Sample records for mulberry wild silkworm

  1. [Emergy analysis of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingang; Jin, Peihua; Huang, Lingxia; Lu, Xingmeng

    2006-02-01

    Mulberry-silkworm ecosystem is one of the important agro-ecosystems in China. Based on the principles and methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the interior structure of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem and its relationship with exterior environment and economy. Some emergy indices for this ecosystem were quantitatively calculated, and compared with those of the agro-ecosystem in China. The results showed that the emergy investment ratio, emergy yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and emergy sustainability index was 3.78, 4.68, 0.18 and 26.0, respectively, suggesting the low environmental pressure and good ecological benefit in mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China. Hi-technology was required to further decrease the labor force input and enhance the comprehensive utilization of sericultural resources. PMID:16706044

  2. Silkworms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-03

    Adult silkworm moths lay eggs to reproduce. The eggs hatch into silkworm larvae. The larvae spin silk cocoons and use them as they change from larvae to silkworm moths. Silkworm larvae exclusively eat mulberry leaves and their cocoons are used by human to make silk products such as silk fabric.

  3. Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitrangada Acharya; Sudip K. Ghosh; S. C. Kundu

    2008-01-01

    Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized\\u000a as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk\\u000a fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential,\\u000a fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx

  4. Biological and productive characteristics of silkworm mulberry varieties of different ploidy and their use for raising silkworms in different seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Leinveber; V. V. Bogoslovskii; M. I. Selionova

    2011-01-01

    The biological and productive characteristics of heteroploid silkworm mulberry varieties of different ploidy are characterized.\\u000a As a result of feeding silkworm caterpillars the leaves of polyploid mulberry varieties compared with the dip0loid variety\\u000a Pc-109, the caterpillar stage is shortened and the viability of caterpillars and palatability and assimilability of leaves,\\u000a cocoon weight, cocoon yield per gram of caterpillars and per

  5. Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, João F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

    2013-11-01

    Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28 days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

  6. Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Thermotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Subbarao, Sure Venkata; Misra, Sunil; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

    2011-01-01

    A tropical climate prevails in most of the sericultural areas in India, where temperature increases during the summer lead to adverse effects on temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and cause crop losses. Screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyxmori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant breeds/hybrids. In the current study, the aim was to identify potential bivoltine silkworm strains specific for tolerance to high temperature. The third day of fifth stage silkworm larvae of bivoltine strains were subjected to high temperature of 36 ± 1° C with RH of 50 ± 5 % for six hours (10:00–16:00) every day until spinning for three consecutive generations. Highly significant differences were found among all genetic traits of bivoltine silkworm strains in the treated groups. Three groups of silkworm resulted including susceptible, moderately tolerant, and tolerant by utilizing pupation rate or survival rate with thermal stress as the index for thermotolerance. Furthermore, based on the overall silkworm rearing performance of nine quantitative genetic traits such as larval weight, cocoon yield by number and weight, pupation, single cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and denier, three bivoltine silkworm strains, BD2-S, SOF-BR and BO2 were developed as having the potential for thermotolerance. The data from the present study enhance knowledge for the development of thermo tolerant silkworm breeds/ hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22225406

  7. Determination of iminosugars in mulberry leaves and silkworms using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Ogawa, Kenta; Higuchi, Ohki; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo; Hori, Masatoshi

    2010-09-15

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, a potent alpha-glycosidase inhibitor) has been investigated thoroughly for its analytical methods and therapeutic potential against diabetes, whereas little attention has been given to other iminosugars such as 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-DNJ (GAL-DNJ) and fagomine. For instance, concentration and composition of these iminosugars in mulberry leaves as well as sericulture products have not been fully characterized due to lack of suitable analytical methods. Here we developed a simultaneous determination method for DNJ, GAL-DNJ, and fagomine using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). When mulberry leaf extracts were subjected to HILIC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), individual iminosugars could be separated and detected. The developed method is sufficiently sensitive for determining iminosugars in mulberry leaves as well as silkworms, providing new information (e.g., different amounts of iminosugars in mulberry leaf varieties; high DNJ and low GAL-DNJ in the silkworm body, especially in the blood) that is useful for producing iminosugar-rich products for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:20470744

  8. An emerging functional natural silk biomaterial from the only domesticated non-mulberry silkworm Samia ricini.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shilpa; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Thomas, Tintu; Kundu, Subhas C

    2013-08-01

    Mulberry silk fibroin is a widely used biomaterial and recent work on non-mulberry silk fibroin also suggests it may have similar uses. We expect silk fibroin from the only domesticated non-mulberry eri silkworm, Samia ricini, to possess useful properties as a biomaterial. Eri silk gland fibroin is a heterodimeric protein of approximately 450?kDa. Cytocompatibility evaluation with fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells shows good cell attachment, viability and proliferation. The matrices, which have high thermal stability and good swellability, are also haemocompatible. Eri silk production is cost effective as no agronomic practices are required for their host plant cultivation. This fibroin provide new opportunities as an alternative natural functional biomaterial in various biomedical applications. PMID:23733347

  9. Silkworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Yasukochi; Hiroshi Fujii; Marian R. Goldsmith

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), was domesticated from a mulberry-feeding moth, B. mandarina, in ancient China. Selective breeding, practiced from ancient times, and genetic studies performed since the early twentieth\\u000a century have yielded hundreds of practical strains with diverse economic characters, and linkage maps marked by > 200 loci\\u000a representing > 400 morphological and biochemical traits. Many types

  10. Effect of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizers on mulberry leaf quality and silkworm cocoon characters under semiarid conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Ram Rao; J. Kodandaramaiah; M. P. Reddy; R. S. Katiyar

    2007-01-01

    The influence of VAM fungi and bacterial biofertilizer (BBF) with 50% reduction in the recommended dose of (N and P) chemical fertilizers on leaf quality traits of mulberry variety (S-13) and its impact on silkworm (PM × NB4D2) growth and cocoon characters were studied under semi-arid conditions. Four different treatments were imposed i.e., T1: Control (only 100% NPK); T2: VAM

  11. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo degradations of silk fibroin scaffolds from mulberry and nonmulberry silkworms.

    PubMed

    You, Renchuan; Xu, Yamei; Liu, Yi; Li, Xiufang; Li, Mingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Degradation behavior is very important in the field of silk-based biomaterials. Mulberry and nonmulberry silk fibroins are structurally and functionally distinguishable; however, no studies have examined the differences in the degradation behaviors of silk materials from various silkworm species. In this study, Ca(NO3)2 was used as a uniform solvent to obtain regenerated mulberry and nonmulberry (Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai) silk fibroin (SF) solutions, and the degradation behaviors of various SF scaffolds were examined. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that regenerated mulberry SF scaffolds exhibited significantly higher mass loss and free amino acid content release than did nonmulberry SF scaffolds. The differences in the primary structures and condensed structures between mulberry and nonmulberry SF contributed to the significant difference in degradation rates, in which the characteristic (-Ala-)n repeats, compact crystal structure and high ?-helix and ?-sheet contents make nonmulberry SF more resistant than mulberry SF to enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai SFs possess similar primary structures and condensed structures, although a slight difference in degradation was observed; this difference might depend on the differences in molecular weight following the regeneration process. The results indicate that the original sources of SF significantly influence the degradation rates of SF-based materials; therefore, the original sources of SF should be fully considered for preparing tissue engineering scaffolds with matched degradation rates. PMID:25532470

  12. Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chikara; Konno, Kotaro; Wasano, Naoya; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2007-12-01

    Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both larvae diets containing different sugar sources (sucrose, glucose or none) with or without sugar-mimic alkaloids from mulberry latex. In S. ricini, addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the sucrose (the major sugar in mulberry leaves) diet reduced both growth and the absorption ratio of sugar, but it reduced neither in B. mori. The midgut soluble sucrase activity of S. ricini was low and inhibited by very low concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids (IC(50)=0.9-8.2microM), but that of B. mori was high and not inhibited even by very high concentrations (IC(50)>1000microM) of sugar-mimic alkaloids. In S. ricini, the addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the glucose diet still had considerable negative effects on growth, although it did not reduce the absorption ratio of glucose. The hemolymph of S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids contained sugar-mimic alkaloids. The trehalose concentration in the hemolymph increased significantly in S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids, but not in B. mori. The trehalase activities of S. ricini were lower and inhibited by lower concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids than those of B. mori. These results suggest that sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex exert toxicity to S. ricini larvae first by inhibiting midgut sucrase and digestion of sucrose, and secondly, after being absorbed into hemolymph, by inhibiting trehalase and utilization of trehalose, the major blood sugar. Further, our results reveal that B. mori larvae evolved enzymatic adaptation to mulberry defense by developing sucrase and trehalase that are insensitive to sugar-mimic alkaloids. PMID:17967353

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis between the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) reared on fresh mulberry leaves and on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Yang, Hui-Juan; Chen, Ming; Lou, Cheng-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Zhou; Chen, Ke-Ping; Wang, Yong; Yu, Mei-Lan; Yu, Fang; Li, Jian-Ying; Zhong, Bo-Xiong

    2008-12-01

    To gain an insight into the effects of different diets on growth and development of the domesticated silkworm at protein level, we employed comparative proteomic approach to investigate the proteomic differences of midgut, hemolymph, fat body and posterior silk gland of the silkworms reared on fresh mulberry leaves and on artificial diet. Seventy-six differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, and among them, 41 proteins were up-regulated, and 35 proteins were downregulated. Database searches, combined with GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that some hemolymph proteins such as Nuecin, Gloverin-like proteins, PGRP, P50 and beta/-N-acetylglucosamidase were related to innate immunity of the silkworm, and some proteins identified in silkworm midgut including Myosin 1 light chain, Tropomyosin 1, Profilin, Serpin-2 and GSH-Px were involved in digestion and nutrition absorption. Moreover, two up-regulated enzymes in fat body of larvae reared on artificial diet were identified as V-ATPase subunit B and Arginine kinase which participate in energy metabolism. Furthermore, 6 down-regulated proteins identified in posterior silk gland of silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet including Ribosomal protein SA, EF-2, EF-1gamma, AspAT, ERp57 and PHB were related to silk synthesis. Our results suggested that the different diets could alter the expression of proteins related to immune system, digestion and absorption of nutrient, energy metabolism and silk synthesis poor nutrition and absorption of nutrition in silkworm. The results also confirmed that the poor nutrient absorption, weakened innate immunity, decreased energy metabolism and reduced silk synthesis are the main reasons for low cocoons yield, inferior filament quality, low survival rate of young larvae and insufficient resistance against specific pathogens in the silkworms fed on artificial diet. PMID:18998723

  14. Effects of Thrips (Pseudodendrothrips mori Niwa) Infested Mulberry Leaves on Silkworm Growth and Commercial Cocoon Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Etebari; A. R. Bizhannia

    2006-01-01

    In mulberry orchards in northern part of Iran, thrips is a dominant pest and causing a lot of damage to the mulberry. The effect of pest on bio-chemical parameters of mulberry leaf of two varieties viz. Kenmochi and Ichenoise and also the effect of feeding of infested leaves on rearing performances have been studied. For the study, six plots of

  15. Inbreeding Effects on Quantitative Traits in Random Mating and Selected Populations of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Jamuna; Gopal, Subramanya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the level of inbreeding coefficient during inbreeding of the pedigree of random mating and selected populations of two distinct races of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), in the silkworm germplasm. The six generation data of the two races, namely multivoltine Pure Mysore and bivoltine NB4D2, were studied for inbreeding depression coefficient using the residual maximum likelihood method, utilizing two statistical models by analyzing six quantitative traits, namely, larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio, pupation rate, and filament length. The results of the present experiment demonstrated that the inbreeding coefficient was significant in Model 1 for most of the economic traits in the random mating populations of both the races compared to those of selected populations. These results suggest that during stock maintenance, application of rigid selection for increased numbers of generations helps to retain original characteristics of the pure races while reducing the deleterious effects of inbreeding. The significance of inbreeding coefficient is discussed with reference to the inbreeding of silk moths in the silkworm germplasm. PMID:23461728

  16. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359?kcal could be generated per 100?gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

  17. Status of Sulfur in Mulberry Leaves–Silkworm Cocoon System of Typical Mulberry Gardens in the Lower to Middle Reaches of the Yangtse River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. W. Zhao; Z. H. Cao; Z. Y. Hu; C. K. Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concentration of sulfur (S) in mulberry leaves was 1.44 ? 2.67 g kg (Mean ± SE = 2.03 ± 0.30 g kg) in the six provinces of Jiangxi, Anhui, Hubai, Hunan, Jiangsu, and Fujian, China. Concentration of S in mulberry leaves was influenced significantly by the concentration of available S in soils of mulberry gardens (R = 0.1773**, n =

  18. A novel TATA-box-binding factor from the silk glands of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Gopinathan, Karumathil P

    2002-01-01

    The presence of one or more TATATAA motifs in the flanking sequences of individual members of a multi-gene tRNA(Gly)(1) family from the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, negatively modulated the transcription of the gene copies. Characterization of proteins from posterior silk gland nuclear extracts, binding to the TATATAA motif, identified a novel 43 kD protein, designated here as P43 TATA-box-binding factor (TBF). The protein was purified to homogeneity. P43 TBF binding was highly sequence-specific and showed a 100-fold-higher affinity for binding than the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP). The protein also showed binding to the TATAAA sequence of the actin5C promoter. P43 TBF inhibited transcription of all the tRNA genes examined, as well as RNA polymerase II transcription from the actin5C promoter. The amino acid sequence of eleven peptides generated from P43 TBF did not share homology with proteins that bind the TATA box, such as TBP, TRF (TBP-related factor) or TLFs (TBP-like factors) reported from other sources. Inhibition of transcription of tRNA genes by P43 TBF could not be reversed by TBP. The inhibitory effect appeared to be exerted through sequestration of the associated transcription factors. PMID:11964150

  19. Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

  20. Silkworm life cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hubert Ludwig (None; )

    2004-11-27

    Adult silkworms lay eggs to reproduce. Silkworm larvae hatch from these eggs. The larvae constantly eat only one thing- mulberry leaves. The larvae will spin silk cocoons for metamorphosis. The adults mate after emerging from the cocoon and the female will lay many small eggs.

