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1

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

2

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized\\u000a as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk\\u000a fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential,\\u000a fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx

Chitrangada Acharya; Sudip K. Ghosh; S. C. Kundu

2008-01-01

3

Correlation between yield and biochemical parameters in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study was carried out on six biochemical parameters and four yield attributes using multiple regression analysis to investigate their relationship in the mulberry silkworm,Bombyx mori. The study generated new information on the importance of digestive amylase activity for the survival of the silkworm and revealed the inability of other enzymes to affect this relationship. Data also substantiate the

S. N. Chatterjee; C. G. P. Rao; G. K. Chatterjee; S. K. Ashwath; A. K. Patnaik

1993-01-01

4

An emerging functional natural silk biomaterial from the only domesticated non-mulberry silkworm Samia ricini.  

PubMed

Mulberry silk fibroin is a widely used biomaterial and recent work on non-mulberry silk fibroin also suggests it may have similar uses. We expect silk fibroin from the only domesticated non-mulberry eri silkworm, Samia ricini, to possess useful properties as a biomaterial. Eri silk gland fibroin is a heterodimeric protein of approximately 450?kDa. Cytocompatibility evaluation with fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells shows good cell attachment, viability and proliferation. The matrices, which have high thermal stability and good swellability, are also haemocompatible. Eri silk production is cost effective as no agronomic practices are required for their host plant cultivation. This fibroin provide new opportunities as an alternative natural functional biomaterial in various biomedical applications. PMID:23733347

Pal, Shilpa; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Thomas, Tintu; Kundu, Subhas C

2013-08-01

5

Antiviral activity in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm Bombyx mori is exploited both as a powerful biological model system and also as a tool to convert leaf protein into silk. Silkworm larvae\\u000a often suffer from viral infections causing heavy losses to the economy of the silk industry. Insects exhibit both humoral\\u000a and cellular immune responses that are effective against various pathogens like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.,

Hui-peng Yao; Xiao-feng Wu; K. Gokulamma

2006-01-01

6

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion.  

PubMed

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential, fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori are immunologically inert and invoke minimal immune response. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by these fibroin proteins both in solution and in the form of films assayed in terms of nitric oxide and TNFalpha production showed comparable stimulation as in collagen. Kinetics of adhesion of L929 murine fibroblasts, for biocompatibility evaluation, monitored every 4 h from seeding and studied over a period of 24 h, reveal A. mylitta fibroin film to be a better substrate in terms of rapid and easier cellularization. Cell viability studies by MTT assay and flow cytometric analyses indicate the ability of fibroin matrices to support cell growth and proliferation comparable to collagen for long-term culture. This matrix may have potential to serve in those injuries where rapid cellularization is essential. PMID:18322779

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-08-01

7

Carotenoids of mulberry leaves and of silkworm excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, great attention is being devoted to the search for new cheap sources of carotene [i]. The raw material for this may be certain industrial wastes and, in particular, silkworm excreta (SWE) the complex study of the composition of which has already been carried on over a number of years [2]. In the present communication we present

D. U. Uzakova; A. A. Kolesnik; Yu. L. Zherebin; I. K. Sarycheva

1987-01-01

8

Nucleotide Diversity and Selection Signature in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori, and Wild Silkworm, Bombyx mandarina  

PubMed Central

To investigate the patterns of nucleotide diversity in domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and its wild relative, Chinese wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina Moore, we sequenced nine nuclear genes. Neutrality test and coalescent simulation for these genes were performed to look at bottleneck intensity and selection signature; linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and between loci was employed to investigate allele association. As a result, B. mori lost 33–49% of nucleotide diversity relative to wild silkworm, which is similar to the loss levels found in major cultivated crops. Diversity of B. mori is significantly lower than that of B. mandarina measured as ?total (0.01166 vs. 0.1741) or ?W(0.01124 vs. 0.02206). Bottleneck intensity of domesticated silkworm is 1.5 (in terms of k = Nb/d, Nb-bottleneck population size; d-bottleneck duration) with different durations. Gene DefA showed signature of artificial selection by all analysis methods and might experience strong artificial selection in B. mori during domestication. For nine loci, both curves of LD decay rapidly within 200 bp and drop slowly when distance is > 200 bp, although that of B. mori decays slower than B. mandarina at loci investigated. However, LD could not be estimated at DefA in B. mori and at ER in both silkworms. Elevated LD observed in B. mori may be indicator of selection and demographic events.

Guo, Yi; Shen, Yi-Hong; Sun, Wei; Kishino, Hirohisa; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhang, Ze

2011-01-01

9

Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.  

PubMed

In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359?kcal could be generated per 100?gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

2011-10-01

10

The Effect of W Chromosome Origin on Sex-Chromosome Pairing in ZZWW Tetraploid Females of the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx Mori , and the Congenic Wild Silkworm, Bombyx Mandarina  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the degree of pairing of the Z and W chromosomes in ZZWW tetraploid female silkworms that have the W chromosomes of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, and those of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina, we induced two types of ZZWW tetraploid female silkworms (Cr4n, Wr4n) through cold treatment of the eggs. The Wr4n female is congenic to the

N. Tanaka; T. Yokoyama; H. Abe; O. Ninagi; T. Oshiki

2002-01-01

11

MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.  

PubMed

Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-01-01

12

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects.

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

13

Nested retrotransposons on the W chromosome of the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina.  

PubMed

The W chromosome of the silkworms Bombyx mori or B. mandarina is recombinationally isolated from the Z chromosome and the autosomes. We previously characterized a female-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), designated W-Yamato, derived from the W chromosome of the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina. To further analyse the W chromosome of B. mandarina, we obtained a lambda phage clone that contains the W-Yamato RAPD sequence and sequenced the 16.7 kb DNA insert. We found that this DNA comprises a nested structure of at least seven elements: six retrotransposons and one transposable element-like sequence. The transposable element-like sequence is inserted into a micropia-like retrotransposon (Karate). The Karate and the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon BMC1 are inserted into a 412-like retrotransposon (Judo). Furthermore, this Judo, and two non-LTR retrotransposons (Kurosawa and Kendo) are inserted into a Pao-like retrotransposon (Yamato). These results indicate that the retrotransposons inserted into the W chromosome are not efficiently removed but accumulate gradually as strata without recombination. PMID:12144695

Abe, H; Sugasaki, T; Terada, T; Kanehara, M; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Mita, K; Oshiki, T

2002-08-01

14

The effect of W chromosome origin on sex-chromosome pairing in ZZWW tetraploid females of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the congenic wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina.  

PubMed

To analyze the degree of pairing of the Z and W chromosomes in ZZWW tetraploid female silkworms that have the W chromosomes of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, and those of the wild silkworm, Bobyx mandarina, we induced two types of ZZWW tetraploid female silkworms (Cr4n, Wr4n) through cold treatment of the eggs. The Wr4n female is congenic to the Cr4n female for W chromosomes; namely, the W chromosomes of the Wr4n female are derived from those of B. mandarina. Each of the sex ratios (female/male) in filial triploids from the Cr4n females was shown to be in the range of 3.9-5.3 (4.6 as an average of six cases). On the other hand, each of the sex ratios (female/male) in filial triploids from the Wr4n females was shown to be in the range of 6.2-9.0 (6.9 as an average of nine cases). The results of a t-test indicated that the difference in sex ratios in the two groups is highly significant (at the 0.1% level). These results suggest that, in the meiosis of the ZZWW tetraploid female, the frequency of pairing of the W chromosome of B. mandarina and the Z chromosome of B. mori is lower than that of the pairing of the W and Z chromosomes of B. mori. Furthermore, the t-test results are evidence that the W chromosomes have undergone significant evolutional change. PMID:11990764

Tanaka, N; Yokoyama, T; Abe, H; Ninagi, O; Oshiki, T

2002-01-01

15

Identification of novel random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) on the W chromosome of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the wild silkworm, B. mandarina, and their retrotransposable element-related nucleotide sequences.  

PubMed

Genomic DNAs were compared between males and females of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, strains C108, C137, J137, p50, and WILD-W (constructed by crossing a wild silkworm, B. mandarina, female with a male of strain C108) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 700 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Four female-specific RAPDs (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai, W-Kamikaze, and W-Yamato) were found. The sex chromosome formulas of B. mori and B. mandarina are ZW (XY) for the female and ZZ (XX) for the male. The four female-specific RAPDs are assumed to be derived from the W chromosome because the other chromosomes are shared by both sexes. A computer search for deduced amino acid sequences of these four RAPDs revealed that all of them showed homology to previously reported amino acid sequences encoded in known retrotransposable elements from various organisms. PMID:9880922

Abe, H; Kanehara, M; Terada, T; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Suzuki, M; Sugasaki, T; Oshiki, T

1998-08-01

16

Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%), with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid) species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

Awasthi, Arvind K; Nagaraja, GM; Naik, GV; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Thangavelu, K; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2004-01-01

17

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

18

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

19

Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)  

PubMed Central

The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm.

2014-01-01

20

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

2012-06-01

21

Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus ) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity\\u000a and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust\\u000a alternative, PCR based marker assays

Arvind K Awasthi; GM Nagaraja; GV Naik; Sriramana Kanginakudru; K Thangavelu; Javaregowda Nagaraju

2004-01-01

22

The Origin and Dispersal of the Domesticated Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: A Reconstruction Based on Ancient Texts  

PubMed Central

Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm.

Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

2010-01-01

23

A baculovirus isolated from wild silkworm encompasses the host ranges of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in cultured cells.  

PubMed

A baculovirus, named BomaNPV S2, was isolated from a diseased larva of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina. Notably, BomaNPV S2 exhibited a distinguishing feature in that its host range covered that of both Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in cultured cells. It could replicate in cells of B. mori (Bm5 and BmN), Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn-5B1-4). However, occlusion-derived virions of BomaNPV S2 in B. mori cells contained only a single nucleocapsid, whereas they contained multiple nucleocapsids in Tn-5B1-4 cells. The complete genome sequence of BomaNPV S2, including predicted ORFs, was determined and compared with the genome sequence of its close relatives. The comparison results showed that most of the BomaNPV S2 genome sequence was shared with BmNPV (BmNPV T3) or BomaNPV S1, but several regions seemed more similar to regions of AcMNPV. This observation might explain why BomaNPV S2 covers the host ranges of BmNPV and AcMNPV. Further recombinant virus infection experiments demonstrated that GP64 plays an important role in BomaNPV S2 host-range determination. PMID:22855783

Xu, Yi-Peng; Gu, Lin-Zhu; Lou, Yi-Han; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2012-11-01

24

Host plant urease in the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urease activity was detected in the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori from the beginning of spinning to the pharate adult stage if the larvae were reared on mulberry leaves throughout the 5th-instar (the last larval instar). In contrast, no urease activity was detected in the hemolymph of insects fed artificial diets, resulting in accumulation of urea during the spinning

Chikara Hirayama; Masahiro Sugimura; Hitoshi Saito; Masatoshi Nakamura

2000-01-01

25

Cytological evidence for holocentric chromosomes of the silkworms, Bombyx mori and B. mandarina, (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the centromere and the orientation in meiosis of silkworm chromosomes were investigated using the trivalent of the F1 hybrid between the wild and domestic silkworm and X-ray-induced aberrant chromosomes as well as normal silkworm chromosomes. The results of the experiments were as follows: (1) Pro-metaphase chromosomes showed no distinct primary constriction even after treatment with hypotonic solution,

Akio Murakami; Hirotami T. Imai

1974-01-01

26

Molecular distinction amongst varieties of Mulberry using RAPD and DAMD profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Mulberry trees are the most important host for rearing mulberry silkworms in sericulture. Improved varieties of mulberry tree have been developed through traditional breeding procedures. Not much work, however, has been carried out on the molecular characterization of these varieties. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) methods based on Polymerase Chain Reaction are important tools to analyze genetic diversity of mulberries. These have been used to determine variation amongst nine varieties of Morus spp. maintained at Banthra Research Station of National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. Results and Discussion The varieties were analyzed using 23 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for RAPD, and 3 minisatellite core sequence primers for DAMD reactions. The RAPD and DAMD band data, (a total of 200 bands), were used to determine the pair wise distances according to Jaccard's algorithm. From these distance values Neighbour Joining (NJ) analyses were carried out separately for the RAPD and the DAMD data. The triploid varieties were found to be most similar to each other using RAPD analysis, while the varieties S13 and S34 were more similar using DAMD analysis. Nearly 85% of the RAPD bands and 91% of the DAMD bands were polymorphic across the nine varieties. Conclusions The mulberry varieties could be distinguished by their RAPD and DAMD profiles. As many as five RAPD primers and one DAMD primer generated profiles that can together differentiate all the nine varieties in terms of unique bands.

Bhattacharya, Esha; Ranade, Shirish Anand

2001-01-01

27

Mutation of a Cuticular Protein, BmorCPR2, Alters Larval Body Shape and Adaptability in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-Xin; He, Song-Zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-Lin; Gai, Ting-Ting; Xin, Ya-Qun; Liu, Xiao-Fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-Yin

2014-04-01

28

Evaluation of general toxicity and genotoxicity of the silkworm extract powder.  

PubMed

The silkworm extract powder contain 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent ?-glycosidase inhibitor, has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. Therefore, natural products containing DNJ from mulberry leaves and silkworm are consumed as health functional food. The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of the silkworm extract powder, a health food which containing the DNJ. The repeated toxicity studies and gentic toxicity studies of the silkworm extract powder were performed to obtain the data for new functional food approval in MFDS. The safety was evaluated by a single-dose oral toxicity study and a 90 day repeated-dose oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. The silkworm extract powder was also evaluated for its mutagenic potential in a battery of genetic toxicity test: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. The results of the genetic toxicology assays were negative in all of the assays. The approximate lethal dose in single oral dose toxicity study was considered to be higher than 5000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 day study, the dose levels were wet at 0, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg/day, and 10 animals/sex/dose were treated with oral gavage. The parameters that were monitored were clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumptions, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weights, and histopathological examination. No adverse effects were observed after the 90 day administration of the silkworm extract powder. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of silkworm extract powder in the 90 day study was 2000 mg/kg/day in both sexes, and no target organ was identified. PMID:24578797

Heo, Hyun-Suk; Choi, Jae-Hun; Oh, Jung-Ja; Lee, Woo-Joo; Kim, Seong-Sook; Lee, Do-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kul; Song, Si-Whan; Kim, Kap-Ho; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Ryu, Kang-Sun; Kang, Boo-Hyon

2013-12-31

29

Copy number variations among silkworms  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variations (CNVs), which are important source for genetic and phenotypic variation, have been shown to be associated with disease as well as important QTLs, especially in domesticated animals. However, little is known about the CNVs in silkworm. Results In this study, we have constructed the first CNVs map based on genome-wide analysis of CNVs in domesticated silkworm. Using next-generation sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR), we identified ~319 CNVs in total and almost half of them (~ 49%) were distributed on uncharacterized chromosome. The CNVs covered 10.8 Mb, which is about 2.3% of the entire silkworm genome. Furthermore, approximately 61% of CNVs directly overlapped with SDs in silkworm. The genes in CNVs are mainly related to reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition, which is consistent with the observations in mammals. Conclusions An initial CNVs map for silkworm has been described in this study. And this map provides new information for genetic variations in silkworm. Furthermore, the silkworm CNVs may play important roles in reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition. This study provided insight into the evolution of the silkworm genome and an invaluable resource for insect genomics research.

2014-01-01

30

Occurrence of Two Different Enzymes in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, to reduce Folate and Sepiapterin  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE mutant lemon of the silkworm is characteristically yellow in colour, accumulating a fluorescent pigment, xanthopterin-B1, in the skin. Extract of the fat body of the wild-type silkworm converts this pigment into a non fluorescent product1. There is some evidence to support the view that xanthopterin-B1 is identical with sepiapterin2, which is known to be reduced, in the presence of

Masako Matsubara; Motoo Tsusue; Miki Akino

1963-01-01

31

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with

Zhengzhong Shao; Fritz Vollrath

2002-01-01

32

[Trials using drugs in diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)].  

PubMed

Studied was the pharmacokinetic of chloramphenicol, tylosine, ampicillin, and penicillin in silkworm moths. The antibiotics were applied only once in the form of water solutions in concentrations of 0.062 to 1 per cent for chloramphenicol, 50 to 1500 IU/cm3 for tylosine, 0.03 to 0.5 per cent for ampicillin, and 300 to 2500 IU/cm3 for benzilpenicillin at the rate of 25 cm3/cm2 of a mulberry tree leaf. It was found that chloramphenicol in conc. 0.25 to 0.5 per cent was absorbed in the alimentary canal of the silkworm and was found in the haemolymph in bacteriostatic levels up to the 96th hour following treatment. Tylosine was also absorbed, and in concentrations of 500 to 1500 IU/cm3 was shown to maintain bacteriostatic levels in the haemolymph of the moths for a period of 24-32 hours. Ampicillin and penicillin were absorbed to a slight extent, and were eliminated from the haemolymph up to the eighth hour. It is suggested to use chloramphenicol and tylosine in the concentrations referred to for the control of the spontaneous nuclear polyhedria and flasheria in silkworm moths. PMID:6740927

Manchev, M; Doneva, M; Donev, B

1984-01-01

33

Consumption of Bt Rice Pollen Containing Cry1C or Cry2A Protein Poses a Low to Negligible Risk to the Silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae).  

PubMed

By consuming mulberry leaves covered with pollen from nearby genetically engineered, insect-resistant rice lines producing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), larvae of the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae), could be exposed to insecticidal proteins. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1C- or Cry2A-producing transgenic rice (T1C-19, T2A-1) pollen on B. mori fitness. In a short-term assay, B. mori larvae were fed mulberry leaves covered with different densities of pollen from Bt rice lines or their corresponding near isoline (control) for the first 3 d and then were fed mulberry leaves without pollen. No effect was detected on any life table parameter, even at 1800 pollen grains/cm2 leaf, which is much higher than the mean natural density of rice pollen on leaves of mulberry trees near paddy fields. In a long-term assay, the larvae were fed Bt and control pollen in the same way but for their entire larval stage (approximately 27 d). Bt pollen densities ?150 grains/cm2 leaf reduced 14-d larval weight, increased larval development time, and reduced adult eclosion rate. ELISA analyses showed that 72.6% of the Cry protein was still detected in the pollen grains excreted with the feces. The low exposure of silkworm larvae to Cry proteins when feeding Bt rice pollen may be the explanation for the relatively low toxicity detected in the current study. Although the results demonstrate that B. mori larvae are sensitive to Cry1C and Cry2A proteins, the exposure levels that harmed the larvae in the current study are far greater than natural exposure levels. We therefore conclude that consumption of Bt rice pollen will pose a low to negligible risk to B. mori. PMID:25014054

Yang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Fengqin; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

2014-01-01

34

Consumption of Bt Rice Pollen Containing Cry1C or Cry2A Protein Poses a Low to Negligible Risk to the Silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae)  

PubMed Central

By consuming mulberry leaves covered with pollen from nearby genetically engineered, insect-resistant rice lines producing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), larvae of the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae), could be exposed to insecticidal proteins. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1C- or Cry2A-producing transgenic rice (T1C-19, T2A-1) pollen on B. mori fitness. In a short-term assay, B. mori larvae were fed mulberry leaves covered with different densities of pollen from Bt rice lines or their corresponding near isoline (control) for the first 3 d and then were fed mulberry leaves without pollen. No effect was detected on any life table parameter, even at 1800 pollen grains/cm2 leaf, which is much higher than the mean natural density of rice pollen on leaves of mulberry trees near paddy fields. In a long-term assay, the larvae were fed Bt and control pollen in the same way but for their entire larval stage (approximately 27 d). Bt pollen densities ?150 grains/cm2 leaf reduced 14-d larval weight, increased larval development time, and reduced adult eclosion rate. ELISA analyses showed that 72.6% of the Cry protein was still detected in the pollen grains excreted with the feces. The low exposure of silkworm larvae to Cry proteins when feeding Bt rice pollen may be the explanation for the relatively low toxicity detected in the current study. Although the results demonstrate that B. mori larvae are sensitive to Cry1C and Cry2A proteins, the exposure levels that harmed the larvae in the current study are far greater than natural exposure levels. We therefore conclude that consumption of Bt rice pollen will pose a low to negligible risk to B. mori.

Yang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Fengqin; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Romeis, Jorg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

2014-01-01

35

Isolation of mammalian pathogenic bacteria using silkworms.  

PubMed

We developed a method to predict bacterial pathogenicity against mammals by measuring bacterial virulence in silkworms at 37°C, human body temperature. One hundred and twenty-two strains of bacteria were isolated from the intestines of fish and shellfish and tested for their virulence against silkworms. Overnight cultures of 50 strains killed at least 50% of the silkworms when injected into the hemolymph. Of 10 strains that showed the most potent pathogenicity against silkworms, 8 also killed mice within 4 days after injection, including Staphylococcus simiae and Staphylococcus pasteuri, neither of which was previously reported to be pathogenic against mammals. These findings suggest that bacterial pathogenicity against mammals can be predicted based on measurements of silkworm-killing activity. PMID:22466142

Kaito, C; Usui, K; Kyuma, T; Sekimizu, K

2011-04-01

36

Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

2010-04-01

37

Diversity analysis of Beauveria bassiana isolated from infected silkworm in southwest China based on molecular data and morphological features of colony.  

PubMed

Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus that not only often causes infection and epidemics of wild insects but some strains also show pathogenicity to the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The present study is about diversity of B. bassiana isolated from the silkworm in southwest China. Five strains of B. bassiana were isolated from infected silkworm. Two isolates, GXtr1009 and GXtr1010, were isolated from infected silkworms treated with two kinds of biological pesticides applied in Guangxi province, and three isolates, SCsk1006, YNsk1106 and GXsk1011, were collected from naturally infected silkworms from different geographical locations in Yunnan and Sichuan. All of the isolates showed highly similar conidia and conidial fructification, but the colony characteristics demonstrated great differences among the isolates. The ITS and 18S rDNA sequence analysis was sufficient to identify all five isolates as B. bassiana. However, the dendrogram, based on the ISSR data, produced two large genetic groups. GXtr1009 and GXtr1010 comprised one group, and SCsk1006, YNsk1106 and GXsk1011 converged in a different large group. The results suggested that, although all of these five B. bassiana strains were pathogenic to silkworms, strains of biological pesticides could be differentiated from strains of naturally infected silkworm via ISSR analysis. PMID:23417263

Wang, Jing-jie; Yang, Li; Qiu, Xin; Liu, Yong-gui; Zhou, Wei; Wan, Yong-Ji

2013-07-01

38

Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Black mulberry (Morus nigra) is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the

Jacinto Darias-Martín; Gloria Lobo-Rodrigo; José Hernández-Cordero; Eugenio Díaz-Díaz; Carlos Díaz-Romero

39

Isolation and HPLC-ESI-MS identification of mulberry anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and purification of anthocyanins from mulberry by column chromatography were made, macroporous resins D101 was employed to purify the anthocyanin extracts from mulberry and Sephadex LH-20 was to further separate the anthocyanins in order to obtain more purified or individual anthocyanin. HPLC-ESI\\/MS analysis was used to identify the anthocyanins in mulberry. The results indicated that there exist 14 anthocyanins

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Maomao Zhu; Ye Zou; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

40

Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of two 30?kDa proteins from silkworm haemolymph.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP) and the low-molecular-mass lipoprotein PBMHP-12 belong to a group of 30?kDa proteins that comprise the major protein component of the haemolymph specific to the fifth-instar larvae stage of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. Proteins from this group are often essential for the development of the insect. In a project aimed at crystallographic characterization of B. mori JHBP (BmJHBP), it was copurified together with PBMHP-12. Eventually, the two proteins were isolated and crystallized separately. The BmJHBP crystals were orthorhombic (space group C222(1)) and the PBMHP-12 crystals were triclinic. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.9?Ĺ (BmJHBP) and 1.3?Ĺ (PBMHP-12) resolution. PMID:21393846

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J; Bujacz, Anna; ?ochy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Jaskólski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2011-03-01

41

The Diapause Hormone of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1924, Watanabe1 postulated that silkworm eggs overwinter as a result of receiving an `inhibitory' substance from the mother moths, but the existence of the substance has not hitherto been substantiated experimentally. On the other hand, I have found2 that the suboesophageal ganglion of the silkworm is responsible for the hibernation of silkworm eggs; but the organ that furnishes the

Kinsaku Hasegawa

1957-01-01

42

Transcriptome Analysis of Integument Differentially Expressed Genes in the Pigment Mutant (quail) during Molting of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

43

Isolation of megastigmane sesquiterpenes from the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) droppings and their promotion activity on HO-1 and SIRT1.  

PubMed

The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) droppings were extracted with 80% aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned in succession with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H(2)O. From the EtOAc fraction, five megastigmane sesquiterpenes were isolated through repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography. According to the results of spectroscopic data, such as NMR, MS, and IR, the chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined as (3S,5R,8R)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (1), (S)-dehydrovomifoliol (2), (6R,7E,9R) -9-hydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one (3), (3S,5R,6S,7E)-3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (4), (6R,9R)-9-hydroxy-4-megastigmen-3-one (5). Compounds 2 through 5 were isolated for the first time from silkworm droppings. GC/MS analysis indicated silkworm powder contained compound 3, and mulberry leaves contained compound 4. Compounds 1 and 5 increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and SIRT1 in HepG2 and HEK239 cells, respectively. Heme oxygenase-1 is considered to be an antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes heme to carbon monoxide, free iron and biliverdin, while SIRT1 is the mammalian homologue of the yeast silent information regulator (Sir)-2, which are involved in the suppression of inflammatory mediators or factors that may be used to improve atopy-related symptoms. PMID:21544718

Park, Ji-Hae; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Yeon, Seung-Woo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Ko, Jong-Hee; Shin, Dong-Jin; Park, Han-Sol; Kim, Yong-Soon; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In

2011-04-01

44

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. PMID:20067869

Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

2010-01-01

45

Ensiling of mulberry foliage (Morus alba) and the nutritive value of mulberry foliage silage for goats in central Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different additives (molasses or rice bran) on quality of silage made from mulberry (Morus alba) foliage. The second experiment was designed as a Latin square (5 x 5) with 5 growing goats with a mean live weight of 17.3 kg to determine effects of mulberry foliage silage on feed intake,

Nguyen Xuan Ba; Vu Duy Giang

46

Nucleolus organizers in the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina and the domesticated silkworm B. mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types (Ra1 and Ra2) of nucleolus organizers were identified in the genome of Bombyx mandarina (Japan) which occurs in Japan. Genetical analysis of a hybrid with B. mori suggested that the loci of both nucleolus organizers are allelic and correspond to the R0 locus of B. mori. These nucleolus organizers segregated and were inherited by the progeny in a

Hideaki Maekawa; Naoko Takada; Kenichi Mikitani; Teru Ogura; Naoko Miyajima; Haruhiko Fujiwara; Masahiko Kobayashi; Osamu Ninaki

1988-01-01

47

Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house  

SciTech Connect

The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

1980-01-01

48

SilkDB: a knowledgebase for silkworm biology and genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Silkworm Knowledgebase (SilkDB) is a web- based repository for the curation, integration and study of silkworm genetic and genomic data. With the recent accomplishment of a 6X draft genome sequence of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), SilkDB provides an integrated representation of the large-scale, genome-wide sequence assembly, cDNAs, clusters of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), mutants, single

Jing Wang; Qingyou Xia; Ximiao He; Mingtao Dai; Jue Ruan; Jie Chen; Guo Yu; Haifeng Yuan; Yafeng Hu; Ruiqiang Li; Tao Feng; Chen Ye; Cheng Lu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Gane Ka-shu Wong; Huanming Yang; Jian Wang; Zhonghuai Xiang; Zeyang Zhou; Jun Yu

2005-01-01

49

Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) from eri-silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini; protein purification and induction of the gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) was isolated from immunized hemolymph of the wild silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, detecting the biding activity with 125I-labeled peptidoglycan (PGN). The binding specificity of PGRP was tested by competitive inhibition of the binding to 125I-labeled-PGN by a large excess amount of non-labeled-PGN or other glucans. The binding to labeled uncross-linked Lys-type PGN from Micrococcus luteus was

Hiroko Onoe; Akiyoshi Matsumoto; Kazuhiko Hashimoto; Yoshiaki Yamano; Isao Morishima

2007-01-01

50

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties  

PubMed Central

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers.

Teule, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J. Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J.; Lewis, Randolph V.; Jarvis, Donald L.

2012-01-01

51

The pathway of ammonia assimilation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia can easily be assimilated into amino acids and used for silk-protein synthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. To determine the metabolic pathway of ammonia assimilation, silkworm larvae were injected with methionine sulfoximine (MS), a specific inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS). Activity of GS in the fat body 2h after treatment with 400?g MS decreased to less than 10% of

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1997-01-01

52

Microarray-based gene expression profiles of silkworm brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. RESULTS: We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains

Ling Gan; Xilong Liu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Ningjia He

2011-01-01

53

Inhibition of human cell apoptosis by silkworm hemolymph.  

PubMed

Many studies on preventing apoptosis have been carried out from the viewpoint of anti-apoptotic cloned-gene expressions inside cells, whereas in this study, we investigated the inhibition of apoptosis by the addition of silkworm hemolymph, a natural compound, from outside of the cells. In a previous study, we reported the inhibition effect of silkworm hemolymph on the baculovirus-induced insect cell apoptosis. Using the vaccinia virus-HeLa cell system as a model system in this study, we found that silkworm hemolymph, the insect serum, inhibits apoptosis not only in the insect cell system but also in the human cell system. The vaccinia virus-induced HeLa cell apoptosis was analyzed using DNA electrophoresis, TUNEL, and flow cytometry, and the resulting data confirmed that silkworm hemolymph inhibits human cell apoptosis. The inhibition of apoptosis due to silkworm hemolymph was not caused by an inhibition of virus binding and internalization steps, nor did silkworm hemolymph interfere with the virus production. The inhibition of apoptosis by silkworm hemolymph decreased the cell detachment from an adhering surface. With these characteristics, silkworm hemolymph can be effectively used to minimize cell death in commercial animal cell culture. PMID:12153324

Choi, Shin Sik; Rhee, Won Jong; Park, Tai Hyun

2002-01-01

54

An Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Map of the Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is a lepidopteran insect with a long history of significant agricultural value. We have constructed the first amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map of the silkworm B. mori at a LOD score of 2.5. The mapping AFLP markers were genotyped in 47 progeny from a backcross population of the cross no. 782 3

Yuan-De Tan; Chunling Wan; Yufang Zhu; Chen Lu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Hong-Wen Deng

55

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

56

Postintegration stability of the silkworm piggyBac transposon.  

PubMed

The piggyBac transposon is the most widely used vector for generating transgenic silkworms. The silkworm genome contains multiple piggyBac-like sequences that might influence the genetic stability of transgenic lines. To investigate the postintegration stability of piggyBac in silkworms, we used random insertion of the piggyBac [3 × p3 EGFP afm] vector to generate a W chromosome-linked transgenic silkworm, named W-T. Results of Southern blot and inverse PCR revealed the insertion of a single copy in the W chromosome of W-T at a standard TTAA insertion site. Investigation of 11 successive generations showed that all W-T females were EGFP positive and all males were EGFP negative; PCR revealed that the insertion site was unchanged in W-T offspring. These results suggested that endogenous piggyBac-like elements did not affect the stability of piggyBac inserted into the silkworm genome. PMID:24727025

Jiang, Liang; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Weiqiang; Guo, Huizhen; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Huang, Chunlin; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

2014-07-01

57

Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of anthocyanins of mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) from different varieties mulberry fruit in China.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins, copiously distributed in a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, are probably the most important group of visible plant pigments besides chlorophyll. And the mulberry fruit is one of the anthocyanins-rich fruits. Total flavonols, total phenolic acids and anthocyanins contents of ten varieties mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) were determined. The highest content was 965.63±4.90 mg RE/g, 690.83±7.38 mg GAE/g and 272.00±1.20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g FW, respectively. Moreover, MJP and MMP exhibited high antioxidant activity, including total force reduction (TRP), Feł? reducing power (FRAP) and DPPH • radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of MJP and MMP was determined through mice-burden swimming experiments. Interestingly, the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of MMP were much higher than those of MJP. The experimental results suggested that the generally discarded mulberry marc had greater value of development and utilization as food processing waste. PMID:23727333

Jiang, Dong-Qing; Guo, Ying; Xu, Dian-Hong; Huang, Ya-Si; Yuan, Ke; Lv, Zhi-Qiang

2013-09-01

58

26. OVERALL VIEW, FROM SOUTH, OF MULBERRY STREET BRIDGE, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. OVERALL VIEW, FROM SOUTH, OF MULBERRY STREET BRIDGE, SHOWING BOTH SHEDS, MAIL CONVEYOR CONNECTING POST OFFICE BUILDING TO LOADING DOCK UNDER WEST SHED (RIGHT SIDE), PLATFORM CANOPIES AND CATENARY SYSTEM. NOTE STATE CAPITOL DOME VISIBLE BEYOND STATION BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

59

Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeographical history of the mulberry family (Moraceae) was investigated using phylogenetic inferences from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, molecular dating with multiple fossil calibrations, and independent geological evidence. The Moraceae are centered in the tropics which has invited the hypothesis that the family has Gondwanan origins and extant distribution is the result of vicariance due to the break-up of Gondwana.

Nyree J. C. Zerega; Wendy L. Clement; Shannon L. Datwyler; George D. Weiblen

2005-01-01

60

Genetics of insect hemolymph ?-mannosidase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetics of hemolymph ?-mannosidase was investigated in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. By selecting individuals showing either high or low enzyme activities, homozygotes were separated, with activities varying about five-fold. No differences in the activities of ?-galactosidase and ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase were observed. Thus, it seems that high- and low-enzyme silkworms (High and Low lines) share the same genetic background except for

Shigeru Kimura I

1983-01-01

61

Detection of peptidoglycan and ?-glucan with silkworm larvae plasma test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to detect peptidoglycan and (1 ? 3)-?-d-glucan with silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) derived from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori was developed. SLP contains all of the factors of the pro-phenol oxidase cascade, an important self-defense mechanism of insects. Peptidoglycan or (1 ? 3)-?-d-glucan initiates the cascade, in which pro-phenol oxidase is finally activated to phenol oxidase.

