Mazurek) Review of Leave Information I have to supply all requested information and complete all required steps. I do not receive financial aid (To be confirmed by the Financial Aid Office) I receive financial aid and will meet with someone from the Financial

  15. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the Daniellia oliveri leaves.

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, A; Haruna, A K; Garba, M; Ehinmidu, J O; Sarker, S D

    2004-12-01

    The n-butanol soluble part and four chromatographic fractions of the aqueous ethanolic extract of the leaves of Daniellia oliveri were investigated for antimicrobial properties. All fractions showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. A chromatographic fraction showed significant activity against the fungus Tricophyton rubrum. PMID:15567251

  16. Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves

    PubMed Central

    Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

  17. Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees

    E-print Network

    Bassino, Frédérique

    Monge, Universit'e de Marne­la­Vall'ee Marie­Pierre B'eal Institut Gaspard Monge, Universit'e Paris 7 et CNRS Dominique Perrin Institut Gaspard Monge, Universit'e de Marne­la­Vall'ee httpEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Fr'ed'erique Bassino Institut Gaspard

  18. A new chromone from the leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell.

    PubMed

    Rattanaburi, Suthida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Carroll, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    A new chromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2?-(hydroxymethyl)-6,8-dimethyl-chromen-4-one, named melachromone, together with 12 known compounds, including chromones, anthraquinone, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, benzene derivatives, ellagic acids and terpenes, were isolated from the leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. Their structures were characterised by spectroscopic methods. PMID:22424051

  19. Mineral composition of peach leaves affected by iron chlorosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Abadía; J. N. Nishio; E. Monge; L. Montañés; L. Heras

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Fe chlorosis on the mineral composition of field grown peach tree leaves was studied in two different areas. No significant differences in total Fe content were found, whereas 2,2’ bipyridyl extractable Fe, K and the K\\/Ca ratio were significantly affected in both experiments. Phosphorus and the P\\/Fe ratio were significantly affected only in one experiment.

  20. STS 41-G crew prepares to leave for KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-G crew leaves the hanger at Ellington Air Force Base for departure for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the STS 41-G mission. From left to right are Astronauts Sally Ride, mission specialist; Robert Crippen, mission commander; Kathryn Sullivan, mission specialist; David Leestma, mission specialist; and Jon McBride, pilot.

  1. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

  2. Morale Matters: Midlevel Administrators and Their Intent To Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsrud, Linda K.; Heck, Ronald H.; Rosser, Vicki, J.

    This study developed an empirical construct for the term "morale," and applied the resulting structural model in an investigation of the impact of morale on administrators' reported intentions to leave their positions. The paper identifies three common sources of frustration in these administrators: the midlevel nature of their role; the lack of…

  3. Convergence in defense syndromes of young leaves in tropical rainforests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Kursar; P. D. Coley

    2003-01-01

    In tropical forests, the majority of damage by herbivores or pathogens occurs on young leaves, yet the patterns of damage and the factors that influence them are poorly known. By measuring damage throughout leaf development and maturation for five species in a Panamanian forest, we showed that leaf toughening, which only occurs over a few days once the leaf is

  4. When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    ECOLOGY: When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi For Amy Arnett, getting a Ph, collecting ants at 33 sites along the way. They had set out to look at how the food resources for ant lions, insects that prey on ants, changed from north to south along the East Coast. But in the process

  5. Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity in Maize Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Doncaster, Helen D.; Leegood, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how light regulates the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in vivo in C4 plants. The properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were investigated in extracts which were rapidly prepared (in less than 30 seconds) from darkened and illuminated leaves of Zea mays. Illumination resulted in a significant decrease in the S0.5(phosphoenolpyruvate) but there was no change in Vmax. The form of the enzyme from illuminated leaves was less sensitive to malate inhibition than was the form from darkened leaves. At low concentrations of phosphoenolpyruvate, the activity of the enzyme was strongly stimulated by glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, triose-phosphate, alanine, serine, and glycine and was inhibited by organic acids. The enzyme was assayed in mixtures of metabolites at concentrations believed to be present in the mesophyll cytosol in the light and in the dark. It displayed low activity in a simulated `dark' cytosol and high activity in a simulated `light' cytosol, but activities were different for the enzyme from darkened compared to illuminated leaves. PMID:16665411