  1. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto; Maria Inés Genovese; Franco Maria Lajolo

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of uptake of anthocyanins (as well as the type) from food in the intestine is not clear. Anthocyanin-rich extract from wild mulberry, composed of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) (19%), was orally administered to Wistar rats, and their concentrations were determined in plasma, kidney, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The 2 glycosylated forms showed maximum concentration at 15

  2. Comparative analysis of the development of the mandibular salivary glands and the labial silk glands in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Gopinathan, Karumathil P

    2005-02-01

    The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori has a pair of salivary glands arising from the mandibular segment, in addition to the labial silk glands which are generally considered as modified salivary glands. Here we report the characterization of salivary glands and the comparative gene expression profiling of the silk and salivary glands. The two independent salivary glands made up by 330 cells, grow about 1000 fold during larval development. These individual glands extend up to the T(1) thoracic segment unlike silk glands with fused anterior ends and extending up to the caudal region. The salivary glands also undergo endomitosis resembling the silk glands. The B. mori homologue of the homeotic gene Deformed (BmDfd) was expressed in the mandibular and maxillary segments in stage 17 embryo and got localized to the centre of the mandibular segment at stage 18 to form the salivary gland placodes. The expression was also seen in the distal ends of the leg appendages after blastokinesis (stage 22). Only low variations in BmDfd expression ranging from 1.6 to 2.1 fold were apparent during embryonic development. BmDfd expression was observed in the salivary glands all through the larval instars but not in the silk glands. The transcription factor, Forkhead and the segment polarity gene, Wingless were expressed throughout the salivary glands, the latter confirming the absence of physiological compartmentation within these glands unlike the silk glands. The expression of Amylase and Fibrohexamerin was restricted to the salivary and silk glands, respectively and therefore, served as molecular markers for these tissues. PMID:15661638

  3. Phenotypic Divergence in Mulberry (Morus spp.) Germplasm Collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Banerjee; S. Roychoudhury; H. Sau; B. K. Das; A. K. Saha; B. Saratchandra; A. K. Bajpai

    2011-01-01

    To improve mulberry foliage productivity, identification of suitable genes related to agronomically important traits in the available mulberry germplasm is essential. Twenty-five indigenous mulberry accessions representing five different species of Morus from seven diverse parts of the India were evaluated via principal component analysis (PCA) for 22 aboveground and underground morphometric traits and silkworm cocoon yield during 2002–2005 in the

  4. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cen; Fu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Sun, Yu; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2015-08-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni-NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1:12,800 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT-qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR-related genes (Vg, egg-specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly. PMID:25808998

  6. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2013-01-01

    Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

  7. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry ( Morus species)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Mamrutha; T. Mogili; K. Jhansi Lakshmi; N. Rama; Dylan Kosma; M. Udaya Kumar; Matthew A. Jenks; Karaba N. Nataraja

    2010-01-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC,

  8. Overexpression of host plant urease in transgenic silkworms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xing, Dongxu; Xu, Guowen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori and mulberry constitute a model of insect-host plant interactions. Urease hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and is important for the nitrogen metabolism of silkworms because ammonia is assimilated into silk protein. Silkworms do not synthesize urease and acquire it from mulberry leaves. We synthesized the artificial DNA sequence ure-as using the codon bias of B. mori to encode the signal peptide and mulberry urease protein. A transgenic vector that overexpresses ure-as under control of the silkworm midgut-specific P2 promoter was constructed. Transgenic silkworms were created via embryo microinjection. RT-PCR results showed that urease was expressed during the larval stage and qPCR revealed the expression only in the midgut of transgenic lines. Urea concentration in the midgut and hemolymph of transgenic silkworms was significantly lower than in a nontransgenic line when silkworms were fed an artificial diet. Analysis of the daily body weight and food conversion efficiency of the fourth and fifth instar larvae and economic characteristics indicated no differences between transgenic silkworms and the nontransgenic line. These results suggested that overexpression of host plant urease promoted nitrogen metabolism in silkworms. PMID:25549597

  9. Silkworm moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerd A.T. Müller (None; )

    2002-05-18

    Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

  10. Silkworm cocoons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roman Neumüller (None; )

    2006-07-05

    Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

  11. ?-Fructofuranosidase Genes of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Taguchi, Tomohiro; Meng, Yan; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Mulberry latex contains extremely high concentrations of alkaloidal sugar mimic glycosidase inhibitors, such as 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Although these compounds do not harm the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist, they are highly toxic to insects that do not normally feed on mulberry leaves. d-AB1 and DNJ are strong inhibitors of ?-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20); however, they do not affect the activity of?-fructofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.26). Although?-glucosidase genes are found in a wide range of organisms, ?-fructofuranosidase genes have not been identified in any animals so far. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of ?-fructofuranosidase genes (BmSuc1 and BmSuc2) from B. mori. The BmSuc1 gene was highly expressed in the midgut and silk gland, whereas the expression of BmSuc2 gene was not detected. BmSuc1 encodes a functional ?-fructofuranosidase, whose enzymatic activity was not inhibited by DNJ or d-AB1. We also showed that BmSUC1 protein localized within the midgut goblet cell cavities. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrated that BmSuc1 serves as a sugar-digesting enzyme in the silkworm physiology. This anomalous presence of the ?-fructofuranosidase gene in the B. mori genome may partly explain why the silkworm can circumvent the mulberry's defense system. PMID:18397891

  12. Flavonoid 5-glucosides from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasumori Tamura; Ken-ichi Nakajima; Ken-ichi Nagayasu; Chiyuki Takabayashi

    2002-01-01

    The flavonoid 5-glucosides, quercetin 5,4?-di-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and quercetin 5,7,4?-tri-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, together with the known quercetin 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. These flavonoid glucosides were not present in mulberry leaves, the silkworm's only food, and they are considered to be metabolites produced by the silkworm.

  13. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4?mg/100?g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30?min before and 1?h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1?h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30?min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

  14. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

    2012-06-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Onose, Shinji; Kitahara, Eriko; Chumchuen, Sukunya; Takasaki, Midori; Konishi, Hajime; Kanekatsu, Rensuke

    2011-01-01

    Mulberry leaves have been used as the sole food for silkworms in sericulture, and also as a traditional medicine for diabetes prevention. Mulberry leaf components, for example 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), inhibit the activity of ?-glucosidase and prevent increased blood glucose levels, and they are highly toxic to caterpillars other than silkworms. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mulberry leaves changes with the season, but it is unknown which environmental conditions influence the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We investigated in this study the relationship between the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and environmental conditions of temperature and photoperiod. The results demonstrate that low temperatures induced decreasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while the induction of newly grown shoots by the scission of branches induced increasing ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was related to the defense mechanism of mulberry plants against insect herbivores. PMID:22146716

  16. Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm. PMID:24612781

  17. The origin and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: a reconstruction based on ancient texts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm. PMID:21062145

  18. Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

  19. Silkworm larvae

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None; )

    2007-08-04

    Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

  20. A baculovirus isolated from wild silkworm encompasses the host ranges of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-Peng; Gu, Lin-Zhu; Lou, Yi-Han; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-11-01

    A baculovirus, named BomaNPV S2, was isolated from a diseased larva of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina. Notably, BomaNPV S2 exhibited a distinguishing feature in that its host range covered that of both Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in cultured cells. It could replicate in cells of B. mori (Bm5 and BmN), Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn-5B1-4). However, occlusion-derived virions of BomaNPV S2 in B. mori cells contained only a single nucleocapsid, whereas they contained multiple nucleocapsids in Tn-5B1-4 cells. The complete genome sequence of BomaNPV S2, including predicted ORFs, was determined and compared with the genome sequence of its close relatives. The comparison results showed that most of the BomaNPV S2 genome sequence was shared with BmNPV (BmNPV T3) or BomaNPV S1, but several regions seemed more similar to regions of AcMNPV. This observation might explain why BomaNPV S2 covers the host ranges of BmNPV and AcMNPV. Further recombinant virus infection experiments demonstrated that GP64 plays an important role in BomaNPV S2 host-range determination. PMID:22855783

  1. C-prolinylquercetins from the yellow cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikara Hirayama; Hiroshi Ono; Yasumori Tamura; Masatoshi Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    Two flavonoids containing the l-proline moiety, 6-C-[(2S,5S)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin A) and 6-C-[(2S,5R)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin B), were isolated from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Their structural elucidation was achieved by application of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods. These compounds were not found in the leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.), the host plant of the silkworm, suggesting that

  2. Identification of 2chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, Sivaramakurup; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Nagayasu, Ken-Ichi; Hara, Wajiro

    2010-01-01

    In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed. PMID:21637601

  3. Identification of 2ndchromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed. PMID:21637601

  4. Breeding of a Silkworm Variety for Synnemata Production of Isaria tenuipes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pil-Don; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kim, Kee-Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted out to select a silkworm variety suitable for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes. Four kinds of the mulberry silkworm varieties, Bombyx mori, were hybridized using a Japanese parental line and a Chinese parental line, and used to test for synemata formation in I. tenuipes. The larval period of normal silkworms was 22 hr longer than the silkworms inoculated with this fungus. Among the silkworm varieties tested, Hachojam had the shortest larval period with 23.02 days. The non-cocooning silkworm had a shorter larval period than the cocoon producing silkworms. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 9% higher than that of silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Hachojam had the highest infection rate at 99.8%, but no significant difference was observed for the infection rate by silkworm variety. The production of synnemata was the best in JS171 × CS188 with an incidence rate of 99.3%, followed by Hachojam, and Chugangjam. The synnemata produced from Hachojam were the heaviest and showed white or milky-white in color. PMID:23956651

  5. Breeding of a Silkworm Variety for Synnemata Production of Isaria tenuipes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Pil-Don; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kim, Kee-Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Ha, Nam-Gyu

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted out to select a silkworm variety suitable for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes. Four kinds of the mulberry silkworm varieties, Bombyx mori, were hybridized using a Japanese parental line and a Chinese parental line, and used to test for synemata formation in I. tenuipes. The larval period of normal silkworms was 22 hr longer than the silkworms inoculated with this fungus. Among the silkworm varieties tested, Hachojam had the shortest larval period with 23.02 days. The non-cocooning silkworm had a shorter larval period than the cocoon producing silkworms. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 9% higher than that of silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Hachojam had the highest infection rate at 99.8%, but no significant difference was observed for the infection rate by silkworm variety. The production of synnemata was the best in JS171 × CS188 with an incidence rate of 99.3%, followed by Hachojam, and Chugangjam. The synnemata produced from Hachojam were the heaviest and showed white or milky-white in color. PMID:23956651

  6. The advent of genomics in mulberry and perspectives for productivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Paramjit; Checker, Vibha G

    2011-05-01

    Sericulture in India is a highly remunerative industry, especially for the rural population. Mulberry is an extremely versatile plant, having multifaceted applications, the most important being the sole feed for the monophagus silkworm, Bombyx mori. Profitability of the sericulture industry is directly correlated with production of high-quality mulberry leaves. However, mulberry productivity is severely impacted by abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Therefore, to develop stress-tolerant mulberry with desired characteristics, a comprehensive understanding and utility of biotechnological resources is essential. Research efforts on mulberry encompass broad range of fields in plant biology from breeding, molecular markers, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Additionally, a large number of mulberry germplasm accessions have been maintained and evaluated in several countries. Identification of superior cultivars under stressed regimes is extremely important, and therefore, physiological traits have often been used as proxy genetic markers for assessing stress tolerance index. Mulberry genomic resources have provided a limited but an important list of novel candidate genes, thus enhancing the scope for future investigations for improvement of its productivity. The present review article gives a bird's eye view of current initiatives of genomics advancements in mulberry research and enumerates the prospects for enhancing its productivity. PMID:21431349

  7. MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/ PMID:25725060

  8. Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ling; Yu, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong

    As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce leaves in the latter two developing stages. Therefore, it is nec-essary to investigate the biochemical components and respiration characteristics of silkworms raised with this method to supply data bases for the inclusion of silkworms in the system to conduct system experiments. The nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP) which are the grinded and freeze-dried silkworm on the 3rd day in the fifth developing stage containing protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids were determined with international standard analyzing methods in this study. The results showed that SP was rich in protein and amino acids. There were twelve kinds of essential vitamins, nine kinds of minerals and twelve kinds of fatty acids in SP. In contrast, SP had much better nutrient components than snail, fish, chicken, beef and pork as animal food for crew members. Moreover, 359 kCal can be generated per 100g of SP (dry weight). The respirations of silkworm during its whole growing process under two main physiological statuses which were eating and non-eating leaves were studied. According to the results measured by the animal respiration measuring system, there were much difference among the respirations of silkworms under the two main physiological statuses. The amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms when they were eating leaves were more than those under the non-eating status. Even under the same status, the respiration characteristics of silkworms in five different developing stages were also different from one an-other. The respiratory quotients of silkworms under two statuses are largely different (eating F=3.191, P<0.05; non-eating F=2.935, P <0.05). Moreover, the amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms in the first three developing stages were much more than those of the silkworms in the latter two developing stages per unit weight of leaves. These results concerning the nutrient compositions and respiration characteristics of silkworms can provide valuable data for the establishment of complex bioregenerative life support systems including different biological units in the lunar or mars bases in the future.