Masakazu Tsuchiya; Nobuo Asahi; Fukiko Suzuoki; Masaaki Ashida; Shuji Matsuura

1996-01-01

62

Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds

Biman B. Mandal; Subhas C. Kundu

2009-01-01

63

Heritable Genome Editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with an associated protein (Cas9) system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and Cas9-mRNA into silkworm embryos. Mutation frequencies of 16.7–35.0% were observed in the injected generation, and DNA fragments deletions were also noted. Bm-ok mosaic mutants were used to test for mutant heritability due to the easily determined translucent epidermal phenotype of Bm-ok-disrupted cells. Two crossing strategies were used. In the first, injected Bm-ok moths were crossed with wild-type moths, and a 28.6% frequency of germline mutation transmission was observed. In the second strategy, two Bm-ok mosaic mutant moths were crossed with each other, and 93.6% of the offsprings appeared mutations in both alleles of Bm-ok gene (compound heterozygous). In summary, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can act as a highly specific and heritable gene-editing tool in Bombyx mori.

Roy, Bhaskar; Dai, Junbiao; Miao, Yungen; Gao, Guanjun

2014-01-01

64

Aqueous two-phase extraction, identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry ( Morus atropurpurea Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE), identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) were investigated in this study. The optimal differential partitioning of mulberry anthocyanins (MAY) and sugars was achieved in a system (pH 4.5, temperature=35±1°C) composed of 30% (w\\/w) ethanol, 20% (w\\/w) concentration of ammonium sulphate, 10% (w\\/w) mulberry juice and 40% (w\\/w) water. The multiple partitioning

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Ye Zou; Ting Zhao; Jiangli Zhao; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

65

Use of silkworms for identification of drug candidates having appropriate pharmacokinetics from plant sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We use silkworms to evaluate therapeutic effects of drug candidates. Our previous reports have revealed that there are common mechanisms of pharmacokinetics of chemicals in silkworms and mammals. In this report, we attempt to establish a method by using silkworms to identify chemicals from plant extracts which are absorbed from intestine and also stably exist in body fluids. RESULTS:

Yukihiro Asami; Ryo Horie; Hiroshi Hamamoto; Kazuhisa Sekimizu

2010-01-01

66

A new mapping method for quantitative trait loci of silkworm  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm is the basis of sericultural industry and the model organism in insect genetics study. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying economically important traits of silkworm is of high significance for promoting the silkworm molecular breeding and advancing our knowledge on genetic architecture of the Lepidoptera. Yet, the currently used mapping methods are not well suitable for silkworm, because of ignoring the recombination difference in meiosis between two sexes. Results A mixed linear model including QTL main effects, epistatic effects, and QTL × sex interaction effects was proposed for mapping QTLs in an F2 population of silkworm. The number and positions of QTLs were determined by F-test and model selection. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was employed to estimate and test genetic effects of QTLs and QTL × sex interaction effects. The effectiveness of the model and statistical method was validated by a series of simulations. The results indicate that when markers are distributed sparsely on chromosomes, our method will substantially improve estimation accuracy as compared to the normal chiasmate F2 model. We also found that a sample size of hundreds was sufficiently large to unbiasedly estimate all the four types of epistases (i.e., additive-additive, additive-dominance, dominance-additive, and dominance-dominance) when the paired QTLs reside on different chromosomes in silkworm. Conclusion The proposed method could accurately estimate not only the additive, dominance and digenic epistatic effects but also their interaction effects with sex, correcting the potential bias and precision loss in the current QTL mapping practice of silkworm and thus representing an important addition to the arsenal of QTL mapping tools.

2011-01-01

67

High-efficiency transformation and selective tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress in mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2, by constitutive and inducible expression of tobacco osmotin.  

PubMed

Osmotin and osmotin-like proteins are stress proteins belonging to the plant PR-5 group of proteins induced in several plant species in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. We report here the overexpression of tobacco osmotin in transgenic mulberry plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV 35S) as well as a stress-inducible rd29A promoter. Southern analysis of the transgenic plants revealed the stable integration of the introduced genes in the transformants. Real-time PCR analysis provided evidence for the expression of osmotin in the transgenic plants under both the constitutive and stress-inducible promoters. Transgenic plants with the stress-inducible promoter were observed to better tolerate salt and drought stress than those with the constitutive promoter. Transgenic plants when subjected to simulated salinity and drought stress conditions showed better cellular membrane stability (CMS) and photosynthetic yield than non-transgenic plants under conditions of both salinity and drought stress. Proline levels were very high in transgenic plants with the constitutive promoter relative to those with the stress-inducible promoter. Fungal challenge undertaken with three fungal species known to cause serious losses to mulberry cultivation, namely, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium, revealed that transgenic plants with osmotin under control of the constitutive promoter had a better resistance than those with osmotin under the control of the stress-inducible promoter. Evaluation in next generation was undertaken by studying bud break in transgenic and non-transgenic plants under simulated drought (2% polyethylene glycol) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) conditions. The axillary buds of the selected transgenic lines had a better bud break percentage under stressed conditions than buds from non-transgenic mulberry lines. A biotic assay with Bombyx mori indicated that osmotin protein had no undesirable effect on silkworm rearing and feeding. We therefore conclude that 35S transgenic plants are better suited for both abiotic stress also biotic challenges (fungal), while the rd29A transgenic plants are more responsive to drought. PMID:20549349

Das, Manaswini; Chauhan, Harsh; Chhibbar, Anju; Rizwanul Haq, Qazi Mohd; Khurana, Paramjit

2011-04-01

68

Changes in Mulberry Leaf Metabolism in Response to Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the water stress-induced changes in the activities of RuBP carboxylase (RuBPCO) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 activity, and contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch, sucrose, amino acids, free proline, proteins and nucleic acids in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. K-2) leaves. Water stress progressively reduced the activities of RuBPCO and SPS

P. Barathi; D. Sundar; A. Ramachandra Reddy

2001-01-01

69

KAIKObase: An integrated silkworm genome database and data mining tool  

PubMed Central

Background The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the most economically important insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale cultivation for silk production. With the development of genomic and biotechnological tools, B. mori has also become an important bioreactor for production of various recombinant proteins of biomedical interest. In 2004, two genome sequencing projects for B. mori were reported independently by Chinese and Japanese teams; however, the datasets were insufficient for building long genomic scaffolds which are essential for unambiguous annotation of the genome. Now, both the datasets have been merged and assembled through a joint collaboration between the two groups. Description Integration of the two data sets of silkworm whole-genome-shotgun sequencing by the Japanese and Chinese groups together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences produced the best continuity (~3.7 Mb in N50 scaffold size) among the sequenced insect genomes and provided a high degree of nucleotide coverage (88%) of all 28 chromosomes. In addition, a physical map of BAC contigs constructed by fingerprinting BAC clones and a SNP linkage map constructed using BAC-end sequences were available. In parallel, proteomic data from two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in various tissues and developmental stages were compiled into a silkworm proteome database. Finally, a Bombyx trap database was constructed for documenting insertion positions and expression data of transposon insertion lines. Conclusion For efficient usage of genome information for functional studies, genomic sequences, physical and genetic map information and EST data were compiled into KAIKObase, an integrated silkworm genome database which consists of 4 map viewers, a gene viewer, and sequence, keyword and position search systems to display results and data at the level of nucleotide sequence, gene, scaffold and chromosome. Integration of the silkworm proteome database and the Bombyx trap database with KAIKObase led to a high-grade, user-friendly, and comprehensive silkworm genome database which is now available from URL: .

Shimomura, Michihiko; Minami, Hiroshi; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Satoh, Chikatada; Antonio, Baltazar; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Mita, Kazuei

2009-01-01

70

Isolation and characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ripe mulberries in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study.

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-01-01

71

Burst expansion, distribution and diversification of MITEs in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are widespread in plants and animals. Although silkworm (Bombyx mori) has a large amount of and a variety of transposable elements, the genome-wide information of the silkworm MITEs is unknown. Results We used structure-based and homology approaches to search for MITEs in the silkworm genome. We identified 17 MITE families with a total of 5785 members, accounting for ~0.4% of the genome. 7 of 17 MITE families are completely novel based on the nucleotide composition of target site duplication (TSD) and/or terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Silkworm MITEs were widely and nonrandom distributed in the genome. One family named BmMITE-2 might experience a recent burst expansion. Network and diversity analyses for each family revealed different diversification patterns of the silkworm MITEs, reflecting the signatures of genome-shocks that silkworm experienced. Most silkworm MITEs preferentially inserted into or near genes and BmMITE-11 that encodes a germline-restricted small RNA might silence its the closest genes in silkworm ovary through a small RNA pathway. Conclusions Silkworm harbors 17 MITE families. The silkworm MITEs preferred to reside in or near genes and one MITE might be involved in gene silence. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of MITEs in transcriptional regulation of genes and have general implications to understand interaction between MITEs and their host genome.

2010-01-01

72

In vitro screening of mulberry ( Morus spp.) for salinity tolerance.  

PubMed

An efficient in vitro screening method has been developed for mulberry ( Morus spp. ) to screen salinity-tolerant genotypes from a large population. Axillary buds from field-grown plants were cultured on MS medium containing five different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) in order to study the shoot growth pattern. Rooting was also tested at four different concentrations of NaCl (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3.%). NaCl has been found to inhibit the growth and development of mulberry shoots and roots in vitro. The survivability of the axillary buds of the genotypes tested was reduced from 83.7% for the controls to 6.1% in 1.0% NaCl. The average number of roots developed by the genotypes ranged from 11.9 (controls) to 0.2 (0.3% NaCl). Out of the 63 genotypes tested, only seven--Rotundiloba, English black, Kolitha-3, Berhampore-A, Kajli, BC(2)59 and C776--developed roots in 0.3% NaCl. Root growth was also reduced drastically from 1.8 cm for the controls to 0.1 cm in 0.3% NaCl. To test the reproducibility of the results in soil, five tolerant and two susceptible genotypes, identified in this in vitro study, were selected and tested under ex vitro conditions. The significant correlation coefficients obtained between the performances of these genotypes under both types of cultural conditions revealed that in vitro screening of mulberry through axillary bud culture is an easy and efficient method to identify salt-adapted genotypes within a limited space and time period. PMID:12942311

Vijayan, K; Chakraborti, S P; Ghosh, P D

2003-12-01

73

White mulberry supplementation as adjuvant treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

Body weight is controlled by our genes and managed by a neuro-hormonal system, in particular by insulin and glucagon. The meristematic extract of Japanese white mulberry blocks the alpha-glucosidase and then the intestinal hydrolysis of polysaccharides, thereby reducing the glycaemic index of carbohydrates. The target of our research was to evaluate the adjuvant slimming effect of the extract of white Japanese mulberry in the dietetic treatment of some patients who are obese or overweight. 46 overweight people were enrolled and divided into two subgroups: the subjects of both subgroups were given an identical balanced diet of 1300 kcal: subjects of the subgroup alpha received 2400 mg of white Japanese mulberry extract, the subgroup b subjects receive placebo. Each subgroup was followed-up every 30 days at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment. Both in the periodic inspections and in the final inspection measurements of body weight and waist circumference in all the subjects and thigh circumference in women only were repeated. All subjects repeated blood tests. In the subgroup alpha, weight loss was about 9 kg in 3 months, equal to approximately 10 percent of the initial weight, significantly higher than subgroup beta (P<0.0001); moreover, the plasma insulin and glucose curves of the volunteers in this subgroup at the end of the trial were lower than those performed at the time of enrolment. In the 20 women of the beta subgroup treated with only low-calorie diet and with placebo, weight reduction was globally of 3.2 kg, approximately equal to 3 percent of the initial weight; moreover, the blood glucose curves and the insulin curves showed a slight decline compared to baseline, but not so significantly as was the case for group alpha. Waist circumference and thigh circumference (in women) decreased in all participants, obviously more evidently in subjects who lost more kg. The extract of white Japanese mulberry may represent a reliable adjuvant therapy in the dietetic treatment of some patients who are obese or overweight. PMID:24750800

Da Villa, G; Ianiro, G; Mangiola, F; Del Toma, E; Vitale, A; Gasbarrini, A; Gasbarrini, G

2014-01-01

74

Genetic analysis and gene mapping of two novel quail-like mutants from the silkworm (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

Two novel body marking mutants were discovered during silkworm (Bombyx mori) breeding. The mutants have no obvious eye-spots compared with normal marking (+) individuals, but their star spots and semilunar markings on dorsal sides are normal, and there are dots and lines with longitudinal wave markings on dorsal sides of the 6th to 7th abdominal segments which consist quail markings in between star spots and semilunar markings. The whole body markings are very similar to that of quail mutant (q); thus these mutants are named as quail-like mutants (q-l). Young larvae of one mutant are in brown color, and develop normally. Their cocoons are regular and uniform in size. Thus, this mutant is designated as brown quail-like (q-lb). Another mutant's larvae are in light purple skin; thus this mutant is named as purple quail-like (q-lp). They take little amount of mulberry leaves, and are weak and develop slowly and unevenly. Their larval bodies and cocoons are small. Genetic analysis revealed that both q-lb and q-lp were recessive genes, and they were allelic, with q-lb recessive to q-lp. These genes are different from quail mutant (q) and located on the chromosome 8 after tested by the morphological markers, P3(2), p(2), Ze(3), L(4), re(5), E(6), q(7), I-a(9), ms(12), ch(13), oa(14), cts(16), mln(18), msn(19), rb(21) and so(26) and SSR markers. PMID:24846982

Qiaoling, Zhao; Wenbo, Wang; Anli, Chen; Zhiyong, Qiu; Dingguo, Xia; Heying, Qian; Xingjia, Shen

2014-04-01

75

Use of Sleeve Nets to Improve Survival of the Boisduval Silkworm, Anaphe panda, in the Kakamega Forest of Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Prospects for development of a wild silk industry in Africa would be improved if silkworm survival during mass production could be improved. A study on the survival of the Boisduval silkworm, Anaphe panda (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) was conducted with and without protection by net sleeves in two different forest habitats (natural and modified) in the Kakamega forest of western Kenya. Overall, cohort survival was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the natural than in the modified forest, but larval survival was improved over three-fold by protection with net sleeves in both habitat types. In the modified forest, only 16.8% of unprotected larvae survived to the pupal stage and formed cocoons, whereas 62.3% survived in the same environment when they were protected with net sleeves. In the natural forest, 20.4% of unprotected larvae survived, whereas 67.7% survived in net sleeves. There was also a significant effect of season; cohorts of larvae that eclosed in the wet season had significantly lower survival than those eclosing in the dry season (P = 0.02). Sources of mortality appeared to be natural enemies (parasites, predators and diseases) and climatic factors.

Mbahin, N.; Raina, S. K.; Kioko, E. N.; Mueke, J. M.

2010-01-01

76

DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

77

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

2009-01-01

78

Foliar application of Azatobactor chroococcum increases leaf yield under saline conditions in mulberry ( Morus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of two nitrogenous fertilizers such as urea and the bacterial bio-fertilizer ‘Azatobactor chroococcum’ on growth and development along with leaf quality was studied under various levels of NaCl in mulberry. Performance of four mulberry varieties, two tolerant and two susceptible to salt, were studied in pot culture. NaCl at different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%

K. Vijayan; S. P. Chakraborti; P. D. Ghosh

2007-01-01

79

The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoid content of mulberry leaves of 19 varieties of species, determined spectrophotometrically in terms of rutin equivalent, varied from 11.7 to 26.6mgg?1 in spring leaves and 9.84 to 29.6mgg?1 in autumn leaves. Fresh leaves gave more extract than air-dried or oven-dried ones. HPLC showed that mulberry leaves contain at least four flavonoids, two of which are rutin and quercetin. The

Jia Zhishen; Tang Mengcheng; Wu Jianming

1999-01-01

80

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit ( Morus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80mg\\/l ClO2 solutions for 5, 10, and 15min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1min and stored at ?1°C for 14d. ClO2 treatment was effective in retention of

Zhao Chen; Chuanhe Zhu; Ziqiang Han

2011-01-01

81

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.  

PubMed

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-12-01

82

Proteolytic enzymes as markers of productivity and heterosis of silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive correlation between the activity level of cysteine proteinases in developing eggs of common silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.), on the one hand, and a set of commercial characteristics, on the other, was found. This allows the determination of cysteine proteinase activities (pH optima of 3.0, 3.6, and 8.6) to be recommended as a biochemical test for an early

I. D. Krylova; D. V. Yarygin; Yu. B. Filippovich

2005-01-01

83

Trehazolin, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of silkworm trehalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of enzyme inhibition by trehazolin, a new inhibitor of trehalase (Ando et al. (1991) J. Antibiot. 44, 1165), were investigated using purified soluble silkworm trehalase and other glycosidases. Trehazolin inhibited trehalase with an IC50 value of 27 nM, whereas some other exo-?-glucosidases were inhibited only weakly, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 370 ?M. Other glycosidases tested were

Osamu Ando; Mutsuo Nakajima; Mika Kifune; Hui Fang; Kazuhiko Tanzawa

1995-01-01

84

Expression profile of cuticular genes of silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Insect cuticle plays essential roles in many physiological functions. During molting and metamorphosis tremendous changes occur in silkworm cuticle where multiple proteins exist and genes encoding them constitute about 1.5% of all Bombyx mori genes. RESULTS: In an effort to determine their expression profiles, a microarray-based investigation was carried out using mRNA collected from larvae to pupae. The results

Jiubo Liang; Liang Zhang; Zhonghuai Xiang; Ningjia He

2010-01-01

85

Vertical transmission of nucleopolyhedrovirus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was tested for vertical transmission in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Fifth instar larvae were exposed to four different dosages of BmNPV (830, 1300, 1800, and 2000OBs\\/larva) and a dosage of about 2000OBs\\/larva was found suitable for obtaining infected adults. Histopathological studies revealed the infection in susceptible tissues and organs initially, and at later stages of infection cycles the

A. M. Khurad; A. Mahulikar; M. K. Rathod; M. M. Rai; S. Kanginakudru; J. Nagaraju

2004-01-01

86

Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac

Masahiro Tomita; Hiroto Munetsuna; Tsutomu Sato; Takahiro Adachi; Rika Hino; Masahiro Hayashi; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Namiko Nakamura; Toshiki Tamura; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2002-01-01

87

Generation of hybrid transgenic silkworms that express Bombyx mori prolyl-hydroxylase alpha-subunits and human collagens in posterior silk glands: Production of cocoons that contained collagens with hydroxylated proline residues.  

PubMed

Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a heterotetramer enzyme consisting of alpha-subunits (P4Halpha) and beta-subunits (P4Hbeta), and is required for collagen biosynthesis. Previously, we generated transgenic silkworms that produced human type III collagen fragments (mini-collagens) in the posterior silk gland (PSG). However, prolyl 4-hydroxylation did not occur on the mini-collagens, because in spite of an abundant expression of P4Hbeta in PSGs, P4Halpha expression was quite low there, thus resulting in an insufficient activity of P4H. In this study we aimed at generating hybrid transgenic silkworms whose PSGs are capable of producing mini-collagens and enough P4H for their prolyl 4-hydroxylation. Isolated PSGs were bombarded with fibroin L-chain gene promoter-driven vectors containing Bombyx mori P4Halpha (BmP4Halpha) cDNAs and were transplanted into the hemolymphatic cavity. The P4H activity in the PSG cells significantly increased, indicating that the expressed BmP4Halpha formed active tetramers with endogenous BmP4Hbeta. Using germ-line transgenesis technology, silkworms were generated that synthesized BmP4Halpha in PSG cells. The P4H activity in the transgenic silkworms was 130-fold higher than that of wild-type counterparts. Finally, we generated hybrid transgenic silkworms that expressed cDNAs of both BmP4Halpha and mini-collagen in PSG cells. They spun cocoons that contained mini-collagens whose appropriate proline residues had been adequately hydroxylated. PMID:16766075

Adachi, Takahiro; Tomita, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

2006-11-01

88

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

89

Identification and Characterization of an Arginine Kinase as a Major Allergen from Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important insect in the textile industry and its pupa are used in Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine. The silk, urine and dander of silkworms is often the cause of allergies in sericulture workers and the pupa has been found to be a food allergen in China. Recent studies have focused on reporting

Zhigang Liu; Lixin Xia; Yulan Wu; Qingyou Xia; Jiajie Chen; Kenneth H. Roux

2009-01-01

90

Existence of an Enzyme catalysing the Hydrogenation of Oximes in Silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY1, I found that, in silkworms, nitrites, nitrates and ammonium salts could be converted into oximes, and suggested that this insect might utilize inorganic nitrogenous salts as nutritive substances. I have now been able to demonstrate that in the silkworm body there exists an enzyme which catalyses the transformation of oximes to corresponding amino compounds.

Kazuo Yamafuji

1951-01-01

91

Fine mapping of Ekp-1, a locus associated with silkworm (Bombyx mori) proleg development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm homeotic mutant Ekp has a pair of rudimentary abdominal legs, called prolegs, in its A2 segment. This phenotype is caused by a single dominant mutation at the Ekp-1 locus, which was previously mapped to chromosome 6. To explore the possible association of Hox genes with proleg development in the silkworm, a map-based cloning strategy was used to isolate

H Xiang; M Li; F Yang; Q Guo; S Zhan; H Lin; X Miao; Y Huang

2008-01-01

92

Efficacy of silkworm ( Bombyx mori L.) chrysalis oil as a lipid source in adult Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of silkworm chrysalis oil, rich in n-3 ?-linolenic acid (ALA), on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats were investigated. The rats were fed diets containing 7% soybean oil (control), silkworm chrysalis oil (SWO), or fish oil (FO) for 8weeks. Plasma triglyceride and glucose levels were significantly lower in the SWO group after 8weeks compared to the control and FO

Feny Mentang; Masashi Maita; Hideki Ushio; Toshiaki Ohshima

2011-01-01

93

A Draft Sequence for the Genome of the Domesticated Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.

Qingyou Xia; Zeyang Zhou; Cheng Lu; Daojun Cheng; Fangyin Dai; Bin Li; Ping Zhao; Xingfu Zha; Tingcai Cheng; Chunli Chai; Guoqing Pan; Jinshan Xu; Chun Liu; Ying Lin; Jifeng Qian; Yong Hou; Zhengli Wu; Guanrong Li; Minhui Pan; Chunfeng Li; Yihong Shen; Xiqian Lan; Lianwei Yuan; Tian Li; Hanfu Xu; Guangwei Yang; Yongji Wan; Yong Zhu; Maode Yu; Weide Shen; Dayang Wu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Jun Yu; Jun Wang; Ruiqiang Li; Jianping Shi; Heng Li; Guangyuan Li; Jianning Su; Xiaoling Wang; Guoqing Li; Zengjin Zhang; Qingfa Wu; Jun Li; Qingpeng Zhang; Ning Wei; Jianzhe Xu; Haibo Sun; Le Dong; Dongyuan Liu; Shengli Zhao; Xiaolan Zhao; Qingshun Meng; Fengdi Lan; Xiangang Huang; Yuanzhe Li; Lin Fang; Changfeng Li; Dawei Li; Yongqiao Sun; Zhenpeng Zhang; Zheng Yang; Yanqing Huang; Yan Xi; Qiuhui Qi; Dandan He; Haiyan Huang; Xiaowei Zhang; Zhiqiang Wang; Wenjie Li; Yuzhu Cao; Yingpu Yu; Hong Yu; Jinhong Li; Jiehua Ye; Huan Chen; Yan Zhou; Bin Liu; Jing Wang; Jia Ye; Hai Ji; Shengting Li; Peixiang Ni; Jianguo Zhang; Yong Zhang; Hongkun Zheng; Bingyu Mao; Wen Wang; Chen Ye; Songgang Li; Jian Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Huanming Yang

2004-01-01

94

Microsatellites in the silkworm, Bomby× mori : Abundance, polymorphism, and strain characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized microsatellites (simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci) from the silkworm genome. The screening of a partial genomic library by the conventional hybridization method led to the isolation of 28 microsatellites harbouring clones. The abundance of (CA)n repeats in the silkworm genome was akin to those reported in the other organisms such as honey bee, pig, and

K. Damodar Reddy; E. G. Abraham; J. Nagaraju

1999-01-01

95

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

96

Mulberry Fruit (Moris fructus) Extracts Induce Human Glioma Cell Death In Vitro Through ROS-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibits Glioma Tumor Growth In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry has been reported to contain wide range of polyphenols and have chemopreventive activity. However, little has been known regarding the effect of mulberry fruit extracts on cell viability in vitro in human glioma cells and the anticancer efficacy in vivo. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of mulberry fruit (Moris fructus; MF) extracts on cell viability in

Ji Cheon Jeong; Sang Won Jang; Thae Hyun Kim; Chae Hwa Kwon; Yong Keun Kim

2010-01-01

97

Some physico-chemical characteristics of black mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) genotypes from Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some selected physico-chemical properties (antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, fatty acids, fruit colour, fruit juice yield, fruit weight, organic acids, pH, total phenolic and total soluble solid contents) of five black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) genotypes grown in the Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey was investigated. The total phenolic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of black mulberry

Sezai Ercisli; Emine Orhan

2008-01-01

98

Positional cloning of a gene responsible for the cts mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The larval head cuticle and anal plates of the silkworm mutant cheek and tail spot (cts) have chocolate-colored spots, unlike the entirely white appearance of the wild-type (WT) strain. We report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the cts mutation. Positional cloning revealed a cts candidate on chromosome 16, designated BmMFS, based on the high similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence between the candidate gene from the WT strain and the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) protein. BmMFS likely encodes a membrane protein with 11 putative transmembrane domains, while the putative structure deduced from the cts-type allele possesses only 10-pass transmembrane domains owing to a deletion in its coding region. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BmMFS mRNA was strongly expressed in the integument of the head and tail, where the cts phenotype is observed; expression markedly increased at the molting and newly ecdysed stages. These results indicate that the novel BmMFS gene is cts and the membrane structure of its protein accounts for the cts phenotype. These expression profiles and the cts phenotype are quite similar to those of melanin-related genes, such as Bmyellow-e and Bm-iAANAT, suggesting that BmMFS is involved in the melanin synthesis pathway. PMID:22703239

Ito, Katsuhiko; Kidokoro, Kurako; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Mita, Kazuei; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko

2012-07-01

99

Transgenic protein production in silkworm silk glands requires cathepsin and chitinase of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

The silkworm Bombyx mori represents an established in vivo system for the production of recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses have been extensively investigated and optimised for the expression of high protein levels inside the haemolymph of larvae and pupae of this lepidopteran insect. Current technology includes deletion of genes responsible for the activity of virus-borne proteases, which in wild-type viruses, cause liquefaction of the host insect and enhance horizontal transmission of newly synthesised virus particles. Besides the haemolymph, the silk gland of B. mori provides an additional expression system for recombinant proteins. In this paper, we investigated how silk gland can be efficiently infected by a Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). We demonstrated that the viral chitinase and the cysteine protease cathepsin are necessary to permit viral entry into the silk gland cells of intrahaemocoelically infected B. mori larvae. Moreover, for the first time, we showed AcMNPV crossing the basal lamina of silk glands in B. mori larvae, and we assessed a new path of infection of silk gland cells that can be exploited for protein production. PMID:24477386

Wöltje, Michael; Böbel, Melanie; Rheinnecker, Michael; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Franzetti, Eleonora; Saviane, Alessio; Cappellozza, Silvia

2014-05-01

100

Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient.

Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

2012-01-01

101

Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenisation processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200 MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1 min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the anthocyanins, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, and a unknown hydroxycinnamic acid) and quercetin aglycone contents, as well as ORAC value were observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, whereas all reductions above during UHPH processing could be inhibited by adding ascorbic acid to mulberry juice. Besides, no significant change (p>0.05) in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, but showed a 14% reduction in mulberry juice processed by thermal pasteurisation. PMID:24491708

Yu, Yuanshan; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Fu, Mangqin; Zhang, Yousheng

2014-06-15

102

Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidoglycans Induce Excessive Activation of the Innate Immune System in Silkworm Larvae*  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen that causes inflammation in human periodontal tissue, killed silkworm (Bombyx mori, Lepidoptera) larvae when injected into the blood (hemolymph). Silkworm lethality was not rescued by antibiotic treatment, and heat-killed bacteria were also lethal. Heat-killed bacteria of mutant P. gingivalis strains lacking virulence factors also killed silkworms. Silkworms died after injection of peptidoglycans purified from P. gingivalis (pPG), and pPG toxicity was blocked by treatment with mutanolysin, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme. pPG induced silkworm hemolymph melanization at the same dose as that required to kill the animal. pPG injection increased caspase activity in silkworm tissues. pPG-induced silkworm death was delayed by injecting melanization-inhibiting reagents (a serine protease inhibitor and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea), antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, glutathione, and catalase), and a caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Thus, pPG induces excessive activation of the innate immune response, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death in the host tissue.

Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2010-01-01

103

Wild Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

104

Wild yam  

MedlinePLUS

... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

105

Transcriptome Analysis of the Silkworm (Bombyx mori) by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model insect with important economic value for silk production that also acts as a bioreactor for biomaterial production. The functional complexity of the silkworm transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated, although genomic sequencing and other tools have been widely used in its study. We explored the transcriptome of silkworm at different developmental stages using high-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing. A total of about 3.3 gigabases (Gb) of sequence was obtained, representing about a 7-fold coverage of the B. mori genome. From the reads that were mapped to the genome sequence; 23,461 transcripts were obtained, 5,428 of them were novel. Of the 14,623 predicted protein-coding genes in the silkworm genome database, 11,884 of them were found to be expressed in the silkworm transcriptome, giving a coverage of 81.3%. A total of 13,195 new exons were detected, of which, 5,911 were found in the annotated genes in the Silkworm Genome Database (SilkDB). An analysis of alternative splicing in the transcriptome revealed that 3,247 genes had undergone alternative splicing. To help with the data analysis, a transcriptome database that integrates our transcriptome data with the silkworm genome data was constructed and is publicly available at http://124.17.27.136/gbrowse2/. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the silkworm transcriptome using high-throughput RNA sequencing technology. Our data indicate that the transcriptome of silkworm is much more complex than previously anticipated. This work provides tools and resources for the identification of new functional elements and paves the way for future functional genomics studies.

Tian, Jian; Liu, Huifen; Yang, Huipeng; Yi, Yongzhu; Wang, Jinhui; Shi, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Feng; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Zhifang

2012-01-01

106

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites.  

PubMed

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials. PMID:21230317

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2010-10-01

107

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

108

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

109

Demineralization enables reeling of wild silkmoth cocoons.  

PubMed

Wild Silkmoth cocoons are difficult or impossible to reel under conditions that work well for cocoons of the Mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori . Here we report evidence that this is caused by mineral reinforcement of Wild Silkmoth cocoons and that washing these minerals out allows for the reeling of commercial lengths of good quality fibers with implications for the development of the "Wild Silk" industry. We show that in the Lasiocampid silkmoth Gonometa postica , the mineral is whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate). Evidence is presented that its selective removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) leaves the gum substantially intact, preventing collapse and entanglement of the network of fibroin brins, enabling wet reeling. Therefore, this method clearly differs from the standard "degumming" and should be referred to as "demineralizing". Mechanical testing shows that such preparation results in reeled silks with markedly improved breaking load and extension to break by avoiding the damage produced by the rather harsh degumming, carding, or dry reeling methods currently in use, what may be important for the development of the silk industries not only in Asia but also in Africa and South America. PMID:21491856

Gheysens, Tom; Collins, Andrew; Raina, Suresh; Vollrath, Fritz; Knight, David P

2011-06-13

110

Results of deep-well injection testing at Mulberry, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Fla., high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. In 1975, a satellite monitor well was drilled 2,291 feet from the injection well and a series of three injection tests were performed. Duration of the tests ranged from 240 to 10,020 minutes and injection rates ranged from 110 to 230 gallons per minute. Based on an evaluation of factors that affect hydraulic response, water-level data suitable for interpretation of hydraulic characteristics of the injection zone were identified to occur from 200 to 1,000 minutes during the 10,020-minute test. Transmissivity of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from 700 to 1,000 feet squared per day and storage coefficient of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from .00001 to .00005. The confining bed accepting most of the leakage appears to be the underlying bed. Also, it appears that the overlying beds are probably relatively impermeable and significantly retard the vertical movement of neutralized waste effluent. (USGS)

Hickey, John J.; Wilson, W. E.

1982-01-01

111

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

112

[Silkworm excrement organic fertilizer: its nutrient properties and application effect].  

PubMed

In this paper, silkworm excrement was harmless-treated via controlled fermentation to prepare silkworm excrement organic fertilizer (SEOF). The nutrient properties of the SEOF were determined, and a pot experiment was conducted to examine the application effect of the fertilizer. After fermentation, the total N, P, and K contents in the SEOF had a significant increase, being 58.0%, 84.4% , and 29.7% higher than those in the raw material, respectively. The addition of microbial inoculants shortened the fermentation period, and decreased the carbon and nitrogen losses during fermentation. With the application of SEOF, the seed germination index of cabbage and tomato was higher than 80% , suggesting that the fertilizer had no inhibitory effect on the seed germination. The application of SEOF not only increased the Chinese cabbage yield and its nutrients and Vc contents, decreased the plant nitrate content, but also improved the soil pH value, and increased the soil available nutrients and organic matter contents and soil enzyme activities, with better effect than applying composted goat feces. PMID:22007458

Chen, Xiao-ping; Xie, Ya-jun; Luo, Guang-en; Shi, Wei-yong

2011-07-01

113

Purification and characterization of a cysteine proteinase from silkworm eggs.  