  6. Sick leave and workers' compensation for police officers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In Australia it has been necessary to enact specific provisions into industrial and employment laws to ensure workplace protection and coverage of police officers because at common law police officers have not been regarded as employees. Police unions in Australia have emerged as strong industrial players and have secured a range of terms and conditions of employment which do not apply to the broader workforce. However, the battle in relation to workers' compensation coverage and extended sick leave seems to be ongoing, particularly in Western Australia. The area of interaction between workers' compensation laws and sick leave entitlements is often neglected against the background of other industrial matters concerning police. This article investigates the entitlements of Australian police officers to these benefits against the historical background of industrial laws. It concludes that there is no uniformity in coverage for workers' compensation and sick leave and that the publicly available data in relation to absence from work of police officers due to sickness are generally incomplete and present challenges for cross-jurisdictional comparisons. The article points to future areas of research into police sick leave. PMID:20552944

  7. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...to timely designate leave does not cause harm or injury to the employee. In all cases...825.300 causes the employee to suffer harm, it may constitute an interference...promotion, or any other relief tailored to the harm suffered (see §...

  8. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Anupam

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o., respectively). PMID:12165335

  9. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamaldeep Dhawan; Anupam Sharma

    2002-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg\\/kg, p.o., respectively).

  10. Child health: An underplayed variable in parental leave policy debates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Galtry

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines parental leave policy from the perspective of infant and young child health. Factors assisting the successful integration of breastfeeding and maternal employment are outlined. Health effects of day care attendance are also explored as an integral component of this assessment. It is suggested that the potential health disadvantages associated with lack of, or inability to access, parental

  11. Antimicrobial activity of UV-induced phenylamides from rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Lin; Yoo, Youngchul; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Cho, Man-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae). In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus). UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae), blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola) diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25383752

  12. "Who Leaves?" Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Working Paper 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attrition patterns among teachers in New York City public elementary and middle schools and explores whether teachers who transfer among schools, or leave teaching entirely, are more or less effective than those who remain. We find that the first-year teachers who are less effective in improving student math scores have higher…

  13. Intracellular localization of phosphorylases in spinach and pea leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Steup; Erwin Latzko

    1979-01-01

    Starch phosphorylase activity in extracts of spinach or pea leaves and of isolated chloroplasts was determined and separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. In spinach leaf extracts, a specific activity of 16 nmol glucose 1-phosphate formed per min per mg protein was found, whereas a lower value (6 nmol per min per mg protein) was observed in preparations of isolated

  14. Is your Medicare Advantage plan leaving the area?

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Is your Medicare Advantage plan leaving the area? You don't have to do it alone! If you need Medicare plans. Call to schedule an in-home appointment or to find a seminar near you. Humana is a Medicare Advantage organization with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in this Humana plan depends on contract renewal

  15. Family and Medical Leave Revised 06/06

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    , or placement for adoption or foster care; b. To care for the employee's spouse, child, or parent who has of a child for adoption or foster care shall expire at the end of the twelve months period beginning to utilize family medical leave for the following reasons: a. To care for the employee's child after birth

  16. before leaving for Taiwan notarizing your highest degree

    E-print Network

    will assist you to complete the necessary forms for applying Academia Sinica ID card, ARC, Post Office account and tuition fee payment) For NTHU students, on September 10 (Thursay). #12;You will get your student ID card·before leaving for Taiwan notarizing your highest degree buying four-month insurance policy

  17. "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are marching along with 30,000 pounds on the wagon." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 552 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  18. Plant biotechnology: Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misako Kato; Kouichi Mizuno; Alan Crozier; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Hiroshi Ashihara

    2000-01-01

    Caffeine synthase is an enzyme that catalyses the final two steps in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. We have cloned the gene encoding caffeine synthase from young leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), opening up the possibility of creating tea and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants that are naturally deficient in caffeine. Consumers concerned about the possible adverse effects of caffeine consumption will

  19. [Chemical constituents of the leaves of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (Linn) Merr].