  9. Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

  10. Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Ha, Nam-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

  11. Mutation of a Cuticular Protein, BmorCPR2, Alters Larval Body Shape and Adaptability in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-01-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

  12. Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  13. Evaluation of general toxicity and genotoxicity of the silkworm extract powder.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hyun-Suk; Choi, Jae-Hun; Oh, Jung-Ja; Lee, Woo-Joo; Kim, Seong-Sook; Lee, Do-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kul; Song, Si-Whan; Kim, Kap-Ho; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Ryu, Kang-Sun; Kang, Boo-Hyon

    2013-12-31

    The silkworm extract powder contain 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent ?-glycosidase inhibitor, has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. Therefore, natural products containing DNJ from mulberry leaves and silkworm are consumed as health functional food. The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of the silkworm extract powder, a health food which containing the DNJ. The repeated toxicity studies and gentic toxicity studies of the silkworm extract powder were performed to obtain the data for new functional food approval in MFDS. The safety was evaluated by a single-dose oral toxicity study and a 90 day repeated-dose oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. The silkworm extract powder was also evaluated for its mutagenic potential in a battery of genetic toxicity test: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. The results of the genetic toxicology assays were negative in all of the assays. The approximate lethal dose in single oral dose toxicity study was considered to be higher than 5000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 day study, the dose levels were wet at 0, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg/day, and 10 animals/sex/dose were treated with oral gavage. The parameters that were monitored were clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumptions, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weights, and histopathological examination. No adverse effects were observed after the 90 day administration of the silkworm extract powder. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of silkworm extract powder in the 90 day study was 2000 mg/kg/day in both sexes, and no target organ was identified. PMID:24578797

  14. Lipids of silkworm cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tolibaev; Sh. R. Mad'yarov; A. I. Glushenkova

    1995-01-01

    The lipid complex of silkworm cocoons had been investigated. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the total neutral lipids and glyco- and phospholipids have been determined. Considerable differences have been noted in the amounts of individual fatty acids in the neutral lipids and the phospholipids.

  15. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  16. Mechanical properties and structure of silkworm cocoons: a comparative study of Bombyx mori, Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Kaur, J; Rajkhowa, R; Li, J L; Liu, X Y; Wang, X G

    2013-08-01

    As a protective shell against environmental damage and attack by natural predators, the silkworm cocoon has outstanding mechanical properties. In particular, this multilayer non-woven composite structure can be exceptionally tough to enhance the chance of survival for silkworms while supporting their metabolic activity. Peel, out-of-plane compression and nano-indentation tests and micro-structure analysis were performed on four types of silkworm cocoon walls (domesticated Bombyx mori, semi-domesticated Antheraea assamensis and wild Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons) to understand the structure and mechanical property relationships. The wild silkworm cocoons were shown to be uniquely tough composite structures. The maximum work-of-fracture for the wild cocoons (A. pernyi and A. mylitta) was approximately 1000 J/m(2), which was almost 10 times the value for the domesticated cocoon (Bombyx mori) and 3~4 times the value for the semi-domesticated cocoon (A. assamensis). Calcium oxalate crystals were found to deposit on the outer surfaces of the semi-domesticated and wild cocoons. They did not show influence in enhancing the interlaminar adhesion between cocoon layers but exhibited much higher hardness than the cocoon pelades. PMID:23706202

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidia infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA: Morphological and ultrastructural characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nageswara Rao; B. Surendra Nath; G. Bhuvaneswari; S. Raje Urs

    2007-01-01

    Random amplification of polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and pathological, morphological and ultrastructural characterization were used to differentiate seven new microsporidian isolates infecting the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIK-4m was found to be more virulent than other isolates. However, all the isolates, except NIK-4m, showed

  18. Transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Zhang, Yuansong; Zhao, Tianfu; Wang, Yujun; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

    2010-04-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by the sericin 1 promoter. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vector, producing transgenic silkworms displaying DsRed fluorescence in their eyes. Genotyping analysis confirmed the integration of the MaSp1 gene into the genome of the transgenic silkworms, and silk protein analysis revealed its expression and secretion in the cocoon. Compared with wild-type silk, the recombinant silk displayed a higher tensile strength and elasticity. The results indicate the potential for producing recombinant spider silk in transgenic B. mori. PMID:19633923

  19. Genetic analysis of Indian mulberry varieties through molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, K; Awasthi, A K; Srivastava, P P; Saratchandra, B

    2004-01-01

    India is one of the countries where sericulture is being practiced traditionally. Due to the higher economic return and the greater employment potential, attempts are being made to increase the productivity by developing high yielding mulberry varieties. At the present, Mysore local, Bomaypiasbari, Kanva-2, Bilidevalaya, Kajli, S1, BC(2)59, C776, RFS-175, S-36 and Victory-1 are being cultivated extensively in different parts of India for rearing the silkworm Bombyx mori L. Using 17 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 11 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers the genetic relationships among these varieties were analyzed. The RAPD and ISSR primers revealed more than 75% polymorphism among the varieties. The genetic similarity estimated from RAPD markers varied from 0.645, between Kajli and Victory-1 to 0.887, between Kanva-2 and Bilidevalaya. Similarly, the genetic similarity estimated from the ISSR markers ranged from 0.600, between Kajli and Victory-1, to 0.873 between Kanva-2 and BC(2)59. The dendrogram constructed from these markers grouped the varieties into three major groups comprising the low yielding, medium yielding and high yielding. The low genetic similarity between the group of varieties originating from the eastern regions with that of the southern region encourages formation of extensive breeding programs between these groups as to transfer the high yield potential of the southern varieties to the low yielding but highly adaptive eastern varieties. PMID:15383066

  20. Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and ubiquitous in all living organisms, including animals, plants, insects, and microbes. It plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification, and pheromone degradation, neurogenesis and regulating development. Previous studies mainly used Dipteran Drosophila and mosquitoes as model organisms to investigate the roles of the insect COEs in insecticide resistance. However, genome-wide characterization of COEs in phytophagous insects and comparative analysis remain to be performed. Results Based on the newly assembled genome sequence, 76 putative COEs were identified in Bombyx mori. Relative to other Dipteran and Hymenopteran insects, alpha-esterases were significantly expanded in the silkworm. Genomics analysis suggested that BmCOEs showed chromosome preferable distribution and 55% of which were tandem arranged. Sixty-one BmCOEs were transcribed based on cDNA/ESTs and microarray data. Generally, most of the COEs showed tissue specific expressions and expression level between male and female did not display obvious differences. Three main patterns could be classified, i.e. midgut-, head and integument-, and silk gland-specific expressions. Midgut is the first barrier of xenobiotics peroral toxicity, in which COEs may be involved in eliminating secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves and contaminants of insecticides in diet. For head and integument-class, most of the members were homologous to odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE) and antennal esterase. RT-PCR verified that the ODE-like esterases were also highly expressed in larvae antenna and maxilla, and thus they may play important roles in degradation of plant volatiles or other xenobiotics. Conclusion B. mori has the largest number of insect COE genes characterized to date. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the gene expansion mainly occurred in silkworm alpha-esterases. Expression evidence indicated that the expanded genes were specifically expressed in midgut, integument and head, implying that these genes may have important roles in detoxifying secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves, contaminants in diet, and odorants. Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects. PMID:19930670

  1. Gut colonization by an ice nucleation active bacterium, Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas reduces the cold hardiness of mulberry pyralid larvae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Sato, M

    1999-06-01

    To evaluate the suitability of using ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria for the biological control of insect pests, the supercooling point (SCP) of larvae of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes duplicalis, and silkworm, Bombyx mori, ingesting INA strains of Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas and Pseudomonas syringae was determined. Mean SCP of the guts of silkworm larvae ingesting INA strains of E. ananas ranged from -2.5 to -2.8 degrees C, being 5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. Similarly, mean SCP of mulberry pyralid larvae ingesting INA strain of E. ananas, which can grow well in the gut, was -4.7 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, being 6.5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. On the other hand, mean SCP of the larvae-ingesting INA strain of P. syringae, which cannot grow in the gut, was -9.0 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, rising by only 2.5 degrees C higher than that in the control treatments. In addition, more than 80% of the larvae of mulberry pyralid ingesting the INA strain of E. ananas froze and eventually died when exposed to -6 degrees C for 18 h, while only 36% of the larvae ingesting the INA strain of P. syringae, or approximately 20% of the control larvae, froze and died. Thus, the gut colonization by INA strains of E. ananas reduced remarkably the cold hardiness of the insects. These findings suggest that INA strains of E. ananas could be effective as a potential biological control agent of insect pests. PMID:10413571

  2. WildSilkbase: An EST database of wild silkmoths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KP Arunkumar; Archana Tomar; Takaaki Daimon; Toru Shimada; J Nagaraju

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional genomics has particular promise in silkworm biology for identifying genes involved in a variety of biological functions that include: synthesis and secretion of silk, sex determination pathways, insect-pathogen interactions, chorionogenesis, molecular clocks. Wild silkmoths have hardly been the subject of detailed scientific investigations, owing largely to non-availability of molecular and genetic data on these species. As a first

  3. KILLING SILKWORM COCOONS BY IRRADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsetskhladze

    1962-01-01

    The results of investigations of silkworm cocoon killing by irradiation ; are given. It is shown that the method is a very perspective one. Its ; industrial realization will give both increased raw silk yield and improved ; dynamometric characteristics of silk thread. (auth);

  4. Mechanical properties of silkworm cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Ping Zhao; Xi-Qiao Feng; Shou-Wen Yu; Wei-Zheng Cui; Feng-Zhu Zou

    2005-01-01

    Silkworm caterpillars, Bombyx mori, construct cocoons in order to protect their moth pupas against possible attacks from the outside. We experimentally measured the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength, and thermo-mechanical parameters) of normal compact cocoons and the variations of these properties in the thickness direction of a cocoon. Tension tests were carried out by using rectangular specimens of two

  5. Evidence of selection at melanin synthesis pathway loci during silkworm domestication.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Song; Shen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Gang-Xiang; Hu, Yong-Gang; Xu, Hong-En; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhang, Ze

    2011-06-01

    The domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) was domesticated from wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina) more than 5,000 years ago. During domestication, body color between B. mandarina and B. mori changed dramatically. However, the molecular mechanism of the silkworm body color transition is not known. In the present study, we examined within- and between-species nucleotide diversity for eight silkworm melanin synthesis pathway genes, which play a key role in cuticular pigmentation of insects. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of B. mori was significantly lower than that of B. mandarina and 40.7% of the genetic diversity of wild silkworm was lost in domesticated silkworm. We also examined whether position effect exists among melanin synthesis pathway genes in B. mandarina and B. mori. We found that the upstream genes have significantly lower levels of genetic diversity than the downstream genes, supporting a functional constraint hypothesis (FCH) of metabolic pathway, that is, upstream enzymes are under greater selective constraint than downstream enzymes because upstream enzymes participate in biosynthesis of a number of metabolites. We also investigated whether some of the melanin synthesis pathway genes experienced selection during domestication. Neutrality test, coalescent simulation, as well as network and phylogenetic analyses showed that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene was a domestication locus. Sequence analysis further suggested that a putative expression enhancer (Abd-B-binding site) in the intron of TH gene might be disrupted during domestication. TH is the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin synthesis pathway in insects. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay did show that the relative expression levels of TH gene in B. mori were significantly lower than that in B. mandarina at three different developmental stages, which is consistent with light body color of domesticated silkworm relative to wild silkworm. Therefore, we speculated that expression change of TH gene may contribute to the body color transition from B. mandarina to B. mori. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of gene expression regulation in morphological transition of domesticated animals. PMID:21212153