PubMed

Eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, contain a high level of a proteinase which is most active in acidic pH region. The proteinase was purified from an extract of eggs by a six-step procedure which included conventional chromatographic fractionations. The molecular mass of the proteinase was estimated to be 350 kDa by gel filtration and 47 kDa by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels, suggesting an octameric structure. The amino acid composition was found to resemble that of mammalian lysosomal cysteine proteinases, in particular cathepsin L. The NH2-terminal 10-residue sequence is Val-Gln-Phe-Phe-Asp-Leu-Val-Lys-Glu-Glu-. The enzyme appears to be a member of the class of cysteine proteinases since it was strongly inhibited by sulfhydryl-reactive compounds and N-[N-(1,3-trans-carboxyoxiran-2-carbonyl)-L-leucyl]-agmatine (E-64). The enzyme hydrolyzed various protein substrates, such as hemoglobin, vitellogenin, vitellin, and lipophorin, with maximal activity around pH 3-3.5. The specificity of the cleavage sites in the oxidized B chain of insulin was rather well defined and there was high affinity for hydrophobic residues at the P2 and P3 positions. The cysteine proteinase is thought to be involved in protein degradation during embryonic development of silkworm eggs. PMID:2226439

Kageyama, T; Takahashi, S Y

1990-10-01

114

Expression profile of cuticular genes of silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Insect cuticle plays essential roles in many physiological functions. During molting and metamorphosis tremendous changes occur in silkworm cuticle where multiple proteins exist and genes encoding them constitute about 1.5% of all Bombyx mori genes. Results In an effort to determine their expression profiles, a microarray-based investigation was carried out using mRNA collected from larvae to pupae. The results showed that a total of 6676 genes involved in various functions and physiological pathways were activated. The vast majority (93%) of cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected stages with varying expression patterns. There was no correlation between expression patterns and the presence of conserved motifs. Twenty-six RR genes distributed in chromosome 22 were co-expressed at the larval and wandering stages. The 2 kb upstream regions of these genes were further analyzed and three putative elements were identified. Conclusions Data from the present study provide, for the first time, a comprehensive expression profile of genes in silkworm epidermal tissues and evidence that putative elements exist to allow massive production of mRNAs from specific cuticular protein genes.

2010-01-01

115

Characterization of hemocytes proliferation in larval silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Hemocytes play multiple important roles during insect growth and development. Five types of hemocytes have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: prohemocyte, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, and oenocytoid. We used the S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) antibody along with the mitosis marker phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) antibody to monitor proliferation of hemocytes in vivo. The results indicate that silkworm hematopoiesis not only occurs in the circulatory system but also in hematopoietic organs (HPOs). During the 5th instar, the hemocyte proliferation in the circulatory system reaches a peak at the pre-wandering stage. Following infection by Escherichia coli, circulating hemocytes increase their cell divisions as demanded by the cellular immune response. All hemocytes, except spherulocytes, have the capacity to multiply in vivo. The BrdU label-retaining assay shows that a small portion of cells from the circulatory system and the HPOs are continuously labelled up to 9days and 4days respectively. A small number of long-term label retaining cells (LRCs) quiescently locate in circulatory system. All results indicate that there are a few quiescent stem cells or some progenitors in the larval circulatory system and HPO that produce new hemocytes and continuously release them into the circulating system. PMID:23557681

Tan, Juan; Xu, Man; Zhang, Kui; Wang, Xue; Chen, Siyuan; Li, Tai; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cui, Hongjuan

2013-06-01

116

Characterization and Comparison of Serratia Marcescens Isolated from Edible Cactus and from Silkworm for Virulence Potential and Chitosan Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Representative strains of Serratia marcescens from an edible cactus plant and silkworms were characterized and a comparison based on their cellular fatty acid composition, 16S rRNA and groE gene sequence analysis as well as silkworm virulence and chitosan susceptibility was carried out. Results from this study indicate that there are no significant differences between the phenotypic and molecular characterization, virulence and chitosan susceptibility of the S. marcescens strains from the cactus plant and silkworms. Silkworms inoculated with S. marcescens from either plant or silkworm resulted in nearly 100% mortality. Chitosan solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. marcescens. This activity increased with the increase of chitosan concentration and incubation time regardless of the strain source. Also, the results indicate that the plant associated S. marcescens maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while chitosan showed a potential to control the contamination caused by S. marcescens.

Li, Bin; Yu, Rongrong; Liu, Baoping; Tang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

2011-01-01

117

Genetic Analysis of the Electrophysiological Response to Salicin, a Bitter Substance, in a Polyphagous Strain of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+pph) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose–response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F1 generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF1 progeny between F1 females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF1 progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus.

Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2012-01-01

118

Occurrence of a Malic Enzyme free of Oxalacetic Decarboxylase in Silkworm Hćmolymph  

Microsoft Academic Search

HĆMOLYMPH of the larval silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) contains a triphosphopyridine nucleotide-linked `malic' enzyme that has been purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by adsorption and elution from calcium phosphate gel1,2. It was of interest to measure the oxalacetic decarboxylase activity of the `malic' enzyme from silkworm, since those of pigeon liver3,4 and wheat germ5,6 exhibit a constant ratio (approximately

P. Faulkner

1956-01-01

119

Melatonin and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was identified in the head and hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorometric detection and radioimmunoassay. In addition, evidence of arylalkylamine (serotonin) N-acetyltransferase (NAT) a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of melatonin in vertebrates, was found in the head of the silkworm. Melatonin levels in the head and hemolymph and the

Masanori T. Itoh; Atsuhiko Hattori; Tsuyoshi Nomura; Yawara Sumi; Takuro Suzuki

1995-01-01

120

Purification and characterization of digestive amylase from the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive amylase was purified from larvae of Indian tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta using ammonium sulphate precipitation, glycogen complex precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. Specific activity increased from 0.673 AU\\/mg in the crude digestive juice to 94.80 AU\\/mg in the final purified sample. Activity of the purified enzyme was 15-fold less than that of the digestive amylase of silkworm. Bombyx mori.

J. Nagaraju; E. G. Abraham

1995-01-01

121

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42–52goil\\/gsorbent for

Hiroshi Moriwaki; Shiori Kitajima; Masahiro Kurashima; Ayaka Hagiwara; Kazuma Haraguchi; Koji Shirai; Rensuke Kanekatsu; Kenji Kiguchi

2009-01-01

122

Germ line transformation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori , using the transposable element Minos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of Minos as a vector for transgenesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We first constructed a vector plasmid with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused with the silkworm cytoplasmic\\u000a actin gene (A3) promoter, and a helper plasmid with the Minos transposase gene controlled by the same A3 promoter. Injection of the vector and helper plasmid

K. Uchino; M. Imamura; K. Shimizu; T. Kanda; T. Tamura

2007-01-01

123

Wild Marshmallows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

Kallas, John N.

1984-01-01

124

Transcriptome analysis of silkworm, Bombyx mori, during early response to Beauveria bassiana challenges.  

PubMed

Host-pathogen interactions are complex processes and it is a central challenge to reveal these interactions. Fungal infection of silkworm, Bombyx mori, may induce a variety of responsive reaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of silkworm immune response against the fungal infection. To obtain an overview of the interaction between silkworm and an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, Digital Gene Expression profiling, a tag based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, was employed to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs, FDR ? 0.001, ?log2ratio? ? 1) of silkworm larvae during early response against B. bassiana infection. Total 1430 DEGs including 960 up-regulated and 470 down-regulated ones were identified, of which 627 DEGs can be classified into GO categories by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. KEGG pathways analysis of these DEGs suggested that many biological processes, such as defense and response, signal transduction, phagocytosis, regulation of gene expression, RNA splicing, biosynthesis and metabolism, protein transport etc. were involved in the interaction between the silkworm and B. bassiana. A number of differentially expressed fungal genes were also identified by mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome. These results provided new insights to the molecular mechanism of silkworm immune response to B. bassiana infection. PMID:24618587

Hou, Chengxiang; Qin, Guangxing; Liu, Ting; Geng, Tao; Gao, Kun; Pan, Zhonghua; Qian, Heying; Guo, Xijie

2014-01-01

125

ST2B1-3: Cleaner Technology: Application to Paper Mulberry Pulp and Paper Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to introduce cleaner technology (CT) to paper mulberry pulp and paper industry. By auditing the production process, data was analyzed and recommendation practices or CT-option was introduced in order to reduce wastes at the source and, lower production cost. The case study was a handmade paper operation in Nongmuangkai, Prae Province with a total

Thumrongrut Mungcharoen; Saeksan Papong

126

Antioxidant Efficacy of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.) Leaves Extract and Powder in Edible Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves was evaluated in rice bran oil (RBO). The oil was subjected to accelerated oxidation at 100° C for 5 days and heat treatment at 180°C for 1 h. In order to examine its potential antioxidant activity, the oxidative stability of the oils was evaluated by employing peroxide value (PV), radical scavenging

Linda Grace Roy; Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2010-01-01

127

Evaluation of feeding value of Eupatorium adenophorum in combination with mulberry leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of sun dried Ea (Eupatorium adenophorum, Ea) leaves in combination with mulberry (Morus alba, Ma) was studied by in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique and in vivo feeding experiment with sheep. The IVGP involved both kinetic assay and ruminal fermentation attributes (gas production, CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA), purines and digestibility parameters). IVGP data from the combined

A. Sahoo; B. Singh; O. P. Sharma

2011-01-01

128

Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface.  

PubMed

The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C

2014-01-01

129

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains.

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

130

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone-Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

131

Antioxidant responses to enhanced generation of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in the copper-stressed mulberry plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of Cu-deficiency or Cu-excess in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva 2 plants. A study of antioxidative responses, indicators of oxidative damage and cellular redox environment in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess mulberry plants was undertaken. While the young

Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

2006-01-01

132

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

133

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing  

PubMed Central

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas.

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-01-01

134

Expression system for production of bioactive compounds, recombinant human adiponectin, in the silk glands of transgenic silkworms.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to develop a human adiponectin expression system in transgenic silkworm using a human adiponectin expression vector. The silk gland of the silkworm is a highly specialized organ that has the wonderful ability to synthesize and secrete silk protein. To express human adiponectin in the silk gland of transgenic silkworm, targeting vectors pB-A3-adiponectin-IRES-RFP and pB-Ser1-adiponectin-IRES-RFP were constructed and then introduced into the silkworm pupa. The transgenic silkworms were verified by PCR and then generated. The level of adiponectin in the transgenic silkworm was 6-10 ng/50 mg of freeze-dried powder, and western blotting using an antibody against human adiponectin demonstrated a specific band with a molecular weight of 30 kDa in the silkworm. These results showed that human adiponectin introduced into the silkworm genome was expressed successfully on a large-scale. PMID:24272890

Shin, Seulmee; Kim, Bong-Yoon; Jeon, Hyung-Yook; Lee, Aeri; Lee, Sungwon; Sung, Seung-Hyun; Park, Chan-Su; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kong, Hyunseok; Song, Youngcheon; Kim, Kyungjae

2014-05-01

135

Molecular Markers (RAPD) Associated with Growth, Yield, and Origin of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the molecular markers associated with growth and yield parameters in silkworm, Bombyx mori, RAPD profiles generated with seven UBC primers for fourteen silkworm stocks, originated from China, Japan, India, and Russia, were statistically analyzed. Stepwise multiple regression analysis establishes significant association of 45 markers with larval span, growth indices and four cocoon yield parameters relevant for silk production

S. N. Chatterjee; A. R. Pradeep

2003-01-01

136

BBC Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Absolutely fabulous photos of the natural world can be found at BBC Wild. This commercial arm of the British Broadcasting Corporation Natural History Unit supports a picture library containing the work of many of the world's top wildlife photographers. The BBC Wild online collection includes some 10,000 images. The site is commercial, but users can enjoy browsing the collection by simply registering at the site. Costs for photos are based on a range of variables, and examples of costs are shown in an online chart. One highlight of the site is its excellent search functionality: after an initial key word search, if you click on a specific photo, you can then automatically find other photos like it by selecting from a list of keywords. Another plus is the "new technique of high quality imaging called 'FlashPix.' This format allows you to zoom in on high quality portions of an image without having the entire 28MB of data pumped down your internet connection." According to the site, FlashPix allows for faster downloads as well as the presentation of images using the highest caliber interface.

137

The progress and future of enhancing antiviral capacity by transgenic technology in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori is a common lepidopteran model and an important economic insect for silk production. B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a typical pathogenic baculovirus that causes serious economic losses in sericulture. B. mori and BmNPV are a model of insect host and pathogen interaction including invasion of the host by the pathogen, host response, and enhancement of host resistance. The antiviral capacity of silkworms can be improved by transgenic technology such as overexpression of an endogenous or exogenous antiviral gene, RNA interference of the BmNPV gene, or regulation of the immune pathway to inhibit BmNPV at different stages of infection. Antiviral capacity could be further increased by combining different methods. We discuss the future of an antiviral strategy in silkworm, including possible improvement of anti-BmNPV, the feasibility of constructing transgenic silkworms with resistance to multiple viruses, and the safety of transgenic silkworms. The silkworm model could provide a reference for disease control in other organisms. PMID:24561307

Jiang, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2014-05-01

138

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals that caspase-1 and serine protease may be involved in silkworm resistance to Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.  

PubMed

The silkworm Bombyx mori is of great economic value. The B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) is one of the most common and severe pathogens for silkworm. Although certain immune mechanisms exist in silkworms, most silkworms are still susceptible to BmNPV infection. Interestingly, BmNPV infection resistance in some silkworm strains is varied and naturally existing. We have previously established a silkworm strain NB by genetic cross, which is highly resistant to BmNPV invasion. To investigate the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to BmNPV infection, we employed proteomic approach and genetic cross to globally identify proteins differentially expressed in parental silkworms NB and 306, a BmNPV-susceptible strain, and their F(1) hybrids. In all, 53 different proteins were found in direct cross group (NB?, 306?, F(1) hybrid) and 21 in reciprocal cross group (306?, NB?, F(1) hybrid). Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed that most of these different proteins are located in cytoplasm and are involved in many important metabolisms. Caspase-1 and serine protease expressed only in BmNPV-resistant silkworms, but not in BmNPV-susceptible silkworms, which was further confirmed by Western blot. Taken together, our data suggests that both caspase-1 and serine protease play a critical role in silkworm resistance against BmNPV infection. PMID:22546490

Qin, Lvgao; Xia, Hengchuan; Shi, Haifeng; Zhou, Yajing; Chen, Liang; Yao, Qin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Feng, Fan; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Keping

2012-06-27

139

Repression of tyrosine hydroxylase is responsible for the sex-linked chocolate mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Pigmentation patterning has long interested biologists, integrating topics in ecology, development, genetics, and physiology. Wild-type neonatal larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are completely black. By contrast, the epidermis and head of larvae of the homozygous recessive sex-linked chocolate (sch) mutant are reddish brown. When incubated at 30 degrees C, mutants with the sch allele fail to hatch; moreover, homozygous mutants carrying the allele sch lethal (sch(l)) do not hatch even at room temperature (25 degrees C). By positional cloning, we narrowed a region containing sch to 239,622 bp on chromosome 1 using 4,501 backcross (BC1) individuals. Based on expression analyses, the best sch candidate gene was shown to be tyrosine hydroxylase (BmTh). BmTh coding sequences were identical among sch, sch(l), and wild-type. However, in sch the approximately 70-kb sequence was replaced with approximately 4.6 kb of a Tc1-mariner type transposon located approximately 6 kb upstream of BmTh, and in sch(l), a large fragment of an L1Bm retrotransposon was inserted just in front of the transcription start site of BmTh. In both cases, we observed a drastic reduction of BmTh expression. Use of RNAi with BmTh prevented pigmentation and hatching, and feeding of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor also suppressed larval pigmentation in the wild-type strain, pnd(+) and in a pS (black-striped) heterozygote. Feeding L-dopa to sch neonate larvae rescued the mutant phenotype from chocolate to black. Our results indicate the BmTh gene is responsible for the sch mutation, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis producing neonatal larval color. PMID:20615980

Liu, Chun; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Narukawa, Junko; Liu, Shi-Ping; Han, Yu; Futahashi, Ryo; Kidokoro, Kurako; Noda, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Tamura, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Akio; Banno, Yutaka; Dai, Fang-Ying; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Goldsmith, Marian R; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

2010-07-20

140

Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.  

PubMed

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

141

Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

2009-04-01

142

Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ contents in commercial mulberry products were as low as about 0.1% (100 mg/100 g of dry product), implying that the bioavailability of DNJ might not be expected. We carried out studies in two directions: (1) production of food-grade mulberry powder containing a maximally high DNJ content; (2) determination of the optimal dose of the DNJ-enriched powder for the suppression of the postprandial blood glucose through clinical trials. The following method was used: (1) DNJ concentrations in mulberry leaves from different cultivars, harvest seasons, and leaf locations were determined using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. (2) Healthy volunteers received 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder (corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg of DNJ, respectively), followed by 50 g of sucrose. Before and 30-180 min after the DNJ/sucrose administration, plasma glucose and insulin were determined. The following results were obtained: (1) Young mulberry leaves taken from the top part of the branches in summer contained the highest amount of DNJ. After optimization of the harvesting and drying processes for young mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. var. Shin ichinose), DNJ-enriched powder (1.5%) was produced. (2) A human study indicated that the single oral administration of 0.8 and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder significantly suppressed the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin, revealing the physiological impact of mulberry DNJ (effective dose and efficacy in humans). This study suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus. PMID:17555327

Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Goto, Yuko; Yamagishi, Kenji; Oita, Shigeru; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2007-07-11

143

Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages  

PubMed Central

Background The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the 3rd day of fifth instar, the 6th day of fifth instar, the 3rd day of pupation, the 8th day of pupal stage and the first day of the moth stage, was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that from the larval to moth stages, silkworm hemolymph proteins changed markedly. Not only did major proteins such as SP1, SP2, and the 30 K lipoprotein change, but other proteins varied greatly at different stages. To understand the functions of these proteins in silkworm development, 56 spots were excised from gels for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 34 proteins involved in metamorphosis, programmed cell death, food digestion, metabolism, and nutrient storage and transport. Most proteins showed different expression at different stages, suggesting functions in development and metamorphosis. An abundance of proteins related to immunity were found, including hemolin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, paralytic peptide-binding protein, and protease inhibitor. Conclusions Proteomics research not only provides the opportunity for direct investigation of protein expression patterns, but also identifies many attractive candidates for further study. Two-dimensional maps of hemolymph proteins expressed during the growth and metamorphosis of the silkworm offer important insights into hemolymph function and insect metamorphosis.

2010-01-01

144

Photosynthesis and the Enzymes of Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle in Mulberry During Water Stress and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gS), transpiration rate (E), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), leaf water potential (?w), leaf area, chlorophyll (Chl) content, and the activities of photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) enzymes in two mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivars (drought tolerant Anantha and drought sensitive M-5) were studied during water stress and recovery. During water stress, PN, gS, and

S. Thimmanaik; S. Giridara Kumar; G. Jyothsna Kumari; N. Suryanarayana; C. Sudhakar

2002-01-01

145

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity.

2014-01-01

146

Quantification of Changes in Mulberry Silk Fabrics due to Different Laundering: Using WAXS Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loom finished mulberry silk fabrics (Taffeta) were machine laundered and hand laundered several times. X-ray diffractograms of pure and laundered fabrics were used to calculate microstructural parameters like average crystallite size (D) and lattice strain (Vegr) employing Williamson-Hall plot. Microstructural parameters were compared with measured mechanical properties like breaking load, tenacity, and elongation of warp yarns unraveled from fabrics. Surface morphology and texture of silk fabrics changed upon washing is evident from SEM images.

Parameswara, P.; Nivedita, S.; Somashekar, R.

2011-07-01

147

Effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of the\\u000a mulberry leaf extract (MLE) using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC) assay.\\u000a The MLE was prepared by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min and treated with ?-glucosidase for 9 hr. High pressure liquid chromatography\\u000a (HPLC) analysis showed

Gyo-Nam Kim; Hae-Dong Jang

2010-01-01

148

Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.  

PubMed

Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550?molmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy. PMID:24938741

Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

2014-08-01

149

Hypolipidemic effect of flavonoids from mulberry leaves in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of the total flavonoids from mulberry leaves (MTF) in hyperlipidemic mice. The total flavonoids have been isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and purified by macroporous resins. After that, the content of MTF is 581.7 mg g-1 in dried product. The hypolipidemic effect of MTF has been evaluated in triton WR-1339 (400 mg kg-1) induced hyperlipidemic mice. The beneficial effects of MTF on serum lipid levels are more significant at 12h post MTF administration than at 6h. The levels of TG, TC and LDL-C were remarkably reduced to 388, 257 and 189 mg 100 ml-1 in MTF (30 mg kg-1) and triton WR-1339 treated mice, compared with 540, 464 and 299 mg 100 ml-1, respectively, in group treated by triton WR-1339 only. The ratios of HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C were increased to 0.42 and 0.57 post MTF (30 mg kg-1) administration, whereas these two ratios at the low levels of 0.33 and 0.52, respectively, in the reference group. These findings support a serum a lipid-favourable activity for mulberry leaf flavonoids. PMID:17392121

Chen, Jingjing; Li, Xiangrong

2007-01-01

150

Insect cytokine paralytic peptide activates innate immunity via nitric oxide production in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect cytokine paralytic peptide (PP) upregulates the expression of immune-related genes and contributes to host defense in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The present findings demonstrated that PP promotes nitric oxide (NO) production and induces the expression of NO synthase. A pharmacologic NO synthase inhibitor suppressed the PP-dependent (i) induction of immune-related genes, (ii) activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and (iii) killing delay of silkworm larvae by Staphylococcus aureus. The upstream mechanism of NO synthesis in insect immunity has been unknown, and the present results suggest for the first time that an insect cytokine induces NO and contributes to self-defense. PMID:23178406

Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oonishi, Tadahiro; Kamimura, Manabu; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2013-03-01

151

Heterologous Expression Characteristics of Trichoderma viride Endoglucanase V in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient degradation of cellulose needs a synergistic reaction of the cellulolytic enzymes, which include exoglucanases,\\u000a endoglucanases, and ?-1,4-glucosidase. In this study, we used an improved Bac-to-Bac\\/BmNPV baculovirus expression system,\\u000a which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), to express the endoglucanase V (EG V) gene from Trichoderma viride in silkworm BmN cells and silkworm larvae,

Xing-hua Li; Mei-xian Wang; Peng Zhang; Jia-biao Hu; Chun-guang Sun; Xin-ju Liu; Fang Zhou; Yan-shan Niu; Firdose Ahmad Malik; Roy Bhaskar; Hua-jun Yang; Yun-gen Miao

152

[Cloning of silkworm 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase gene and its expression patterns analysis in simulated weightless environment].  

PubMed

The full length cDNA of silkworm hibadh gene was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The hibadh gene and its deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed. The tissue distribution of hibadh gene in 5th instar silkworm larvae was tested by RT-PCR. The expression patterns of hibadh gene in simulated weightless environment were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. The results showed that the full length hibadh cDNA sequence was 1074 bp in lenth, including an open read frame of 969 bp encoding the entire coding region of Hibadh (GenBank accession No. EU719652). The deduced amino acid sequence similarities of hibadh between silkworm and Burkholderia ambifaria, Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera, Xenopus tropicalis, Mus musculus, Homo sapiens were 46%, 43%, 48%, 44%, 45%, 45%, respectively. Signal peptide analysis showed that Hibadh was a secretory protein. There wasn't glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol anchor site in Hibadh amino acid sequence. Molecular weight and isoelectric point of Hibadh were 34.1 kD and 9.14 respectively. The RT-PCR tests indicated that the hibadh gene expressed in head, silk gland, midgut, cuticle, blood, fat body, tuba malpighii of the 5th instar silkworm larvae. There were different expression patterns of hibadh gene during different silkworm embryo period in simulated weightless environment. Simulated weightlessness resulted in the expression of silkworm hibadh gene up regulated 2.3-fold (P < 0.05), up regulated 4.6-fold (P<0.01), down regulated 7.6-fold (P < 0.01), down regulated 2.6-fold (P < 0.05) during apophysis formation period, inverse period, trachea formation period, and whole embryo period, respectively. There was no significant change of hibadh gene expression during other period of silkworm embryo between simulated weightless and control groups. There were different response patterns to simulated weightless environment between hibadh gene and whole body of silkworm. Gene showed much higher sensitivity compared to whole body in response to environment. This study is useful for the further research on the gravity biological mechanism of hibadh gene. PMID:19306573

Tian, Zongcheng; Zhou, Bo; Qian, Airong; Xu, Huiyun; Di, Shengmeng; Zhao, Yunpo; Zhang, Yuping; Liu, Jia; Huang, Yongping; Shang, Peng

2008-12-01

153

Analysis of Transcripts Expressed in One-Day-Old Larvae and Fifth Instar Silk Glands of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

Antheraea mylitta is one of the wild nonmulberry silkworms, which produces tasar silk. An EST project has been undertaken to understand the gene expression profile of A. mylitta silk gland. Two cDNA libraries, one from the whole bodies of one-day-old larvae and the other from the silkglands of fifth instar larvae, were constructed and sequenced. A total of 2476 good-quality ESTs (1239 clones) were obtained and grouped into 648 clusters containing 390 contigs and 258 singletons to represent 467 potential unigenes. Forty-five sequences contained putative coding region, and represented potentially novel genes. Among the 648 clusters, 241 were categorized according to Gene Ontology hierarchy and showed presence of several silk and immune-related genes. The A. mylitta ESTs have been organized into a freely available online database “AmyBASE”. These data provide an initial insight into the A. mylitta transcriptome and help to understand the molecular mechanism of silk protein production in a Lepidopteran species.

Maity, Samita; Goel, Sagar I.; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Venugopalan, Aravind; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2010-01-01

154

Characterization of Argonaute family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Argonaute protein family is a highly conserved group of proteins, which have been implicated in RNA silencing in both plants and animals. Here, four members of the Argonaute family were systemically identified based on the genome sequence of Bombyx mori. Based on their sequence similarity, BmAgo1 and BmAgo2 belong to the Ago subfamily, while BmAgo3 and BmPiwi are in the Piwi subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that silkworm Argonaute family members are conserved in insects. Conserved amino acid residues involved in recognition of the 5' end of the small RNA guide strand and of the conserved (aspartate, aspartate and histidine [DDH]) motif present in their PIWI domains suggest that these four Argonaute family members may have conserved slicer activities. The results of microarray expression analysis show that there is a low expression level for B. mori Argonaute family members in different tissues and different developmental stages, except for BmPiwi. All four B. mori Argonaute family members are upregulated upon infection with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. The complete coding sequence of BmPiwi, the homolog of Drosophila piwi, was cloned and its expression occurred mainly in the area where spermatogonia and spermatocytes appear. Our results provide an overview of the B. mori Argonaute family members and suggest that they may have multiple roles. In addition, this is also the first report, to our knowledge, of the response of RNA silencing machinery to DNA virus infection in insects. PMID:23955828

Wang, Gen-Hong; Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Li; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Niu, Wei-Huan; Yan, Ya-Fei; Xia, Qing-You

2013-02-01

155

Thermally induced increase in energy transport capacity of silkworm silks.  

PubMed

This work reports on the first study of thermally induced effect on energy transport in single filaments of silkworm (Bombyx mori) fibroin degummed mild (type 1), moderate (type 2), to strong (type 3). After heat treatment from 140 to 220°C, the thermal diffusivity of silk fibroin type 1, 2, and 3 increases up to 37.9, 20.9, and 21.5%, respectively. Our detailed scanning electron microscopy study confirms that the sample diameter change is almost negligible before and after heat treatment. Raman analysis is performed on the original and heat-treated (at 147°C) samples. After heat treatment at 147°C, the Raman peaks at 1081, 1230, and 1665 cm(-1) become stronger and narrower, indicating structural transformation from amorphous to crystalline. A structure model composed of amorphous, crystalline, and laterally ordered regions is proposed to explain the structural change by heat treatment. Owing to the close packing of more adjacent laterally ordered regions, the number and size of the crystalline regions of Bombyx mori silk fibroin increase by heat treatment. This structure change gives the observed significant thermal diffusivity increase by heat treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 1029-1037, 2014. PMID:24723331

Liu, Guoqing; Xu, Shen; Cao, Ting-Ting; Lin, Huan; Tang, Xiaoduan; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

2014-10-01

156

Vertical transmission of nucleopolyhedrovirus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was tested for vertical transmission in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Fifth instar larvae were exposed to four different dosages of BmNPV (830, 1300, 1800, and 2000OBs/larva) and a dosage of about 2000OBs/larva was found suitable for obtaining infected adults. Histopathological studies revealed the infection in susceptible tissues and organs initially, and at later stages of infection cycles the spermatocytes and nurse cells in the young oocytes were infected in the larval rudiments of testis and ovary, respectively. The mating of infected females with uninfected males resulted in significant reduction in fecundity (P < 0.01) and hatching of eggs (P < 0.001) due to transovarial transmission of BmNPV. Mating tests of uninfected females and infected males also confirmed venereal transmission as there was a significant reduction in hatching of eggs (P < 0.01). Further, among the F1 hybrid offspring (infected female x uninfected male) that were infected transovarially, larval progeny died at first and second instar stages, whereas those infected venereally developed acute lethal infection late and died by the end of third and fourth instar stage. PCR amplification and sequencing of 473bp of immediate early-1 (ie-1) gene of BmNPV isolated from the viral-infected parent and the F1 offspring confirmed that the viral infection is vertically transmitted to the progeny. PMID:15491594

Khurad, A M; Mahulikar, A; Rathod, M K; Rai, M M; Kanginakudru, S; Nagaraju, J

2004-09-01

157

Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments – higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors

Enzhu Hu; Sergey I. Bartsev; Hong Liu

2010-01-01

158

Evaluation of therapeutic effects and pharmacokinetics of antibacterial chromogenic agents in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of dye compounds with antibacterial activity was evaluated in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Among 13 chromogenic agents that show antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.02 to 19 ?g/mL), rifampicin had a therapeutic effect. The ED(50) value in the silkworm model was consistent with that in a murine model. Other 12 dyes did not increase survival of the infected silkworms. We examined the reason for the lack of therapeutic efficacy. Amidol, pyronin G, and safranin were toxic to silkworms, which explained the lack of therapeutic effects. Fuchsin basic and methyl green disappeared quickly from the hemolymph after injection, suggesting that they are not stable in the hemolymph. Although coomassie brilliant blue R250/G250, cresyl blue, and nigrosin showed no toxic effects or instability in the hemolymph, they also did not have a therapeutic effect. The in vitro antibacterial actions of these dyes were inhibited by silkworm plasma or bovine serum albumin and filtration experiments demonstrated that cresyl blue bound to plasma proteins in the silkworm, suggesting that plasma protein binding inhibited the therapeutic efficacy of these four dyes. These findings indicate that drug screening using the silkworm infection model is useful for evaluating toxicity and pharmacokinetics of potential antibiotics. PMID:22491238

Fujiyuki, T; Imamura, K; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K

2010-10-01

159

Formation of multiplex lamellae by equilibrium slow freezing of cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry and its possible relationship to freezing tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv. Goroji) become extremely cold hardy in winter and can tolerate equilibrium freezing below -30 °C and subsequent immersion into liquid nitrogen. We show in this ultrastructural study that, in these extremely cold hardy cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry collected in winter, initiation of freezing at -5 °C resulted in the

S. Fujikawa; K. Takabe

1996-01-01

160

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens.

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

161

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

162

A BAC-based integrated linkage map of the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2004, draft sequences of the model lepidopteran Bombyx mori were reported using whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Because of relatively shallow genome coverage, the silkworm genome remains fragmented, hampering annotation and comparative genome studies. For a more complete genome analysis, we developed extended scaffolds combining physical maps with improved genetic maps. RESULTS: We mapped 1,755 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

Kimiko Yamamoto; Junko Nohata; Keiko Kadono-Okuda; Junko Narukawa; Motoe Sasanuma; Shun-ichi Sasanuma; Hiroshi Minami; Michihiko Shimomura; Yoshitaka Suetsugu; Yutaka Banno; Kazutoyo Osoegawa; Pieter J de Jong; Marian R Goldsmith; Kazuei Mita

2008-01-01

163

Phenol oxidase is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting which is regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. The molting process includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis excoriation etc. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the phenol oxidase was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that polyphenol oxidases are one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the role of ecdysone in regulation of molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of phenol oxidase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the phenol oxidase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. PPO1 RNAi induced phenol oxidase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae incomplete pupation. Overall, the results described that the phenol oxidase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23275200

Wang, Mei-xian; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Liang, Shuang; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2013-05-01

164

Expression and functions of dopa decarboxylase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori was regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. Molting includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis shed and other series of continuous processes. Polyphenol oxidases, dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the dopa decarboxylase (BmDdc) was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that dopa decarboxylase is one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the regulation of ecdysone at the time of biological molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of dopa decarboxylase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was also observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the dopa decarboxylase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. BmDdc RNAi induced dopa decarboxylase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae appeared no pupation or incomplete pupation. BmDdc was mainly expressed and stored in the peripheral plasma area near the nucleus in BmN cells. In larval, BmDdc was mainly located in the brain and epidermis, which is consisted with its function in sclerotization and melanization. Overall, the results described that the dopa decarboxylase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23640098

Wang, Mei-xian; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Liang, Shuang; Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Kim, Jong-Nam; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2013-06-01

165

Induction of dauer pupae by fenoxycarb in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical application of fenoxycarb (1 ?g per animal) at 129 or 132 h of the fifth instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, did not induce morphological abnormalities in the pupal stage, but these animals became dauer (permanent) pupae. This condition of B. mori and the endocrine events leading to permanent pupae are discussed in this work. Application of fenoxycarb

S. G. Dedos; F. Szurdoki; A. Székács; A. Mizoguchi; H. Fugo

2002-01-01

166

Purification and Partial Characterization of an Induced Antibacterial Protein in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of live Escherichia coli into larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, induces antibacterial activity in the hemolymph. The major induced antibacterial activity was purified in two steps by CM-Sephadex C-50 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. After trypsin treatment, the purified antibacterial protein lost its activity and the antibacterial activity was found to be partially heat labile. The purified protein

E. G Abraham; J Nagaraju; D Salunke; H. M Gupta; R. K Datta

1995-01-01

167

Amino-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence of the Silkworm Prothoracicotropic Hormone: Homology with Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular forms of prothoracicotropic hormone were isolated from the head of the adult silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the amino acid sequence of 19 amino acid residues in the amino terminus of these prothoracicotropic hormones was determined. These residues exhibit significant homology with insulin and insulin-like growth factors.