    PubMed

    Du, J; Gao, L

    1992-06-01

    Nevadensin (A), kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (B), taraxerol (C) and taraxerol-acetate (D) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax trifoliatus. A and B were isolated for the first time. Pharmacological experiments have shown that nevadensin possesses expectorant and antitussive actions. PMID:1418581

  20. Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Lou; Hongju He; Corrie Hanhart; Dunia Pino Del Carpio; Ruud Verkerk; Jan Custers; Maarten Koornneef; Guusje Bonnema

    2008-01-01

    Summary • Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa.  Here, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves in two novel

  1. A Statewide Analysis of RNs' Intention To Leave Their Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambur, Betty; Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Mongeon, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Secondary analysis of registered nurse work force data from Vermont (n=4,418, 85% response) identified predictors of intention to leave current position. Differences in intention vary by educational attainment, hours worked, gender, practice role, and practice activity. Improving retention will require increased attention to compensation,…

  2. Effect of Rust Infection on Oxidative Phosphorylation of Wheat Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. Pozsár; Z. Király

    1958-01-01

    WE have already reported1,2 that the rate of consumption of oxygen by wheat leaves infected with stem rust fungus is not augmented by treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenol, in contrast with the great respiratory increase observed in healthy leaf tissue after treatment with dinitrophenol.

  3. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  4. Grafting Energy-Harvesting Leaves onto the Sensornet Tree

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    Grafting Energy-Harvesting Leaves onto the Sensornet Tree Lohit Yerva , Bradford Campbell , Apoorva the problem of augmenting battery-powered sen- sornet trees with energy-harvesting leaf nodes. Our results harvest enough energy from ambient sources to acquire and transmit sensor readings ev- ery minute, even

  5. Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In a frisbee-type method, the Syncom IV-1 satellite leaves the Discovery's payload bay on its way into service for the U.S. Navy. Retrieval hardware and part of the pallet for securing the Palapa B-2 are pictured near the protective shield for the now vacated Telest-H/PAM-B.

  6. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  7. COLOR CHANGE KINETICS OF CELERY LEAVES UNDERGOING MICROWAVE HEATING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elçin Dem?rhan; Belma Özbek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microwave output power and sample amount on color change kinetics of celery leaves (Apium graveolens L.) during microwave heating. The color parameters of the materials were quantified by the Hunter Lab system. These values were also used for calculation of the total color change, chroma, hue angle, and browning

  8. Alkaloids isolated from leaves of Prosopis juliflora against Xanthomonas pathovars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Raghavendra; S. Satish; K. A. Raveesha

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract, different solvent extracts and isolated constituents of leaves of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. (Fabaceae) were assayed for antibacterial activity by cup diffusion method against three phytopathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars viz., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, X. a. pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria associated with angular leaf spot of cotton, common blight of bean and bacterial spot of tomato

  9. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

  10. Development of Heat Insulating Materials Using Date Palm Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Al-Juruf; F. A. Ahmed; I. A. Alam; H. H. Abdel-Rahman

    1988-01-01

    The work presented in this paper aims at investigating the possibility of using dry leaves of date palm fronds and suitable binders to obtain thermal insulating products for buildings The paper presents the various steps attempted to arrive at some heat insulating materials. And, it illustrates how those materials were tested to measure their thermal conductivities. It can be generally

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones in juice of great burdock leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Savina; V. I. Sheichenko; Yu. V. Stikhin; V. A. Stikhin; T. A. Sokol’skaya; O. S. Anisimova; Ya. F. Kopyt’ko; E. I. Grodnitskaya; O. A. Cherkasov

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the juice of freshly collected great burdock (Arctium Lappa L.) leaves was studied. The main components in the ethyl acetate extract were determined. Adifference between the samples\\u000a collected in two successive years was found.

  12. Extraction of Essential Oil from Laurel Leaves by Using Microwaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beste Bayramoglu; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microwave power and time in solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) on the yield and composition of the essential oil obtained from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves were studied. The extraction was also performed by hydrodistillation as a control. Specific gravities and refractive indices of the essential oils obtained by different methods and at various conditions were also examined.