  6. A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ming-Jie; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qiu-Ting; Wen, De-Fu; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xian-Qin; Gao, Hong-Chang; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity. PMID:26148185

  7. A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-Jie; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qiu-Ting; Wen, De-Fu; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xian-Qin; Gao, Hong-Chang; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity. PMID:26148185

  8. TREATMENT OF SILKWORM COCOONS BY RADIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. A. Ariffov; I. D. Artmeladze; V. A.. Barnov

    1959-01-01

    The existing methods of silkworm cocoon treatment, including heat, ; chemicals, and vacuum, essentially damage the silk thread and considerably ; decrease the yield of raw silk as compared with untreated cocoons. A possibility ; of treating the silkworm chrysalis by Co⁶° gamma rays was studied in this ; connection. A comparative study of the properties of the silk thread

  9. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  10. Consumption of Bt Rice Pollen Containing Cry1C or Cry2A Protein Poses a Low to Negligible Risk to the Silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Fengqin; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    By consuming mulberry leaves covered with pollen from nearby genetically engineered, insect-resistant rice lines producing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), larvae of the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae), could be exposed to insecticidal proteins. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1C- or Cry2A-producing transgenic rice (T1C-19, T2A-1) pollen on B. mori fitness. In a short-term assay, B. mori larvae were fed mulberry leaves covered with different densities of pollen from Bt rice lines or their corresponding near isoline (control) for the first 3 d and then were fed mulberry leaves without pollen. No effect was detected on any life table parameter, even at 1800 pollen grains/cm2 leaf, which is much higher than the mean natural density of rice pollen on leaves of mulberry trees near paddy fields. In a long-term assay, the larvae were fed Bt and control pollen in the same way but for their entire larval stage (approximately 27 d). Bt pollen densities ?150 grains/cm2 leaf reduced 14-d larval weight, increased larval development time, and reduced adult eclosion rate. ELISA analyses showed that 72.6% of the Cry protein was still detected in the pollen grains excreted with the feces. The low exposure of silkworm larvae to Cry proteins when feeding Bt rice pollen may be the explanation for the relatively low toxicity detected in the current study. Although the results demonstrate that B. mori larvae are sensitive to Cry1C and Cry2A proteins, the exposure levels that harmed the larvae in the current study are far greater than natural exposure levels. We therefore conclude that consumption of Bt rice pollen will pose a low to negligible risk to B. mori. PMID:25014054

  11. Molecular genetic approach for identifying markers associated with yield traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori using RFLP-STS primers.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, T P; Sethuraman, B N; Saratchandra, B; Chatterjee, S N

    2004-10-01

    Bombyx mori, the mulberry silkworm, exhibits wide variability in yield and developmental attributes. The genetics of yield expression, shown to be of polygenic nature, is poorly studied in silkworm. To identify markers associated with 10 selected yield traits, multiple regression analysis (MRA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were applied on 64 markers generated with eight RFLP-derived sequence-tagged-site (STS) primers on the genomic DNA of 20 silkworm stocks of different origin and diverse yield potential. The analyses led to the identification of ten markers showing significant association with the different yield traits. The markers could classify the stocks according to yield potential, irrespective of their origin and status of diapause. Trait means were significantly different for stocks with and with out the associated marker. The inheritance of a marker G2(1300bp), selected at the first step of MRA for five yield traits was shown to segregate in 1:1 ratio in the F2 progeny from a cross between two divergent stocks. The relevance of the STS primers is discussed in the context of applying multiple regression model for identifying markers associated with yield expression and suitability for molecular breeding work in B. mori for yield improvement. PMID:15609576

  12. Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes. PMID:21595916

  13. Identification of ISSR markers associated with productivity traits in silkworm, Bombyx moni L.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Mohandas, T P

    2003-06-01

    Bombyx mori L., commonly recognised around the world as the mulberry silkworm, is characterized by a wide variability in yield and developmental traits, which have been proven through conventional genetic analysis to be of polygenic nature. A large number of morpho-biochemical traits and RFLP and RAPD markers are mapped on different linkage groups, but to this point very little attention has been given to unravelling the genetics of yield traits. To address this issue, polymorphic profiles of 147 markers generated with 12 ISSR primers on the genomic DNA of 20 silkworm stocks of diverse yield status were subjected to multiple regression and discriminant function analyses (DFA). This led to the identification of eight markers generated by six primers, which demonstrated high beta-coefficient indices of -0.451 to -0.940. Furthermore, a significant difference between the yield traits for stocks with and without the specific marker could also be established. The inheritance pattern of one marker, L13800bp, identified at the first step of selection of markers through stepwise regression analyses for five yield parameters is discussed in the context of applying multiple regression analysis for establishing association, if not linkage, between a group of DNA markers and a particular yield trait of polygenic nature and using such markers in molecular marker-assisted breeding programs. PMID:12834060

  14. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  15. Segmental duplications in the silkworm genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Segmental duplications (SDs) or low-copy repeats play important roles in both gene and genome evolution. SDs have been extensively investigated in many organisms, however, there is no information about SDs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Result In this study, we identified and annotated the SDs in the silkworm genome. Our results suggested that SDs constitute ~1.4% of the silkworm genome sequence (?1 kb in length and ?90% in the identity of sequence); the number is similar to that in Drosophila melanogaster but smaller than mammalian organisms. Almost half (42%) of the SD sequences are not assigned to chromosomes, indicating that the SDs are challenges for the assembling of genome sequences. We also provided experimental validation of large duplications using qPCR. The analysis of SD content indicated that the genes related to immunity, detoxification, reproduction, and environmental signal recognition are significantly enriched in the silkworm SDs. Conclusion Our results suggested that segmental duplications have been problematic for sequencing and assembling of the silkworm genome. SDs may have important biological significances in immunity, detoxification, reproduction, and environmental signal recognition in the silkworm. This study provides insight into the evolution of the silkworm genome and an invaluable resource for insect genomics research. PMID:23901934

  16. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming

    2004-01-01

    Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

  17. Transcriptome analysis of integument differentially expressed genes in the pigment mutant (quail) during molting of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

  18. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of a spider silk manufacturing process is of great interest. piggyBac vectors were used to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk prote...

  19. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of ?-alanine and N-?-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of ?-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  20. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of ?-alanine and N-?-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of ?-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  1. Non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices for potential biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Biman B; Ghosh, Borna; Kundu, S C

    2011-08-01

    This study reports a novel biopolymeric matrix fabricated by chemically cross-linking poly (vinyl alcohol) with silk sericin protein obtained from cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta. Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent with hydrochloric acid acting as an initiator. The matrices were biophysically characterized and the cytocompatibility of the matrices was evaluated for their suitability as biomaterials. The surface morphology was assessed using atomic force microscopy while the changes taking place after cross-linking were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced thermal stability of the constructs was assessed by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that sericin was chemically cross-linked with poly (vinyl alcohol) using glutaraldehyde. Silk sericin protein demonstrated a favorable effect on animal cell culture by successfully improving the adhering and spreading of cells on the poorly adhering surface of poly (vinyl alcohol). Confocal microscopy revealed cell spreading and actin filament development in sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices. These findings prove the potential of non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices to be used as biocompatible and biopolymeric material for tissue-engineering and biotechnological applications. PMID:21549749

  2. Constituents of the cultivated mulberry tree.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Fukai, T; Matsumoto, J; Imashimizu, A; Terada, S; Hama, M

    1982-11-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of root bark of the Japanese cultivated mulberry tree (a variety of Morus alba L.), a novel chalcone derivative with a fused dihydrochalcone partial moiety was isolated and named kuwanon I. The structure was shown to be I on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Kuwanon I (I) is the first example which is regarded biogenetically as a Diels-Alder adduct of a prenylchalcone derivative and a dehydroprenylchalcone derivative. NMR variable temperature studies of I suggested that kuwanon I (I) exists as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers in solution. PMID:17396966

  3. Mechanical properties of silkworm cocoon pelades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Ping Zhao; Xi-Qiao Feng; Wei-Zheng Cui; Feng-Zhu Zou

    2007-01-01

    The pelade, the innermost layer of silkworm cocoon next to the chrysalis, has special microstructures, mechanical properties and protective functions distinctly different from those of all the other layers. In the present paper, a series of static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis were performed for the first time to measure the mechanical properties of pelades, including Young’s modulus,

  4. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  5. Free and Bound Volatile Chemicals in Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ? 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas. PMID:25817411

  6. Integration of molecular and classical linkage groups of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28).

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Yuji; Banno, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kohji; Goldsmith, Marian R; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Previously published linkage groups (LGs) composed of molecular markers were assigned to classical LGs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28). Four markers from the classical linkage map, og, w-1, Lp, and Pfl, were assigned to the molecular linkage maps using sequence tagged sites. In addition, linkage analysis was carried out using BF1 progeny between wild-type and mutant stocks carrying morphological phenotypic markers. As a result, the counterparts for 26 of 28 molecular LGs were identified with their counterparts of the classical LGs. Two visible markers, Sel and Xan, representing different classical LGs, were found to be linked. PMID:16094430

  7. Analysis on Gender of Silkworms by MRI Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cong Liu; Zhao Hui Ren; Hong Zhi Wang; Pei Qiang Yang; Xue Long Zhang

    2008-01-01

    At present silkworm cocoons, dried, boiled and reeled, are the female and male mix, so it's very difficult to produce high grade raw silk in large quantity. In the progress of the silk reeling what we can do to separate the complex of female and male silkworms still encounters presently certain difficulties. In this paper the intrinsic relaxation time of

  8. An IgE-Mediated Allergic Reaction Caused by Mulberry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Sim, Jae Kyoem; Oh, Jee Youn; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sung Yong; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a widespread deciduous tree and its fruit is commonly eaten in Korea and eastern Asia. Some reports demonstrate that mulberry fruit is a food allergen in the Mediterranean area. However, there has been no report of systemic allergic reactions after ingesting mulberry fruit in Korea. An 18-year-old boy with a mulberry fruit allergy visited our allergy clinic. He had experienced generalized urticaria, chest tightness, breathing difficulty, and abdominal cramping after ingesting mulberry fruit. The patient had a positive skin reaction to mulberry fruit extract (mean wheal size, 5 mm). We performed an ELISA to detect specific IgE antibody (Ab) to mulberry fruit extract in the patient's serum compared to those of non-atopic healthy controls and birch-sensitized individuals. Specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit extract was detected in the patient's serum, as compared to non-atopic healthy controls. Another subject, who was strongly sensitized to birch pollen, also had a positive serum-specific IgE Ab to mulberry fruit. We performed IgE immunoblot analysis using the patient's and the other subject's sera, who had serum-specific IgE to mulberry fruit, to identify the IgE-binding component. An identical IgE-binding component to mulberry extract was detected in the two subjects at around 17 kDa, and which might be PR 10 of Bet v 1. In conclusion, mulberry fruit could induce a systemic allergic reaction through an IgE-mediated mechanism, and cross-reactivity might occur between mulberry fruit and birch pollen. PMID:25729628

  9. [Molecular mapping of test mapping strain for 18th linkage group recessive genes elp, ch-2 and mln in silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Fang; Ma, Xiao; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Bing; Li, Mu-Wang

    2013-03-01

    The ellipsoid egg, the second recessive gene of chocolate larvae, and melanism are controlled by three recessive genes, elp, ch-2, and mln in silkworm, respectively. Their order and genetic distance have been scheduled in established linkage group. Owing to lack of crossing over in females, the reciprocal backcrossed F1(BC1) progenies were bred for linkage analysis using the wild type silkworm strain P50(+elp+ch-2+mln /+elp+ch-2+mln) and W18 with ellipsoid egg, the second recessive gene of chocolate larvae, and melanism (elp ch-2 mln / elp ch-2 mln). In this research, we mapped three mutant genes, elp, ch-2, and mln on the chromosome 18 based on the SSR linkage map and STS markers designed based on silkworm genome sequence. The established linkage group, molecular linkage group, and the physic map of chromosome 18 had been corresponded. The genetic distance for this chromosome in this research was 94.2 cM, and the order of the mutants and molecular markers were consistent with the established silkworm linkage maps and the fine genome sequences. This research will lay important bases for map-based cloning for other mutants on chromosome 18. PMID:23575544

  10. Mulberry non-engineered silk gland protein vis-à-vis silk cocoon protein engineered by silkworms as biomaterial matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joydip Kundu; Moumita Dewan; Sarani Ghoshal; S. C. Kundu

    2008-01-01

    Silk fibroin from silk gland of Bombyx mori 5th instar larvae was utilized to fabricate films, which may find possible applications as two-dimensional matrices for tissue\\u000a engineering. Bombyx mori cocoon fibroin is well characterized as potential biomaterial by virtue of its good mechanical strength, water stability,\\u000a thermal properties, surface roughness and biocompatibility. The present study aims to characterize the biophysical,

  11. Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Huang, Weidong; Jin, Wanzhu; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-02-11

    Mulberry extract (ME) has been shown to possess beneficial effects towards obesity, but its mechanism is still unclear. In small mammals, mitochondria enriched brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to convert protein's electrochemical energy to heat and maintain a constant body temperature. Improving the mitochondrial function or increasing the number of mitochondria could promote the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mitochondrial function regulated by ME and mulberry wine extract (MWE) during the brown adipogenesis. The C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell was treated with ME and MWE, both of which significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression levels of fatty acid oxidation related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, PR domain-containing 16 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1? during brown adipogenesis. These changes were accompanied with increases in mitochondrial oxidative complex proteins upon ME and/or MWE exposure. Notably, ME and/or MWE also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the expression of the transcription factor A and the nuclear respiratory factor-1, which are the key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis. In parallel, the mitochondrial copy number and brown adipose tissue specific gene-uncoupling protein-1 expression were dramatically (p < 0.05) elevated after ME or MWE treatment. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) was found to be one of the most abundant anthocyanins in ME and MWE. Therefore, the BAT regulatory activity of ME and MWE might be, at least in part, due to the effect of Cy-3-glu. These results suggested that ME and MWE could ameliorate metabolic disease through an improvement in mitochondrial functions. PMID:25554947

  12. Inheritance and linkage analysis of co-dominant SSR markers on the Z chromosome of the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.).