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Hironori Ishizaki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki

1984-01-01

168

Diapause hormone of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Structure, gene expression and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diapause hormone (DH) is a neuropeptide hormone which is secreted from the suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and is responsible for induction of embryonic diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DH is isolated from SGs and determined to be a 24 amino acid peptide amide. The cDNA encodes the polyprotein precursor from which DH, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and three other

Okitsugu Yamashita

1996-01-01

169

Eicosanoids mediate induction of immune genes in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of cecropin and lysozyme genes is induced in response to bacterial peptidoglycan in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Specific inhibitors of either phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase significantly inhibit the induction of the immune genes both in vivo and in cultured fat body as detected by means of Northern hybridization. Arachidonic acid injected into the

Isao Morishima; Yoshiaki Yamano; Kenji Inoue; Noriyuki Matsuo

1997-01-01

170

Amino Acid Sequence of a Prothoracicotropic Hormone of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of 4K-PTTH-II, one of three forms of the Mr 4400 prothoracicotropic hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori, active to brainless pupae of Samia cynthia ricini. Like vertebrate insulin, it consists of two nonidentical peptide chains (A and B chains). The A chain consists of 20 amino acid residues. The B chain is

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki; Susumu Y. Takahashi; Hironori Ishizaki

1986-01-01

171

The DNA content of sperm and hemocyte nuclei of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the size of the haploid genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), amounts of Feulgen-DNA staining in individual nuclei of primary spermatocytes, spermatids, maturing sperm, and larval or pupal hemocytes were determined with an integrating microdensitometer and compared with the Feulgen-DNA levels found for chicken erythrocyte nuclei, or the sperm and erythrocyte nuclei of Xenopus laevis that were

Ellen M. Rasch

1974-01-01

172

Glucose Stimulates the Release of Bombyxin, an Insulin-Related Peptide of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of starvation and feeding on the release of bombyxin, a peptide of insulin superfamily in insects, from the larval brain of the silkworm Bombyx mori were investigated. Following starvation, the bombyxin titer in the hemolymph of larvae decreased, whereas its content in the brain increased. On the other hand, refeeding of the starved larvae resulted in an increase

Makoto Masumura; Shin'Ichiro Satake; Hironao Saegusa; Akira Mizoguchi

2000-01-01

173

Synthesis of Blood Protein by the Fat Body in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE concentration of protein in the blood of insects changes remarkably in the course of metamorphosis1. I have shown that the concentration of blood protein increases after the middle period of the last larval instar2 in the silkworm. It is not yet clear, however, what organ is concerned in the synthesis of blood protein in larval stage, although there are

Hajime Shigematsu

1958-01-01

174

Conversion of Glycogen to Sorbitol and Glycerol in the Diapause Egg of the Bombyx Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of biochemical studies1 on the embryonic diapause of the Bombyx silkworm, it has been shown that the glycogen content of the egg decreases markedly at the onset of diapause and reaches the lowest level at about thirty days after oviposition. When diapause is broken by cold treatment, glycogen increases progressively even at low temperature and regains the

Haruo Chino

1957-01-01

175

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with (13)C/(12)C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

176

Silkworm powder containing manganese superoxide dismutase regulated the immunity and inhibited the growth of Hepatoma 22 cell in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of SOD contained silkworm powder on immune regulation and inhibition against Hepatoma 22 tumor cells in vivo were\\u000a investigated. The activity of natural killer cell (NK) and the ConA-stimulated spleen proliferation were measured. The results\\u000a found that the SOD-contained silkworm powder caused an enhancement on NK cell activity, which implied this material modulated\\u000a the immune system in mice in vivo.

Wan-Fu Yue; Wen Deng; Xing-Hua Li; Bhaskar Roy; Guang-Li Li; Jian-Mei Liu; Xiao-Feng Wu; Hong-Xiang Sun; Min-Li Yao; Wan Chi Cheong David; Yun-Gen Miao

2009-01-01

177

Isolation of a novel peptide from silkworm pupae protein components and interaction characteristics to angiotensin I-converting enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysate of silkworm protein produced by acid protease (Asperqiius usamii NO. 537) contains angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Four kinds of protein components were identified in\\u000a silkworm pupae protein, albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, and the albumin was in the highest quantity. The four component\\u000a proteins were then further hydrolyzed by acid protease under the same conditions, and the

Wei WangNan; Nan Wang; Yu Zhou; Yu Zhang; Lihong Xu; Junfeng Xu; Fengqin Feng; Guoqing He

2011-01-01

178

[Physiologically active substances in the oral excreta produced by honey bee--effects of royal jelly on silkworm].  

PubMed

The effect of royal jelly on the growth, development, weight of a cocoon and the number of eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was tested by the use of artificial diets. The growth and developmental speed of the silkworm were quickened by addition of royal jelly. The number of eggs increased markedly by the feeding of raw royal jelly but not of boiled royal jelly. PMID:2640797

Saikatsu, S; Ikeno, K; Hanada, Y; Ikeno, T

1989-11-01

179

Purification and Molecular Cloning of an Inducible Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-kDa hemolymph protein, having strong affinity to the cell wall of Gram(-) bacteria, was purified from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding this Gram(-) bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) was isolated from an immunized silkworm fat body cDNA library and sequenced. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with known sequences revealed that GNBP contained a region

Won-Jae Lee; Jiing-Dwan Lee; Vladimir V. Kravchenko; Richard J. Ulevitch; Paul T. Brey

1996-01-01

180

Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori

Tomoko Motohashi; Tsukasa Shimojima; Tatsuo Fukagawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2005-01-01

181

Identification and Expression Profiling of the BTB Domain-Containing Protein Gene Family in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The BTB domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. In this study, we identified 56 BTB domain-containing protein genes in the silkworm, in addition to 46 in the honey bee, 55 in the red flour beetle, and 53 in the monarch butterfly. Silkworm BTB protein genes were classified into nine subfamilies according to their domain architecture, and most of them could be mapped on the different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that silkworm BTB protein genes may have undergone a duplication event in three subfamilies: BTB-BACK-Kelch, BTB-BACK-PHR, and BTB-FLYWCH. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the orthologs of each of 13 BTB protein genes present a rigorous orthologous relationship in the silkworm and other surveyed insects, indicating conserved functions of these genes during insect evolution. Furthermore, several silkworm BTB protein genes exhibited sex-specific expression in larval tissues or at different stages during metamorphosis. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of insect BTB protein gene families but also provide a basis for further investigation of the functions of BTB protein genes in the silkworm.

Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yonghu; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

182

Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination.  

PubMed

In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 x 10(5) cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4%) were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2%) were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4%) were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151) was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination. PMID:19564928

Li, Yu-Ping; Xia, Run-Xi; Wang, Huan; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2009-01-01

183

[Effects of mulberry-soybean intercropping on carbon-metabolic microbial diversity in saline-alkaline soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the characteristics that mulberry-soybean intercropping could alleviate the damage of saline-alkaline soil, Biolog technique was adopted to study the effects of this intercropping on the diversity of carbon-metabolic microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Under mulberry-soybean intercropping, the average well color development (AWCD) symbolizing the metabolic activity of soil microbes was obviously higher, as compared with that under mulberry or soybean monocropping, being the lowest under mulberry monocropping. The McIntosh index was also higher under intercropping than under monocropping, but the Shannon index and Simpson index had less difference between intercropping and monocropping, indicating that intercropping changed the composition and enhanced the diversity of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the carbon source utilization mode of the soil microbial community differed between intercropping and monocropping, and the main carbon sources were carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and polymers. Soil pH and salinity were the main factors limiting the diversity of the microbial community in saline-alkaline soil, and intercropping could effectively decrease the soil pH and salinity and promote the improvement of soil microbial community diversity. PMID:23173455

Li, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Yue, Bing-Bing; Jin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

184

A new source of whitening agent from a Thai Mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation.  

PubMed

Protection of human body against the harmful ultraviolet exposure is nowadays more important and interesting. Melanin, a group of bio-pigments, acts as a natural solar filter absorbing and reflecting most of the UV radiation passing through the layer of skin. Over production of the pigments can create a health problem, hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyalanine (L-Dopa), therefore tyrosinase inhibitors are used in various skin preparations due to its pronounced effect on anti-hyperpigment. In this study, an in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity study of the extracts from a hybrid Mulberry plant obtained from Morus alba L. and Morus rotundiloba Koidz, is shown to prove as new source of Thai whitening agent. The presence of betulinic acid, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity agent, is also reported. The study develops the technique of HPLC quantitation of betulinic acid and its relation to anti-tyrosinase activity of the whole parts of Thai Mulberry. PMID:18569714

Nattapong, Snitmatjaro; Omboon, Luanratana

2008-06-15

185

Metabolic effects of mulberry leaves: exploring potential benefits in type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

Hunyadi, A; Liktor-Busa, E; Márki, A; Martins, A; Jedlinszki, N; Hsieh, T J; Báthori, M; Hohmann, J; Zupkó, I

2013-01-01

186

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity.  

PubMed

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B; Kachole, Manvendra S

2012-10-01

187

Cytoprotective activity of mulberry leaf extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in rats.  

PubMed

Morus alba Linn. (MA), mulberry leaves have been used as a beverage for prevention of various diseases including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Recently, the antioxidant activities of the MA leaf extract have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the MA leaf extract on free radical-induced cellular injury. In the in vitro models, the extract scavenged stable free radical (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 20.10 ± 0.78 ? g/ml. The extract protected the erythrocytes from free radical (2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; AAPH)-induced hemolysis with an IC(50) of 74.22 ± 9.87 ?g/ml. Additionally, the extract significantly prevented the gastric mucosal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats when given orally at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg/day for 3 consecutive days (p < 0.05; n=7). However, this effect was not found when the higher doses (1 and 2 g/kg/day) of the extract were tested. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MA leaf extract possesses the cytoprotective activity against free radical-induced cell injury. Therefore, when given at the appropriate dose range, the mulberry leaf may potentially be used as a food supplement in patients with certain diseases in which the oxidative stress-induced cellular injury is pathologically involved. PMID:23261743

Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

2013-01-01

188

Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.  

PubMed

Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

2014-09-22

189

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2009-06-15

190

Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling.

Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

191

Directly obtaining high strength silk fiber from silkworm by feeding carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

By feeding silkworm with the carbon nanotube, CNT, we directly obtained high strength silk fiber, SF, from silkworm. The CNT-based SF, SF/CNT, has a stress at 1.69GPa and a strain at about 24% both higher than those of the SF and are capable to compare with the super SF and even the spider fiber. Morphology comparison showed that the presence of CNT in SF caused the cross-section changed from triangle to ellipse. X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis indicated that the embedded CNT in SF caused an increase in silk-I structure. Specifically the amide-II structure reduced by about 5% and the amide-III structure increased by about 10%. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the presence of CNT in SF enhanced the thermal stability. Additionally, the presence of CNT in SF also enhanced the electrical property. PMID:24268277

Wang, Jun-Ting; Li, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Meng-Yuan; Liu, Si-Lu; Jiang, Lin-Hai; Shen, Qing

2014-01-01

192

Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: silkworm inheritance experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912.  

PubMed

Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia attracted the attention of Kellogg, who was concerned with how experimental biology would be used to study the causes of natural selection. He challenged Toyama's conclusions that Mendelism alone could explain the inheritance patterns of silkworm characters such as cocoon color because they had been subject to hundreds of years of artificial selection, or breeding. This examination of the intersection of Japanese sericulture and American entomology probes how practical differences in scientific interests, societal responsibilities, and silkworm materiality were negotiated throughout the processes of legitimating Mendelian genetics on opposite sides of the Pacific. The ways in which Toyama and Kellogg assigned importance to certain silkworm properties show how conflicting intellectual orientations arose in studies of the same organism. Contestation about Mendelism took place not just on a theoretical level, but the debate was fashioned through each scientist's rationale about the categorization of silkworm breeds and races and what counted as "natural". This further mediated the acceptability of the silkworm not as an experimental organism, but as an appropriately "natural" insect with which to demonstrate laws of inheritance. All these shed light on the challenges that came along with the use of agricultural animals to convincingly articulate new biological principles. PMID:20665229

Onaga, Lisa

2010-01-01

193

Worms and Trees: An Exciting Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines procedures for using silkworms in elementary science, mathematics, history, ecology, social studies, language arts, art, and physical education. Also focuses on the silkworm's use of the mulberry tree. (DDR)

El Harim, Jean Love

1997-01-01

194

Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous substrate for the silkworm cytosolic sulfotransferase, bmST1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfotransferase enzymes are known to regulate physiologically active substances such as steroids and catecholamines in mammals. Although invertebrates also express sulfotransferases, their biological function is mostly unclear. In a previous study, we reported that 4-nitrocatechol and the gallete ester are substrates for the silkworm sulfotransferase bmST1. The Km of bmST1 for these substrates is high. However, endogenous substrates of bmST1

Akira Kushida; Ryo Horie; Kenji Hattori; Hiroshi Hamamoto; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Hiroomi Tamura

195

Purification and characterization of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase from the silkworm fat body ( Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) was purified 766-fold from the fat body of 5th instar larvae of the silkworm with a final specific activity of 13.8 units\\/mg protein by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fraction, Q-Sepharose HP ion exchange column chromatography, Blue Sepharose FF affinity column chromatography and Superdex 200HR gel filtration. The purified enzyme yielded a single band

Chikara Hirayama; Hitoshi Saito; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1998-01-01

196

Molecular cloning and characterization of hatching enzyme-like gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatching is the important process for the life of the metazoan, in which hatching enzyme (HE) plays a key role. In this paper,\\u000a we cloned the full-length sequence of hatching enzyme-like cDNA from bluish-silkworm-eggs of Bombyx mori (BmHEL) by the method of in silico cloning, SMART cDNA synthesis and RACE-PCR technique. The BmHEL is 974 bp in length, and contains an

Fu-hao Lu; Shun-ming Tang; Xing-jia Shen; Na Wang; Qiao-ling Zhao; Guo-zheng Zhang; Xi-jie Guo

2010-01-01

197

Expression of open reading frames in silkworm pupal cDNA library  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA library containing 2409 singletons was constructed from whole silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) In addition, the types of genes overexpressed in pupa were analyzed. These genes contained 79 types of proteins with the\\u000a exception of enzyme, mitochondrial DNA, andribosomal protein. Also analyzed were the expression and nonexpression of open\\u000a reading frame (ORF) sequences in Escherichia coli. cDNA sequences were

Yao-Zhou Zhang; Jian Chen; Zuo-Ming Nie; Zheng-Bing Lü; Dan Wang; Cai-Ying Jiang; Ping-An He; Li-Li Liu; Yu-Lan Lou; Li Song; Xiang-Fu Wu

2007-01-01

198

Genetics of insect hemolymph ?- N -acetylglucosaminidase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of insect hemolymph ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase was investigated in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Activity in 115 varieties was 6.92±3.22 units\\/ml, ranging from 1.4 to 17.0 units\\/ml. No enzyme-deficient individuals were observed. By selecting individuals showing either high or low enzyme activities, homozygotes were separated with activities varying 10-fold between isolates. No differences in activity of a-mannosidase and ß-galactosidase were observed.

Shigeru Kimura

1981-01-01

199

Structure of insect chitin isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm ( Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin samples in a ?-form structure were isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia by treatment with 1 N HCl and 1 N NaOH. Chitosan was prepared by treating them in 40% NaOH containing NaBH4. Chitin and chitosan were analyzed by X-ray, [13C]CP\\/MAS NMR, [13C]FT-NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. Insect chitin degraded more readily

M. Zhang; A. Haga; H. Sekiguchi; S. Hirano

2000-01-01

200

Occurrence of Pyridoxal 5?-Phosphate-Dependent Serine Racemase in Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-Serine is known to occur in the silkwormBombyx morias well as in the mammalian central nervous systems. We found that serine racemase occurs in the insect, catalyzing the conversion of L-serine to its antipode. The enzyme was partially purified from pupae of the insect, and was inactivated by treatment with hydroxylamine and reactivated with pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP). L-Alanine was racemized

Takuma Uo; Tohru Yoshimura; Susumu Shimizu; Nobuyoshi Esaki

1998-01-01

201

Alkaline protease in the midgut of the silkworm Bombyx mori L: changes during metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protease activity in the midgut of bivoltine and muitivoltine races of the silkworm,Bombyx mori, was studied. The enzyme activity increased during fifth instar reached a peak, and decreased significantly through pre-pupal\\u000a stage to the lowest level at the pupal stagTouring pharate adult period, the protease activity increased to reach another\\u000a peak just before emergence of the moth, and decreased

S K Sarangi

1985-01-01

202

Characterization of a silkworm thioredoxin peroxidase that is induced by external temperature stimulus and viral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) that reduces H2O2 was firstly characterized in the lepidopteran insect, silkworm Bombyx mori. The B. mori TPx (BmTPx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 585bp encoding 195 amino acid residues and possesses two cysteine residues that are characteristic of 2-Cys subgroup of peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the BmTPx cDNA showed 78%

Kwang Sik Lee; Seong Ryul Kim; Nam Sook Park; Iksoo Kim; Pil Dong Kang; Bong Hee Sohn; Kwang Ho Choi; Seok Woo Kang; Yeon Ho Je; Sang Mong Lee; Hung Dae Sohn; Byung Rae Jin

2005-01-01

203

Functional analysis of the larval serum protein gene promoter from silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation region of larval serum protein gene, Bombyx mori. (BmLSP), consisting of the first intron, the first exon,\\u000a the central promoter region and 5’-upstream region, is cloned from genomic DNA from the silkworm variety of Suju × Minghu.\\u000a Using PCR and restriction endonuclease methods, a series of luciferase reporter plasmids, driven by different length of BmLSP\\u000a promoters, are constructed.

Shimming Tang; Yongzhu Yi; Xingjia Shen; Zhifang Zhang; Yiren Li; Jialu He

2003-01-01

204

Shotgun proteomic analysis of the fat body during metamorphosis of domesticated silkworm ( Bombyx mori )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein expression profiles in the fat bodies of larval, pupal, and moth stages of silkworm were determined using shotgun\\u000a proteomics and MS sequencing. We identified 138, 217, and 86 proteins from the larval, pupal and moth stages, respectively,\\u000a of which 12 were shared by the 3 stages. There were 92, 150, and 45 specific proteins identified in the larval, pupal

Huijuan Yang; Zhonghua Zhou; Huarong Zhang; Ming Chen; Jianying Li; Yingying Ma; Boxiong Zhong

2010-01-01

205

Modified fiber qualities of the transgenic cotton expressing a silkworm fibroin gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silkworm gene for fibroin was introduced into the upland cotton WC line by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR detection for fibroin, nptII and gus genes, Kanamycin (Km)-resistance analysis and GUS-histochemical assay were conducted on 30 regenerated plants from\\u000a 9 callus lines, and 17 positive plants were obtained by these 5 screening methods. By Km-resistance analysis and PCR for fibroin, 6 homozygous

FeiFei Li; ShenJie Wu; FenNi Lü; TianZi Chen; Ming Ju; HaiHai Wang; YanJie Jiang; Jie Zhang; WangZhen Guo; TianZhen Zhang

2009-01-01

206

Genetic characterization of the silkworm Bombyx mori by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen diverse strains of the silkworm Bombyx mori were analysed using the simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-anchored PCR) or Inter-SSR-PCR (ISSR-PCR). A set of four 5˘-anchored and two 3˘-anchored repeat primers amplified a total of 239 bands out of which 184 (77%) were polymorphic. The 5˘-anchored primers revealed more distinct polymorphic markers than the 3˘-anchored primers and

K. DAMODAR REDDY; J. NAGARAJU; E. G. ABRAHAM

1999-01-01

207

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

208

Detection of Peptidoglycan and Endotoxin in Dialysate, Using Silkworm Larvae Plasma and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) reagent is activated by peptidoglycan (PG), a fragment of both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell wall, as well as ?-glucan (BG), a component of fungi. It is possible to measure contamination of gram-positive bacteria quantitatively by combining the conventional limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and PG measurement methods. Therefore, a more highly accurate analysis of dialysate

K. Tsuchida; Y. Takemoto; S. Yamagami; H. Edney; M. Niwa; M. Tsuchiya; T. Kishimoto; S. Shaldon

1997-01-01

209

Expression pattern of immunoglobulin superfamily members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins are involved in cell adhesion, cell communication and immune functions. In this study, 152 IgSF genes containing at least one immunoglobulin (Ig) domain were predicted in the Bombyx mori silkworm genome. Of these, 145 were distributed on 25 chromosomes with no genes on chromosomes 16, 18 and 26. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic evolution analysis indicated that IgSFs evolved rapidly. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that IgSF members functioned as cellular components and in molecular functions and biological processes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis suggested that IgSF proteins were involved in signal transduction, signaling molecules and interaction, and cell communication. Microarray-based expression data showed tissue expression for 136 genes in anterior silkgland, middle silkgland, posterior silkgland, testis, ovary, fat body, midgut, integument, hemocyte, malpighian tubule and head. Expression pattern of IgSF genes in the silkworm ovary and midgut was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Expression of 105 genes was detected in the ovary in strain Dazao. Expression in the midgut was detected for 74 genes in strain Lan5 and 75 genes in strain Ou17. Expression of 34 IgSF genes in the midgut relative to the actin A3 gene was significantly different between strains Lan5 and Ou17. Furthermore, 1 IgSF gene was upregulated and 1 IgSF gene was downregulated in strain Lan5, and 4 IgSF genes were upregulated and 2 IgSF genes were downregulated in strain Ou17 after silkworms were challenged with B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV), indicating potential involvement in the response to BmCPV-infection. These results provide an overview of IgSF family members in silkworms, and lay the foundation for further functional studies. PMID:25020261

He, Lei; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Gong, Chengliang

2014-09-15

210

Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene 1 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate into lactate and constitutes a major checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. Recently, LDH draws a great deal of attention for its potential to be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and malaria. Insect LDHs have been mainly identified from fruit fly and mosquitoes, but not from silkworm. In this study, a novel LDH homologue, designated as BmLDH1, was firstly identified and characterized from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The BmLDH1 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 996 bp, and encodes a protein of 331 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. Sequence comparison showed BmLDH1 is a highly conserved protein. RT-PCR revealed BmLDH1 is transcripted in all tissues and in all developmental stages tested, indicating its essential roles for silkworm physiology and development. The BmLDH1 gene was subcloned and expressed in E. coli, and was further characterized by Western blot and Mass Spectrometry. The expressed protein contained the LDH activity, and could be inhibited by reduced glutathione in vitro. Immunofluoresence showed that the BmLDH1 was located in the cytoplasm. The cloned BmLDH1 sequence was deposited in the GenBank (accession number EU334850). PMID:20852941

Xia, Hengchuan; Wu, Chao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Jing; Feng, Fan; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lin

2011-03-01

211

Silkworm Hemolymph Down-Regulates the Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperones under Radiation-Irradiation  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated that up-regulation of gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones (BiP, calnexin, calreticulin, ERp29) and ER membrane kinases (IRE1, PERK, ATF6) was induced by radiation in neuronal PC12 cells. However, addition of silkworm, Bombyx mori, hemolymph to irradiated cells resulted in an obvious decrease in expression of these genes, compared with a single radiation treatment. In contrast, one of the ER chaperones, “ischemia-responsive protein 94 kDa” (irp94), was up-regulated by radiation. However, addition of silkworm hemolymph resulted in no change in the expression of irp94, with an expression pattern that differed from that of ER chaperones. Based on these results, we propose that silkworm hemolymph contains factors that regulate a decrease in the expression of ER chaperones under radiation-irradiation conditions, with the exception of irp94, which is not down-regulated. We suggest that this difference in the molecular character of irp94 may provide a clue to the biological functions associated with ER stress pathways, particularly the effects of radiation.

Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Kim, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young Kook; Kwon, Kisang; Choi, Jong-Soon; Yu, Kweon; Kwon, O-Yu

2011-01-01

212

Efficient silkworm expression of human GPCR (nociceptin receptor) by a Bombyx mori bacmid DNA system  

SciTech Connect

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (G{sub i}{alpha}) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [{sup 35}S]GTP{gamma}S-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.

Kajikawa, Mizuho; Sasaki, Kaori [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Wakimoto, Yoshitaro; Toyooka, Masaru [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Motohashi, Tomoko; Shimojima, Tsukasa [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan)] [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Takeda, Shigeki [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Maenaka, Katsumi, E-mail: kmaenaka-umin@umin.net [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

2009-07-31

213

Cloning, expression and enzymatic properties analysis of dihydrofolate reductase gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for aromatic acid hydroxylases, which control the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. BH4 deficiency has been associated with many neuropsychological disorders. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) can catalyze 7,8-dihydrobiopterin to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) in the salvage pathway of BH4 synthesis from sepiapterin (SP), a major pigment component contained in the integument of silkworm Bombyx mori mutant lemon (lem) in high concentration. In this study, we report the cloning of DHFR gene from the silkworm B. mori (BmDhfr) and identification of enzymatic properties of BmDHFR. BmDhfr is located on scaffold Bm_199 with a predicted gene model BGIBMGA013340, which encodes a 185-aa polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of about 21 kDa. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant BmDHFR protein exhibited high enzymatic activity and suitable parameters to substrate. Together with our previous studies on SP reductase of B. mori (BmSPR) and the lem mutant, it may be an effective way to industrially extract SP from the lem silkworms in large scale to produce BH4 in vitro by co-expressing BmSPR and BmDHFR and using the extracted SP as a substrate in the future. PMID:23065260

Wang, Wenjing; Gao, Junshan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chaoliang; Meng, Yan

2012-12-01

214

Molecular cloning and expression characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein in silkworm pupae.  

PubMed

A Bombyx mori (B. mori) cDNA was isolated from silkworm pupae cDNA library encoding a homologue of translationally controlled tumor protein (BmTCTPk). BmTCTPk was expressed in E. coli; SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed the molecular weight of recombinant and native BmTCTPk is approximately 28 and 25 kDa, respectively; they are larger than the theoretical molecular weight. Immunohistochemical studies showed that BmTCTPk is uniformly distributed throughout the cytoplasm of BmN cells. In silkworm pupae, BmTCTPk is expressed in the midgut wall, the midgut cavity, and some fat body tissues lying between the midgut wall and body wall. Western blot and ELISAs performed on total protein extracts isolated from silkworm pupae at different development stages showed that, although BmTCTPk is expressed during all pupae stages, its expression level increases dramatically during late pupae stages, suggesting that BmTCTPk may play an important role during the developmental transition from pupa to imago. PMID:19757184

Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing; Qian, Jiawei; Chen, Jian; Li, Shanshan; Sheng, Qing; Wang, Dan; Shen, Hongdan; Yu, Wei; Wu, Xiangfu; Zhang, Yaozhou

2010-07-01

215

Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-05-01

216

Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

2010-04-01

217

The promoter of Bmlp3 gene can direct fat body-specific expression in the transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The fat body plays multiple, crucial roles in the life of silkworms. Targeted expression of transgenes in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is important not only for clarifying the function of endogenous genes expressed in this tissue, but also for producing valuable recombinant proteins. However, fat body-specific gene expression remains difficult due to a lack of suitable tissue-specific promoters. Here we report the isolation of the fat body-specific promoter of Bmlp3, a member of the 30K protein family of silkworms. The 1.1 kb fragment from -374 to +738 of Bmlp3 displayed strong promoter activity in the cell lines BmE and Spli-221. In transgenic silkworms, a DsRed reporter gene controlled by the 1.1 kb Bmlp3 promoter fragment was expressed specifically in the fat body in a stage-specific pattern that was nearly identical to the endogenous Bmlp3 gene. We conclude that the 1.1 kb Bmlp3 promoter fragment is sufficient to direct tissue- and stage-specific expression of transgenes in the fat body of silkworms, highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. PMID:23543408

Deng, Dangjun; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Feng; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Sanyuan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2013-10-01

218

In vivo site-specific integration of transgene in silkworm via PhiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange.  

PubMed

Current techniques for genetic engineering of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome utilize transposable elements, which result in positional effects and insertional mutagenesis through random insertion of exogenous DNA. New methods for introducing transgenes at specific positions are therefore needed to overcome the limitations of transposon-based strategies. Although site-specific recombination systems have proven powerful tools for genome manipulation in many organisms, their use has not yet been well established for the integration of transgenes in the silkworm. We describe a method for integrating target genes at pre-defined chromosomal sites in the silkworm via phiC31/att site-specific recombination system-mediated cassette exchange. Successful recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) was observed in the two transgenic target strains with an estimated transformation efficiency of 3.84-7.01%. Our results suggest that RMCE events between chromosomal attP/attP target sites and incoming attB/attB sites were more frequent than those in the reciprocal direction. This is the first report of in vivo RMCE via phiC31 integrase in the silkworm, and thus represents a key step toward establishing genome manipulation technologies in silkworms and other lepidopteran species. PMID:23974010

Long, Dingpei; Zhao, Aichun; Xu, Longxia; Lu, Weijian; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-11-01

219

Purification and molecular cloning of an inducible gram-negative bacteria-binding protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed Central

A 50-kDa hemolymph protein, having strong affinity to the cell wall of Gram(-) bacteria, was purified from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding this Gram(-) bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) was isolated from an immunized silkworm fat body cDNA library and sequenced. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with known sequences revealed that GNBP contained a region displaying significant homology to the putative catalytic region of a group of bacterial beta-1,3 glucanases and beta-1,3-1,4 glucanases. Silkworm GNBP was also shown to have amino acid sequence similarity to the vertebrate lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 and was recognized specifically by a polygonal anti-CD14 antibody. Northern blot analysis showed that GNBP was constitutively expressed in fat body, as well as in cuticular epithelial cells of naive silkworms. Intense transcription was, however, rapidly induced following a cuticular or hemoceolien bacterial challenge. An mRNA that hybridized with GNBP cDNA was also found in the l(2)mbn immunocompetent Drosophila cell line. These observations suggest that GNBP is an inducible acute phase protein implicated in the immune response of the silkworm and perhaps other insects. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Lee, W J; Lee, J D; Kravchenko, V V; Ulevitch, R J; Brey, P T

1996-01-01

220

Characterization and expression patterns of let-7 microRNA in the silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

PubMed Central

Background lin-4 and let-7, the two founding members of heterochronic microRNA genes, are firstly confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans to control the proper timing of developmental programs in a heterochronic pathway. let-7 has been thought to trigger the onset of adulthood across animal phyla. Ecdysone and Broad-Complex are required for the temporal expression of let-7 in Drosophila melanogaster. For a better understanding of the conservation and functions of let-7, we seek to explore how it is expressed in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Results One member of let-7 family has been identified in silkworm computationally and experimentally. All known members of this family share the same nucleotides at ten positions within the mature sequences. Sequence logo and phylogenetic tree show that they are not only conserved but diversify to some extent among some species. The bmo-let-7 was very lowly expressed in ova harvested from newborn unmated female adult and in individuals from the first molt to the early third instar, highly expressed after the third molt, and the most abundant expression was observed after mounting, particularly after pupation. The expression levels were higher at the end of each instar and at the beginning of each molt than at other periods, coinciding with the pulse of ecdysone and BR-C as a whole. Using cultured ovary cell line, BmN-SWU1, we examined the effect of altered ecdysone levels on bmo-let-7 expression. The expression was also detected in various tissues of day 3 of the fifth instar and of from day 7 of the fifth to pupa, suggesting a wide distributing pattern with various signal intensities. Conclusion bmo-let-7 is stage- and tissue-specifically expressed in the silkworm. Although no signals were detected during embryonic development and first larval instar stages, the expression of bmo-let-7 was observed from the first molt, suggesting that it might also function at early larval stage of the silkworm. The detailed expression profiles in the whole life cycle and cultured cell line of silkworm showed a clear association with ecdysone pulse and a variety of biological processes.

Liu, Shiping; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Hong, Kaili; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2007-01-01

221

Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice.  

PubMed

In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was examined in the diet-induced obese mouse model. Mulberry DNJ was administered to the obese mice for 12 weeks. As a result, DNJ decreased both the visceral fat weight and adipocyte size. To determine the influence of DNJ on lipid metabolism, lipid parameters of the plasma and the liver and the activities of several molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver were measured. DNJ activated the ?-oxidation system, suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced plasma triacylglycerol. Since it was thought that the factor activated in the ?-oxidation system was adiponectin, plasma adiponectin levels were measured and it was shown that plasma adiponectin was increased with DNJ. Therefore, it was suggested that DNJ promoted an increase in plasma adiponectin and activated the ?-oxidation system. Overall, it was shown that DNJ prevents diet-induced obesity through an increase in adiponectin. PMID:23561072

Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Ikuko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

2013-08-15

222

Differentially Expressed Genes in the Cuticle and Hemolymph of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Injected with the Fungus Beauveria bassiana  

PubMed Central

The most important pathogenic fungus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli ) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which causes significant damage to sericulture production. Therefore, diagnosing fungal disease and developing new control measures are crucial to silk production. To better understand the responsive and interactive mechanisms between the host silkworm and this fungus, variations in silkworm gene expression were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method following the injection of B. bassiana conidia. Two cDNA libraries were constructed, and 140 cDNA clones were isolated. Of the 50 differentially expressed genes identified, 45 (112 clones) were identified in the forward library, and 5 (28 clones) were identified in the reverse library. Expression profiling of six of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) verified that they were induced by the fungal challenge. The present study provides insight into the interaction between lepidopteran insects and pathogenic fungi.

Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Qin, Guang-Xing; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xing-Lin; Li, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Xi-Jie

2013-01-01

223

Differentially Expressed Genes in the Cuticle and Hemolymph of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Injected with the Fungus Beauveria bassiana.  