  13. Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Leave a reply

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Leave a reply The Windmill in Action At the University Page 1 of 2Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones | MADE 2/3/2014http://themadeblog.com/micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones in Architecture, Design and tagged Cell Phone, Design, JC Chiao, MADE BLOG, Micro Windmills, New, News, Recharge

  14. Department of Human Resources APPLICATION FOR DEFERRED SALARY LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    Department of Human Resources APPLICATION FOR DEFERRED SALARY LEAVE *Forward to the Director of Human Resources prior to January 31st DEFSAL 08/05 NAME DEPARTMENT ADDRESS PRESENT POSITION NUMBER to Employee Relations, Department of Human Resources, Arts and Administration Building, Memorial University

  15. School District Leave Policies, Teacher Absenteeism, and Student Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald G. Ehrenberg; Randy A. Ehrenberg; Daniel I. Rees; Eric L. Ehrenberg

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to reduce salary costs, many school districts have begun to offer teachers financial incentives to retire early. Often, however, these districts have limits on the number of cumulated unused sick leave days that teachers may receive cash payments, credits toward future health insurance, or retirement credits for, at retirement. Thus, one might expect that in addition to

  16. Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lang; F. Stober; H. K. Lichtenthaler

    1991-01-01

    Summary The UV-B radiation (e.g. 337 nm) induced blue fluorescence (BF) and red chlorophyll fluorescence spectra (RF) of green leaves from plants with different leaf structure were determined and the possible nature and candidates of the blue fluorescence emission investigated. The blue fluorescence BF is characterized by a main maximum in the 450 nm region and in most cases by

  17. Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation

    E-print Network

    An, Li

    correspondence to Li An, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources- ever, the psychological causes and effects of leaving one's parental home, and especially with observable conflicts between development and conversation goals, provides us an ex- cellent site to address

  18. Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves

    E-print Network

    Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves Reveal Complex Andrews, Fife, Scotland Abstract The manual processing of eight species of leaf was investigated in the M-group chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Leaf species varied in the extent to which physical

  19. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D Une; V. P Sarveiya; S. C Pal; V. S Kasture; S. B Kasture

    2001-01-01

    The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg\\/kg) on the transfer latency,

  20. Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C 3 plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Evans

    1989-01-01

    The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll.

  1. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  2. University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    a baby (this includes same-sex partners); (ii) who is the biological father of an expected baby; (iii) who is adopting a child with a partner, or whose partner is adopting a child. 1.2 Paternity leave or adopted child and/or to support the mother following birth or following the adoption of a child. 1

  3. Visualization of early stress responses in plant leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laury Chaerle; Martin J. vande Ven; Roland L. Valcke; Dominique Van Der Straeten

    2002-01-01

    Plant leaves possess microscopic valves, called stomata, that enable control of transpirational water loss. In case of water shortage, stomata close, resulting in decreased transpirational cooling. The ensuing temperature increase is readily visualized by thermography. Salicylic acid, a central compound in the defense of plants against pathogens, also closes stomata in several species. In previous work, thermography permitted to monitor

  4. Chemistry & Biology Peptide Length and Leaving-Group Sterics Influence

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    of cancer cells. INTRODUCTION The creation and implementation of high-throughput nucleic acid analysisChemistry & Biology Article Peptide Length and Leaving-Group Sterics Influence Potency of Peptide an analysis of parameters influencing potency of peptide phosphonate ABPs for trypsin- fold S1A proteases

  5. Tracking synthesis and turnover of triacylglycerol in leaves

    PubMed Central

    Tjellström, Henrik; Strawsine, Merissa; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG), typically represents <1% of leaf glycerolipids but can accumulate under stress and other conditions or if leaves are supplied with fatty acids, or in plants transformed with regulators or enzymes of lipid metabolism. To better understand the metabolism of TAG in leaves, pulse–chase radiolabelling experiments were designed to probe its synthesis and turnover. When Arabidopsis leaves were incubated with [14C]lauric acid (12:0), a major initial product was [14C]TAG. Thus, despite low steady-state levels, leaves possess substantial TAG biosynthetic capacity. The contributions of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 to leaf TAG synthesis were examined by labelling of dgat1 and pdat1 mutants. The dgat1 mutant displayed a major (76%) reduction in [14C]TAG accumulation whereas pdat1 TAG labelling was only slightly reduced. Thus, DGAT1 has a principal role in TAG biosynthesis in young leaves. During a 4h chase period, radioactivity in TAG declined 70%, whereas the turnover of [14C]acyl chains of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and other polar lipids was much lower. Sixty percent of [14C]12:0 was directly incorporated into glycerolipids without modification, whereas 40% was elongated and desaturated to 16:0 and 18:1 by plastids. The unmodified [14C]12:0 and the plastid products of [14C]12:0 metabolism entered different pathways. Although plastid-modified 14C-labelled products accumulated in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, PC, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diacylglcerol (DAG), there was almost no accumulation of [14C]16:0 and [14C]18:1 in TAG. Because DAG and acyl-CoA are direct precursors of TAG, the differential labelling of polar glycerolipids and TAG by [14C]12:0 and its plastid-modified products provides evidence for multiple subcellular pools of both acyl-CoA and DAG. PMID:25609824