    PubMed

    Miao, Xue-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Li, Mu-Wang; Zhao, Yun-Po; Guo, Xian-Ru; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2008-04-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are co-dominant molecular markers. When we used fluorescent SSR markers to construct a linkage map for the female heterogametic silkworm (Bombyx mori, ZW), we found that some loci did not segregate in a Mendelian ratio of 1:1 in a backcross population. These loci segregated in a 3:1 ratio of single bands compared with double bands. Further examination of band patterns indicated that three types of SSR bands were present: two homozygotes and one heterozygote. In the beginning, we considered to discard these markers. By scoring male and female F1 individuals, we confirmed that these loci were located on the Z chromosome. Using the sex-linked visible mutation sch (K05) and its wild-type (C108), we constructed an F1 male backcross (BC1M) mapping population. The combination of sch backcross and SSR data enabled us to map the SSR markers to the Z chromosome. By adjusting input parameters based on these data, we were able to use Mapmaker software to construct a linkage map. This strategy takes advantage of co-dominant markers for positional cloning of genes on the Z chromosome. We localized sch to the Z chromosome relative to six SSR markers and one PCR marker, covering a total of 76.1 cM. The sch mutation is an important sex-linked visible mutation widely used in breeding of commercial silkworms (e.g. male silkworm selection rearing). Localization of the sch gene may prove helpful in cloning the gene and developing strains for marker-assisted selection in silkworm breeding. PMID:18426618

  13. Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Kato; Mizuho Kajikawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

    2010-01-01

    Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial\\u000a purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a\\u000a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3–6 months).\\u000a The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and

  14. Transgenic silkworms that weave recombinant proteins into silk cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Tomita

    2011-01-01

    As a result of breeding for more than 4,000 years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has acquired the ability to synthesize bulk amounts of silk proteins in its silk glands. To utilize this capacity for mass\\u000a production of useful proteins, transgenic silkworms were generated that synthesized recombinant proteins in the silk gland\\u000a and secreted them into the silk cocoon. The silk gland

  15. Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YuQing Zhang; XiaoHua Yu; WeiDe Shen; YongLei Ma; LiXia Zhou; NaiXi Xu; ShuQian Yi

    2010-01-01

    By using silkworms, Bombyx mori, fluorescent cocoon sex identification (FCSI) as an experimental material, direct fluorescence spectrometry of the cocoon\\u000a surface indicates that the fluorescent color of silkworm cocoons is made up of two peaks of yellow and blue-purple fluorescence\\u000a emission. The fluorescent difference between male and female cocoons is attributed to the differential absorption of yellow\\u000a fluorescent substances by

  16. Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

    2014-09-01

    Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

  17. Advanced silk material spun by a transgenic silkworm promotes cell proliferation for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Song, Chunnuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Peng, Zhixin; Peng, Zhangchuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    Natural silk fiber spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori is widely used not only for textile materials, but also for biofunctional materials. In the present study, we genetically engineered an advanced silk material, named hSFSV, using a transgenic silkworm, in which the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) protein was specifically synthesized in the middle silk gland and secreted into the sericin layer to surround the silk fiber using our previously optimized sericin1 expression system. The content of the recombinant hFGF1 in the hSFSV silk was estimated to be approximate 0.07% of the cocoon shell weight. The mechanical properties of hSFSV raw silk fiber were enhanced slightly compared to those of the wild-type raw silk fiber, probably due to the presence of the recombinant of hFGF1 in the sericin layer. Remarkably, the hSFSV raw silk significantly stimulated the cell growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the mitogenic activity of recombinant hFGF1 was well maintained and functioned in the sericin layer of hSFSV raw silk. These results show that the genetically engineered raw silk hSFSV could be used directly as a fine biomedical material for mass application. In addition, the strategy whereby functional recombinant proteins are expressed in the sericin layer of silk might be used to create more genetically engineered silks with various biofunctions and applications. PMID:24980060

  18. Construction of transgenic silkworm spinning antibacterial silk with fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Yue; Cao, Guangli; Li, Jingzhi; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    A targeting vector consisting of a fusion gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene gfp and the antimicrobial peptide cecropin gene cec flanked by pieces of the 5' and 3' sequences of the fibroin L chain gene fib-L of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and a negative selection DsRed marker gene driven by the baculovirus immediate early gene 1 (i.e.-1) promoter, was used to target the silkworm genome in order to explore the possibility of improving the performance of silk. A transgenic silkworm with a green fluorescent cocoon was obtained and PCR analysis of its genome confirmed that the target genes had been integrated into the silkworm genome correctly. Furthermore, in the posterior silk glands of the G6 generation transformation silkworm, a band representing the fusion protein Fib-L-GFP-Cec with a molecular mass of 68.7 kDa was detected by western blotting with an antibody against GFP. An investigation of the number of bacteria attached to a cocoon showed the transgenic silkworm cocoon possessed antibacterial properties. These results suggested the performance of silk can be improved by modifying the fibroin gene. PMID:25223857

  19. Effects of mulberry leaf extract rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Hasumi, Keiji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2010-09-01

    Mulberry leaves are rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. We previously showed that DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract suppressed elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract on plasma lipid profiles in humans. An open-label, single-group study was conducted in 10 subjects with initial serum triglyceride (TG) level ?200 mg/dl. Subjects ingested capsules containing DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract at 12 mg three times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Our findings showed a modest decrease in serum TG level and beneficial changes in the lipoprotein profile following 12-week administration of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract. No significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed during the study period; no adverse events associated with DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract occurred. PMID:20838571

  20. LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Awh is a key component activating all three fibroin genes, fibH, fibL and fhx, in the silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Mai; Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takiya, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, three fibroin genes, fibroin-heavy-chain (fibH), fibroin-light-chain (fibL) and fibrohexamerin (fhx), are coexpressed only in the posterior silk gland (PSG) cells, while the sericin genes encoding silk glue proteins are expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) cells. Silk gland factor-2 (SGF-2) is a PSG-specific activator complex of fibH, composed of a LIM-homeodomain protein, Awh, and its cofactors, Ldb and Lcaf. We investigated whether SGF-2 can activate other fibroin genes using transgenic silkworms. The genes for Ldb and Lcaf were expressed ubiquitously in various tissues, while the gene for Awh was expressed strictly specific in PSG of the wild type silkworms. Misexpression of Awh in transgenic silkworms induced ectopic expression of fibL and fhx as well as fibH in MSG. Coincidently with the induction of fibL and fhx by Awh, binding of SGF-2 to the promoter of fibL and fhx was detected in vitro, and SGF-2 binds directly to the fhx core promoter. Ectopic expression of the fibroin genes was observed at high levels in the middle part of MSG. Moreover, fibL and fhx were induced in the anterior silk gland (ASG) of the transgenic silkworms, but fibH was not. These results indicate that Awh is a key activator of all three fibroin genes, and the activity is probably regulated in conjunction with additional factors. PMID:25449130

  1. Survey and Analysis of Microsatellites in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M.; Madhu, M.; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K.; Nagaraju, J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of ?15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and ?5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2–14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

  2. Space flight experiment on chinese silkworm on board the russian 10th biosatellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Zhizhen; Zhuang Dahuan; Eugene A. Ilyin

    1998-01-01

    Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The

  3. Use of silkworms for identification of drug candidates having appropriate pharmacokinetics from plant sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiro Asami; Ryo Horie; Hiroshi Hamamoto; Kazuhisa Sekimizu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We use silkworms to evaluate therapeutic effects of drug candidates. Our previous reports have revealed that there are common mechanisms of pharmacokinetics of chemicals in silkworms and mammals. In this report, we attempt to establish a method by using silkworms to identify chemicals from plant extracts which are absorbed from intestine and also stably exist in body fluids. RESULTS:

  4. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-09-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  5. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  6. Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunan Yang; Liman Tang; Ling Tong; Yang Liu; Hong Liu; Xiaomin Li

    2010-01-01

    Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet

  7. Testing various fruits for anti-thrombotic effect: i. Mulberries.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junichiro; Naemura, Aki; Ura, Mayumi; Ijiri, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Kurioka, Akira; Koyama, Akio

    2006-12-01

    Prevention of arterial thrombotic disease has high priority in developed countries. As inappropriate diet predispose to acute thrombotic events, regular intake of an antithrombotic diet may be a convenient and effective way of prevention. The present study was performed to examine antithrombotic effect of mulberry varieties. A shear-induced in vitro platelet reactivity/thrombolysis test (Gorog Thrombosis Test) was used to screen for antiplatelet and thrombolytic activities. In case of effectiveness, it was followed by an in vivo test of laser-induced thrombosis in mice. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by superoxide anion and radical scavenging activities. Total polyphenolics, anthocyanin and citrate contents were also measured. The tested varieties showed different effect in vitro on platelet reactivity and endogenous thrombolytic activity. Varieties inhibiting platelet reactivity were antithrombotic in vivo regardless inhibition or enhancement of thrombolysis. Those mulberry varieties, which enhanced platelet reactivity in vitro, were prothrombotic only if inhibitory activity on endogenous thrombolysis coexisted with the platelet effect. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolics content did not affect platelets and the overall thrombotic status. However, antioxidant activities and polyphenolics content significantly correlated with the endogenous thrombolytic activity. These data showed that mulberry varieties can be grouped into subclasses with either anti- or prothrombotic activities. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents do not affect platelets but may enhance endogenous thrombolysis, thus causing an overall antithrombotic effect. PMID:17127483

  8. Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YuQing; Yu, XiaoHua; Shen, WeiDe; Ma, YongLei; Zhou, LiXia; Xu, NaiXi; Yi, ShuQian

    2010-11-01

    By using silkworms, Bombyx mori, fluorescent cocoon sex identification (FCSI) as an experimental material, direct fluorescence spectrometry of the cocoon surface indicates that the fluorescent color of silkworm cocoons is made up of two peaks of yellow and blue-purple fluorescence emission. The fluorescent difference between male and female cocoons is attributed to the differential absorption of yellow fluorescent substances by the midgut tissue of 5th instar female silkworms. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescent spectra indicate that blue-purple fluorescent substances are composed of at least five blue-purple fluorescent pigments, and yellow fluorescent substances are made up of at least three. UV spectra and AlCl? color reaction show that the three fluorescent yellow pigments are flavonoids or their glycosides. Silkworm FCSI is due to selective absorption or accumulation of the yellow fluorescent pigments by the posterior midgut cells of female 5th instar larvae. The cells of the FCSI silkworm midgut, especially the cylinder intestinal cells of the posterior midgut have a component which is a yellow fluorescent pigment-specific binding protein that may be vigorously expressed in the 5th instar larvae. PMID:21046325

  9. Fruit Body Formation on Silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Ki-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Lee, Man-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Humber, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori (B. mori). Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body production. Use of Daeseungjam rather than Baegokjam or Keumokjam varieties of B. mori is thought to be suitable for infection by C. militaris. From mounting, nine-day-old to 11-day-old pupae showed the best incidence of infection with a 100 µL injection volume. Silkworm pupae injected with a hyphal suspension concentration of more than 2 × 105 colony-forming unit (cfu) recorded a greater than 96% incidence of infection. Also, fruit bodies of C. militaris were induced and produced at a light intensity between 500 and 1,000 lx. PMID:23956640