PubMed

Abstract The most important pathogenic fungus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli ) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which causes significant damage to sericulture production. Therefore, diagnosing fungal disease and developing new control measures are crucial to silk production. To better understand the responsive and interactive mechanisms between the host silkworm and this fungus, variations in silkworm gene expression were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method following the injection of B. bassiana conidia. Two cDNA libraries were constructed, and 140 cDNA clones were isolated. Of the 50 differentially expressed genes identified, 45 (112 clones) were identified in the forward library, and 5 (28 clones) were identified in the reverse library. Expression profiling of six of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) verified that they were induced by the fungal challenge. The present study provides insight into the interaction between lepidopteran insects and pathogenic fungi. PMID:24794288

Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Qin, Guang-Xing; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xing-Lin; Li, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Xi-Jie

2013-11-01

224

Influence of Thyroxine on Different Ion-Dependent ATPase Activities in Fat Body of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylittaD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of Na+-K+-, Ca2+-, and Mg2+-ATPase of tasar silkworm,Antheraea mylittaD. fat body were investigated from fifth larval stage to adult emergence after injection of various doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 ?g\\/g) of mammalian thyroxine (T4) to 1-hr-old fifth instar larvae. In normal silkworms, both sexes exhibited maximum enzyme activity before spinning (Day 12). Na+-K+-, Ca2+-, and Mg2+-ATPase activities

K. Damodar Reddy; A. Chaudhuri; K. Thangavelu

1996-01-01

225

Overexpression of HVA1 gene from barley generates tolerance to salinity and water stress in transgenic mulberry ( Morus indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are members of a large group of hydrophilic proteins found primarily in plants.\\u000a The barley hva1 gene encodes a group 3 LEA protein and is induced by ABA and water deficit conditions. We report here the over expression\\u000a of hva1 in mulberry under a constitutive promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analysis of the transgenic plants

Shalini Lal; Vibha Gulyani; Paramjit Khurana

2008-01-01

226

Strawberry, loquat, mulberry, and bitter melon juices exhibit prophylactic effects on LPS-induced inflammation using murine peritoneal macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized the juices from strawberry, loquat, mulberry and bitter melon exhibit anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures. Selected juices were administered as a prophylactic, postmortem or concurrent event relative to LPS stimulation to clarify the effective mechanisms. Selected fruits and vegetable juices were administered to macrophage cultures for 24h prior to LPS stimulation (model A). Selected

Jin-Yuarn Lin; Ching-Yin Tang

2008-01-01

227

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

Liu, Chang-ying; Lu, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

228

Variegated wild coffee plant "Variegated Wild Coffee"  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A new variety of the wild coffee plant known as Psychotria nervosa has been asexually propagated. The new plant is characterized by having substantial variegated pigmentation. The new plant may be useful as a drought-tolerant plant for native species landscape in southern Florida.

1993-12-07

229

Production of scFv-displaying BmNPV in silkworm larvae and its efficient purification.  

PubMed

Baculovirus-display technology utilizing the gp64 envelope protein has been developed. A simple and efficient process to separate the virus from the majority of the protein contaminants may be needed for the future demand of pure and functional baculovirus vectors ideal for vaccine- and gene-delivery applications. In the present study, using Bombyx mori (silkworm) larvae as a host, scFv (single-chain variable fragment)-surface displaying recombinant baculovirus production and its purification from silkworm larval haemolymph by SEC (size-exclusion chromatography) were demonstrated. The amounts of scFv were 4-8 ?g/ml in the haemolymph. The scFv-gp64 fusion protein was confirmed to be incorporated into the cell membrane and the BmNPV (B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus) surface by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. rBmNPV (recombinant BmNPV) was purified to higher purity by SEC using Sephacryl S-1000 column chromatography than by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. The recovery of purified rBmNPV was 22.2%, and the virus purity in the SEC fraction was increased 269-fold compared with its purity in haemolymph. Judging from the results of ELISA, approx. 0.9% of the total baculovirus-particle proteins were occupied by scFv on their surface. A BmNPV-based silkworm-larval system is suitable for large-scale production of baculovirus-surface-displayed proteins or peptides in comparison with a cell-culture system. The present study will be useful for future BmNPV-application studies for gene delivery and vaccine trials. PMID:20923414

Dojima, Takashi; Nishina, Takuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Park, Enoch Y

2010-10-01

230

HPLC-MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.  

PubMed

Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC-MS(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450-568 mgkg(-1) FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mgkg(-1) FW of total: chokeberry (267mgkg(-1)), eastern shadbush (261 mgkg(-1)), wild grown blackberry (260 mgkg(-1)), rowanberry (232 mgkg(-1)), american cranberry (213 mgkg(-1)) and blackcurrants (204 mgkg(-1)). Strawberry (10.5 mgkg(-1)) and white currants (4.5 mgkg(-1)) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46-100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50-62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49-66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and Vaccinium genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one. PMID:22980782

Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

2012-12-15

231

Project Wild (Project Tame).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

Siegenthaler, David

232

Structure of autophagy-related protein Atg8 from the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Autophagy-related protein Atg8 is ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. It is involved in the Atg8–PE ubiquitin-like conjugation system, which is essential for autophagosome formation. The structures of Atg8 from different species are very similar and share a ubiquitin-fold domain at the C-terminus. In the 2.40?Ĺ crystal structure of Atg8 from the silkworm Bombyx mori reported here, the ubiquitin fold at the C-terminus is preceded by two additional helices at the N-­terminus.

Hu, Chen; Zhang, Xuan; Teng, Yan-Bin; Hu, Hai-Xi; Li, Wei-Fang

2010-01-01

233

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of five subunits, coded by homologous genes belonging to the same family. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a model insect of Lepidoptera, among which are many agricultural pests. Identification and characterization of B. mori nAChR genes could provide valuable basic information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid action and resistance. Results We searched the genome sequence database of B. mori with the fruit fly and honeybee nAChRs by tBlastn and cloned all putative silkworm nAChR cDNAs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. B. mori appears to have the largest known insect nAChR gene family to date, including nine ?-type subunits and three ?-type subunits. The silkworm possesses three genes having low identity with others, including one ? and two ? subunits, ?9, ?2 and ?3. Like the fruit fly and honeybee counterparts, silkworm nAChR gene ?6 has RNA-editing sites, and ?4, ?6 and ?8 undergo alternative splicing. In particular, alternative exon 7 of Bm?8 may have arisen from a recent duplication event. Truncated transcripts were found for Bm?4 and Bm?5. Conclusion B. mori possesses a largest known insect nAChR gene family characterized to date, including nine ?-type subunits and three ?-type subunits. RNA-editing, alternative splicing and truncated transcripts were found in several subunit genes, which might enhance the diversity of the gene family.

Shao, Ya-Ming; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2007-01-01

234

Mulberry (??? Sang Sh?n Z?) and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Mulberry (??? s?ng shčn z?), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs) and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases.

Huang, Hui-Pei; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-01-01

235

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

236

Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and ?-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified

Rupesh Dash; Soumen Mukherjee; S. C. Kundu

2006-01-01

237

Changes in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Hemolymph and Fat Body of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L., Exposed to Organophosphorus Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of lethal and sublethal doses of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides, namely fenitrothion and ethion, as a function of carbohydrate metabolism of hemolymph and fat body on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the fifth-instar silkworm, Bombyx mori, were investigated. The results showed that pyruvate level and lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased with elevated lactate levels, indicating reduced mobilization

B. Surendra Nath

2000-01-01

238

A Study of the Complex of Proteolytic Enzymes and Their Protein Inhibitors in the Embryogenesis of the Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes in the activities of serin, thiol, and aspartyl proteinases and their protein inhibitors during embryogenesis of the silkworm. The dynamics of the activities of the protein inhibitors and specific proteinases were interrelated, thus providing for the coordination and fine regulation of the functioning of the proteolytic complex of enzymes during embryogenesis. Possible functions of peptidohydrolases and their

D. V. Yarygin; S. M. Klunova; Yu. B. Filippovich

2001-01-01

239

The Cytochrome System of the Cecropia Silkworm. II. Spectrophotometric Studies of Oxidative Enzyme Systems in the Wing Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown by spectroscopic studies, the wing epithelium of the Cecropia silkworm is typical of the insect's non-muscular tissues in undergoing a virtual breakdown of the cytochrome system at the outset of pupal diapause, and a prominent resynthesis of this system when diapause is terminated. Further information on these marked changes has now been provided by spectrophotometric determinations of DPNH

D. G. Shappirio; C. M. Williams

1957-01-01

240

Differential sequestration of storage proteins by various fat body tissues during post-larval development in silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the final larval stadium of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, storage proteins SP1 and SP2 are synthesized mainly by peripheral and dorsal perivisceral fat body tissues. No further synthesis occurs during the non-feeding pupal stage. The ventral perivisceral tissue has no role in this process, but is specialized for the selective storage of the proteins. Storage proteins are selectively sequestered

V. VANISHREE; X. NIRMALA; E. ARUL; M. KRISHNAN

2005-01-01

241

Genetic mapping of Z chromosome and identification of W chromosome-specific markers in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the female is the heterogametic (ZW) sex and the male is homogametic (ZZ). The female heterogamety is a typical situation in the insect order Lepidoptera. Although the W chromosome in silkworm is strongly female determining, no W-linked gene for a morphological character has been found on it. The Z chromosome carries important traits of economic value as well as genes for various phenotypic traits, but only 2% of molecular information based on its relative size is known. Studies conducted so far indicate that the Z-linked genes are not dosage compensated. In the present study, we constructed a genetic map of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and fluorescent intersimple sequence repeat PCR (FISSR) markers for the Z chromosome using a backcross mapping population. A total of 16 Z-linked markers were identified, characterized, and mapped using od, a recessive trait for translucent skin as an anchor marker yielding a total recombination map of 334.5 cM. The linkage distances obtained suggested that the markers were distributed throughout the Z chromosome. Four RAPD and four SSR markers that were linked to W chromosome were also identified. The proposed mapping approach should be useful to identify and map sex-linked traits in the silkworm. The economic and evolutionary significance of Z- and W-linked genes in silkworm, in particular, and lepidopterans, in general, is discussed. PMID:15931240

Nagaraja, G M; Mahesh, G; Satish, V; Madhu, M; Muthulakshmi, M; Nagaraju, J

2005-08-01

242

Swallowing motor pattern triggered and modified by sucrose stimulation in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the contribution of sucrose signals to swallowing motor patterns, a series of behavioral, morphological and electrophysiological experiments were carried out in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The larvae ingested a droplet of sucrose solution applied to the mouth. The rate of ingestion was increased for higher sucrose concentrations. The swallowing movements were produced by a cibarial

Ken Sasaki; Kiyoshi Asaoka

2006-01-01

243

Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb was topically applied to the silkworm Bombyx mori at the beginning of the 3rd or 4th (penultimate) instar, an extra larval molt was induced. The 5th instar period was shortened to about 5 days and the extra 6th instar ranged from 8 to more than 20 days, depending on the dose applied. Starvation before

Manabu Kamimura; Makoto Kiuchi

2002-01-01

244

Effects of Fenoxycarb on the Secretory Activity of the Prothoracic Glands in the Fifth Instar of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of fenoxycarb on the secretory activity of the prothoracic glands (PGs) of the silkworm,Bombyx mori,were investigated. Fenoxycarb inhibited the secretory activity of PGsin vitrothroughout the fifth instar. Incubation of PGs in the presence of 1 ?g of fenoxycarb resulted in a ?50% inhibition of their secretory activity. This inhibition of fenoxycarb was dose dependent. Stimulation of the PGs by

Skarlatos G. Dedos; Hajime Fugo

1996-01-01

245

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “ż?brain hormone”

CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

246

Morphological and physiological properties of pheromone-triggered flipflopping descending interneurons of the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The morphology of descending interneurons (DNs) which have arborizations in the lateral accessory lobe (LAL) of the protocerebrum, the higher order olfactory center, and have an axon in the ventral nerve cord (VNC), were characterized in the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori.2.Two clusters (group I, group II) of DNs which have arborizations mainly in the LALs were morphologically characterized. The

R. Kanzaki; A. Ikeda; T. Shibuya

1994-01-01

247

Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

2010-10-15

248

A novel peptide inhibitor of platelet aggregation from stiff silkworm, Bombyx batryticatus.  

PubMed

A novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide, named BB octapeptide, was isolated from stiff silkworm (Bombyx batryticatus) by gel filtration, anion-exchange, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was determined to be 885 Da using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the sequence was identified as Asp-Pro-Asp-Ala-Asp-IIe-Leu-Gln using the Edman degradation method. To test its biological activity, the peptide was chemically synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase synthesis method. BB octapeptide inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation that was induced by collagen and epinephrine, with the IC50 values of 91.14 ?M and 104.50 ?M, respectively. After intravenous administrated in mice (30 mg/kg, 4 days), BB octapeptide showed similar ex vivo efficacy of inhibiting platelet aggregation as aspirin (10 mg/kg). In addition, this peptide prevented paralysis and death in pulmonary thromboembolism model and significantly reduced ferric chloride-induced thrombus formation in rats. Moreover, it exhibited low cytotoxicity in a cellular model. In conclusion, this is the first report that a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide was isolated from stiff silkworm (B. batryticatus). Due to the excellent efficacy in reducing platelet aggregation and low toxicity, it can be a valuable lead compound for new drug design and development. PMID:24361453

Kong, Yi; Xu, Cheng; He, Zhi-Long; Zhou, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Ming, Xin

2014-03-01

249

Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous substrate for the silkworm cytosolic sulfotransferase, bmST1.  

PubMed

Sulfotransferase enzymes are known to regulate physiologically active substances such as steroids and catecholamines in mammals. Although invertebrates also express sulfotransferases, their biological function is mostly unclear. In a previous study, we reported that 4-nitrocatechol and the gallete ester are substrates for the silkworm sulfotransferase bmST1. The K(m) of bmST1 for these substrates is high. However, endogenous substrates of bmST1 have not yet been determined. We therefore investigated endogenous bmST1 substrates and carried out a detailed expression profile analysis of bmST1. We found that xanthurenic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, is a possible endogenous substrate of bmST1. The K(m) of bmST1 for xanthurenic acid is low, in the ?M range, which is lower than that for previously reported substrates. Additionally, xanthurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that characteristically shows toxicity in vivo. High dose administration of xanthurenic acid resulted in inhibition of cuticular biosynthesis. The expression of the bmST1 gene reached a maximal level in the Malpighian tubule at the 4th molting stage, when amino acid metabolism might be activated. Our results suggest that bmST1 plays a role in detoxification of xanthurenic acid in the silkworm. PMID:22036934

Kushida, Akira; Horie, Ryo; Hattori, Kenji; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Tamura, Hiroomi

2012-01-01

250

Shotgun proteomic analysis of wing discs from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) during metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Proteomic profiles from the wing discs of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages were determined using shotgun proteomics and MS sequencing. We identified 241, 218, and 223 proteins from the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively, of which 139 were shared by all three stages. In addition, there were 55, 37, and 43 specific proteins identified at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively. More metabolic enzymes were identified among the specific proteins expressed in the wing disc of larvae compared with pupae and moths. The identification of FKBP45 and the chitinase-like protein EN03 as two proteins solely expressed at the larval stage indicate these two proteins may be involved in the immunological functions of larvae. The myosin heavy chain was identified in the pupal wing disc, suggesting its involvement in the formation of wing muscle. Some proteins, such as proteasome alpha 3 subunits and ribosomal proteins, specifically identified from the moth stage may be involved in the degradation of old cuticle proteins and new cuticle protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis of proteins specific to each of these three stages enabled their association with cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. The analysis of similarities and differences in these identified proteins will greatly further our understanding of wing disc development in silkworm and other insects. PMID:24005483

Zhang, Yi-ling; Xue, Ren-yu; Cao, Guang-li; Zhu, Yue-xiong; Pan, Zhong-hua; Gong, Cheng-liang

2013-11-01

251

The effect of calorie restriction on growth and development in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend the life span in different species from yeast to mammals. In this report, a simple organism silkworm (Bombyx mori) was used to study the effect of moderate CR on the growth and development processes of insects. Here we show that an extension of life span upon moderate CR was observed in the silkworm. The total protein level in the 5th instar larvae hemolymph appeared to decline significantly under CR. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the influence of CR was sex-dependent. The CR effects on female animals were much more significant than on the males. The MALDI-TOF MS study identified 16 proteins that expressed differentially among six groups of the male or female larvae fed at different time frequencies. Four of them, storage protein 1 (SP1), arylphorin (SP2), imaginal disk growth factor (IDGF), and 30-kDa lipoprotein, showed significant differences. It was demonstrated that these four proteins were up-regulated when the larvae were over-fed and down-regulated when the larvae were less-fed. PMID:19479736

Li, Yijia; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Li, Jun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Chiyu; Huang, Guoping

2009-07-01

252

Existence of Prophenoloxidase in Wing Discs: A Source of Plasma Prophenoloxidase in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In insects, hemocytes are considered as the only source of plasma prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO also exists in the hemocytes of the hematopoietic organ that is connected to the wing disc of Bombyx mori. It is unknown whether there are other cells or tissues that can produce PPO and release it into the hemolymph besides circulating hemocytes. In this study, we use the silkworm as a model to explore this possibility. Through tissue staining and biochemical assays, we found that wing discs contain PPO that can be released into the culture medium in vitro. An in situ assay showed that some cells in the cavity of wing discs have PPO1 and PPO2 mRNA. We conclude that the hematopoietic organ may wrongly release hemocytes into wing discs since they are connected through many tubes as repost in previous paper. In wing discs, the infiltrating hemocytes produce and release PPO probably through cell lysis and the PPO is later transported into hemolymph. Therefore, this might be another source of plasma PPO in the silkworm: some infiltrated hemocytes sourced from the hematopoietic organ release PPO via wing discs.

Diao, Yupu; Lu, Anrui; Yang, Bing; Hu, Wenli; Peng, Qing; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Soderhall, Kenneth; Ling, Erjun

2012-01-01

253

Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84 % of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms. PMID:24719047

Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

2014-08-01

254

Simultaneous quantitation of nucleosides, nucleobases, amino acids, and alkaloids in mulberry leaf by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method has been established for the simultaneous determination of the 14 nucleosides and nucleobases, 24 amino acids and two main alkaloids in mulberry leaf. In this method, a complicated mobile phase, the flow rate of which was 0.4 mL/min, was applied to the gradient elution, which provided a satisfied separation of the 40 compounds. The present method was validated, and sufficient reproducibility and accuracy were obtained for the quantitative measurement of the 40 compounds. The method was subsequently applied to ten mulberry leaves and the results showed that almost all of these samples were rich in nucleosides, nucleobases, amino acids, and alkaloids. The proposed method, which is convenient and economical, could serve as a prerequisite for the quality control of mulberry leaf herbs and be applied analogously to other Chinese medicines. PMID:24616434

Zhang, Li-Li; Bai, Yong-Liang; Shu, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-06-01

255

The Wild Bunch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

256

High level expression of a frog ?-amidating enzyme, AE-II, in cultured cells and silkworm larvae using a Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus expression vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

AXenopus laevis peptidyl C-terminal ?-amidating enzyme (AE-II) gene, modified by deletion of a region encoding the putative membrane-spanning\\u000a domain and the putative C-terminal cytosolic tail, was expressed in BoMo-15 AIIc insect cells and silkworm larvae using aBombyx mori baculovirus expression vector system. The expressed enzyme was identified predominantly in the culture medium and the hemolymph\\u000a of silkworm larvae, indicating successful

Jun Kobayashi; Shigeo Imanishi; Hajime Inoue; Kazuhiro Ohsuye; Kozo Yamaichi; Nobuo Tsuruoka; Shoji Tanaka

1992-01-01

257

Expression of Trichoderma viride endoglucanase III in the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. and characteristic analysis of the recombinant protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoglucanase is a part of cellulase which hydrolyzes cellulose into glucose. In this study, we cloned endoglucanase III (EG\\u000a III) gene from Trichoderma viride strain AS 3.3711 using a PCR-based exon splicing method, and expressed EG III recombinant protein in both silkworm BmN cell\\u000a line and silkworm larvae with an improved Bac-to-Bac\\/BmNPV mutant baculovirus expression system, which lacks the chiA

Xing-hua Li; Peng Zhang; Mei-xian Wang; Fang Zhou; Firdose Ahmad Malik; Hua-jun Yang; Roy Bhaskar; Jia-biao Hu; Chun-guang Sun; Yun-gen Miao

2011-01-01

258

Evaluation of parameters for high efficiency gene transfer via particle bombardment in Indian mulberry.  

PubMed

Particle bombardment is a popular method of direct gene delivery into cell, tissue and organs since it requires minimum pre- and post-bombardment manipulation. In addition, this technique is much easier and fast to perform with intact tissue/organ and reduces the period of in vitro culture. Genetic transformation of mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2 was attempted by particle bombardment using hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and leaf callus explants. The effect of various physical and biological parameters during bombardment were studied by the histochemical localization of GUS reporter gene following two days of bombardment and by assessing the number of blue spots per explant. p35SGUSINT was used for optimization of different parameters. The percentage of GUS positive explants was very low with tungsten (20%) as compared to gold particles (36%) indicating tungsten toxicity to the tissue. Maximum GUS activity was observed at 1100 psi helium pressure and 9 cm target distance for hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf. Double bombardment of explants with 10 microg of DNA loaded on macrocarriers clearly yielded a better (up to 56%) result as compared to a single bombardment (30%). Amongst the various plasmids tested, pBI221 gave the highest (100%) GUS positive explants in the leaf callus. PMID:12974402

Bhatnagar, Somika; Kapur, Anita; Khurana, Paramjit

2002-12-01

259

Metabolomic analysis reveals the potential metabolites and pathogenesis involved in mulberry yellow dwarf disease.  

PubMed

To analyse the molecular mechanisms of phytoplasma pathogenicity, the comprehensive metabolomic changes of mulberry leaf and phloem sap in response to phytoplasma infection were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolic profiles obtained revealed that the metabolite compositions of leaf and phloem sap were different, and phytoplasma infection has a greater impact on the metabolome of phloem sap than of leaf. Phytoplasma infection brought about the content changes in various metabolites, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, etc. Meanwhile, the results of biochemical analysis showed that the degradation of starch was repressed, and the starch content was increased in the infected leaves. In addition, we found that phytoplasma infection changed the levels of abscisic acid and cytokinin and break phytohormone balance. Interestingly, our data showed that the contents of H2O2 and superoxide were increased in the infected leaves, but not in the phloem saps. Based on the results, the expression levels of the genes involved in the metabolism of some changed metabolites were examined, and the potential molecular mechanisms of these changes were discussed. It can be concluded that both the leaf and phloem saps have a complicated metabolic response to phytoplasma infection, but their response mechanisms were different. PMID:24329897

Gai, Ying-Ping; Han, Xue-Juan; Li, Yi-Qun; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Guo, Fang-Yue; Liu, Qing-Xin; Ji, Xian-Ling

2014-06-01

260

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin.

2010-01-01

261

Mulberry leaf extract reduces postprandial hyperglycemia with few side effects by inhibiting ?-glucosidase in normal rats.  

PubMed

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf extract (MLE) was investigated as a potent plant-derived ?-glucosidase inhibitor with low ?-amylase inhibitory activity. MLE was prepared by heating in an autoclave at 121 °C for 15 minutes, and its in vitro and in vivo antihyperglycemic activities were investigated. The adverse side effects of MLE were analyzed by measuring the weight and volume of the cecum, stool color, starch content in the cecum, and the integrity of intestinal transporting capacity. The in vitro inhibitory activity of MLE on intestinal ?-glucosidase was potent and that on intestinal ?-amylase was very weak compared with acarbose. Sugar loading tests with starch, maltose, and sucrose showed that MLE may reduce postprandial increases in blood glucose by acting as an intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Feeding tests suggested that MLE may exhibit fewer adverse side effects than other ?-glucosidase inhibitors, such as abdominal flatulence and meteorism, which are attributed to the impaired digestion of starch by strong inhibition of intestinal ?-amylase. These results suggest that MLE could be used in the development of pharmaceutical foods to control the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients by inhibiting intestinal ?-glucosidase with reduced side effects. PMID:21631361

Kim, Gyo-Nam; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

2011-01-01

262

Manganese superoxide dismutase expressed in silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L enhances the NK activity and splenocyte proliferation against Sarcoma 180 tumor cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Natural killer cell (NK) is known as a major immune system in body through mediating cell death via several possible pathways, and one of three subpopulations of lymphocytes functioning as scavenger of tumor, virus infected cells etc. Our present results found that the SOD-contained silkworm larvae powder caused an enhancement of the effect on NK cell cytotoxicity, which implied this material modulated the immune system in mice in vivo. The NK cell activities of S180 tumor modeled mice treated with silkworm powder including SOD were enhanced significantly ranging from 30% to 48%, respectively, compare to a distilled water feeding control and silkworm powder without SOD. Meanwhile, the ConA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation of all three treated groups was higher than that of the control both in T cells or B cells. The average tumor weight of S180 modeled mice treated with doses of SOD-contained silkworm powder was lighter than that of water control showing the tumor inhibition rates (IR) reached to 22.51% to 37%, respectively. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that administration of silkworm larvae powder containing SOD results in activation of NK cells and immune T-cell and B-cell, suggesting the silkworm larvae powder containing SOD play a positive role in tumor inhibition. PMID:17934870

Yue, Wan-Fu; Yao, Min-Li; Liu, Jian-Mei; Li, Guang-Li; Li, Xing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Wen; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Zhou, Ji-Yong; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Miao, Yun-Gen

2009-01-01

263

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes.

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

264

Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1?) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food. PMID:24120956

Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il

2013-11-01

265

Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity. PMID:24000381

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

2013-10-01

266

Molecular Markers for Biomass Traits: Association, Interaction and Genetic Divergence in Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Improvement of high yielding, disease resistant silkworm strains became imminent to increase production of silk, which is a major revenue earner for sericulturists. Since environment interacts with phenotype, conventional breeding did not result in commendable yield improvement in synthetic strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Identification of DNA markers associated with different economically important biomass traits and its introgression could assist molecular breeding and expression of stabilized high yielding characters, but genetic basis of most quantitative traits in silkworm is poorly understood due to its polygenic control. Correlation analysis (R = 0.9) revealed significant interrelation among biomass traits viz., larval duration (TLD), larval weight (LWT), cocoon weight (CWT), shell weight (SWT), shell ratio (SR) and floss content. PCR using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers revealed 92% polymorphism among 14 tropical and temperate strains of B. mori, with average diversity index of 0.747. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) selected 35 ISSR markers positively or negatively correlated with different biomass traits, illustrated polygenic control. ISSR marker 830.81050bp was significantly associated with LWT, CWT, SWT, SR and floss content, indicated its pleiotropic role. Two ISSR markers, 835.51950bp and 825.9710bp showed significant association with floss content and TLD. These markers were segregated in F2 generation and Chi-square test confirmed (?2 = ~45; P < 0.05) its genetic contribution to the associated biomass traits. Strains, with both positively and negatively correlated markers, had intermediate mean value for biomass traits (eg. SWT = 0.17 ± 0.014 g in GNM and Moria) indicated interaction of loci in natural populations. Low yielding Indian strains grouped together by Hierarchical clustering. Chinese and Japanese strains were distributed in the periphery of ALSCAL matrix indicated convergence of genetic characters in Indian strains. Average genetic distance between Chinese strains and Indian strains (0.193) significantly (P < 0.01) varied from that between Chinese and Japanese strains. Interaction of loci and allelic substitutions induced phenotypic plasticity in temperate B. mori populations on tropic adaptation in India. These outcomes show possibility to combine favorable alleles at different QTL to increase larval, cocoon and shell weight.

Pradeep, Appukuttannair R; Jingade, Anuradha H; Urs, Raje S

2007-01-01

267

Molecular Markers for Biomass Traits: Association, Interaction and Genetic Divergence in Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Improvement of high yielding, disease resistant silkworm strains became imminent to increase production of silk, which is a major revenue earner for sericulturists. Since environment interacts with phenotype, conventional breeding did not result in commendable yield improvement in synthetic strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Identification of DNA markers associated with different economically important biomass traits and its introgression could assist molecular breeding and expression of stabilized high yielding characters, but genetic basis of most quantitative traits in silkworm is poorly understood due to its polygenic control. Correlation analysis (R = 0.9) revealed significant interrelation among biomass traits viz., larval duration (TLD), larval weight (LWT), cocoon weight (CWT), shell weight (SWT), shell ratio (SR) and floss content. PCR using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers revealed 92% polymorphism among 14 tropical and temperate strains of B. mori, with average diversity index of 0.747. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) selected 35 ISSR markers positively or negatively correlated with different biomass traits, illustrated polygenic control. ISSR marker 830.8(1050bp) was significantly associated with LWT, CWT, SWT, SR and floss content, indicated its pleiotropic role. Two ISSR markers, 835.5(1950bp) and 825.9(710bp) showed significant association with floss content and TLD. These markers were segregated in F(2) generation and Chi-square test confirmed (chi(2) = ~45; P < 0.05) its genetic contribution to the associated biomass traits. Strains, with both positively and negatively correlated markers, had intermediate mean value for biomass traits (eg. SWT = 0.17 +/- 0.014 g in GNM and Moria) indicated interaction of loci in natural populations. Low yielding Indian strains grouped together by Hierarchical clustering. Chinese and Japanese strains were distributed in the periphery of ALSCAL matrix indicated convergence of genetic characters in Indian strains. Average genetic distance between Chinese strains and Indian strains (0.193) significantly (P < 0.01) varied from that between Chinese and Japanese strains. Interaction of loci and allelic substitutions induced phenotypic plasticity in temperate B. mori populations on tropic adaptation in India. These outcomes show possibility to combine favorable alleles at different QTL to increase larval, cocoon and shell weight. PMID:19662204

Pradeep, Appukuttannair R; Jingade, Anuradha H; Urs, Raje S

2007-01-01

268

Investigating Some Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Native Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of seed and seed oil obtained from the native black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) were investigated in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that the seed consisted of 27.5–33% crude oil, 20.2–22.5% crude\\u000a protein, 3.5–6% ash, 42.4–46.6% carbohydrate and 112.2–152.0 mg total phenolics\\/100 g. Twenty different fatty acids were determined,\\u000a with the percentages varying from 0.02% myristic acid (C14:0)

Umit Gecgel; Serap Durakli Velioglu; Hasan Murat Velioglu

269

Salmonellosis in wild mammals.  

PubMed Central

One thousand two hundred and sixty-nine freeliving, wild mammals, representative of 16 species from estates in Berkshire, Oxfordshire and Surrey, were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 1 and S. dublin from 7 house mice (Mus musculus). There were no isolations from the other species examined. It was concluded that the house-mice infected with S. dublin acquired the organism from experimentally infected cattle. The wild mammal population does not at present appear to constitute a reservior for infection of domestic animals.

Jones, P. W.; Twigg, G. I.

1976-01-01

270

Embryonic thermosensitive TRPA1 determines transgenerational diapause phenotype of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the bivoltine strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic diapause is induced transgenerationally as a maternal effect. Progeny diapause is determined by the environmental temperature during embryonic development of the mother; however, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Bombyx TRPA1 ortholog (BmTrpA1) acts as a thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that is activated at temperatures above ? 21 °C and affects the induction of diapause in progeny. In addition, we show that embryonic RNAi of BmTrpA1 affects diapause hormone release during pupal-adult development. This study identifying a thermosensitive TRP channel that acts as a molecular switch for a relatively long-term predictive adaptive response by inducing an alternative phenotype to seasonal polyphenism is unique. PMID:24639527

Sato, Azusa; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kashio, Makiko; Yasukochi, Yuji; Tominaga, Makoto; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2014-04-01

271

Catalytic function of an ?-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is involved in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. A silkworm GST, belonging to a previously reported Epsilon-class GST family, was identified, named bmGSTE, cloned, and produced in Escherichia coli. Investigation of this enzyme's properties showed that it was able to catalyse glutathione (GSH) with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ethacrynic acid, and also that it possessed GSH-dependent peroxidase activity. The enzyme's highly conserved amino acid residues, including Ser11, His53, Val55, Ser68 and Arg112, were of interest regarding their possible involvement in its catalytic activity. These residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent kinetic analysis of bmGSTE mutants indicated that His53, Val55, and Ser68 were important for enzyme function. PMID:23803169

Yamamoto, K; Aso, Y; Yamada, N

2013-10-01

272

Cre-mediated targeted gene activation in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

Cre-mediated recombination is widely used to manipulate defined genes spatiotemporally in vivo. The present study evaluated the Cre/loxP system in Bombyx mori by establishing two transgenic lines. One line contained a Cre recombinase gene controlled by a sericin-1 gene (Ser1) promoter. The other line contained a loxP-Stop-loxP-DsRed cassette driven by the same Ser1 promoter. The precise deletion of the Stop fragment was found to be triggered by Cre-mediated site-specific excision, and led to the expression of DsRed fluorescence protein in the middle silk glands of all double-transgenic hybrids. This result was also confirmed by phenotypical analysis. Hence, the current study demonstrated the feasibility of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in B. mori, and opened a new window for further refining genetic tools in silkworms. PMID:23264031

Duan, Jianping; Xu, Hanfu; Ma, Sanyuan; Guo, Huizhen; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

2013-06-01

273

Transgene-based, female-specific lethality system for genetic sexing of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Transgene-based genetic sexing methods are being developed for insects of agricultural and public health importance. Male-only rearing has long been sought in sericulture because males show superior economic characteristics, such as better fitness, lower food consumption, and higher silk yield. Here we report the establishment of a transgene-based genetic sexing system for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We developed a construct in which a positive feedback loop regulated by sex-specific alternative splicing leads to high-level expression of the tetracycline-repressible transactivator in females only. Transgenic animals show female-specific lethality during embryonic and early larval stages, leading to male-only cocoons. This transgene-based female-specific lethal system not only has wide application in sericulture, but also has great potential in lepidopteran pest control. PMID:23569267

Tan, Anjiang; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Guo, Qiuhong; Li, Zhiqian; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke; Huang, Yongping

2013-04-23

274

Biological Activity of Recombinant Bovine Interferon ? Produced by a Silkworm-Baculovirus Gene Expression System  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Bovine interferon (bIFN) ? plays a crucial role in maternal-fetal recognition and was expressed using a Bombyx mori (Bm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (silkworm baculovirus) gene expression system. The biological effects of Bm-recombinant bIFN? (rbIFN?) on prostaglandin (PG) F2? synthesis were investigated in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells with oxytocin (OT, 100 nM) and on the in vitro development of bovine embryos. Bm-rbIFN? and OT were shown to suppress PGF2? production in a dose-dependent manner. When in vitro produced morula stage embryos were cultured for 72 hr in modified CR1aa medium supplemented with or without rbIFN?, Bm-rbIFN? (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted development to the expanded blastocyst stage. In conclusion, Bm-rbIFN? was suggested to have the same bioactivity as native IFN?.

TAKAHASHI, Hitomi; TSUNAZAKI, Makoto; HAMANO, Takashi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; INUMARU, Shigeki; OKANO, Akira; GESHI, Masaya; HIRAKO, Makoto

2013-01-01

275

Embryonic thermosensitive TRPA1 determines transgenerational diapause phenotype of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In the bivoltine strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic diapause is induced transgenerationally as a maternal effect. Progeny diapause is determined by the environmental temperature during embryonic development of the mother; however, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Bombyx TRPA1 ortholog (BmTrpA1) acts as a thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that is activated at temperatures above ?21 °C and affects the induction of diapause in progeny. In addition, we show that embryonic RNAi of BmTrpA1 affects diapause hormone release during pupal-adult development. This study identifying a thermosensitive TRP channel that acts as a molecular switch for a relatively long-term predictive adaptive response by inducing an alternative phenotype to seasonal polyphenism is unique.