  6. Guidelines on Sabbatical Leaves (created 2013) Sabbatical leaves are awarded to faculty members of the College according to Indiana

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    of the College according to Indiana University policy. The eligibility requirements, terms of the leave: https://www.indiana.edu/~vpfaa/academicguide/index.php/Policy_F-2 and in the instructions provided by the Vice-Provost for Faculty and Academic Affairs: http://www.indiana

  7. FAMILY LEAVE This is a summary of Oregon's laws relating to Family Leave Act. It is not a complete text

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    for a spouse, parent, child, parent-in-law, or same-sex domestic partner with a serious health condition 2003 Parental Leave during the year following the birth of a child or adoption or foster placement of a child under 18, or a child 18 or older if incapable of self-care because of a mental or physical

  8. 5 CFR 630.1008 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.1008 Section 630.1008... § 630.1008 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except as otherwise...is in a shared leave status, annual and sick leave shall accrue to the credit of...

  9. 5 CFR 630.406 - Records on the use of sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Records on the use of sick leave. 630.406 Section 630.406 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.406 Records on the use of sick leave. An agency must maintain records...

  10. 5 CFR 630.907 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.907 Section 630.907...Program § 630.907 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except as otherwise...is in a shared leave status, annual and sick leave shall accrue to the credit of...

  11. Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Pierce; Klaus Raschke

    1980-01-01

    Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated

  12. Stomatal development in new leaves is related to the stomatal conductance of mature leaves in poplar (Populus trichocarpaxP. deltoides)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-Ichi Miyazawa; Nigel J. Livingston; David H. Turpin

    2005-01-01

    In general, stomatal density (SD) decreases when plants are grown at high CO2 concentrations. Recent studies suggest that signals produced from mature leaves regulate the SD of expanding leaves. To de- termine the underlying driver of these signals in poplar (Populus trichocarpa3P. deltoides) saplings, a cuvette system was used whereby the environment around mature (lower) leaves could be controlled indepen-

  13. Water is allocated differently to chloroplasts in sun and shade leaves.

    PubMed

    McCain, D C; Croxdale, J; Markley, J L

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study water allocation in cell compartments of sun and shade leaves. NMR spectra of Acer platanoides were resolved into two peaks that were assigned to chloroplast and nonchloroplast water. Sun leaves contained 1.7 times more water per unit area of surface than shade leaves, and the water was allocated differently. Chloroplasts in sun leaves contained 17% of the total leaf water versus 47% in shade leaves. Comparing equal leaf surface areas, the chloroplasts in shade leaves contained 60% more water than those in sun leaves. PMID:16665860

  14. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  15. Cyanide-induced death of cells in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, L A; Vorobyov, A A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2007-05-01

    Destruction of guard cell nuclei in epidermis isolated from leaves of pea, maize, sunflower, and haricot bean, as well as destruction of cell nuclei in leaves of the aquatic plants waterweed and eelgrass were induced by cyanide. Destruction of nuclei was strengthened by illumination, prevented by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and an electron acceptor N,N,N ,N -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and removed by quinacrine. Photosynthetic O2 evolution by the leaf slices of a C3 plant (pea), or a C4 plant (maize) was inhibited by CN- inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and was renewed by subsequent addition of the electron acceptor p-benzoquinone. PMID:17573713

  16. Antioxidant flavonoids from leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Feng Peng; Dieter Strack; Alfred Baumert; Ramanathan Subramaniam; Ngoh Khang Goh; Tet Fatt Chia; Swee Ngin Tan; Lian Sai Chia