  10. Analysis of a silkworm F? hybrid with yellow cocoon generated by crossing two white-cocoon strains: further evidences for the roles of Cameo2 and CBP in formation of yellow cocoon.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chunli; Zhang, Yujun; Sun, Weizhong; Ding, Guangshu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yanqun; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-15

    In this report, we examined the gene expression related to carotenoid transport for a silkworm F1 hybrid with yellow cocoon generated by crossing two white-cocoon strains, Qiubai and 12-260. Our results showed that, in Qiubai, Cameo2, a transmembrane protein gene belonging to the CD36 family genes, was expressed normally in the silk gland, but no intact carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) mRNA (only the truncated CBP mRNA) was detected in the midgut. In 12-260, we detected the intact CBP mRNA expression in the midgut, but no Cameo2 expression in the silk gland. Regarding the F1 hybrid from crossing Qiubai and 12-260, both Cameo2 and intact CBP mRNA expressed normally in the silk gland and midgut. HPLC detection confirmed that in the F1 hybrid the carotenoids could be absorbed from dietary mulberry leaves through the midgut and transferred to silk gland via the hemolymph, which eventually colored cocoons into yellow. We also identified four CBP mRNA isoforms expressed in the midgut of the F1 hybrid, subsequently named as variants 5-8. Our results provide further evidences for the roles of Cameo2 and CBP in the formation of yellow cocoon of silkworm. PMID:24157262

  11. Diabetic silkworms for evaluation of therapeutically effective drugs against type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Hayashi, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shinya; Sugita, Takuya; Sumiya, Eriko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that sugar levels in the silkworm hemolymph, i.e., blood, increase immediately (within 1?h) after intake of a high-glucose diet, and that the administration of human insulin decreases elevated hemolymph sugar levels in silkworms. In this hyperglycemic silkworm model, however, administration of pioglitazone or metformin, drugs used clinically for the treatment of type II diabetes, have no effect. Therefore, here we established a silkworm model of type II diabetes for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs such as pioglitazone and metformin. Silkworms fed a high-glucose diet over a long time-period (18?h) exhibited a hyperlipidemic phenotype. In these hyperlipidemic silkworms, phosphorylation of JNK, a stress-responsive protein kinase, was enhanced in the fat body, an organ that functionally resembles the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. Fat bodies isolated from hyperlipidemic silkworms exhibited decreased sensitivity to human insulin. The hyperlipidemic silkworms have impaired glucose tolerance, characterized by high fasting hemolymph sugar levels and higher hemolymph sugar levels in a glucose tolerance test. Administration of pioglitazone or metformin improved the glucose tolerance of the hyperlipidemic silkworms. These findings suggest that the hyperlipidemic silkworms are useful for evaluating the hypoglycemic activities of candidate drugs against type II diabetes. PMID:26024298

  12. Diabetic silkworms for evaluation of therapeutically effective drugs against type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Hayashi, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shinya; Sugita, Takuya; Sumiya, Eriko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that sugar levels in the silkworm hemolymph, i.e., blood, increase immediately (within 1?h) after intake of a high-glucose diet, and that the administration of human insulin decreases elevated hemolymph sugar levels in silkworms. In this hyperglycemic silkworm model, however, administration of pioglitazone or metformin, drugs used clinically for the treatment of type II diabetes, have no effect. Therefore, here we established a silkworm model of type II diabetes for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs such as pioglitazone and metformin. Silkworms fed a high-glucose diet over a long time-period (18?h) exhibited a hyperlipidemic phenotype. In these hyperlipidemic silkworms, phosphorylation of JNK, a stress-responsive protein kinase, was enhanced in the fat body, an organ that functionally resembles the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. Fat bodies isolated from hyperlipidemic silkworms exhibited decreased sensitivity to human insulin. The hyperlipidemic silkworms have impaired glucose tolerance, characterized by high fasting hemolymph sugar levels and higher hemolymph sugar levels in a glucose tolerance test. Administration of pioglitazone or metformin improved the glucose tolerance of the hyperlipidemic silkworms. These findings suggest that the hyperlipidemic silkworms are useful for evaluating the hypoglycemic activities of candidate drugs against type II diabetes. PMID:26024298

  13. Properties of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Hayashi

    1961-01-01

    THE enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of purine derivatives xanthine and hypoxanthine to uric acid has been demonstrated in several insects1-5. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, it functions as a dehydrogenase. This inference is based on the fact that the formation of uric acid and oxygen consumption of the fat body homogenates show marked increases only when methylene blue is

  14. From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

  15. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujia Chen; David Porter; Fritz Vollrath

    2010-01-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set

  16. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF STEAM DRYING OF SILKWORM COCOONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Shi-Ruo; Chen Jin-Yong; Arun S. Mujumdar

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to explore the feasibility of silkworm cocoon drying with superheated steam. The influence of steam drying on the drying kinetics and the technological characteristics of the dried cocoons is discussed. A promising new technology of cocoon drying is suggested to improve cocoon quality and decrease raw cocoon consumption in silk production.

  17. Transgenic silkworms that weave recombinant proteins into silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    As a result of breeding for more than 4,000 years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has acquired the ability to synthesize bulk amounts of silk proteins in its silk glands. To utilize this capacity for mass production of useful proteins, transgenic silkworms were generated that synthesized recombinant proteins in the silk gland and secreted them into the silk cocoon. The silk gland is classified into two main regions: the posterior (PSG) and the middle silk gland (MSG). By controlling the expressed regions of the recombinant protein gene in the silk gland, we were able to control the localization of the synthesized protein in the silk thread. Expression in the PSG or MSG led to localization in the insoluble fibroin core or hydrophilic outer sericin layer, respectively. This review focuses on the expression of recombinant protein in the MSG of transgenic silkworms. The recombinant protein secreted in the sericin layer is extractable from the cocoon with only a small amount of endogenous silk protein contamination by soaking the cocoon in mild aqueous solutions. The possibility of utilizing transgenic silkworms as a valuable tool for the mass production of therapeutic and industrially relevant recombinant proteins is discussed. PMID:21184136

  18. Generation of transgenic silkworms for production of erythropoietin in Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiyeon Seong; Min-Jung Kim; Hyo-Sun Kim; Sun-Ah Kim; Hyung-Wook Jeon; Seung-Hyun Sung; Keun-Chong Kim; Dong Sang Suh

    2011-01-01

    There have been many attempts to generate various essential proteins using transformed E. coli systems. However, prokaryote systems are not equipped with the protein maturation mechanisms necessary to generate eukaryotic\\u000a proteins. In this sense, among the eukaryotes, silkworms have major merits in overcoming the difficulties. Such protein maturation\\u000a mechanisms are available in silkworms. In this study, a transgenic silkworm producing

  19. [Genetic analysis and gene mapping of two novel quail-like mutants from the silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Anli; Qiu, Zhiyong; Xia, Dingguo; Qian, Heying; Shen, Xingjia

    2014-04-01

    Two novel body marking mutants were discovered during silkworm (Bombyx mori) breeding. The mutants have no obvious eye-spots compared with normal marking (+) individuals, but their star spots and semilunar markings on dorsal sides are normal, and there are dots and lines with longitudinal wave markings on dorsal sides of the 6th to 7th abdominal segments which consist quail markings in between star spots and semilunar markings. The whole body markings are very similar to that of quail mutant (q); thus these mutants are named as quail-like mutants (q-l). Young larvae of one mutant are in brown color, and develop normally. Their cocoons are regular and uniform in size. Thus, this mutant is designated as brown quail-like (q-lb). Another mutant's larvae are in light purple skin; thus this mutant is named as purple quail-like (q-lp). They take little amount of mulberry leaves, and are weak and develop slowly and unevenly. Their larval bodies and cocoons are small. Genetic analysis revealed that both q-lb and q-lp were recessive genes, and they were allelic, with q-lb recessive to q-lp. These genes are different from quail mutant (q) and located on the chromosome 8 after tested by the morphological markers, P3(2), p(2), Ze(3), L(4), re(5), E(6), q(7), I-a(9), ms(12), ch(13), oa(14), cts(16), mln(18), msn(19), rb(21) and so(26) and SSR markers. PMID:24846982

  20. Use of sleeve nets to improve survival of the Boisduval silkworm, Anaphe panda, in the Kakamega forest of western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mbahin, N; Raina, S K; Kioko, E N; Mueke, J M

    2010-01-01

    Prospects for development of a wild silk industry in Africa would be improved if silkworm survival during mass production could be improved. A study on the survival of the Boisduval silkworm, Anaphe panda (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) was conducted with and without protection by net sleeves in two different forest habitats (natural and modified) in the Kakamega forest of western Kenya. Overall, cohort survival was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the natural than in the modified forest, but larval survival was improved over three-fold by protection with net sleeves in both habitat types. In the modified forest, only 16.8% of unprotected larvae survived to the pupal stage and formed cocoons, whereas 62.3% survived in the same environment when they were protected with net sleeves. In the natural forest, 20.4% of unprotected larvae survived, whereas 67.7% survived in net sleeves. There was also a significant effect of season; cohorts of larvae that eclosed in the wet season had significantly lower survival than those eclosing in the dry season (P = 0.02). Sources of mortality appeared to be natural enemies (parasites, predators and diseases) and climatic factors. PMID:20569137

  1. A novel sucrose hydrolase from the bombycoid silkworms Bombyx mori, Trilocha varians, and Samia cynthia ricini with a substrate specificity for sucrose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huabing; Kiuchi, Takashi; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2015-06-01

    Although membrane-associated sucrase activity has been detected in the midgut of various lepidopteran species, it has not yet been identified and characterized at the molecular level. In the present study, we identified a novel sucrose hydrolase (SUH) gene from the following three bombycoid silkworms: Bombyx mori, Trilocha varians, and Samia cynthia ricini and named them BmSuh, TvSuh, and ScSuh, respectively. The EST dataset showed that BmSuh is one of the major glycoside hydrolase genes in the larval midgut of B. mori. These genes were almost exclusively expressed in the larval midgut in all three species, mainly at the feeding stage. SUHs are classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 13 and show significant homology to insect maltases. Enzymatic assays revealed that recombinant SUHs were distinct from conventional maltases and exhibited substrate specificity for sucrose. The recombinant BmSUH was less sensitive to sugar-mimic alkaloids than TvSUH and ScSUH, which may explain the reason why the sucrase activity in the B. mori midgut was less affected by the sugar-mimic alkaloids derived from mulberry. PMID:25937576

  2. A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

    2009-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

  3. Dual inhibition of arachidonic acid pathway by mulberry leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Seema; Devi, Uma; Kumar, Venkatesh R; Kumar, Vikas; Anwar, Firoz; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2015-02-01

    The present work investigates the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of mulberry leaves of variety S-1, S-13 and S-146. The S-146 extract was further evaluated for its efficacy against adjuvant arthritis in albino rats followed by inhibitory potential for COX 1, COX 2 and 5 LOX. The HPLC analysis enumerated the presence of morin, reversterol, scopoletin and 7-hydroxy coumarin as the major constituents. The anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity observed in the present experiment could be accredited to the dual inhibition in the AA pathway. The inhibition of COX and LOX enzymes could be imparted to the presence of resveraterol, morin, scopoletin and 7-hydroxy coumarin. PMID:25490949

  4. Silkworm and spider silk scaffolds for chondrocyte support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris Gellynck; Peter C. M. Verdonk; Els Van Nimmen; Karl F. Almqvist; Tom Gheysens; Gustaaf Schoukens; Lieva Van Langenhove; Paul Kiekens; Johan Mertens; Gust Verbruggen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To create scaffolds with silkworm cocoon, spider egg sac and spider dragline silk fibres and examine their use for chondrocyte\\u000a attachment and support. Methods Three different kinds of scaffolds were developed with Bombyx mori cocoon, Araneus diadematus egg sac and dragline silk fibres. The attachment of human articular cartilage cells were investigated on these bioprotein\\u000a matrices. The chondrocytes produced

  5. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  6. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Gan; Qing-hua Kong; Li-fu Wei

    2008-01-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the

  7. Identification and Characterization of an Arginine Kinase as a Major Allergen from Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Liu; Lixin Xia; Yulan Wu; Qingyou Xia; Jiajie Chen; Kenneth H. Roux

    2009-01-01

    Background: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important insect in the textile industry and its pupa are used in Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine. The silk, urine and dander of silkworms is often the cause of allergies in sericulture workers and the pupa has been found to be a food allergen in China. Recent studies have focused on reporting

  8. in silico identification of protein-protein interactions in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Sumathy, Ramasamy; Rao, Ashwath Southekal Krishna; Chandrakanth, Nalavadi; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2014-01-01