Sato, Azusa; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kashio, Makiko; Yasukochi, Yuji; Tominaga, Makoto; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2014-01-01

276

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-03-01

277

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.  

PubMed

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry. PMID:24651079

Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

278

Transgene-based, female-specific lethality system for genetic sexing of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Transgene-based genetic sexing methods are being developed for insects of agricultural and public health importance. Male-only rearing has long been sought in sericulture because males show superior economic characteristics, such as better fitness, lower food consumption, and higher silk yield. Here we report the establishment of a transgene-based genetic sexing system for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We developed a construct in which a positive feedback loop regulated by sex-specific alternative splicing leads to high-level expression of the tetracycline-repressible transactivator in females only. Transgenic animals show female-specific lethality during embryonic and early larval stages, leading to male-only cocoons. This transgene-based female-specific lethal system not only has wide application in sericulture, but also has great potential in lepidopteran pest control.

Tan, Anjiang; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Guo, Qiuhong; Li, Zhiqian; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi; Morrison, Neil I.; Alphey, Luke; Huang, Yongping

2013-01-01

279

Melanin and urate act to prevent ultraviolet damage in the integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The phenomenon that epidermal cells under the white stripes rather than black stripes contain many uric acid granules was found in larvae of several Lepidopteran species. However, the biological mechanism of this phenomenon is still unknown. In the present study, we take advantage of several silkworm (Bombyx mori) body color mutant strains to investigate the deposition patterns and biological mechanism of urate and melanin in the integuments of these mutant larvae. By imaging with transmission electron microscope, we found that there were some melanin granules in the larval cuticle in black body color mutant plain Black (p(B) ), but not in background strain plain (p) with white larval body color. In contrast, the larval epidermal cell of background strain had much more urate granules than that of black one. Furthermore, the uric acid content under the black stripes was significantly lower than that under the white stripes in a single individual of mottled stripe (p(S) ) with black and white stripes in each segment. Ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure experiments showed that the distinct oily (od) mutant individuals with translucent larval integument were more sensitive to the UVA damage than black body color mutant and background strain without any pigmentation in the larval cuticle. This is likely due to the absence of melanin granules and few urate granules in the integument of od mutant. Thus, both the deposited melanin granules in the cuticle and the abundant urate granules in the epidermis cells constitute effective barriers for the silkworm to resist UVA-induced damage. PMID:23575996

Hu, Yong-Gang; Shen, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ze; Shi, Gui-Qin

2013-05-01

280

Shotgun proteomic analysis on the diapause and non-diapause eggs of domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To clarify the molecular mechanisms of silkworm diapause, it is necessary to investigate the molecular basis at protein level. Here, the spectra of peptides digested from silkworm diapause and non-diapause eggs were obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. A total of 501 and 562 proteins were identified from the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively, of which 309 proteins were shared commonly. Among these common-expressed proteins, three main storage proteins (vitellogenin precursor, egg-specific protein and low molecular lipoprotein 30 K precursor), nine heat shock proteins (HSP19.9, 20.1, 20.4, 20.8, 21.4, 23.7, 70, 90-kDa heat shock protein and heat shock cognate protein), 37 metabolic enzymes, 22 ribosomal proteins were identified. There were 192 and 253 unique proteins identified in the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively, of which 24 and 48 had functional annotations, these unique proteins indicated that the metabolism, translation of the mRNA and synthesis of proteins were potentially more highly represented in the non-dipause eggs than that in the diapause eggs. The relative mRNA levels of four identified proteins in the two kinds of eggs were also compared using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and showed some inconsistencies with protein expression. GO signatures of 486 out of the 502 and 545 out of the 562 proteins identified in the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively were available. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed the Metabolism, Translation and Transcription pathway were potentially more active in the non-dipause eggs at this stage. PMID:23580252

Fan, Lanfen; Lin, Jianrong; Zhong, Yangsheng; Liu, Jingyi

2013-01-01

281

Shotgun Proteomic Analysis on the Diapause and Non-Diapause Eggs of Domesticated Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

To clarify the molecular mechanisms of silkworm diapause, it is necessary to investigate the molecular basis at protein level. Here, the spectra of peptides digested from silkworm diapause and non-diapause eggs were obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. A total of 501 and 562 proteins were identified from the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively, of which 309 proteins were shared commonly. Among these common-expressed proteins, three main storage proteins (vitellogenin precursor, egg-specific protein and low molecular lipoprotein 30 K precursor), nine heat shock proteins (HSP19.9, 20.1, 20.4, 20.8, 21.4, 23.7, 70, 90-kDa heat shock protein and heat shock cognate protein), 37 metabolic enzymes, 22 ribosomal proteins were identified. There were 192 and 253 unique proteins identified in the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively, of which 24 and 48 had functional annotations, these unique proteins indicated that the metabolism, translation of the mRNA and synthesis of proteins were potentially more highly represented in the non-dipause eggs than that in the diapause eggs. The relative mRNA levels of four identified proteins in the two kinds of eggs were also compared using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and showed some inconsistencies with protein expression. GO signatures of 486 out of the 502 and 545 out of the 562 proteins identified in the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively were available. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed the Metabolism, Translation and Transcription pathway were potentially more active in the non-dipause eggs at this stage.

Fan, Lanfen; Lin, Jianrong; Zhong, Yangsheng; Liu, Jingyi

2013-01-01

282

Transgenesis approaches for functional analysis of peptidergic cells in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori represents an insect model of great scientific and economic importance. Besides the establishment of a stable germline transformation using the PiggyBac vector, technically feasible methods for in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression were developed using viral based vectors, especially Sindbis viruses and baculoviruses. The recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), commonly used for large-scale protein production in permissive cell lines or insects, has been used for foreign gene transfer into specific peptidergic cells of B. mori in vivo. Since targeted gene expression is essential for functional analysis of neuropeptide genes and their receptors, the baculovirus-mediated gene transfer can serve as a reliable approach in reverse genetic studies in the silkworm. We review various strategies employing the baculovirus vector system for transient expression of molecular markers and transcription factors in specific peptidergic cells to investigate their roles in B. mori. We also use this system for functional analysis of neuropeptide signaling in the ecdysis behavioral sequence. Our data indicate that the AcMNPV vector is suitable for efficient delivery of foreign genes and their expression directed into specific peptidergic neurons and endocrine cells of B. mori larvae and pupae. However, some modifications of the vector and steps for optimization are necessary to minimize negative effects of viral infection on the host development. The transient gene expression using the AcMNPV and other virus vectors are promising tools for analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying various neuroendocrine processes during development of B. mori.

Daubnerova, Ivana; Roller, Ladislav; Zitnan, Dusan

2010-01-01

283

Call of the Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Whaley, Mrs.

2009-04-19

284

Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

285

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endo- plasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation

Norifumi Ukaji; Chikako Kuwabara; Daisuke Takezawa; Keita Arakawa; Shizuo Yoshida; Seizo Fujikawa

1999-01-01

286

Enhancing Mulberry Leaf Meal with Urea by Pelleting to Improve Rumen Fermentation in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Four, ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman×native) beef cattle with initial body weight of 420±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were mulberry leaf pellet (MUP) supplementation at 0, 200, 400 and 600 g/hd/d with rice straw fed to allow ad libitum intake. All steers were kept in individual pens and supplemented with concentrate at 5 g/kg of body weight daily. The experiment was 4 periods, and each lasted 21 d. During the first 14 d, all steers were fed their respective diets ad libitum and during the last 7 d, they were moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection. It was found that increasing MUP levels resulted in linearly increasing rice straw and total intakes (p<0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not significantly affected by MUP supplementation while NH3-N concentration was increased (p<0.05) and maintained at a high level (18.5 mg/dl) with supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d. Similarly, viable total bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic bacteria were enriched by MUP supplementation at 600 g/hd/d. However, the rumen microbial diversity determined with a PCR-DGGE technique showed similar methanogenic diversity between treatments and sampling times and were similar at a 69% genetic relationship as determined by a UPGMA method. Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of MUP at 600 g/hd/d improved DM intake, ruminal NH3-N, and cellulolytic bacteria thus iimproving rumen ecology in beef cattle fed with rice straw.

Tan, N. D.; Wanapat, M.; Uriyapongson, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Pilajun, R.

2012-01-01

287

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

288

Two Intracellular Symbiotic Bacteria from the Mulberry Psyllid Anomoneura mori (Insecta, Homoptera)  

PubMed Central

We characterized the intracellular symbiotic bacteria of the mulberry psyllid Anomoneura mori by performing a molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with in situ hybridization. In its abdomen, the psyllid has a large, yellow, bilobed mycetome (or bacteriome) which consists of many round uninucleated mycetocytes (or bacteriocytes) enclosing syncytial tissue. The mycetocytes and syncytium harbor specific intracellular bacteria, the X-symbionts and Y-symbionts, respectively. Almost the entire length of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and cloned from the whole DNA of A. mori, and two clones, the A-type and B-type clones, were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that the A-type and B-type 16S rDNAs were derived from the X-symbionts and Y-symbionts, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that these symbionts belong to distinct lineages in the ? subdivision of the Proteobacteria. No 16S rDNA sequences in the databases were closely related to the 16S rDNA sequences of the X- and Y-symbionts. However, the sequences that were relatively closely related to them were the sequences of endosymbionts of other insects. The nucleotide compositions of the 16S rDNAs of the X- and Y-symbionts were highly AT biased, and the sequence of the X-symbiont was the most AT-rich bacterial 16S rDNA sequence reported so far.

Fukatsu, Takema; Nikoh, Naruo

1998-01-01

289

Identification and partial characterization of midgut proteases in the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50° C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5- 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 ± 2.0 µM and 116.06 ± 1.96 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

2013-01-01

290

Discovery of a new tetrahydrobiopterin-synthesizing enzyme in the lemon mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new tetrahydrobiopterin-synthesizing enzyme, which is different from sepiapterin reductase (EC 1.1.1.153), was discovered in the integument of the lemon mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori. This enzyme converted 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin to tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor in the hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids, in the presence of NADPH. The reaction proceeded via 6-lactoyltetrahydropterin and 1?-hydroxy-2?-oxopropyltetrahydropterin as intermediates. The molecular mass of

Teruhiko Iino; Hiroshi Sawada; Motoo Tsusué; Shin-Ichiro Takikawa

1996-01-01

291

Amino Acid deprivation-induced expression of asparagine synthetase regulates the growth and survival of cultured silkworm cells.  

PubMed

Expression of Bombyx mori Asparagine synthetase (BmASNS), one gene that encodes an enzyme catalyzing asparagine biosynthesis, is transcriptionally induced following amino acid deprivation. Previous transcriptional analysis of the BmASNS gene showed the involvement of Polycomb proteins, epigenetic repressors, in suppressing BmASNS expression in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, the role of BmAsns protein in these cellular processes remains unclear. The present study thus exploited the potential function of BmAsns protein in cultured silkworm cells. Our results showed that ectopic overexpression of BmASNS gene effectively inhibited cell growth in silkworm cells, whereas its overexpression could rescue cell growth upon amino acid deprivation treatment. We found that the cells expressing BmAsns protein were capable of influencing the formation of autophagic vacuoles stimulated by amino acid deprivation. We speculated that the recovery of cell growth by overexpressed BmAsns protein is due to the rapid turnover of autophagic vacuoles in the cells. To further assess the effects of BmAsns on cell development, we used RNA interference to silence BmASNS expression in silkworm cells in the presence or absence of amino acids. Our results revealed a significant change of cell proliferation as well as cell cycle distribution after knockdown of BmASNS. Importantly, silkworm cells lacking BmASNS under the condition of amino acid deprivation showed severely impaired proliferation. Altogether, we concluded that the up-regulated expression of BmASNS would be able to protect cells from impairment induced by amino acid deprivation, which in turn facilitates cell growth and survival. PMID:23633098

Li, Zhiqing; Zhu, Li; Xu, Jian; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2013-06-01

292

The Enzyme That Synthesizes Tetrahydrobiopterin from 6-Pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin in the lemon Mutant Silkworm Consists of Two Carbonyl Reductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrahydrobiopterin plays an important role in the biosynthesis of certain neurotransmitters. Using DEAE–Sepharose FF column chromatography, we separated the enzyme that synthesizes tetrahydrobiopterin from 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin [which is different from sepiapterin reductase (EC 1.1.1.153)] in the lemon mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori into two fractions, which were named carbonyl reductase I (CR I) and carbonyl reductase II (CR II). The

Teruhiko Iino; Shin-Ichiro Takikawa; Toshio Yamamoto; Hiroshi Sawada

2000-01-01

293

Molecular cloning of ecdysone 20-hydroxylase and expression pattern of the enzyme during embryonic development of silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

In various insects, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is indispensable for embryonic development. In eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori, 20E has been demonstrated to be produced by two metabolic pathways: de novo synthesis from cholesterol and dephosphorylation of ovary-derived physiologically inactive ecdysteroid phosphates. In the former, ecdysone 20-hydroxylase (E20OHase) has been suggested to be a key enzyme. In the latter, it has

Sayaka Maeda; Asuka Nakashima; Ryouichi Yamada; Noriyuki Hara; Yoshinori Fujimoto; Yoichi Ito; Haruyuki Sonobe

2008-01-01

294

A comparative study of rac- and S-metolachlor on some activities and metabolism of silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The racemic product of metolachlor contains two R-enantiomers and two S-enantiomers. S-Metolachlor is a more effective herbicidal agent than rac-metolachlor; currently, it is widely used instead of rac-metolachlor. The comparative toxicity of rac- and S-metolachlor was assessed on the basis of their effects on some enzyme activities of the fifth instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. These results suggest

Xiu-ming Zhan; Hui-jun Liu; Yun-gen Miao; Wei-ping Liu

2006-01-01

295

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury.  

PubMed

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F(2) progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16(905 bp) showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F(2) progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16(826 bp)). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

Dutta, Suhrid R; Kar, Prasanta K; Srivastava, Ashok K; Sinha, Manoj K; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K

2012-12-01

296

The Bmdsx transgene including trimmed introns is sex-specifically spliced in tissues of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bmdsx is an orthologue of the sex-determining gene doublesex (dsx) and known to be sex-specifically expressed in various tissues of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Its pre-mRNA is sex-specifically spliced and encodes female-specific or male-specific polypeptides. The open reading frame of Bmdsx consists of 5 exons, of which exons 3 and 4 are female-specific and its pre-mRNA was known to undergo

Shunsuke Funaguma; Masataka G. Suzuki; Toshiki Tamura; Toru Shimada

297

In vitro transcription systems from cultured cells and fat-body tissue of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of cell-free transcription systems from the cultured cells and fat body tissues of\\u000a a Lepidpteran insect, the silkworm,Bombyx mori. Detailed protocols are provided for the culture of aB. mori cell line, rearing larvae, preparation of whole cell as well as nuclear extract and conditions for in vitro transcription\\u000a of cloned plasma protein gene templates.

Eriko Mine; Hiroshi Sakurai; Susumu Izumi; Shiro Tomino

1997-01-01

298

cDNA cloning and characterization of LASP1 from silkworm, Bombyx mori, involved in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus infection.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNA of a LIM and SH3 contained protein 1 (named BmLASP1) was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of BmLASP1 is 2094 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 117 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 610 bp with two poly-adenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail. The BmLASP1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide comprising 455 amino acids, including a LIM domain, two nebulin domains and an SH3 domain. The theoretical isoelectric point is 7.07 and the predicted molecular weight is 51.8 kDa. BmLASP1 has no signal peptide but three potential N-glycosylation sites. Sequence similarity and phylogenic analyses indicated that BmLASP1 belonged to the group of insect LASP1 with a longer linker region which is different from vertebrate LASP1. The LASP1 in silkworm contained eight exons in its coding regions, and the last exon-intron boundary was conserved the same as in mammalian and Ciona intestinalis LASP1 genes. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA transcripts of BmLASP1 were mainly detected in the gonad, head, and spiracle, and slightly in the silk gland, vasa mucosa, midgut, fat body, and hemocytes. After silkworm larvae were infected by B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), the relative expression level of BmLASP1 was down-regulated in the midgut. This result suggested that BmLASP1 may play an important role in the response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. PMID:23031809

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Qian, He-ying; Wu, Ping; Qin, Guang-xing; Liu, Ting; Guo, Xi-jie

2012-12-15

299

Bombyxin, an Insulin-Related Peptide of Insects, Reduces the Major Storage Carbohydrates in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an insect insulin-related peptide, bombyxin, on carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Bombyxin lowered the concentration of the major hemolymph sugar, trehalose, in a dose-dependent manner when injected into neck-ligated larvae. Bombyxin also caused elevated trehalase activity in the midgut and muscle, suggesting that bombyxin induces hypotrehalosemia by promoting the hydrolysis of hemolymph trehalose

Shin'Ichiro Satake; Makoto Masumura; Hironori Ishizaki; Koji Nagata; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi

1997-01-01

300

A Dense Genetic Map of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Covering All Chromosomes Based on 1018 Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori, containing 1018 genetic markers on all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Most of the markers, covering z2000 cM, were randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs amplified with primer-pairs in combinations of 140 commercially available decanucleotides. In addition, eight known genes and five visible mutations were mapped. Bombyx homo- logues of

Yuji Yasukochi

301

Pheromone-triggered flip-flopping interneurons in the ventral nerve cord of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A group of extracellularly recorded descending interneurons in the ventral nerve cord of the male silkworm mothBombyx mori share a common flip-flopping input. In response to repeated stimuli these flip-flopping interneurons switch back and forth between long lasting high and low firing rates (Figs. 1, 2).2.Changes in the level of the female pheromone bombykol in an airstream directed at the

Robert M. Olberg

1983-01-01

302

Bmmarl: a basal lineage of the mariner family of transposable elements in the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a transposable element, called Bmmarl, from the genome of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori. This element has features of the Tcl-mariner superfamily of transposable elements. Bmmarl was first detected as a fragment in the 5? region of the larval serum protein (BmLSP) gene. Six genomic clones characterized each differed from a consensus sequence by 3–5 insertions and deletions,

Hugh M. Robertson; Michele L. Asplund

1996-01-01

303

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac

Toshiki Tamura; Chantal Thibert; Corinne Royer; Toshio Kanda; Abraham Eappen; Mari Kamba; Natuo Kômoto; Jean-Luc Thomas; Bernard Mauchamp; Gérard Chavancy; Paul Shirk; Malcolm Fraser; Jean-Claude Prudhomme; Pierre Couble

2000-01-01

304

Nanoparticle-induced morphological transition of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: a novel method to treat silkworm grasserie disease.  

PubMed

Grasserie, a polyorganotrophic disease caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), accounts for lethal infection to fifth instar silkworm larvae. It was found that nanoparticle (NP)-induced morphological transformation of BmNPV polyhedra could reduce the infectivity of BmNPV both in cell line and in silkworm larvae. Initially, 11 NPs were screened for evaluation of their nature of interaction with polyhedra surface through scanning electron microscopy. Amongst these NPs, lipophilically coated silica nanoparticle (SNPL), alumina nanoparticles in the hexagonal close-packed ? structure and aspartate capped gold nanoparticle transformed polyhedra were tested for their infectivity in B. mori cell line using cytopathic effect and plaque reduction assay. SNPL was evaluated for its bio-efficacy in fifth instar silkworm larvae. The study of polyhedra morphology as a function of NP concentration showed severe 'roughening' of the polyhedra with replacement of the regular facets by a large number of irregular ones by SNPL, and this caused transition of highly infectious polyhedra into a nearly spherical, non-infectious structure. A moderate polyhedra roughening was observed for alumina NPs, and no roughening was noticed for gold NPs. The morphological changes could be correlated with reduction of virus-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation, and increased survival rate of SNPL transformed polyhedra infected silkworm larvae to 70.09±6.61% after 96 h. In this group, 61.04±8.03% larvae formed normal cocoons from which moths eclosed, laid eggs and larvae emerged. This study could lead to open up newer pathways for designing nano pharmaceuticals to combat other viral diseases. PMID:23588933

Das, Sumistha; Bhattacharya, Ankita; Debnath, Nitai; Datta, Alokmay; Goswami, Arunava

2013-07-01

305

Construction of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Linkage Map for the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Based on Bacterial Artificial Chromosome End Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a linkage map for the silkworm Bombyx mori based on single nucleotide poly- morphisms (SNPs) between strains p50T and C108T initially found on regions corresponding to the end sequences of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Using 190 segregants from a backcross of a p50T female 3 an F1 (p50T 3 C108T) male, we analyzed segregation patterns of

Kimiko Yamamoto; Junko Narukawa; Keiko Kadono-Okuda; Junko Nohata; Motoe Sasanuma; Yoshitaka Suetsugu; Yutaka Banno; Hiroshi Fujii; Marian R. Goldsmith; Kazuei Mita

2006-01-01

306

Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively. PMID:23403062

Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

2013-03-01

307

A Freeze-Fracture Study Designed to Clarify the Mechanisms of Freezing Injury Due to the Freezing-Induced Close Apposition of Membranes in Cortical Parenchyma Cells of Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing injury in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv. Goroji) collected in autumn and spring was closely associated with the occurence of ultrastructural changes in the plasma membrane, namely, formation of aparticulate domains (APD) with accompanying \\

Seizo Fujikawa

1995-01-01

308

Wild Duck Cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On April 7, 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft's Impactor Target Sensor camera recorded this image of M11, the Wild Duck cluster, a galactic open cluster located 6 thousand light years away. The camera is located on the impactor spacecraft, which will image comet Tempel 1 beginning 22 hours before impact until about 2 seconds before impact. Impact with comet Tempel 1 is planned for July 4, 2005.

2005-01-01

309

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

2010-05-14

310

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

311

Hybrid of 1-deoxynojirimycin and polysaccharide from mulberry leaves treat diabetes mellitus by activating PDX-1\\/insulin-1 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of glucokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in alloxan-induced diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevance1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) discovered from mulberry trees has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of intestinal ?-glycosidases (sucrase, maltase, glucoamylase), and many polysaccharides were useful in protecting against alloxan-induced pancreatic islets damage through their scavenging ability. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism(s) of the hybrid of DNJ and polysaccharide (HDP) from mulberry leaves

You-Gui Li; Dong-Feng Ji; Shi Zhong; Zhi-Qiang Lv; Tian-Bao Lin; Shi Chen; Gui-Yan Hu

2011-01-01

312

Localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in silkworm brain: a possible mechanism for protection of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase from Ca(2+).  

PubMed

In mammalian blood, the Na(+) concentration is higher than the K(+) concentration, whereas in hemolymph of lepidopterous insects, the K(+) concentration is higher than the Na(+) concentration. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in mammalian blood. Therefore, the absence of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in lepidopterous insects might be expected. However, we have observed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is abundant in nerve tissues of larvae of silkworm, a lepidopterous insect. Furthermore, we found that silkworm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was completely inhibited by 3 mM Ca(2+)in vitro (Homareda, 2010), although the Ca(2+) concentration is very high (30-50 mM) in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae. To investigate the reason why silkworm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is not inhibited by Ca(2+)in vivo, we observed the localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in nerve tissues using immunohistochemical techniques. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was distributed in the cortex and neuropile but not in the perineurium of the silkworm brain, while plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase appeared to distribute in the perineurium as well as in the cortex and neuropile. These results support a possibility that neuronal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is protected from a high Ca(2+) concentration by the blood-brain barrier consisting of perineurial glial cells with plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:23274012

Homareda, Haruo; Otsu, Masahiro

2013-03-01

313

Partial deletions of the W chromosome due to reciprocal translocation in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori (female, ZW; male, ZZ), femaleness is determined by the presence of a single W chromosome, irrespective of the number of autosomes or Z chromosomes. The W chromosome is devoid of functional genes, except the putative female-determining gene (Fem). However, there are strains in which chromosomal fragments containing autosomal markers have been translocated on to W. In this study, we analysed the W chromosomal regions of the Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) at the molecular level. Initially, we undertook a project to identify W-specific RAPD markers, in addition to the three already established W-specific RAPD markers (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai and W-Kamikaze). Following the screening of 3648 arbitrary 10-mer primers, we obtained nine W-specific RAPD marker sequences (W-Bonsai, W-Mikan, W-Musashi, W-Rikishi, W-Sakura, W-Sasuke, W-Yukemuri-L, W-Yukemuri-S and BMC1-Kabuki), almost all of which contained the border regions of retrotransposons, namely portions of nested retrotransposons. We confirmed the presence of eleven out of twelve W-specific RAPD markers in the normal W chromosomes of twenty-five silkworm strains maintained in Japan. These results indicate that the W chromosomes of the strains in Japan are almost identical in type. The Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) lacked the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) lacked the W-Mikan RAPD marker. These results strongly indicate that the regions containing the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers or the W-Mikan RAPD marker were deleted in the T(W;3)Ze and T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosomes, respectively, due to reciprocal translocation between the W chromosome and the autosome. This deletion apparently does not affect the expression of Fem; therefore, this deleted region of the W chromosome does not contain the putative Fem gene. PMID:16033428

Abe, H; Seki, M; Ohbayashi, F; Tanaka, N; Yamashita, J; Fujii, T; Yokoyama, T; Takahashi, M; Banno, Y; Sahara, K; Yoshido, A; Ihara, J; Yasukochi, Y; Mita, K; Ajimura, M; Suzuki, M G; Oshiki, T; Shimada, T

2005-08-01

314

The Wild Ones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Children's Education Program of Wildlife Trust has much to offer students and teachers. Available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, students can find information about animals, their habitats, and the scientists who study them. The Wild Ones network provides an opportunity for members to communicate with each other, contribute curriculum activities, and share ideas and resources. The Curriculum Library in the teachers section is one of the most beneficial parts of the Web site, with its numerous lesson plans mainly directed towards K-6th grades.

2001-01-01

315

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.  

PubMed

Abstract Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

2014-05-01

316

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds  

PubMed Central

Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance.

Bonnedahl, Jonas

2014-01-01

317

The silkworm Z chromosome is enriched in testis-specific genes.  

PubMed

The role of sex chromosomes in sex determination has been well studied in diverse groups of organisms. However, the role of the genes on the sex chromosomes in conferring sexual dimorphism is still being experimentally evaluated. An unequal complement of sex chromosomes between two sexes makes them amenable to sex-specific evolutionary forces. Sex-linked genes preferentially expressed in one sex over the other offer a potential means of addressing the role of sex chromosomes in sexual dimorphism. We examined the testis transcriptome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which has a ZW chromosome constitution in the female and ZZ in the male, and show that the Z chromosome harbors a significantly higher number of genes expressed preferentially in testis compared to the autosomes. We hypothesize that sexual antagonism and absence of dosage compensation have possibly led to the accumulation of many male-specific genes on the Z chromosome. Further, our analysis of testis-specific paralogous genes suggests that the accumulation on the Z chromosome of genes advantageous to males has occurred primarily by translocation or tandem duplication. PMID:19332883

Arunkumar, K P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, J

2009-06-01

318

Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of a cationic dye by a natural adsorbent--silkworm pupa.  

PubMed

In this work the use of silkworm pupa, which is the waste of silk spinning industries has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of C.I. Basic Blue 41. The amino acid nature of the pupa provided a reasonable capability for dye removal. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various adsorption isotherm models and the results have shown that adsorption behavior of the dye could be described reasonably well by either Langmuir or Freundlich models. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The monolayer adsorption capacity was determined to be 555 mg/g. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0434 and 0.0572 g/min mg for initial dye concentration of 200 mg/l at 20 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion were simultaneously operating during the adsorption process. The rate constant for intra-particle diffusion was estimated to be 1.985 mg/g min(0.5). PMID:16859827

Noroozi, B; Sorial, G A; Bahrami, H; Arami, M

2007-01-01

319

Biosynthesis and cocoon-export of a recombinant globular protein in transgenic silkworms.  

PubMed

A gene construct was made by fusing the coding sequence of the red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to the exon 2 of the fibrohexamerin gene (fhx), that encodes a subunit of fibroin, the major silk protein of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The fusion gene was inserted into a piggyBac vector to establish a series of transgenic lines. The expression of the transgene was monitored during the course of larval life and was found restricted to the posterior silk gland cells as the endogenous fhx gene, in all the selected transgenic lines. The exogenous polypeptide was secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk gland together with fibroin, and further exported with the silk proteins as a foreign constituent of the cocoon fiber. The capacity of DsRed to emit fluorescence in the air-dried silk thread led to show that the recombinant protein was distributed over the whole length of the fiber. A remarkable property of the system lies in the localization of the globular protein at the periphery of the silk thread, allowing its rapid and easy recovery in aqueous solutions, without dissolving fibroin. The procedure represents a novel and promising strategy for the production of massive recombinant proteins of biomedical and pharmaceutical interest, with reduced cost. PMID:16201412

Royer, Corinne; Jalabert, Audrey; Da Rocha, Martine; Grenier, Anne-Marie; Mauchamp, Bernard; Couble, Pierre; Chavancy, Gérard

2005-08-01

320

Induction of dauer pupae by fenoxycarb in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Topical application of fenoxycarb (1 &mgr;g per animal) at 129 or 132 h of the fifth instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, did not induce morphological abnormalities in the pupal stage, but these animals became dauer (permanent) pupae. This condition of B. mori and the endocrine events leading to permanent pupae are discussed in this work. Application of fenoxycarb at 132 h of the fifth instar elicited a high ecdysteroid titre in the pharate pupal stage and a steadily high ecdysteroid titre in the pupal stage. The fenoxycarb-induced permanent pupae had non-degenerating prothoracic glands that secreted low amounts of ecdysteroid and did not respond to recombinant prothoracicotropic hormone (rPTTH) late in the pupal stage. The Bombyx PTTH titre in the haemolymph, determined by a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, was lower than that of controls at the time of pupal ecdysis, but higher than controls later in the pupal stage in fenoxycarb-treated animals. After application of fenoxycarb, its haemolymph level, measured by ELISA, reached a peak at pupal ecdysis, then remained low. These results suggest that the fenoxycarb-mediated induction of permanent pupae is only partially a brain-centred phenomenon. It also involves alterations in the hormonal interplay that govern both the initiation of pupal-adult differentiation and changes in the steroidogenic pathway of the prothoracic glands of B. mori. PMID:12770048

Dedos, S G.; Szurdoki, F; Székács, A; Mizoguchi, A; Fugo, H

2002-09-01

321

Cloning, expression and characterization of alcohol dehydrogenases in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones, by using either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), as coenzymes. In this study, a short-chain ADH gene was identified in Bombyx mori by 5?-RACE PCR. This is the first time the coding region of BmADH has been cloned, expressed, purified and then characterized. The cDNA fragment encoding the BmADH protein was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR, and then cloned into E. coli expression vector pET-30a(+). The recombinant His-tagged BmADH protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography. The soluble recombinant BmADH, produced at low-growth temperature, was instrumental in catalyzing the ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD+, thereby indicating ethanol as one of the substrates of BmADH.

Wang, Nan; Shi, Haifeng; Yao, Qin; Zhou, Yang; Kang, Lequn; Chen, Huiqin; Chen, Keping

2011-01-01

322

Metabolic allometry during development and metamorphosis of the silkworm Bombyx mori: analyses, patterns, and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Intraspecific allometric (scaling) relationships for metabolism, which have received little examination compared to interspecific relationships, reflect a complex interplay of organogenesis, growth, and shifting physiologies. In this study of the silkworm Bombyx mori, we hypothesized that allometric relationships for metabolism both across all developmental stages and within each stage would not reflect conventional scaling coefficients (e.g., b not equal to 0.75). Histology, gross morphology, body surface and cross-sectional area, total lipid content, and cytochrome c oxidase activity levels (as evidence of the total metabolic potential of mitochondria) were determined across development. Also measured were oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and the respiratory exchange ratio. The overall slope, b, in the allometric equation relating to body mass across all developmental stages was 0.82, not greatly different from the value of 0.75 typical of interspecific data. However, within larval instars II-V and in prepupae, b varied between 0.99 and 1.49, far higher than hypothesized. Thus, in B. mori, an analytical approach that lumps all developmental stages hides interinstar variability. Morphological and biochemical data suggest that observed scaling patterns in B. mori are likely correlated with changes in overall mitochondrial density rather than with specific changes in body proportion of tissues with higher intrinsic metabolic intensity. PMID:20105069

Blossman-Myer, Bonnie L; Burggren, Warren W

2010-01-01

323

Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.  

PubMed

Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

2014-04-01

324

Expression pattern of enzymes related to juvenile hormone metabolism in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

The physiological balance of juvenile hormone (JH) in insects depends on its biosynthesis and degradation pathway. Three key enzymes namely, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) are required for degradation in insects. Our present results showed that JHE and JHEH exhibited expression in almost all the tissues. This indicated that JHE and JHEH might degrade JH simultaneously. In addition, the highest levels of JHDK were observed in the midgut, with trace level being found in the malpighian tubule and haemocytes. Since the midgut is a digestive organ and not a JH target, it was hypothesized that both JHE and JHEH hydrolyzed JH to JH diol (JHd) which was then transported to midgut and hydrolyzed further by JHDK, to be finally excreted out of the body. Also the expression studies on JH degradation enzymes in different tissues and stages indicated that the activities of the three enzymes are specific and coincident with the JH functions in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. PMID:21107706

Hua-Jun, Yang; Fang, Zhou; Awquib, Sabhat; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Roy, Bhaskar; Xing-Hua, Li; Jia-Biao, Hu; Chun-Guang, Sun; Niu, Yan-Shan; Yun-Gen, Miao

2011-10-01

325

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals...Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or forest are included...

2013-07-01

326

Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice. PMID:23768383

Wu, Tao; Qi, Xueming; Liu, Yan; Guo, Jun; Zhu, Ruiyu; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2013-11-01

327

Developmental time and fecundity of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), on potato, kiwi and mulberry hosts in Iran.  

PubMed

The white peach scale (WPS), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is a world wide polyphagous scale insect. It is widely distributed in north of Iran, near the Caspian Sea areas, where it is the main pest of mulberry and kiwi trees. The development and fecundity of P. pentagona were examined at different temperatures and on different hosts in the laboratory. The longevity of WPS decreased with a rise in temperature. At 25 degrees C the largest number of crawlers (76.1 crawlers/female) was observed. The development time of WPS was generally longer on kiwi than mulberry or potato; fecundity was higher on potato than on other hosts, potato tubers and kiwi trees. PMID:19090130

Abbasipour, Habib

2007-09-15

328

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), an 802 bp 3'-terminal region (3'-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

2013-01-01

329

Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Dual Oxidase (BmDuox) Gene from the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5?-terminal untranslated region (5?-UTR), an 802 bp 3?-terminal region (3?-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut.

Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

2013-01-01

330

Production of classical swine fever virus envelope glycoprotein E2 as recombinant polyhedra in baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Although, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) envelope glycoprotein E2 subunit vaccine has been developed using the baculovirus expression system, the expression of viral antigens in baculovirus-infected insect cells is often ineffective. Therefore, an alternative strategy to the traditional baculovirus expression system is needed that is more productive and effective. Here, we report a novel strategy for the large-scale production of a CSFV E2 in the larvae of a baculovirus-infected silkworm, Bombyx mori. We constructed a recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that expressed recombinant polyhedra together with the N-terminal 179 amino acids of CSFV E2 (E2?C). BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae expressed native polyhedrin and approximately 44-kDa fusion protein that was detected using both anti-polyhedrin and anti-CSFV E2 antibodies. Electron and confocal microscopy both demonstrated that the recombinant polyhedra contained both the fusion protein and native polyhedrin were morphologically normal and contained CSFV E2?C. The CSFV E2?C antigen produced in BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae reached 0.68 mg/ml of hemolymph and 0.53 mg/larva at 6-days post-infection. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice that were immunized with the E2?C protein purified from solubilized recombinant polyhedra elicited CSFV E2 antibodies, which indicated that the CSFV E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra was immunogenic. The virus neutralization test showed that the serum from mice that were treated with E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra contained significant levels of virus neutralization activity. These results demonstrate that this strategy can be used for the large-scale production of CSFV E2 antigen. PMID:21706129

Lee, Kwang Sik; Sohn, Mi Ri; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choo, Young Moo; Woo, Soo Dong; Yoo, Sung Sik; Je, Yeon Ho; Choi, Jae Young; Roh, Jong Yul; Koo, Hyun Na; Jin, Byung Rae

2012-03-01

331

Structure-Function Relationship of SW-AT-1, a Serpin-Type Protease Inhibitor in Silkworm  

PubMed Central

Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10?5 M?1s?1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10?6 M?1s?1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4–10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed.

Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

332

A fluorescent single domain antibody against plumbagin expressed in silkworm larvae for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA).  

PubMed

A fluorescent single-domain antibody (fluobody), a chimera of a green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) with a single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv), against plumbagin (5-hydorxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone; PL) was successfully expressed in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using a Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid DNA system to develop a rapid, simple, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA). In this study, two kinds of fluobody, in which the PL-scFv was fused at the N-terminus (N-fluobody) or C-terminus of AcGFP (C-fluobody), were expressed in silkworm larvae for comparative purposes. Interestingly, both fluobodies expressed in the BmNPV bacmid DNA system retained both of their original functions as an AcGFP and a PL-scFv, although the functions of the N-fluobody were found to be inferior to those of C-fluobody when they were expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, an improvement in the limit of quantification for PL measurement was observed in FLISA (24 ng mL(-1)) compared with conventional ELISA (0.2 µg mL(-1)). Since both the C-fluobody and N-fluobody are useful probes for FLISA and the time-, cost-consuming refolding step required in the conventional bacterial expression system can be avoided when they are expressed in the BmNPV bacmid DNA system, the silkworm expression system is useful for expressing fluobodies when developing FLISA. PMID:21442099

Sakamoto, Seiichi; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Sasaki-Tabata, Kaori; Putalun, Waraporn; Maenaka, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

2011-05-21

333

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications.

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

2014-01-01

334

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

2014-02-01

335

First wild XXY house mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution\\u000a has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been\\u000a karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an

Heidi C. Hauffe; Mabel D. Giménez; Silvia Garagna; Jeremy B. Searle

2010-01-01

336

DNA fingerprinting using AFLP markers to search for markers associated with yield attributes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out on 11 Chinese and 12 Japanese silkworm strains maintained by the Center for the Technological Development of Sericulture (CDTS) germplasm bank, located in Pereira, Colombia. The goals were to determine the genetic population structure of the two groups and the association between molecular markers (AFLPs) and important productivity characters. Group analysis showed the separation of the strains according to their geographic origin. The molecular markers and the productivity characters were correlated by multiple variance analysis. The analysis permitted the identification of molecular markers associated with the cocoon weight or the shell weight separately. Some markers were associated with both characters.

Gaviria, Duverney A.; Aguilar, Enrique; Serrano, Herman J.; Alegria, Alvaro H.

2006-01-01

337

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin pleiotropically inhibits glucose-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration by activation of AMPK/RhoB and down-regulation of FAK.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, has been reported to help prevent diabetes mellitus and suppress lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry DNJ has pleiotropic effects on the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which mulberry DNJ might inhibit migration of A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic conditions mimicking diabetes were investigated. The antimigratory effects of DNJ on VSMCs were assessed by Western blot analysis of migration-related proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton. Two pathways of DNJ-mediated inhibition of VSMC migration were identified. The first involved AMPK activation to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Akt activity and then RhoB activation to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP) activity. The second involved inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras, and RhoA activity leading to inhibition of F-actin activity. PMID:24050301

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-10-16

338

Construction of new ligation-independent cloning vectors for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in silkworms using BmNPV bacmid system.  

PubMed

A ligation independent cloning (LIC) system has been developed to facilitate the rapid and high-efficiency cloning of genes in a Bombyx mori expression system. This system was confirmed by the expression of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (hMTP) fused with EGFP in silkworm larvae and pupae. Moreover, hMTP and human protein disulfide isomerase (hPDI) genes were inserted into two LIC vectors harboring gcLINK sequences and were combined by using the LIC through gcLINK sequences. The constructed vector was incorporated into the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid, and injected into silkworm larvae. The expressed hMTP-hPDI complex was purified from the fat bodies of silkworm larvae. This LIC vector system was applied to express the E1, E2, and E3 subunits of human ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) in silkworm larvae. The expressed proteins were purified easily from fat bodies using three different affinity chromatography steps. The LIC vectors constructed as described in this report allow for the rapid expression and purification of recombinant proteins or their complexes by using the BmNPV bacmid system. PMID:23675518

Kato, Tatsuya; Thompson, James R; Park, Enoch Y

2013-01-01

339

Enhancement of Protein Metabolism and Enzyme Activities in Haemolymph of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. By Ultrasound Treatment During Fifth Instar Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: Present study explains about the enhancement of protein metabolism and enzyme activities in haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L during the fifth instar larva stage. The parameters of protein metabolism, such as the levels of soluble, total proteins and free amino acids and the activity levels of protease, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were assayed

P. Nagajyothi; K. Nagalakshmamma; Y. Suneetha; Phaninatha A. Sarma

2009-01-01

340

Effects of added CeCl3 on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.  

PubMed

One of the most important agents causing lethal disease in the silkworm is the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), while low-dose rare earths are demonstrated to increase immune capacity in animals. However, very little is known about the effects of added CeCl(3) on decreasing BmNPV infection of silkworm. The present study investigated the effects of added CeCl(3) to an artificial diet on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to BmNPV infection. Our findings indicated that added CeCl(3) significantly decreased inhibition of growth and mortality of fifth-instar larvae caused by BmNPV infection. Furthermore, the added CeCl(3) obviously decreased lipid peroxidation level and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), (·)OH, and NO and increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione contents in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. In addition, the added CeCl(3) could significantly promote acetylcholine esterase activity and attenuate the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. These findings suggested that added CeCl(3) may relieve oxidative damage and neurotoxicity of silkworm caused by BmNPV infection via increasing antioxidant capacity and acetylcholine esterase activity. PMID:22076733

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Cui, Yaling; Gong, Xiaolan; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-01

341

Electron Transport and Bulk-like Behavior of Wiedemann-Franz Law for Sub-7 nm-Thin Iridium Films on Silkworm Silk.  

PubMed

For ultrathin metallic films, either supported or free-standing, the inside nanocrystalline nature significantly reduces the electron and thermal transport. Quantum mechanical reflection of electrons at the grain boundary reduces the electrical conductivity further than the thermal conductivity, leading to a Lorenz number in the order of 7.0 × 10(-8) W ? K(-2), much higher than that of the bulk counterpart. We report on a finding that for ultrathin (0.6-6.3 nm) iridium films coated on degummed silkworm silk fibroin, the electron transport is around 100-200% higher than that of the same film on glass fiber, even though the grain size of Ir film on silkworm silk is smaller than that on glass fiber. At the same time, the thermal conductivity of the Ir film is smaller or close to that of the film on glass fiber. Its Lorenz number is found close to that of bulk crystalline Ir despite the nanocrystalline structure in the Ir films. This is similar to the behavior of metallic glasses. Our study of gold films on silkworm silk reveals the same trend of change as compared to that on glass fiber. Electron hopping and tunneling in silkworm silk is speculated to be responsible for the observed electron transport. The finding points out that silk could provide a better substrate for flexible electronics with significantly faster electron transport. PMID:24988039

Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

2014-07-23

342

The Wilde analyst.  

PubMed

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis. PMID:23470974

Miller, Joel

2013-03-01

343

Protective effect of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on human vascular endothelial cells damaged by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL).  

PubMed

Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti-apoptotic mechanism of the 30K family proteins, but also provide important information on prevention and treatment of human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23840859

Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-01-01

344

Characterisation of a Desmosterol Reductase Involved in Phytosterol Dealkylation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C29 and C28) yielding cholesterol (C27). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD- dependent reaction. Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation.

Ciufo, Leonora F.; Murray, Patricia A.; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J.; Rees, Huw H.

2011-01-01

345

Retrotransposable elements on the W chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of the silkworm, Bombyxmori, are designated ZW(XY) for females and ZZ(XX) for males. The W chromosome of B. mori does not recombine with the Z chromosome and autosomes and no genes for morphological characters have been mapped to the W chromosome as yet. Furthermore, femaleness is determined by the presence of a single W chromosome, regardless of the number of autosomes or Z chromosomes. To understand these interesting features of the W chromosome, it is necessary to analyze the W chromosome at the molecular biology level. Initially to isolate DNA sequences specific for the W chromosome as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, we compared the genomic DNAs between males and females by PCR with arbitrary 10-mer primers. To the present, we have identified 12 W-specific RAPD markers, and with the exception of one RAPD marker, all of the deduced amino acid sequences of these W-specific RAPD markers show similarity to previously reported amino acid sequences of retrotransposable elements from various organisms. After constructing a genomic DNA lambda phage library of B. mori we obtained two lambda phage clones, one containing the W-Kabuki RAPD sequence and one containing the W-Samurai RAPD sequence and found that these DNA sequences comprised nested structures of many retrotransposable elements. To further analyze the W chromosome, we obtained 14 W-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from three BAC libraries and subjected these clones to shotgun sequencing. The resulting assembly of sequences did not produce a single contiguous sequence due to the presence of many retrotransposable elements. Therefore, we coupled PCR with shotgun sequencing. Through these analyses, we found that many long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons, retroposons, DNA transposons and their derivatives, have accumulated on the W chromosome as strata. These results strongly indicate that retrotransposable elements are the main structural component of the W chromosome. PMID:16093666

Abe, H; Mita, K; Yasukochi, Y; Oshiki, T; Shimada, T

2005-01-01

346

Gloverins of the silkworm Bombyx mori: Structural and binding properties and activities  

PubMed Central

Gloverins are basic, glycine-rich and heat-stable antibacterial proteins (~14-kDa) in lepidopteran insects with activity against Escherichia coli, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and a virus. Hyalophora gloveri gloverin adopts a random coil structure in aqueous solution but has ?-helical structure in membrane-like environment, and it may interact with the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Manduca sexta gloverin binds to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of LPS. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, there are four gloverins with slightly acidic to neutral isoelectric points. In this study, we investigate structural and binding properties and activities of B. mori gloverins (BmGlvs), as well as correlations between structure, binding property and activity. Recombinant BmGlv1–4 were expressed in bacteria and purified. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that all four BmGlvs mainly adopted random coli structure (>50%) in aqueous solution in regardless of pH, but contained ?-helical structure in the presence of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), smooth and rough mutants (Ra, Rc and Re) of LPS and lipid A. Plate ELISA assay showed that BmGlvs at pH 5.0 bound to rough mutants of LPS and lipid A but not to smooth LPS. Antibacterial activity assay showed that positively charged BmGlvs (at pH 5.0) were active against E. coli mutant strains containing rough LPS but inactive against E. coli with smooth LPS. Our results suggest that binding to rough LPS is the prerequisite for the activity of BmGlvs against E. coli.

Yi, Hui-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Wan-Ying; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Cao, Yang; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

2013-01-01

347

Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

2012-02-01

348

Translationally controlled tumor protein, a dual functional protein involved in the immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Wang, Fei; Hu, Cuimei; Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

349

Identification of a functional element in the promoter of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) fat body-specific gene Bmlp3.  

PubMed

30K proteins are a group of structurally related proteins that play important roles in the life cycle of the silkworm Bombyx mori and are largely synthesized and regulated in a time-dependent manner in the fat body. Little is known about the upstream regulatory elements associated with the genes encoding these proteins. In the present study, the promoter of Bmlp3, a fat body-specific gene encoding a 30K protein family member, was characterized by joining sequences containing the Bmlp3 promoter with various amounts of 5' upstream sequences to a luciferase reporter gene. The results indicated that the sequences from -150 to -250bp and -597 to -675bp upstream of the Bmlp3 transcription start site were necessary for high levels of luciferase activity. Further analysis showed that a 21-bp sequence located between -230 and -250 was specifically recognized by nuclear factors from silkworm fat bodies and BmE cells, and could enhance luciferase reporter-gene expression 2.8-fold in BmE cells. This study provides new insights into the Bmlp3 promoter and contributes to the further clarification of the function and developmental regulation of Bmlp3. PMID:24853203

Xu, Hanfu; Deng, Dangjun; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Feng; Xia, Qingyou

2014-08-01

350

The Bmdsx transgene including trimmed introns is sex-specifically spliced in tissues of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Bmdsx is an orthologue of the sex-determining gene doublesex (dsx) and known to be sex-specifically expressed in various tissues of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Its pre-mRNA is sex-specifically spliced and encodes female-specific or male-specific polypeptides. The open reading frame of Bmdsx consists of 5 exons, of which exons 3 and 4 are female-specific and its pre-mRNA was known to undergo default processing to generate the female-type mRNA. Previous reports have shown that the mechanism of splicing of the doublesex gene is different in Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. However, intron 4 is so long that it is difficult to identify the intronic cis-element(s) required for male-specific splicing of Bmdsx pre-mRNA using Bmdsx minigenes whose introns are shortened in various manners. As a first step toward discovery of the cis-element, the Bmdsx mini gene, which consisted of exon 1 and 5 and internally shortened introns 2 to 4, was constructed, and transgenic silkworms expressing this construct were generated. Bmdsx pre-mRNA transcribed derived from transgene was sex-specifically spliced. This result shows that the mini gene contained the information necessary for the correct regulation of alternative splicing.

Funaguma, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Masataka G.; Tamura, Toshiki; Shimada, Toru

2005-01-01

351

Isolation, Purification, and Identification of an Important Pigment, Sepiapterin, from Integument of the lemon Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Sepiapterin is the precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin, an important coenzyme of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, the lack of which leads to a variety of physiological metabolic diseases or neurological syndromes in humans. Sepiapterin is a main pigment component in the integument of the lemon mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and is present there in extremely high content, so lemon is a valuable genetic resource to extract sepiapterin. In this study, an effective experimental system was set up for isolation and purification of sepiapterin from lemon silkworms by optimizing homogenization solvent, elution buffer, and separation chromatographic column. The results showed that ethanol was the most suitable solvent to homogenize the integument, with a concentration of 50% and solid:liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL). Sepiapterin was purified successively by column chromatography of cellulose Ecteola, sephadex G-25-150, and cellulose phosphate, and was identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry. A stable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method was constructed to identify sepiapterin and conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses. Sepiapterin of high purity was achieved, and the harvest reached about 40 ug/g of integument in the experiments. This work helps to obtaining natural sepiapterin in large amounts in order to use the lemon B. mori mutant to produce BH4 in vitro.

Wang, Jing; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Chaoliang; Meng, Yan

2013-01-01

352

BmICE-2 is a novel pro-apoptotic caspase involved in apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In this study we identified a potential pro-apoptotic caspase gene, Bombyx mori(B. mori)ICE-2 (BmICE-2) which encoded a polypeptide of 284 amino acid residues, including a (169)QACRG(173) sequence which surrounded the catalytic site and contained a p20 and a p10 domain. BmICE-2 expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibited high proteolytic activity for the synthetic human initiator caspase-9 substrates Ac-LEHD-pNA, but little activity towards the effector caspase-3 substrates Ac-DEVD-pNA. When BmICE-2 was transiently expressed in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells, we found that the high proteolytic activity for Ac-LEHD-pNA triggered caspase-3-like protease activity resulting in spontaneous cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. This effect was not replicated in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. In addition, spontaneous cleavage of endogenous BmICE-2 in BmN-SWU1 cells could be induced by actinomycin D. These results suggest that BmICE-2 may be a novel pro-apoptotic gene with caspase-9 activity which is involved apoptotic processes in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells. PMID:24491540

Yi, Hua-Shan; Pan, Cai-Xia; Pan, Chun; Song, Juan; Hu, Yan-Fen; Wang, La; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

2014-02-28

353

A novel Rel protein and shortened isoform that differentially regulate antibacterial peptide genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Two cDNAs encoding novel Rel proteins were cloned from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. These cDNA clones (BmRelA and BmRelB) showed identical nucleotide sequences except for the 5'-region. BmRelB cDNA derived probably from an alternatively spliced mRNA lacked 241 bp nucleotides at the 5'-region of the BmRelA cDNA, resulting in a loss of the first 52 amino acids. Expression of antibacterial peptide genes was strongly inhibited upon infection with Micrococcus luteus in transgenic silkworms in which BmRel gene expression was knocked down, suggesting that these two Rel proteins are involved in activation of antibacterial peptide genes. Co-transfection experiments indicated that BmRelB activated the Attacin gene strongly and other genes to a lesser extent, whereas BmRelA activated Lebocin 4 gene strongly and Attacin and Lebocin 3 genes very weakly. The Rel homology domain of BmRelA and BmRelB was shown to bind specifically to kappaB sites of antibacterial peptide genes. Proline-rich domains of the BmRels were necessary for activation of antibacterial peptide genes. These results illustrate that a minor structural change in Rel proteins can provoke a dramatic differential activation of antibacterial peptide genes, suggesting a novel regulatory mechanism for insect antibacterial peptide gene expression. PMID:16005991

Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Moriyama, Yuko; Yamao, Masafumi; Furukawa, Seiichi; Sagisaka, Aki; Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Hajime; Yamakawa, Minoru

2005-07-25

354

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the fatty acid desaturase gene family in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Fatty acid desaturases exist in all living organisms and play important roles in many different biologic processes, such as fatty acid metabolism, lipid biosynthetic processes, and pheromone biosynthetic processes. Using the available silkworm genome sequence, we identified 14 candidate fatty acid desaturase genes. Eleven genes contain 3 conserved histidine cluster motifs and 4 transmembrane domains, but their N-terminal residues exhibit obvious diversity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there are 6 groups; Bmdesat1 and Bmdesat5-8 were clustered into group 2, which is involved in ?11 desaturation activity, and Bmdesat3-4 were grouped in group 1, which is involved in ?9 desaturation activity. Twelve of the 14 genes have expressed sequence tag evidence. Microarray data and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that Bmdesat3-4 and Bmdesat10 were expressed from the larval to moth stages and in multiple tissues on day 3 of 5th instar larvae. Bmdesat9, Bmdesat11, and Bmdesat14 were expressed during the pupal and late-embryonic stage, suggesting that they may take part in fatty acid metabolism to provide energy. These results provide some insights into the functions of individual fatty acid desaturases in silkworm. PMID:24854660

Chen, Q M; Cheng, D J; Liu, S P; Ma, Z G; Tan, X; Zhao, P

2014-01-01

355

Development of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A Empty Capsid Subunit Vaccine Using Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Pupae  

PubMed Central

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. In 2009, FMDV serotype A caused outbreaks of FMD in cattle in China. Although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control FMD, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. Here, we expressed the P1-2A and the 3C coding regions of a serotype A FMDV field isolate in silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) and evaluated the immunogenicity of the expression products. Four of five cattle vaccinated with these proteins developed high titers of FMDV-specific antibody and were completely protected against virulent homologous virus challenge with 10,000 50% bovine infectious doses (BID50). Furthermore, the 50% bovine protective dose (PD50) test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the empty capsid subunit vaccine and was shown to achieve 4.33 PD50 per dose. These data provide evidence that silkworm pupae can be used to express immunogenic FMDV proteins. This strategy might be used to develop a new generation of empty capsid subunit vaccines against a variety of diseases.

Li, Zhiyong; Yi, Yongzhu; Yin, Xiangping; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Ming; Liu, Hang; Li, Xuerui; Li, Yinu; Zhang, Zhifang; Liu, Jixing

2012-01-01

356

Isolation, Purification, and Identification of an Important Pigment, Sepiapterin, from Integument of the lemon Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Abstract Sepiapterin is the precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin, an important coenzyme of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, the lack of which leads to a variety of physiological metabolic diseases or neurological syndromes in humans. Sepiapterin is a main pigment component in the integument of the lemon mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and is present there in extremely high content, so lemon is a valuable genetic resource to extract sepiapterin. In this study, an effective experimental system was set up for isolation and purification of sepiapterin from lemon silkworms by optimizing homogenization solvent, elution buffer, and separation chromatographic column. The results showed that ethanol was the most suitable solvent to homogenize the integument, with a concentration of 50% and solid:liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL). Sepiapterin was purified successively by column chromatography of cellulose Ecteola, sephadex G-25-150, and cellulose phosphate, and was identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry. A stable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method was constructed to identify sepiapterin and conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses. Sepiapterin of high purity was achieved, and the harvest reached about 40 ug/g of integument in the experiments. This work helps to obtaining natural sepiapterin in large amounts in order to use the lemon B. mori mutant to produce BH4 in vitro. PMID:24773269

Gao, Junshan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Chaoliang; Meng, Yan

2013-11-01

357

A short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein from the silkworm: expression, characterization and involvement in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway.  

PubMed

Recognition of invading microbes as non-self is the first step of immune responses. In insects, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) detect peptidoglycans (PGs) of bacterial cell wall, leading to the activation of defense responses. Twelve PGRPs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, through bioinformatics analysis. However, their biochemical functions are mostly uncharacterized. In this study, we found PGRP-S5 transcript levels were up-regulated in fat body and midgut after bacterial infection. Using recombinant protein isolated from Escherichia coli, we showed that PGRP-S5 binds to PGs from certain bacterial strains and induces bacteria agglutination. Enzyme activity assay confirmed PGRP-S5 is an amidase; we also showed it is an antibacterial protein effective against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Additionally, we demonstrated that specific recognition of PGs by PGRP-S5 is involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Together, these data suggest the silkworm PGRP-S5 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for the prophenoloxidase pathway initiation and as an effecter to inhibit bacterial growth as well. We finally discussed possible roles of PGRP-S5 as a receptor for antimicrobial peptide gene induction and as an immune modulator in the midgut. PMID:24508981

Chen, Kangkang; Liu, Chen; He, Yan; Jiang, Haobo; Lu, Zhiqiang

2014-07-01

358

Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

2014-05-01

359

Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the ? phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in ? phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the ?-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized ? alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the ? fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity. The microstructure of the U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy obtained by induction melting method is composed of dendrites, supersatured in the alloys elements, in the as-cast state being necessary to implement homogenization heat treatment. Heat treatment at 1000 °C for 5 h followed by quenching in water was effective to homogenize the alloy (elimination the dendritic structure) and to retain the cubic structure at room temperature. Induction melting followed by casting and homogenization heat treatment with quenching in water, produced a moderate texture with the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. The cold rolled U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy leads to the emergence of a fiber (0 0 1), with higher intensity, unusual in BCC metals and ? (1 1 1) with moderate intensity. These textures confer isotropic mechanical properties which is very important for a nuclear fuel.

Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

2014-06-01

360

Albino (al) is a tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Albino (al) is a lethal mutant of Bombyx mori that exhibits a colourless cuticle after the first ecdysis and dies without feeding on mulberry. Previous studies have indicated that sclerotisation was insufficient because of defective phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism in albino larvae. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the albino phenotype has not been determined. Dopamine plays a central role in insect cuticle colouration and sclerotisation. The pathway for dopamine biosynthesis from phenylalanine involves phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; EC 1.14.16.1) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; EC 1.14.16.2). Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, including PAH and TH. Thus, BH4 is indispensable for cuticle colouration and sclerotisation. Here we report on identifying mutations in the gene that encodes for the Bombyx homolog of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTS) which is involved in the biosynthesis of BH4, in 2 strains with different al alleles. In strain a60 (al), a transposable element was inserted in exon 2 of BmPTS. In strain a61 (al˛), an 11-bp deletion was identified in the exon 2 region of BmPTS. After oral administration of BH4 to the al˛ larvae, the survival rate was effectively increased and the larval integument was pigmented. These results indicated that BmPTS was responsible for the albino mutants of B. mori. We conclude that (i) a mutation in BmPTS leads to an insufficient supply of BH4 and results in defective dopamine biosynthesis and (ii) lack of dopamine results in cuticle colouration and sclerotisation failure. Lemon (lem) is a BH4-deficient mutant. It has been reported that de novo synthesis of zygotic BH4 was indispensable for viability of the embryo in eggs laid by lem (lem/lemą) females. We found that lem/lem, al˛/al˛ larvae produced by lem (lem/lem) females were viable during the first instar stage, suggesting that al˛/al˛ embryo could synthesis BH4 by using maternally transmitted BmPTS. PMID:23567588

Fujii, Tsuguru; Abe, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Banno, Yutaka; Shimada, Toru

2013-07-01

361

Wild Turkey Populations and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study Objective: Determine the perceived and actual magnitude of crop damage by wild turkeys and the consequences of expanded hunting opportunity for turkeys in the primary range. Performance: Technology Transfer and Reports. Conduct technology transfer, ...

J. F. Kubisiak

1996-01-01

362

Determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat and mulberry by cation exchange HPLC/ESI-Q-MS.  

PubMed

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar first found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) which if used as a dietary supplement or functional food component may reduce the risks of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. As D-fagomine may become increasingly important to the food industry, a reliable analytical method for its determination in natural plant sources and foodstuffs is desirable. We have devised a method to separate D-fagomine from its diastereomers 3-epi-fagomine and 3,4-di-epi-fagomine in a single run by cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection and quantification by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionisation and a simple quadrupole analyser (ESI-Q-MS). The method is validated and applied to the determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat groats (6.7-44 mg kg(-1)), leaves, bran and flour. We show that buckwheat contains 3,4-di-epi-fagomine (1.0-43 mg kg(-1)), which has not previously been reported in this source. The procedure is also applied to mulberry (Morus alba) leaves, which contain D-fagomine and 3-epi-fagomine as minor components. The new method provides a means for convenient and accurate determination of D-fagomine in plant samples and foodstuffs. PMID:22207282

Amézqueta, Susana; Galán, Esther; Fuguet, Elisabet; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Torres, Josep Lluís

2012-02-01

363

Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy.

Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

2014-01-01

364

De Novo assembly of expressed transcripts and global transcriptomic analysis from seedlings of the paper mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera).  

PubMed

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry. PMID:24848504

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

365

De Novo Assembly of Expressed Transcripts and Global Transcriptomic Analysis from Seedlings of the Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki x Broussonetia papyifera)  

PubMed Central

The paper mulberry is one of the multifunctional tree species in agroforestry systems and is also commonly utilized in traditional medicine in China and other Asian countries. However, little is known about its molecular genetics, which hinders research on and exploitation of this valuable resource. To discern the correlation between gene expression and the essential properties of the paper mulberry, we performed a transcriptomics analysis, assembling a total of 37,725 unigenes from 54,638,676 reads generated by RNA-seq. Among these, 22,692 unigenes showed greater than 60% similarity with genes from other species. The lengths of 13,566 annotated unigenes were longer than 1,000 bp. Functional clustering analysis with COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups) revealed that 17,184 unigenes are primarily involved in transcription, translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolism, and energy metabolism. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation suggests enrichment of genes encoding antioxidant activity, transporter activity, biosynthesis, metabolism and stress response, with a total of 30,659 unigenes falling in these categories. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway analysis showed that 7,199 unigenes are associated with 119 metabolic pathways. In addition to the basic metabolism, these genes are enriched for plant pathogen interaction, flavonoid metabolism and other secondary metabolic processes. Furthermore, differences in the transcriptomes of leaf, stem and root tissues were analyzed and 7,233 specifically expressed unigenes were identified. This global expression analysis provided novel insights about the molecular mechanisms of the biosynthesis of flavonoid, lignin and cellulose, as well as on the response to biotic and abiotic stresses including the remediation of contaminated soil by the paper mulberry.

Xianjun, Peng; Linhong, Teng; Xiaoman, Wang; Yucheng, Wang; Shihua, Shen

2014-01-01

366

Rapid Detection of Infectious Flacherie Virus of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, using RT-PCR and Nested PCR  

PubMed Central

In this study, a method for detection of an ssRNA viral pathogen that causes viral flacherie in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), was used for the detection of B. mori infectious flacherie virus (BmIFV). A combination of nested and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for detection. Although BmIFV has been reported in almost all the sericultural regions of the world, there had been no reports of BmIFV incidence in India. Therefore, the confirmation of the presence of BmIFV in Karnataka, India, is of great significance. The present method is advantageous because it can be used to detect the virus by using samples from infected midgut tissues, thus simplifying and avoiding laborious genome isolation procedures. This method could help in early detection of BmIFV disease pathogens and help reduce crop losses.

Vootla, Shyam Kumar; Lu, Xing Meng; Kari, Neetha; Gadwala, Mallikarjun; Lu, Qineng

2013-01-01

367

A complete full-length non-LTR retrotransposon, BMC1, on the W chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon, BMC1, is considered to be a LINE (long interspersed nuclear element)-like element. So far, a BMC1 containing two intact open reading frames (ORFs) has not been found. However, we discovered a complete full-length BMC1 on the W chromosome. This BMC1 is 5091 bp and contains a 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR), two intact ORFs, and 3'-UTR which terminates in a poly(A) tail. ORF1 encodes a putative nucleic acid-binding protein, while ORF2 encodes a protein containing an endonuclease domain and a reverse transcriptase domain. PMID:10333566

Abe, H; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Sugasaki, T; Kawai, S; Oshiki, T

1998-12-01

368

Juvenile Hormone Analogues, methoprene and fenoxycarb dose-dependently enhance certain enzyme activities in the silkworm Bombyx mori (L).  

PubMed

Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 microg and 3.0 fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues. PMID:18678927

Mamatha, Devi M; Kanji, Vijaya K; Cohly, Hari H P; Rao, M Rajeswara

2008-06-01

369

Juvenile Hormone Analogues, Methoprene and Fenoxycarb Dose-Dependently Enhance Certain Enzyme Activities in the Silkworm Bombyx Mori (L)  

PubMed Central

Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 ?g and 3.0fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues.

Mamatha, Devi M.; Kanji, Vijaya K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Rao, M. Rajeswara

2008-01-01

370

The expression analysis of silk gland-enriched intermediate-size non-coding RNAs in silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. Silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of Lepidopterous pests. We have previously identified 189 novel intermediate-size ncRNAs in silkworm Bombyx mori, including 40 ncRNAs that showed altered expression in different developmental stages. Here we characterized the functions of these 40 ncRNAs by measuring their expressions in six tissues of the fifth instar larvae using Northern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We identified nine ncRNAs (four small nucleolar RNAs and five unclassified ncRNAs) that were enriched in silk gland, including four ncRNAs that showed silk gland-specific expression. We further showed that three of nine silk gland-enriched ncRNAs were predominantly expressed in the anterior silk gland, whereas another three ncRNAs were highly accumulated in the posterior silk gland, suggesting that they may play different roles in fibroin synthesis. Furthermore, an unclassified ncRNA, Bm-152, exhibited converse expression pattern with its antisense host gene gartenzwerg in diverse tissues, and might regulate the expression of gartenzwerg through RNA-protein complex. In addition, two silk gland-enriched ncRNAs Bm-102 and Bm-159 can be found in histone modification complex, which indicated that they might play roles through epigenetic modifications. Taken together, we provided the first expression and preliminary functional analysis of silk gland-enriched ncRNAs, which will help understand the molecular mechanism of silk gland-development and fibroin synthesis. PMID:24124013

Li, Dan-Dan; Liu, Zong-Cai; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Qian-Ling; Zhang, Kun; Qiao, Hui-Li; Jiao, Zhu-Jin; Yao, Lun-Guang; Liu, Ren-Yi; Kan, Yun-Chao

2014-08-01

371

Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm.  