    2003-01-01

    Ten flavonoid compounds were isolated from the dried leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Laksa leaves), and identified as 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy-3?,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone; 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4?,5,7-trihydroxyflavone; 6-hydroxyapigenin; 6?-O-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl) 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyloxy-3?, 4?, 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone; scutillarein; 6-hydroxyluteolin; 3?,4?,5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavone; 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside; quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucuronide; 2?-O-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl) quercitrin; quercetin. Evaluation of the antioxidative activity, conducted in vitro, by using electron spin resonance (ESR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometric assays, showed that these isolated flavonoids

  17. Pentacyclic triterpenes with selective bioactivity from Sebastiania adenophora leaves, Euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, M L; Hernández-Bautista, B E; Jiménez-Estrada, M; Cruz-Ortega, R; Anaya, A L

    2007-01-01

    Six known pentacyclic triterpenes possessing oleanane, lupane, or taraxerane-type skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Sebastiania adenophora (Euphorbiaceae) and are reported for the first time in this species. These compounds include 3-epi-beta-amyrin, beta-amyrinone, 3-epi-lupeol, lupenone, taraxerol, and taraxerone. Structures were elucidated by comparison with literature data. The bioactivities of these compounds were tested on the root growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, amaranth (Amaranthaceae), Lycopersicon esculentum, tomato (Solanaceae), and Echinochloa crus-galli, barnyard grass (Poaceae). All six triterpenes were selectively bioactive. An important stimulatory effect was observed on amaranth root growth (23% to 56%) for almost all tested triterpenes (250 microg/ml). These triterpenes significantly inhibited the root growth of barnyard grass (28% to 78%) and tomato (23% to 49%). Aqueous leachate and organic extracts of S. adenophora leaves significantly inhibited the root growth of all test species. The possible ecological role of the allelochemicals isolated is discussed. PMID:17151909

  18. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves. PMID:25198243

  19. Ozone slows the growth rate of silver maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    One-year-old silver maple seedlings were fumigated for 12 hours per day with either 0, 0.1, or 0.2 ppm ozone. As new leaves were formed in the treatment chambers, representative leaves were selected from each treatment having Leaf Plastochron Index values from 0 to 1.5. Dots were placed on each leaf along the midrib at approximately 1-mm intervals. Each leaf was then photographed at the same time on three successive days. Changes in elementary leaf length were determined by measuring the distance of the dots from the leaf tip. Ozone fumigation allowed leaf elongation and hastened leaf maturity. Ozone could retard height and weight increases through these processes because leaf size is often directly correlated with seedling size and weight.

  20. Fern leaves and cauliflower curds are not fractals

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2012-01-01

    The popular demonstration of drawing a mature fern leaf as expressed by Barnsley's fractal method is mathematically and visually very attractive but anatomically and developmentally misleading, and thus has limited, if any, biological significance. The same is true for the fractal demonstration of the external features of cauliflower curds. Actual fern leaves and cauliflower curds have a very small number of anatomically variable and non-iterating bifurcations, which superficially look self-similar, but do not allow for scaling down of their structure as real fractals do. Moreover, fern leaves and cauliflower curds develop from the inside out through a process totally different from fractal drawing procedures. The above cases demonstrate a general problem of using mathematical tools to investigate or illustrate biological phenomena in an irrelevant manner. A realistic set of mathematical equations to describe fern leaf or cauliflower curd development is needed. PMID:22516819

  1. Anti-metastatic properties of the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong Seok; Shin, Tae Yong; Eun, Jae Soon; Kim, Dae Keun; Jeon, Hoon

    2011-03-01

    The leaves of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. have been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases including gastroenteric disorders, diabetes mellitus, chronic bronchitis and asthma. In the present study, the anti-metastatic action of the EtOAc fraction of the leaves of E. japonica (LEJ) was investigated. LEJ showed potent inhibitory effects on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and expressions via down-regulation of NF-?B translocation to the nucleus in B16F10 cells. In addition, the cell migration and invasion were down-regulated by LEJ. LEJ also significantly suppressed lung metastasis in vivo. Moreover, we isolated the compounds ursolic acid and 2?-hydroxyursolic acid from LEJ and both compounds also significantly suppressed MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, indicating that they are the active components of LEJ. The present results demonstrate that LEJ may be used as valuable antimetastatic agent for the treatment of cancer metastasis. PMID:21547674