    The Domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, an economically important insect has been used as a lepidopteran molecular model next only to Drosophila. Compared to the genomic information in silkworm, the protein-protein interaction data are limited. Therefore experimentally identified PPI maps from five model organisms such as E.coli, C.elegans, D.melanogaster, H. sapiens, S. cerevisiae were used to infer the PPI network of silkworm using the well-recognized Interlog based method. Among the 14623 silkworm proteins, 7736 protein-protein interaction pairs were predicted which include 2700 unique proteins of the silkworms. Using the iPfam interaction domains and the gene expression data, these predictions were validated. In that 625 PPI pairs of predicted network were associated with the iPfam domain-domain interactions and the random network has average of 9. In the gene expression method, the average PCC value of the predicted network and random network was 0.29 and 0.23100±0.00042 respectively. It reveals that the predicted PPI networks of silkworm are highly significant and reliable. This is the first PPI network for the silkworm which will provide a framework for deciphering the cellular processes governing key metabolic pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori and available at SilkPPI (http://210.212.197.30/SilkPPI/). PMID:24616555

  9. in silico identification of protein-protein interactions in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sumathy, Ramasamy; Rao, Ashwath Southekal Krishna; Chandrakanth, Nalavadi; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2014-01-01

    The Domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, an economically important insect has been used as a lepidopteran molecular model next only to Drosophila. Compared to the genomic information in silkworm, the protein-protein interaction data are limited. Therefore experimentally identified PPI maps from five model organisms such as E.coli, C.elegans, D.melanogaster, H. sapiens, S. cerevisiae were used to infer the PPI network of silkworm using the well-recognized Interlog based method. Among the 14623 silkworm proteins, 7736 protein-protein interaction pairs were predicted which include 2700 unique proteins of the silkworms. Using the iPfam interaction domains and the gene expression data, these predictions were validated. In that 625 PPI pairs of predicted network were associated with the iPfam domain-domain interactions and the random network has average of 9. In the gene expression method, the average PCC value of the predicted network and random network was 0.29 and 0.23100±0.00042 respectively. It reveals that the predicted PPI networks of silkworm are highly significant and reliable. This is the first PPI network for the silkworm which will provide a framework for deciphering the cellular processes governing key metabolic pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori and available at SilkPPI (http://210.212.197.30/SilkPPI/). PMID:24616555

  10. Identification of a New Protein from Silkworm Pupas by Biological Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Jiang; Qiong Liu; Decong Hu; Huibi Xu; Hongxia Wang

    2005-01-01

    To find out the efficient peptide of selenium-rich silkworm pupas in inducing the apoptosis of hepatoma cells, selenium-containing proteins were isolated and characterized. One of the two major proteins in selenium-rich silkworm pupas was identified to be a new protein by peptide mass fingerprinting on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry. Amino acid sequences

  11. A draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingyou; Zhou, Zeyang; Lu, Cheng; Cheng, Daojun; Dai, Fangyin; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ping; Zha, Xingfu; Cheng, Tingcai; Chai, Chunli; Pan, Guoqing; Xu, Jinshan; Liu, Chun; Lin, Ying; Qian, Jifeng; Hou, Yong; Wu, Zhengli; Li, Guanrong; Pan, Minhui; Li, Chunfeng; Shen, Yihong; Lan, Xiqian; Yuan, Lianwei; Li, Tian; Xu, Hanfu; Yang, Guangwei; Wan, Yongji; Zhu, Yong; Yu, Maode; Shen, Weide; Wu, Dayang; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jun; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Jianping; Li, Heng; Li, Guangyuan; Su, Jianning; Wang, Xiaoling; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Zengjin; Wu, Qingfa; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qingpeng; Wei, Ning; Xu, Jianzhe; Sun, Haibo; Dong, Le; Liu, Dongyuan; Zhao, Shengli; Zhao, Xiaolan; Meng, Qingshun; Lan, Fengdi; Huang, Xiangang; Li, Yuanzhe; Fang, Lin; Li, Changfeng; Li, Dawei; Sun, Yongqiao; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Yanqing; Xi, Yan; Qi, Qiuhui; He, Dandan; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenjie; Cao, Yuzhu; Yu, Yingpu; Yu, Hong; Li, Jinhong; Ye, Jiehua; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jing; Ye, Jia; Ji, Hai; Li, Shengting; Ni, Peixiang; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hongkun; Mao, Bingyu; Wang, Wen; Ye, Chen; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Yang, Huanming

    2004-12-10

    We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content. PMID:15591204

  12. A Draft Sequence for the Genome of the Domesticated Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyou Xia; Zeyang Zhou; Cheng Lu; Daojun Cheng; Fangyin Dai; Bin Li; Ping Zhao; Xingfu Zha; Tingcai Cheng; Chunli Chai; Guoqing Pan; Jinshan Xu; Chun Liu; Ying Lin; Jifeng Qian; Yong Hou; Zhengli Wu; Guanrong Li; Minhui Pan; Chunfeng Li; Yihong Shen; Xiqian Lan; Lianwei Yuan; Tian Li; Hanfu Xu; Guangwei Yang; Yongji Wan; Yong Zhu; Maode Yu; Weide Shen; Dayang Wu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Jun Yu; Jun Wang; Ruiqiang Li; Jianping Shi; Heng Li; Guangyuan Li; Jianning Su; Xiaoling Wang; Guoqing Li; Zengjin Zhang; Qingfa Wu; Jun Li; Qingpeng Zhang; Ning Wei; Jianzhe Xu; Haibo Sun; Le Dong; Dongyuan Liu; Shengli Zhao; Xiaolan Zhao; Qingshun Meng; Fengdi Lan; Xiangang Huang; Yuanzhe Li; Lin Fang; Changfeng Li; Dawei Li; Yongqiao Sun; Zhenpeng Zhang; Zheng Yang; Yanqing Huang; Yan Xi; Qiuhui Qi; Dandan He; Haiyan Huang; Xiaowei Zhang; Zhiqiang Wang; Wenjie Li; Yuzhu Cao; Yingpu Yu; Hong Yu; Jinhong Li; Jiehua Ye; Huan Chen; Yan Zhou; Bin Liu; Jing Wang; Jia Ye; Hai Ji; Shengting Li; Peixiang Ni; Jianguo Zhang; Yong Zhang; Hongkun Zheng; Bingyu Mao; Wen Wang; Chen Ye; Songgang Li; Jian Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Huanming Yang

    2004-01-01

    We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.

  13. Marker-assisted selection in breeding silkworm strains with high silk production and resistance to the densonucleosis virus.

    PubMed

    Hou, C X; Sun, P J; Guo, X J; Huang, Y P; Li, M W

    2013-01-01

    In the silkworm (Bombyx mori), resistance to the Zhenjiang (China) strain of the densonucleosis virus (DNV-Z) is controlled by the recessive gene nsd-Z (non-susceptible to DNV-Z), which is linked to 7 simple-sequence repeat markers. Marker-assisted evaluation and selection of DNV-Z-resistant silkworms were used for predicting DNV-resistance in backcrossed animals. A silkworm race was bred using this method, and its economic characteristics were found to be similar to those of commercial silkworm races. These markers will therefore be useful for silkworm breeding programs and in screening for densonucleosis resistance in segregating populations. PMID:24114212

  14. Wild BC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

  15. Transgenic protein production in silkworm silk glands requires cathepsin and chitinase of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Wöltje, Michael; Böbel, Melanie; Rheinnecker, Michael; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Franzetti, Eleonora; Saviane, Alessio; Cappellozza, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori represents an established in vivo system for the production of recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses have been extensively investigated and optimised for the expression of high protein levels inside the haemolymph of larvae and pupae of this lepidopteran insect. Current technology includes deletion of genes responsible for the activity of virus-borne proteases, which in wild-type viruses, cause liquefaction of the host insect and enhance horizontal transmission of newly synthesised virus particles. Besides the haemolymph, the silk gland of B. mori provides an additional expression system for recombinant proteins. In this paper, we investigated how silk gland can be efficiently infected by a Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). We demonstrated that the viral chitinase and the cysteine protease cathepsin are necessary to permit viral entry into the silk gland cells of intrahaemocoelically infected B. mori larvae. Moreover, for the first time, we showed AcMNPV crossing the basal lamina of silk glands in B. mori larvae, and we assessed a new path of infection of silk gland cells that can be exploited for protein production. PMID:24477386

  16. Role of GTP-CHI links PAH and TH in melanin synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wang, Jiying; Li, Haiyin; Li, Yan; Chen, Peng; Li, Tian; Chen, Xi; Xiao, Junjie; Zhang, Liang

    2015-08-10

    In insects, pigment patterns are formed by melanin, ommochromes, and pteridines. Here, the effects of pteridine synthesis on melanin formation were studied using 4th instar larvae of a wild-type silkworm strain, dazao (Bombyx mori), with normal color and markings. Results from injected larvae and in vitro integument culture indicated that decreased activity of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH I, a rate-limiting enzyme for pteridine synthesis), lowers BH4 (6R-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, a production correlated with GTP-CH I activity) levels and eliminates markings and coloration. The conversion of phenylalanine and tyrosine to melanin was prevented when GTP-CH I was inhibited. When BH4 was added, phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine, and the tyrosine concentration increased. Tyrosine was then converted to melanin to create normal markings and coloration. Decreasing GTP-CH I activity did not affect L-DOPA (3,4-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine). GTP-CH I affected melanin synthesis by generating the BH4 used in two key reaction steps: (1) conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine by PAH (phenylalanine hydroxylase) and (2) conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA by TH (tyrosine hydroxylase). Expression profiles of BmGTPCH Ia, BmGTPCH Ib, BmTH, and BmPAH in the integument were consistent with the current findings. PMID:25958343

  17. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  18. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  19. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  20. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  1. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training...prevent the harvesting and cultivation of oyster beds or the setting of fish...

  2. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350?g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50?mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  3. Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

  4. A novel gelatin crosslinking method retards release of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin providing a prolonged hypoglycaemic effect.

    PubMed

    Vichasilp, Chaluntorn; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Sookwong, Phumon; Higuchi, Ohki; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2012-10-15

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent ?-glycosidase inhibitor, has therapeutic potency in the suppression of postprandial blood glucose levels thereby possibly preventing diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ has a relatively short half-life in vivo (about 2 h). Therefore, several doses of mulberry DNJ are required to achieve optimal therapeutic results. This study aimed to delay the release of mulberry DNJ with biodegradable matrices to maintain the intestinal DNJ concentration and prolong the hypoglycaemic effect in vivo. A novel, simple, and commercially viable method was adopted to develop DNJ-entrapped microspheres (DNJ-MSs). A higher extent of crosslinking and the larger sized DNJ-MS decreased the rate of mulberry DNJ release in vitro. Consequently, an in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats over a 6 h period. The area under curve (AUC) of rats with DNJ-MS was significantly increased, compared to animals dosed with mulberry powder (control). DNJ-MS suppressed postprandial glucose from sucrose administration at the initial and 3 h time points indicating a prolonged hypoglycaemic effect. PMID:23442626

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidoglycans Induce Excessive Activation of the Innate Immune System in Silkworm Larvae*

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen that causes inflammation in human periodontal tissue, killed silkworm (Bombyx mori, Lepidoptera) larvae when injected into the blood (hemolymph). Silkworm lethality was not rescued by antibiotic treatment, and heat-killed bacteria were also lethal. Heat-killed bacteria of mutant P. gingivalis strains lacking virulence factors also killed silkworms. Silkworms died after injection of peptidoglycans purified from P. gingivalis (pPG), and pPG toxicity was blocked by treatment with mutanolysin, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme. pPG induced silkworm hemolymph melanization at the same dose as that required to kill the animal. pPG injection increased caspase activity in silkworm tissues. pPG-induced silkworm death was delayed by injecting melanization-inhibiting reagents (a serine protease inhibitor and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea), antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, glutathione, and catalase), and a caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Thus, pPG induces excessive activation of the innate immune response, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death in the host tissue. PMID:20702417

  6. An amplified fragment length polymorphism map of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y D; Wan, C; Zhu, Y; Lu, C; Xiang, Z; Deng, H W

    2001-03-01

    The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is a lepidopteran insect with a long history of significant agricultural value. We have constructed the first amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map of the silkworm B. mori at a LOD score of 2.5. The mapping AFLP markers were genotyped in 47 progeny from a backcross population of the cross no. 782 x od100. A total of 1248 (60.7%) polymorphic AFLP markers were detected with 35 PstI/TaqI primer combinations. Each of the primer combinations generated an average of 35.7 polymorphic AFLP markers. A total of 545 (44%) polymorphic markers are consistent with the expected segregation ratio of 1:1 at the significance level of P = 0.05. Of the 545 polymorphic markers, 356 were assigned to 30 linkage groups. The number of markers on linkage groups ranged from 4 to 36. There were 21 major linkage groups with 7-36 markers and 9 relatively small linkage groups with 4-6 markers. The 30 linkage groups varied in length from 37.4 to 691.0 cM. The total length of this AFLP linkage map was 6512 cM. Genetic distances between two neighboring markers on the same linkage group ranged from 0.2 to 47 cM with an average of 18.2 cM. The sex-linked gene od was located between the markers P1T3B40 and P3T3B27 at the end of group 3, indicating that AFLP linkage group 3 was the Z (sex) chromosome. This work provides an essential basic map for constructing a denser linkage map and for mapping genes underlying agronomically important traits in the silkworm B. mori L. PMID:11238411

  7. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  8. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  9. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  10. Demineralization enables reeling of wild silkmoth cocoons.