PubMed

When the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb was topically applied to the silkworm Bombyx mori at the beginning of the 3rd or 4th (penultimate) instar, an extra larval molt was induced. The 5th instar period was shortened to about 5 days and the extra 6th instar ranged from 8 to more than 20 days, depending on the dose applied. Starvation before fenoxycarb treatment strongly enhanced the incidence of extra molting up to 100%. When 1 ng was applied in the 4th instar after a 2-day starvation, most larvae underwent an extra molt, metamorphosed to pupae, then to fertile adults. Combining starvation and fenoxycarb application thus induces a perfect extra molt efficiently. In perfect extra molting larvae, profiles of total ecdysteroid titer during the 4th and 5th instars were similar to that during the 4th instar in the control, and the ecdysteroid profile during the extra 6th instar was similar to that during the control 5th (last) instar. At ecdysteroid peaks, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and ecdysone (E), generally regarded as the active molting hormone and its precursor, had similar titers in the 6th instar, whereas E was much less than 20E in the 4th and 5th instars in the extra molting larvae. E was also abundant only in the last larval instar in the control. These results suggest that both 20E and E contents are important for regulation of larval molt and metamorphosis in silkworms and that fenoxycarb triggers the extra molt by inducing an additional larval molt type of ecdysteroid surge before the last larval instar. PMID:12392697

Kamimura, Manabu; Kiuchi, Makoto

2002-10-01

372

Role of Bmbuffy in hydroxycamptothecine-induced apoptosis in BmN-SWU1 cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Bcl-2 family proteins have been reported previously to play important roles in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Particularly, Bmbuffy has been identified as a key homologue of Bcl-2 in silkworm; however, its exact function is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Bmbuffy in hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT)-induced apoptosis of BmN-SWU1 cells. By conducting confocal microscopy studies, we found that Bmbuffy is located on the outer membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, we discovered that the hydrophobic transmembrane domain at the COOH terminus is a putative anchor for the subcellular localization of Bmbuffy. Overexpression of Bmbuffy inhibited cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and cell apoptosis, while RNAi-mediated silencing of Bmbuffy promoted apoptosis. In the absence of a hydrophobic membrane anchor, we revealed that Bmbuffy is unable to block apoptosis. These results indicate that Bmbuffy acts as an anti-apoptotic protein, located on the mitochondrial outer membrane and is involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Moreover, in HCPT-induced apoptosis, we showed that the translocation of endogenous Bmp53 from the nucleus to the mitochondria is a slow and progressive process, followed by cytochrome c release. This suggests that mitochondrial Bmp53 accumulation may contribute to membrane permeability. The co-localization of Bmp53 and Bmbuffy suggests the interaction of the two proteins, which was further confirmed by Co-IP assay. In addition, overexpression of Bmp53 increased cytochrome c release and the cell apoptotic rate, whereas Bmbuffy overexpression blocked these. All the data suggest that Bmbuffy functions as an anti-apoptotic protein and interacts with Bmp53 in HCPT-induced apoptosis of silkworm cells. PMID:24690173

Pan, Chun; Hu, Yan-Fen; Yi, Hua-Shan; Song, Juan; Wang, La; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

2014-05-01

373

Effects of Feeding Silkworm with Nanoparticulate Anatase TiO2 (TiO 2 NPs) on Its Feed Efficiency.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on feed efficiency of silkworm (Bombyx mori) (B. mori). The results showed that the amount of ingested food was increased by 3.31 %, the percentage of ingested food was increased by 16.36 %, the instar was prolonged by 6.77 h, the body mass of mature silkworm was increased by 11.41 %, the cocoon mass was increased by 5.47 %, the cocoon shell mass was increased by 9.80 %, and the ratio of cocoon shell was increased by 3.54 %. Average cocoon filament length, reelability, and neatness were increased by 3.15, 17.57, and 1.72 %, respectively, whereas the cocoon filament size was decreased by 0.19 %. The gene expression profiles were also examined with digital gene expression (DGE). The results showed that among 4,011 genes detected, 127 genes were differentially expressed including 57 genes whose expression was upregulated and 70 genes whose expression was downregulated. The expression levels of five genes related to metabolism were verified with quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were consistent with the DGE data. The activities of three major digestive enzymes in the midgut were also assayed; the results showed that the activities of trehalase, protease, and lipase in TiO2 NP-fed group were increased by 42.55, 78.13, and 33.33 %, respectively. These results indicate that feeding B. mori with TiO2 NPs can stimulate the transcriptional level of genes related to digestion and absorption of nutrients in the midgut and increase the activities of trehalase, protease, and lipase and, thus, increase the feed efficiency of B. mori. PMID:24789477

Zhang, Hua; Ni, Min; Li, Fanchi; Xu, Kaizun; Wang, Binbin; Hong, Fashui; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

2014-06-01

374

A single female-specific piRNA is the primary determiner of sex in the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm Bombyx mori uses a WZ sex determination system that is analogous to the one found in birds and some reptiles. In this system, males have two Z sex chromosomes, whereas females have Z and W sex chromosomes. The silkworm W chromosome has a dominant role in female determination, suggesting the existence of a dominant feminizing gene in this chromosome. However, the W chromosome is almost fully occupied by transposable element sequences, and no functional protein-coding gene has been identified so far. Female-enriched PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are the only known transcripts that are produced from the sex-determining region of the W chromosome, but the function(s) of these piRNAs are unknown. Here we show that a W-chromosome-derived, female-specific piRNA is the feminizing factor of B. mori. This piRNA is produced from a piRNA precursor which we named Fem. Fem sequences were arranged in tandem in the sex-determining region of the W chromosome. Inhibition of Fem-derived piRNA-mediated signalling in female embryos led to the production of the male-specific splice variants of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a gene which acts at the downstream end of the sex differentiation cascade. A target gene of Fem-derived piRNA was identified on the Z chromosome of B. mori. This gene, which we named Masc, encoded a CCCH-type zinc finger protein. We show that the silencing of Masc messenger RNA by Fem piRNA is required for the production of female-specific isoforms of Bmdsx in female embryos, and that Masc protein controls both dosage compensation and masculinization in male embryos. Our study characterizes a single small RNA that is responsible for primary sex determination in the WZ sex determination system. PMID:24828047

Kiuchi, Takashi; Koga, Hikaru; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Shoji, Keisuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Arai, Yuji; Ishihara, Genki; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masataka G; Katsuma, Susumu

2014-05-29

375

Partial release of aminopeptidase N from larval midgut cell membranes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.  

PubMed

1. The membrane anchor of aminopeptidase N associated with larval midgut cell membranes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was investigated by using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) and proteases. 2. Aminopeptidase N, which was virtually all localized in the brush border membrane, was solubilized by PIPLC but not by papain or trypsin. 3. Detergent-solubilized amphiphilic aminopeptidase N was converted into a hydrophilic form by PIPLC but not by papain. 4. Either of these effects of PIPLC on aminopeptidase N was maximally 40%. 5. These results suggest that in larval midgut cells of the silkworm, B. mori, at least 40% aminopeptidase N is anchored in the brush border membrane via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol. PMID:1356082

Takesue, S; Yokota, K; Miyajima, S; Taguchi, R; Ikezawa, H; Takesue, Y

1992-05-01

376

The gustatory receptor family in the silkworm moth Bombyx mori is characterized by a large expansion of a single lineage of putative bitter receptors.  

PubMed

The gustatory receptor (Gr) family of insect chemoreceptors includes receptors for sugars and bitter compounds, as well as cuticular hydrocarbons and odorants such as carbon dioxide. We have annotated a total of 65 Gr genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori genome. The Gr family in the silkworm moth includes putative carbon dioxide receptors and sugar receptors, as well as duplicated orthologues of the orphan DmGr43a receptor. Most prominent in this 65-gene family, however, is a single large expansion of 55 Grs that we propose are predominantly 'bitter' receptors involved in perception of the large variety of secondary plant chemicals that caterpillars and moths encounter. These Grs might therefore mediate food choice and avoidance as well as oviposition site preference. PMID:19133074

Wanner, K W; Robertson, H M

2008-12-01

377

Wild bootstrap for quantile regression.  

PubMed

The existing theory of the wild bootstrap has focused on linear estimators. In this note, we broaden its validity by providing a class of weight distributions that is asymptotically valid for quantile regression estimators. As most weight distributions in the literature lead to biased variance estimates for nonlinear estimators of linear regression, we propose a modification of the wild bootstrap that admits a broader class of weight distributions for quantile regression. A simulation study on median regression is carried out to compare various bootstrap methods. With a simple finite-sample correction, the wild bootstrap is shown to account for general forms of heteroscedasticity in a regression model with fixed design points. PMID:23049133

Feng, Xingdong; He, Xuming; Hu, Jianhua

2011-12-01

378

Effect of Induced Oxidative Stress and Herbal Extracts on Acid Phosphatase Activity in Lysosomal and Microsomal Fractions of Midgut Tissue of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal and microsomal acid phosphatase activity was estimated in midgut tissue of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), after induced oxidative stress by D-galactose. The larvae were simultaneously were treated with ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monniera and Lactuca sativa to study their antioxidant properties. Lipid peroxidation and fluorescence was measured to analyze extent of oxidative stress. The ethanolic extract of Lactuca sativa was found to be more effective in protecting membranes against oxidative stress than Bacopa monniera.

Gaikwad, Y. B.; Gaikwad, S. M.; Bhawane, G. P.

2010-01-01

379

Elevation of Different Ion-Specific ATPase Activities by L-Thyroxine (T4) in Different Tissues of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) during Developmental Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue-specific age-dependent changes were observed in Na+K+-, Ca2+-, and Mg2+-ATPase activities in tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. Maximum enzyme activity was recorded in all the tissues on day 12 (before spinning) in control group of animals. In testis, Na+K+-, Ca2+-, and Mg2+-ATPase activities gradually increased from day 2 to day 12 during fifth larval age and level was maintained

K. Damodar Reddy; A Chaudhuri; K Thangavelu

1997-01-01

380

Manganese superoxide dismutase expressed in silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L enhances the NK activity and splenocyte proliferation against Sarcoma 180 tumor cells in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer cell (NK) is known as a major immune system in body through mediating cell death via several possible pathways,\\u000a and one of three subpopulations of lymphocytes functioning as scavenger of tumor, virus infected cells etc. Our present results\\u000a found that the SOD-contained silkworm larvae powder caused an enhancement of the effect on NK cell cytotoxicity, which implied\\u000a this

Wan-Fu Yue; Min-Li Yao; Jian-Mei Liu; Guang-Li Li; Xing-Hua Li; Xiao-Feng Wu; Wen Deng; Hong-Xiang Sun; Ji-Yong Zhou; Chuan-Xi Zhang; Yun-Gen Miao

2009-01-01

381

Cloning and expression of manganese superoxide dismutase of the silkworm, Bombyx mori by Bac-to-Bac\\/BmNPV Baculovirus expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superoxide dismutase (SODs) are metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of the superoxide anion to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide and, thus, form a crucial part of the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism. In this paper, we used the total fat body RNA of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. to clone and sequence a 648-bp Mn-SOD cDNA fragment through RT-PCR. Furthermore, a newly

Wanfu Yue; Yungen Miao; Xinghua Li; Xiaofeng Wu; Aichun Zhao; Masao Nakagaki

2006-01-01

382

In Vivo Expression and Immunological Studies of the 42-Kilodalton Carboxyl-Terminal Processing Fragment of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 in the Baculovirus-Silkworm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 42-kDa carboxyl-terminal processing fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-142) is an anti-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine candidate. In this study, MSP-142 was expressed by using the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus-silkworm expression system, and the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of the recombinant protein, Bmp42, were evaluated. The average yield of Bmp42, as deter- mined by a sandwich enzyme-linked

Alan L. Y. Pang; Caryn N. Hashimoto; Leslie Q. Tam; Z. Q. Meng; George S. N. Hui; Walter K. K. Ho

2002-01-01

383

Specific expression of GFP uv-?1,3- N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFPuv-?1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP?) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15–30% in

Tatsuya Kato; Enoch Y. Park

2007-01-01

384

Expression of metabolic enzyme genes and heat-shock protein genes during embryonic development in diapause and non-diapause egg of multivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of metabolic enzyme genes and heat-shock protein genes (Hsp) during early embryogenesis in diapause and non-diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori was quantified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The trehalase gene (Tre) was expressed in non-diapause eggs up-to nine days, while in diapause eggs was not up regulated. The glycogen phosphorylase\\u000a gene (GPase) was expressed in non-diapause eggs, whereas

Ragunathan Saravanakumar; Kangayam M. Ponnuvel; Syed M. Hussaini Qadri

2008-01-01

385

Proteome analysis on differentially expressed proteins of the fat body of two silkworm breeds, Bombyx mori , exposed to heat shock exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteomes of heat tolerant (multivoltine) and heat susceptible (bivoltine) silkworms (Bombyx mori) in response to heat shock were studied. Detected proteins from fat body were identified by using MALDI-TOF\\/TOF spectrometer,\\u000a MS\\/MS, and MS analysis. Eight proteins, including small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and HSP70, were expressed similarly in\\u000a both breeds, while 4 protein spots were expressed specifically in the bivoltine

S. Hossein Hosseini Moghaddam; Xin Du; Jun Li; Jinru Cao; Boxiong Zhong; YuYin Chen

2008-01-01

386

Effect of Fenoxycarb on Leucine Uptake and Lipid Composition of Midgut Brush Border Membrane in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera, Bombycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical or oral applications of fenoxycarb (FC) to fifth instar larvae of Bombyx mori were performed immediately after the fourth ecdysis. A clear dose-response relationship in the frass-failure assay was recorded after 48 h for topically treated silkworms, whereas the oral treatment caused the maximal decrease of frass production even at the lowest dose (2.5 fg\\/larva). Preincubation of midgut brush

M. G. Leonardi; P. Marciani; P. G. Montorfano; S. Cappellozza; B. Giordana; G. Monticelli

2001-01-01

387

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

388

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

389

Morphological and molecular studies of Vairimorpha necatrix BM, a new strain of the microsporidium V. necatrix (microsporidia, burenellidae) recorded in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Vairimorpha sp. BM (2012) is a recent isolate of the microsporidia from the silkworm in Shandong, China. The ultrastructure, tissue pathology and molecular characterization of this isolate is described in this study. This pathogenic fungus causes pebrine disease in silkworms which manifests as a systemic infection. Meanwhile, the silkworm eggs produced by the infected moths were examined using a microscope and PCR amplification. Neither spores nor the expected PCR band were observed, suggesting that no vertical transmission occurred in Bombyx mori. In addition, the ultrastructure of the isolate was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Two types of spores were observed: diplokaroytic spores with 13-17 coils of polar tubes and monokaryotic spores with less coils of polar tubes which could form octospores; however, no sporophorous vesicles were observed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of Vairimorpha species showed that this isolate has a closer relationship to Vairimorpha necatrix than the other species studied. This result also is supported by phylogenetic analysis based on their actin genes, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and RNA polymerase II (RPB1). Based on the information gained during this study, we propose that this microsporidian species infecting B. mori should be given the name V. necatrix BM. PMID:24818618

Luo, Bo; Liu, Handeng; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Tian; Li, Zeng; Dang, Xiaoqun; Liu, Tie; Zhou, Zeyang

2014-08-01

390

Identification of a protein interacting with the spore wall protein SWP26 of Nosema bombycis in a cultured BmN cell line of silkworm.  

PubMed

Nosema bombycis is a silkworm parasite that causes severe economic damage to sericulture worldwide. It is the first microsporidia to be described in the literature, and to date, very little molecular information is available regarding microsporidian physiology and their relationships with their hosts. Therefore, the interaction between the microsporidia N. bombycis and its host silkworm, Bombyx mori, was analyzed in this study. The microsporidian spore wall proteins (SWPs) play a specific role in spore adherence to host cells and recognition by the host during invasion. In this study, SWP26 fused with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was expressed in BmN cells by using a Bac-to-Bac expression system. Subsequently, the turtle-like protein of B. mori (BmTLP) was determined to interact with SWP26 via the use of anti-EGFP microbeads. This interaction was then confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis. The BmTLP cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 447 amino acids that includes a putative signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. In addition, the BmTLP protein contains 2 immunoglobulin (IG) domains and 2 IGc2-type domains, which is the typical domain structure of IG proteins. The results of this study indicated that SWP26 interacts with the IG-like protein BmTLP, which contributes to the infectivity of N. bombycis to its host silkworm. PMID:23542093

Zhu, Feng; Shen, Zhongyuan; Hou, Jiange; Zhang, Jiao; Geng, Tao; Tang, Xudong; Xu, Li; Guo, Xijie

2013-07-01

391

Expression of EGFP-spider dragline silk fusion protein in BmN cells and larvae of silkworm showed the solubility is primary limit for dragline proteins yield.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amount of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this paper, we used a newly established Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV Baculovirus expression system to express the recombinant spider (Nephila clavata) dragline silk protein (MaSp1) fused EGFP in BmN cells and larvae of silkworm. A 70 kDa fusion protein was visualized after rBacmid/BmNPV/drag infection by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis. Fusion protein expressed in the BmN cells probably occupied five percent of the cell total protein; In a silkworm larva, approximately 6 mg fusion proteins were expressed. Solubility analysis of the expressed spider dragline silk protein indicated that 60% fusion protein is insoluble. EGFP fluorescence showed that fusion protein is tend to form aggregate by self assemblage. The results indicated the solubility is the primary limit for spider dragline proteins yield. It also suggested that directly produce fibrous spider silk in the secreting-silk organs of the transgenic silkworm larvae might be a better method. PMID:17525867

Zhang, Yuansong; Hu, Junhua; Miao, Yungen; Zhao, Aichun; Zhao, Tianfu; Wu, Dayang; Liang, Liefeng; Miikura, Ayumi; Shiomi, Kunihiro; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

2008-09-01

392

Anti-diabetic effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharide by inhibiting pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and ameliorating insulin secretory capacity in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a clinically complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII) on pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory function in diabetic rats induced by a high fat diet and streptozotocin. Our results showed that MLPII treatment inhibited pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and ameliorated insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic rats. And further study demonstrated that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with MLPII resulted in up-regulation of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl2-associated X (Bax) and caspase-3 protein in pancreatic islet cells. Moreover, MLPII significantly restored pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) protein nuclear localization, and increased mRNA and protein expression of PDX-1 and its downstream targets, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase (GCK) in pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. These findings suggested that MLPII might play a critical role in protecting pancreatic islet cell from apoptosis via elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and ameliorating insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic ?-cells via restoration of PDX-1 nuclear localization and expression levels in diabetic rats. This is the first report to explore the potential molecular mechanism involved in the hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide from mulberry leaves. PMID:25023123

Zhang, Yao; Ren, Chunjiu; Lu, Guobing; Mu, Zhimei; Cui, Weizheng; Gao, Huiju; Wang, Yanwen

2014-09-01

393

Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides information on the care and use of birds in captivity as research animals. Wild birds have been used in biomedical and ecological investigations. They tend to be active during the day and are easy to observe. Their use in research is ...

1977-01-01

394

Inbreeding depression in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its practical application in conservation biology and evolutionary theory, the cost of inbreeding in natural populations of plants and animals remains to a large degree unknown. In this review we have gathered estimates of inbreeding depression (?) from the literature for wild species monitored in the field. We have also corrected estimates of ? by dividing by F (coefficient

Peter Crnokrak; Derek A Roff

1999-01-01

395

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

SciTech Connect

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

Kato, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan) and Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

2007-08-03

396

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

397

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animalâs characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

398

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

399

The Fate of Wild Tigers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the fate of Wild tigers. Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.

ERIC DINERSTEIN, COLBY LOUCKS, ERIC WIKRAMANAYAKE, JOSHUA GINSBERG, ERIC SANDERSON, JOHN SEIDENSTICKER, JESSICA FORREST, GOSIA BRYJA, ANDREA HEYDLAUFF, SYBILLE KLENZENDORF, PETER LEIMGRUBER, JUDY MILLS, TIMOTHY G. O'BRIEN, MAHENDRA SHRESTHA, ROSS SIMONS, (;)

2007-06-01

400

Wheel running in the wild.  

PubMed

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

2014-07-01

401

Wheel running in the wild  

PubMed Central

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

2014-01-01

402

Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

403

Management Plan for Wild Turkeys in Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America. Of six subspecies, the eastern wild turkey (M. g. silvestris) is the only one to have occurred in Pennsylvania. Wild turkeys are our largest gallinaceous game bird. The males, or gobblers, ...

W. E. Drake

1999-01-01

404

Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations  

PubMed Central

Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei’s genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R2 = 0.71) and geographic distance (R2 = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R2 = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D’2IS exceeded D’2ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool.

Pradeep, Appukuttannair R.; Jingade, Anuradha H.; Singh, Choba K.; Awasthi, Aravind K.; Kumar, Vikas; Rao, Guruprasad C.; Prakash, N.B. Vijaya

2011-01-01

405

Identification, characterization, and crystal structure of an aldo-keto reductase (AKR2E4) from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily with 3-dehydroecdysone reductase activity was found in the silkworm Bombyx mori upon induction by the insecticide diazinon. The amino acid sequence showed that this enzyme belongs to the AKR2 family, and the protein was assigned the systematic name AKR2E4. In this study, recombinant AKR2E4 was expressed, purified to near homogeneity, and kinetically characterized. Additionally, its ternary structure in complex with NADP(+) and citrate was refined at 1.3Ĺ resolution to elucidate substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme is a 33-kDa monomer and reduces dicarbonyl compounds such as isatin and 17?-hydroxy progesterone using NADPH as a cosubstrate. No NADH-dependent activity was detected. Robust activity toward the substrate inhibitor 3-dehydroecdysone was observed, which suggests that this enzyme plays a role in regulation of the important molting hormone ecdysone. This structure constitutes the first insect AKR structure determined. Bound NADPH is located at the center of the TIM- or (?/?)8-barrel, and residues involved in catalysis are conserved. PMID:24012638

Yamamoto, Kohji; Wilson, David K

2013-10-15

406

Silkworm apolipophorin protein inhibits hemolysin gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus via binding to cell surface lipoteichoic acids.  

PubMed

We previously reported that a silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin (ApoLp), binds to the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-component system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ApoLp on S. aureus hemolysin gene expression. ApoLp bound to lipoteichoic acids (LTA), an S. aureus cell surface component. The addition of purified LTA to liquid medium abolished the inhibitory effect of ApoLp against S. aureus hemolysin production. In an S. aureus knockdown mutant of ltaS encoding LTA synthetase, the inhibitory effects of ApoLp on saeQ expression and hemolysin production were attenuated. Furthermore, the addition of anti-LTA monoclonal antibody to liquid medium decreased the expression of S. aureus saeQ and hemolysin genes. In S. aureus strains expressing SaeS mutant proteins with a shortened extracellular domain, ApoLp did not decrease saeQ expression. These findings suggest that ApoLp binds to LTA on the S. aureus cell surface and inhibits S. aureus hemolysin gene expression via a two-component regulatory system, SaeRS. PMID:23873929

Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2013-08-30

407

Biosynthesis of major plasma proteins in the primary culture of fat body cells from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Plasma proteins termed "SP1" and "30K proteins" are synthesized by the fat body cells of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, in a sex- and stage-specific manner during larval development. We successfully established a primary culture of the fat body cells in order to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of plasma protein gene expression. The primary cultures of fat body cells contained at least two cell types: small oval cells, and large spherical cells. The cells adhered to and migrated on the cultured dish after plating. By the 7th day of cultivation, the cells clustered to form fat body-like structures, which were maintained for at least 3 months. Plasma proteins were actively synthesized in the primary cultures of the fat body cells isolated from the final instar larvae only when the cells tightly adhered to and clustered on the cultured dish. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that only 10-15% of the clustered cells synthesized plasma proteins in our culture system, indicating that the primary culture comprises heterogeneous cells that are morphologically and functionally distinct. The patterns of SP1 syntheses in primary cultures faithfully reproduced their sex-dependency in vivo. PMID:10470503

Kishimoto, A; Nakato, H; Izumi, S; Tomino, S

1999-08-01

408

Development of a method for long-term preservation of Bombyx mori silkworm strains using frozen ovaries.  

PubMed

Development of long-term preservation is essential for conservation of stocks of silkworm genetic resources. Thus far, a few methods have been reported, but more improvement is required for practical use. We have developed two effective modifications of a method for long-term preservation using frozen ovaries. One was slow cooling (1 °C per min) until -80 °C of the donor ovaries made possible by use of a BICELL freezing vessel. Using donor ovaries of 4th instar larvae, the average number of eggs laid per moth increased significantly from 110.7 ± 53.4 eggs per moth by slow cooling with the BICELL vessel vs 12.3 ± 10.3 eggs per moth by direct cooling in liquid nitrogen. A second improvement was connecting the thread bodies of the donor ovaries with those of the host in the transplantation step. Females operated on with the new method yielded a significantly higher percentage of moths that laid fertilized eggs than those transplanted with the standard procedure (70.4 ± 21.6% vs 22.9 ± 9.3%). PMID:23500076

Banno, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Kiyomi; Tsukada, Marino; Minohara, Yuko; Banno, Junko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Tamura, Kei; Fujii, Tsuguru

2013-06-01

409

Genetic mapping of RAPD markers linked to the densonucleosis refractoriness gene, nsd-1, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, nonsusceptibility to B. mori densonucleosis virus type-1 (BmDNV-1) is controlled by a recessive gene, nsd-1 (nonsusceptibility to DNV-1), located on the twenty-first chromosome. We investigated genetic linkage between five random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the +nsd-1 gene. Initially, we constructed the CSD-1 strain (nsd-1/+) which is congenic to strain C137 (nsd-1/nsd-1) for the twenty-first chromosome, starting with a female of C137 and a male of strain J137 (+nsd-1/+nsd-1). For the crossing over experiment, a female of C137 was crossed with a male (nsd-1/+) of CSD-1. Segregation analysis showed that the most closely linked RAPD marker mapped 3.0 cM distant from +nsd-1. A more specific marker for +nsd-1 was made by converting this RAPD band into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) using a series of newly designed primer pairs based on its DNA sequence. PMID:9880921

Abe, H; Harada, T; Kanehara, M; Shimada, T; Ohbayashi, F; Oshiki, T

1998-08-01

410

Identification and genetic mapping of RAPD markers linked to the densonucleosis refractoriness gene, nsd-2, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, nonsusceptibility to B. mori densonucleosis virus type-2 (BmDNV-2) is controlled by a recessive gene, nsd-2 (nonsusceptibility to DNV-2). We investigated the genetic linkage between two random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the +nsd-2 gene. Initially, we constructed the JSD-2 strain (nsd-2/+), which is congenic to strain J137 (nsd-2/nsd-2) with respect to the chromosome containing the +nsd-2 gene, starting with a female of strain J137 and a male of strain C137 (+nsd-2/+nsd-2). Genomic DNAs were compared between infected individuals of the JSD-2 strain and J137 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 700 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Two RAPD markers (OPH19R and OPP01R) linked to the +nsd-2 gene were found. For the crossing-over experiment, a female of J137 was crossed with a male (nsd-2/+) of JSD-2. Segregation analysis showed that the most closely linked RAPD marker (OPP01R) was mapped 4.7 cM distant from +nsd-2. PMID:10925787

Abe, H; Sugasaki, T; Kanehara, M; Shimada, T; Gomi, S J; Ohbayashi, F; Oshiki, T

2000-04-01

411

Combined Effect of Cameo2 and CBP on the Cellular Uptake of Lutein in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Formation of yellow-red color cocoons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, occurs as the result of the selective delivery of carotenoids from the midgut to the silk gland via the hemolymph. This process of pigment transport is thought to be mediated by specific cellular carotenoids carrier proteins. Previous studies indicated that two proteins, Cameo2 and CBP, are associated with the selective transport of lutein from the midgut into the silk gland in Bombyx mori. However, the exact roles of Cameo2 and CBP during the uptake and transport of carotenoids are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the respective contributions of these two proteins to lutein and ?-carotene transport in Bombyx mori as well as commercial cell-line. We found that tissues, expressed both Cameo2 and CBP, accumulate lutein. Cells, co-expressed Cameo2 and CBP, absorb 2 fold more lutein (P<0.01) than any other transfected cells, and the rate of cellular uptake of lutein was concentration-dependent and reached saturation. From immunofluorescence staining, confocal microscopy observation and western blot analysis, Cameo2 was localized at the membrane and CBP was expressed in the cytosol. What’s more, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis showed that these two proteins directly interacted at cellular level. Therefore, Cameo2 and CBP are necessarily expressed in midguts and silk glands for lutein uptake in Bombyx mori. Cameo2 and CBP, as the membrane protein and the cytosol protein, respectively, have the combined effect to facilitate the cellular uptake of lutein.

Dong, Xiao-Long; Chai, Chun-Li; Pan, Cai-Xia; Tang, Hui; Chen, Yan-Hong; Dai, Fang-Yin; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

2014-01-01

412

Neofunctionalization in an ancestral insect desaturase lineage led to rare ?6 pheromone signals in the Chinese tussah silkworm.  

PubMed

The Chinese tussah silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) produces a rare dienoic sex pheromone composed of (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate, and for which the biosynthetic routes are yet unresolved. By means of gland composition analyses and in vivo labeling we evidenced that pheromone biosynthesis towards the immediate dienoic gland precursor, the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienoic acid, involves desaturation steps with ?(6) and ?(11) regioselectivity. cDNA cloning of pheromone gland desaturases and heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that the 6,11-dienoic pheromone is generated from two biosynthetic routes implicating a ?(6) and ?(11) desaturase duo albeit with an inverted reaction order. The two desaturases first catalyze the formation of the (E)-6-hexadecenoic acid or (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, key mono-unsaturated biosynthetic intermediates. Subsequently, each enzyme is able to produce the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienoic acid by accommodating its non-respective mono-unsaturated product. Besides elucidating an unusually flexible pheromone biosynthetic pathway, our data provide the first identification of a biosynthetic ?(6) desaturase involved in insect mate communication. The occurrence of this novel ?(6) desaturase function is consistent with an evolutionary scenario involving neo-functionalization of an ancestral desaturase belonging to a gene lineage different from the ?(11) desaturases commonly involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:20691782

Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Löfstedt, Christer

2010-10-01

413

Purification, characterization and cloning of a chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI-9) from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Hemolymph chymotrypsin inhibitor 9 (CI-9) from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Butyl Toyopearl hydrophobic chromatography, gel filtration through Sephadex C-50 and chymotrypsin-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Checked by Native PAGE and SDS-PAGE in combination with silver staining, the final preparation appeared homogeneous. In tricine SDS-PAGE, CI-9 displayed a molecular weight of 7.5 kD, which was determined to be 7167 Da with the Voyager TOFMass analyser. The pI value for CI-9, revealed by 2D-PAGE (two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), was 4.3. CI-9 exhibited inhibitory activity at a temperature as high as 100 degrees C and a stability against a wide range of pH (1-12). In N-terminal amino-acid analysis of CI-9, 40 amino acid residues were obtained. The C-terminal 22 amino acid residues were deduced by subsequently cloned cDNA and genomic fragments. MW and pI of CI-9 were predicted to be 7170.98 Da and 4.61, respectively, on the website. Its low molecular weight, high stability, conserved active site and Kunitz domain showed that CI-9 is a Kunitz-type CI. The difference of sequence and pI between CI-9 and other Kunitz type CIs indicated that it is a novel chymotrypsin inhibitor. PMID:17503165

Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou; Li, Juan; Fujii, Hiroshi; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2007-08-01

414

Identification of a cis-regulatory element that directs prothoracicotropic hormone gene expression in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm Bombyx mori and other insects, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) plays a central role in controlling molting and metamorphosis by stimulating the prothoracic glands to synthesize and release the molting hormone ecdysone. Using an AcNPV (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus)-mediated transient gene transfer system, we identified a cis-regulatory element that participates in the decision to switch expression of PTTH on or off in PTTH-producing neurosecretory cells (PTPCs). The nucleotide sequence of this cis-regulatory element is similar to a cis-regulatory element that participates in direction of expression of diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide gene (DH-PBAN) (Shiomi et al., 2007). Furthermore, we found that B. mori Pitx (BmPitx), a bicoid-like homeobox transcription factor, binds the element and activates PTTH expression. Therefore, we propose that the cell-specific expression of two neuropeptide hormone genes, PTTH and DH-PBAN, is activated by the Pitx transcription factor, which may act as a pan-activator in the insect neuroendocrine system and in vertebrate pituitary cells. PMID:21324358

Ohtsuka, Kazunori; Atsumi, Tsutomu; Fukushima, Yoshihisa; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2011-06-01

415

Wild sex in the grasses.  

PubMed

To date, alien introgression of agronomically important traits into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) from wild relatives has not been readily achievable through traditional breeding practices. However, this door might now be unlocked. The insightful research published recently by Graham Moore and his team delivers a likely candidate in the form of a cdc2-kinase-related gene family for the Ph1 locus--a chromatin region located on chromosome 5B that is responsible for homologous chromosome pairing integrity in bread wheat. PMID:16697246

Able, Jason A; Langridge, Peter

2006-06-01

416

Mulberry Water Extracts Inhibit Rabbit Atherosclerosis through Stimulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via Activating p53 and Regulating Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in rabbits. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the key determinant of the number of VSMCs in remodeling. To improve the recovery from atherosclerosis pathology, it would be ideal to induce regression of atherosclerotic plaques and apoptosis of VSMCs. In this study, we treated high-cholesterol-diet-fed (HCD-fed) rabbits with MWEs, and we found that the MWEs effectively inhibited HCD-fed-induced intimal hyperplasia of vessel walls. We also found that MWEs initially activate JNK/p38 and p53, which in turn activate both Fas-ligand and mitochondria pathways, thereby causing mitochondria translocation of Bax and the reduction of Bcl-2 that trigger the cleavage of procaspases, finally resulting in apoptosis of VSMCs. In addition, 2.5-5.0 g/day of MWEs for humans may be enough to prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:24833292

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-06-01

417

Combined Treatment of Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Extract Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook

2013-01-01

418

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract.

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

419

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Ecdysone oxidase and 3-dehydroecdysone-3?-reductase Involved in the Ecdysone Inactivation Pathway of Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Molting hormone (ecdysteroid) is one of the most important hormones in insects. The synthesis and inactivation of the ecdysteroid regulate the developmental process of insects. A major pathway of ecdysone inactivation is that ecdysone is converted to 3-dehydroecdysone, and then further to 3-epiecdysone in insects. Two enzymes (ecdysone oxidase: EO and 3DE-3?-reductase) participate in this pathway. In this study, based on the previously characterized cDNAs in Spodoptera littoralis, we cloned and characterized EO and 3DE-3?-reductase genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The heterologously expressed proteins of the two genes in yeast showed the ecdysone oxidase and 3DE-3?-reductase activities, respectively. Expression of BmEO was only detected in the midgut at transcriptional and translational levels. We also localized EO within the midgut goblet cell cavities. For Bm3DE-3?-reductase gene, RT-PCR and western blot showed that it was expressed in the midgut and the Malpighian tubules. Moreover, we localized 3DE-3?-reductase within the midgut goblet cell cavities and the cytosol of principal cells of the Malpighian tubules. These two genes have similar expression profiles during different developmental stages. Both genes were highly expressed at the beginning of the 5th instar, and remained a relative low level during the feeding stage, and then were highly expressed at the wandering stage. All these results showed that the profiles of the two genes were well correlated with the ecdysteroid titer. The functional characterization of the enzymes participating in ecdysone inactivation in the silkworm provides hints for the artificial regulation of the silkworm development and biological control of pests.

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Qi, Deng-Wei; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhang, Ze

2012-01-01

420

Echolocation in wild toothed whales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

2001-05-01