  2. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    PubMed Central

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

  3. Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis on cured tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, P; Gadani, F

    2000-03-01

    A worldwide survey was conducted to evaluate the frequency and distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis populations on cured tobacco leaves during post-harvest storage. In total, 133 tobacco samples of different types and origins were analyzed. Nine percent of the samples showed the presence of B. thuringiensis, and 24 B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and characterized. The majority of the isolates produced bipyramidal crystals, and three fourths of them showed a second type of crystal protein (cuboidal or heterogeneous crystals). Only three isolates showed the rhomboidal crystal morphology characteristic of the anti-coleopteran B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis. PCR analysis with primers specific for cry1 and cry3 genes revealed eight distinct cry gene profiles. The results of this study indicate that B. thuringiensis is naturally present at low frequency on the phylloplane of cured tobacco leaves and that its distribution is worldwide. PMID:10679055

  4. New phenolic compounds from Camellia sinensis L. fermented leaves.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Ayaka; Sakamoto, Arisa; Nakayama, Hideyuki; Nakazono, Yoko; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2013-07-01

    Two new phenolic compounds (1 and 2, named as teasperol and teasperin, respectively) were isolated from fermented tea (Camellia sinensis L.) products, together with known phenolic compounds. Teasperol (1) was isolated from Chinese traditional post-fermented tea leaves (Liu-pao tea) and teasperin (2) was from a Japanese tea product which was selectively fermented with Aspergillus sp. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated based on the analyses of their spectroscopic data. PMID:22972630

  5. “Hello, goodbye”: Exploring the phenomenon of leaving teaching early

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aubrey Scheopner Torres

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand\\u000a why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth\\u000a interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with statistical analyses of\\u000a public and

  6. Stress-Induced Proteins in Parthenium argentatum Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sundar; K. V. Chaitanya; A. Ramachandra Reddy

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed the stress-associated proteins in a high-rubber-yielding guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray cv. 11591) leaves. Protein profiles in leaf fractions, resolved by SDS-PAGE and visualized by Coomassie Brilliant Blue\\u000a staining, were different under various stresses. Changes in 25, 34 and 74 kDa polypeptides were noticed in response to low\\u000a night temperature treatment while 24, 40, 47 and 81 kDa

  7. Four flavanocoumarins from the leaves of Litsea coreana LEVL.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Yi-Long; Xiao, Qing-Pin; Huang, Cheng; Jin, Yong; Li, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Two new flavanocoumarins, 1 and 2, together with phyllocoumarin (3) and epiphyllocoumarin (4), were isolated from the leaves of Litsea coreana LEVL. in Anhui Province, China. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Biological tests revealed that 1-4 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities through inhibition of TNF-? and IL-1 production in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). PMID:23776028

  8. Bioactive limonoids from the leaves of Azaridachta indica (Neem).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maria J; Malafronte, Nicola; Vassallo, Antonio; Braca, Alessandra; Cotugno, Roberta; Vasaturo, Michele; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio

    2014-03-28

    Eight new limonoids (1-8) and one new phenol glycoside (9), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Azaridachta indica. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds isolated were assayed for their cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Moreover, their ability to interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, affecting its biological activity, was tested. PMID:24499352

  9. Two new triterpenoids from the fresh leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Hassan, Syed Imran; Siddiqui, Bina S

    2002-12-01

    Two new triterpenoids, guajavolide (2 alpha,3 beta,6 beta,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28,20 beta-olide; 1) and guavenoic acid (2 alpha,3 beta,6 beta,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid; 2) along with one known triterpene oleanolic acid (3) were isolated from the fresh leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structure elucidation and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic experiments, including 2D-NMR techniques. PMID:12494352

  10. Effects of epiphyton on Potamogeton crispus L. leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Rogers; C. M. Breen

    1981-01-01

    Potamogeton crispus L. grows as a winter producing annual in the shallow lakes of the Pongolo Floodplain, South Africa. Colonization of leaves\\u000a by algal and bacterial epiphytes, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, followed the established pattern of increasing\\u000a diversity and density with leaf age. It was apparent from the micrographs that the primary and subsequent colonizers were\\u000a present even

  11. Thermographic assessment of scab disease on apple leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-C. Oerke; P. Fröhling; U. Steiner

    Phytopathogenic fungi may affect both the cuticular and the stomatal conductance of plant tissue resulting in significant\\u000a modifications of leaf temperature. Venturia inaequalis colonizes apple leaves below the cuticle (subcuticularly) causing scab disease. The suitability of digital infrared thermography\\u000a for sensing and quantifying apple scab was assessed by investigating the effects of V. inaequalis on the water balance of apple

  12. Flavonoids in the leaves of twenty-eight polygonaceous plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Kawasaki; Takeshi Kanomata; Kunijiro Yoshitama

    1986-01-01

    Flavonoids in the leaves of twenty-eight species belonging to the Polygonaceae were studied. Thirty-three kinds of flavonoids\\u000a were isolated, and eighteen kinds were obtained as crystals. Quercetin glycosides were commonly found in the family. In the\\u000a quercetin glycosides, 3-O-rhamnoside was most frequently found: 3-O-glucuronide is also distributed widely. Myricetin glycosides were rare. Methylated flavonols were found in some species of

  13. Antioxidant phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Wasabia japonica.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takahiro; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira

    2008-02-01

    From the MeOH extract of the leaves of W. japonica, seven phenylpropanoid gentiobiosides (1-7) were isolated along with eight known phenylpropanoids (8-15). Structures of 1-7 were determined based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The activity of compounds 1-15 to scavenge superoxide anion radicals was investigated using an electron spin resonance (ESR) method. PMID:17920090

  14. Sulphated flavonoid glycosides from leaves of Atriplex hortensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wies?awa Bylka; Maciej Stobiecki; Rafa? Fra?ski

    2001-01-01

    Two flavonoid sulphates, i.e. quercetin 3-O-sulphate-7-O-?-arabinopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-sulphate-7-O-?-arabinopyranoside, were isolated from leaves of Atriplex hortensis L. The structures of these compounds were established by UV, 1H and 13C NMR, 2D NMR and MS spectra. The compounds were isolated for the first time from plant material.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Caffeine Synthase from Tea Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misako Kato; Kouichi Mizuno; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Masanori Iwama; Masachika Irie; Alan Crozier; Hiroshi Ashihara

    1999-01-01

    Caffeine synthase (CS), the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent N-methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine bio- synthesis, was extracted from young tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves; the CS was purified 520-fold to apparent homogeneity and a final specific activity of 5.7 nkat mg21 protein by ammonium sulfate fractionation and hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, adenosine- agarose, and gel-filtration chromatography. The native enzyme was monomeric with

  16. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kyu Kim; Chuan-Ling SI; Young-Soo Bae

    2008-01-01

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 ? 3)-?-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  17. Flavonoids in the leaves of Asclepias incarnata L.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Seven flavonoid compounds: quercelin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-arabinoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-beta-glucopyranoside were isolated and identified from the leaves of Asclepias incarnata, L. (Asclepiadaceae). PMID:15080595

  18. Systemic signalling of environmental cues in Arabidopsis leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Coupe; B. G. Palmer; J. A. Lake; S. A. Overy; K. Oxborough; F. I. Woodward; J. E. Gray; W. P. Quick

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure are two environmental signals known to regulate stomatal numbers. It has previously been shown that if a mature Arabidopsis leaf is supplied with either elevated CO2 (750 ppm instead of ambient at 370 ppm) or reduced light levels (50 lmol m22 s21 instead of 250 lmol m22 s21), the young, developing leaves that

  19. Overseeding Buffalograss Turf with Fine-Leaved Fescues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songul Severmutlu; Terrance P. Riordan; Robert C. Shearman; Roch E. Gaussoin; Lowell E. Moser

    2005-01-01

    Buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] use as a turf in the northern USA is limited to a certain extent by its extended winter dormancy. A mixture of buffalo grass with cool-season turf- grasses might extend the turf’s green appearance and enhance quality. Research was conducted to determine the effects of over-seeding fine-leaved fescue (Festuca spp.) in buffalo grass turf

  20. Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions. PMID:19426314