    PubMed

    Gheysens, Tom; Collins, Andrew; Raina, Suresh; Vollrath, Fritz; Knight, David P

    2011-06-13

    Wild Silkmoth cocoons are difficult or impossible to reel under conditions that work well for cocoons of the Mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori . Here we report evidence that this is caused by mineral reinforcement of Wild Silkmoth cocoons and that washing these minerals out allows for the reeling of commercial lengths of good quality fibers with implications for the development of the "Wild Silk" industry. We show that in the Lasiocampid silkmoth Gonometa postica , the mineral is whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate). Evidence is presented that its selective removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) leaves the gum substantially intact, preventing collapse and entanglement of the network of fibroin brins, enabling wet reeling. Therefore, this method clearly differs from the standard "degumming" and should be referred to as "demineralizing". Mechanical testing shows that such preparation results in reeled silks with markedly improved breaking load and extension to break by avoiding the damage produced by the rather harsh degumming, carding, or dry reeling methods currently in use, what may be important for the development of the silk industries not only in Asia but also in Africa and South America. PMID:21491856

  11. Results of deep-well injection testing at Mulberry, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.; Wilson, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Fla., high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. In 1975, a satellite monitor well was drilled 2,291 feet from the injection well and a series of three injection tests were performed. Duration of the tests ranged from 240 to 10,020 minutes and injection rates ranged from 110 to 230 gallons per minute. Based on an evaluation of factors that affect hydraulic response, water-level data suitable for interpretation of hydraulic characteristics of the injection zone were identified to occur from 200 to 1,000 minutes during the 10,020-minute test. Transmissivity of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from 700 to 1,000 feet squared per day and storage coefficient of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from .00001 to .00005. The confining bed accepting most of the leakage appears to be the underlying bed. Also, it appears that the overlying beds are probably relatively impermeable and significantly retard the vertical movement of neutralized waste effluent. (USGS)

  12. Reduction of post-prandial hyperglycemia by mulberry tea in type-2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R.; Manjunath, Nanjappa C.; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-01-01

    Aim The dietary contents have a very important role in the management of metabolic syndrome along with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indian diet contains a large amount of carbohydrates that set off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations and leads to increased risk of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of mulberry tea in the reduction of abnormally high postprandial blood glucose (PPG) levels in T2DM patients. Methods The study design was follow-up T2DM, 20 diabetic patients were given plain tea (control) and 28 diabetic patients were given mulberry tea (test subject) to measure the effect of mulberry tea on fasting blood glucose and PPG levels. Fasting blood glucose samples were collected after a standard breakfast. The PPG levels were recorded after the consumption of 70 ml tea along with 1 teaspoon of sugar after 90 min in all 48 patients. Results Fasting blood glucose levels in control and test group samples were found to be 178.55 ± 35.61 and 153.50 ± 48.10, respectively. After the consumption of plain tea and mulberry tea, the PPG values were recorded as 287.20 ± 56.37 and 210.21 ± 58.73, respectively. A highly significant (p < 0.001) change in the PPG level was observed in response to mulberry tea in all the test patients compared with control. Moreover, the effect size was also found to be very large (1.31). Conclusion Mulberry tea suppresses postprandial rise of blood glucose levels after 90 min of its consumption. PMID:25561880

  13. Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

    A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

  14. Volume 3, Chapter 9: The Method for Making Strings Note: In addition to the original text, please see a modern commentary at the end of this

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Jim

    with it after the strings are made. The method for matching up the cords: Silkworms make their cocoons out is made from the che (#) tree. 1 The next best is made from silkworms fed on mulberry leaves. The third best is made from original silkworms, [ second silkworms]. 2 The che kind is clear and the mulberry

  15. Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

  16. Production of scFv-conjugated affinity silk powder by transgenic silkworm technology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuru; Kojima, Katsura; Sakuma, Chisato; Murakami, Maria; Aratani, Eriko; Takenouchi, Takato; Tamada, Yasushi; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Bombyx mori (silkworm) silk proteins are being utilized as unique biomaterials for medical applications. Chemical modification or post-conjugation of bioactive ligands expand the applicability of silk proteins; however, the processes are elaborate and costly. In this study, we used transgenic silkworm technology to develop single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-conjugated silk fibroin. The cocoons of the transgenic silkworm contain fibroin L-chain linked with scFv as a fusion protein. After dissolving the cocoons in lithium bromide, the silk solution was dialyzed, concentrated, freeze-dried, and crushed into powder. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that the scFv domain retains its specific binding activity to the target molecule after multiple processing steps. These results strongly suggest the promise of scFv-conjugated silk fibroin as an alternative affinity reagent, which can be manufactured using transgenic silkworm technology at lower cost than traditional affinity carriers. PMID:22496833

  17. New and highly efficient expression systems for expressing selectively foreign protein in the silk glands of transgenic silkworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aichun Zhao; Tianfu Zhao; Yuansong Zhang; Qingyou Xia; Cheng Lu; Zeyang Zhou; Zhonghuai Xiang; M. Nakagaki

    2010-01-01

    We constructed three different fibroin H-chain expression systems to estimate the efficacy of producing recombinant proteins\\u000a in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. The results showed that the three different EGFP\\/H-chain fusion genes were all expressed\\u000a selectively in the posterior silk gland of the transgenic silkworm. The recombinant protein content of transgenic silkworm\\u000a cocoons is up to 15% (w\\/w) when using

  18. A germline transgenic silkworm that secretes recombinant proteins in the sericin layer of cocoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Tomita; Rika Hino; Shingo Ogawa; Masashi Iizuka; Takahiro Adachi; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Hisaya Sotoshiro; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

    2007-01-01

    A silk thread of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is composed of the insoluble inner fibroin and the hydrophilic outer sericin layer, which are synthesized in the posterior\\u000a and middle silk gland (MSG), respectively. This study aimed to develop a novel sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven recombinant expression system using transgenic silkworms, in which recombinant proteins are synthesized\\u000a in MSG and

  19. Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Moriwaki; Shiori Kitajima; Masahiro Kurashima; Ayaka Hagiwara; Kazuma Haraguchi; Koji Shirai; Rensuke Kanekatsu; Kenji Kiguchi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42–52goil\\/gsorbent for

  20. Purification and characterization of two major selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich silkworm pupas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Liu; Xueying Liang; Decong Hu; Ping Chen; Jing Tian; Hong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in vivo involved in the defense against oxidative stress. Se deficiency is associated with many human diseases. The bioactivity of\\u000a Se is dose- and species-dependent. Silkworm pupa has been reported to accumulate Se mainly in proteins. Thus the characterization\\u000a of major Se-containing proteins is very important in the application of Se-rich silkworm pupas

  1. Mechanism of Enhanced Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus-Resistance by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Ni, Min; Hong, Fashui; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The infection of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) in silkworms is often lethal. It is difficult to prevent, and its lethality is correlated with both viral particle characteristics and silkworm strains. Low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can promote silkworm growth and improve its resistance to organophosphate pesticides. In this study, TiO2 NPs’ effect on BmNPV resistance was investigated by analyzing the characteristics of BmNPV proliferation and transcriptional differences in silkworm midgut and the transcriptional changes of immunity related genes after feeding with TiO2 NPs. We found that low doses of TiO2 NPs improved the resistance of silkworm against BmNPV by 14.88-fold, with the mortalities of the experimental group and control group being 0.56% and 8.33% at 144 h, respectively. The proliferation of BmNPV in the midgut was significantly increased 72 h after infection in both experimental and control groups; the control group reached the peak at 120 h, while the experimental group took 24 more hours to reach the maximal value that was 12.63 times lower than the control, indicating that TiO2 NPs can inhibit BmNPV proliferation in the midgut. Consistently, the expression of the BmNPV-resistant gene Bmlipase-1 had the same increase pattern as the proliferation changes. Immune signaling pathway analysis revealed that TiO2 NPs inhibited the proliferation of silkworm BmNPV to reduce the activation levels of janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, while promoting the expression of Bmakt to improve the immunity. Overall, our results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs increase silkworm resistance against BmNPV by inhibiting virus proliferation and improving immunity in silkworms. PMID:25692869

  2. Proteomic and immunological identification of two new allergens from silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiangjie; Li, Lin; Kuang, Zheshi; Luo, Guoqing; Li, BING

    2015-01-01

    This study explored food allergy caused by eating silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae, a traditionally accepted food and animal feed in East and Southeast Asia, and identified two new allergens by proteomic and immunological methods. Proteins isolated from silkworm pupae were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE); pooled sera from patients allergic to silkworm pupa proteins were used to detect immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding proteins by western blotting, and allergens specific for silkworm pupa consumption-caused allergy were visualised with the ECL reagents. The selected allergen proteins were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Finally, chitinase and paramyosin were identified as silkworm pupa proteins showing strong immunoglobulin (IgE)-binding reaction. Analysis of the sequence homology of the two proteins using the AllergenOnline database indicated that chitinase and paramyosin shared 24.8% and 62.8% sequence homology with known allergens Der f 18 (Dermatophagoides farinae) and Der p 11 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), respectively. Our results shed light on the understanding and treatment of silkworm pupa allergy.

  3. Species Variability for Fruit Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Abilities in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Shivashankara; S. H. Jalikop; T. K. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fruits from five accessions of mulberry (Morussp.) representing Morus nigra, Morus lavigeta, and Morus alba were evaluated for ferric reducing antioxidant potential, diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability, total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid contents. In fresh fruits, higher antioxidant capacity was found in M. nigra followed by M. lavigeta and the lowest capacity was observed in M. alba.

  4. Mulberry Shoot Blight: Axenic Culture, Pathogenicity and Plant-Pathogen Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; Vineet Kumar; R. K. Mishra; D. D. Sharma; A. Sarkar; V. Thiagarajan

    2002-01-01

    Occurrence of a new disease, shoot blight was observed afflicting mulberry (Morus spp.) in the southern peninsula of India. The disease initiated as marginal burning or blackening of leaf lamina which later spread across the whole lamina and then to the stems of affected shoots, resulting in the drooping of the entire shoot and complete death of the affected plants.

  5. Optimization of 1-deoxynojirimycin extraction from mulberry leaves by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vichasilp, Chaluntorn; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Sookwong, Phumon; Suzuki, Yasuyo; Kimura, Fumiko; Higuchi, Ohki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2009-12-01

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, a potent alpha-glycosidase inhibitor) has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. However, the amount of DNJ in mulberry leaves is low (about 0.1%), and a more effective extraction method is needed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied in this study for mulberry DNJ extraction, and five factors, the percentage of ethanol in the extraction solvent (x(1)), ratio of the extraction solvent to mulberry sample (x(2)), ultrasonic power (x(3)), extraction temperature (x(4)) and extraction time (x(5)), were investigated by fractional factorial 2((5-1)) design (FFD) to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency (DNJ yield, Y(1)) and extraction productivity (total yield, Y(2)). The results showed that x(2), x(3) and x(5) had significant impact on Y(1) and Y(2), and were further optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions (x(2), x(3) and x(5) of 7 ml/g, 180 W and 260 s, respectively), DNJ-enriched powder (0.8%) was produced with high extraction efficiency (98%) and productivity (20%), enabling this product to be used for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:19966480

  6. Diversification of mulberry (Morus indica var. S36), a vegetatively propagated tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vijayan; C. V. Nair; S. N. Chatterjee

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity among plants sprouted from seven year old clones of mulberry (Morus indica var. S36) was studied using molecular markers such as ISSR and RAPD. The clones showed significant variability in sex expression and the sprouting behavior. These changes were appeared after seven years of rigorous pruning and training (pruned once in every 3-4months). Genetic diversity analysis revealed significant

  7. ST2B2-2: Potential Use of Paper Mulberry Leaves for Silage Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnat Jarerat; Vichai Haruthaithanasan; Klanarong Sriroth

    Silage is an important ruminant feed produced by an anaerobic fermentation process of lactic acid bacteria to preserve nutritional values of animal forage. Silage production can be adapted to many animal crops and also some agricultural wastes of high nutritional contents. In this study, a preliminary trial on making well preserved and high nutritional silage of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera)

  8. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

  9. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

  10. Hog Wild

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-22

    Wild hogs number in the hundreds of thousands and reside in all but two of California's 58 counties. In this video from QUEST produced by KQED, learn how hunters are stepping up to be part of the solution to this problem.

  11. Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone–Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

  12. Non-mulberry silk fibroin influence osteogenesis and osteoblast-macrophage cross talk on titanium based surface

    PubMed Central

    Naskar, Deboki; Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Tuli; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2014-01-01

    The titanium and its alloys are used as orthopedic dental implants due to their mechanical and bio-inert properties. The bare metal implants are not the ultimate answer for better osteogenesis and implant integration. Physical and chemical modifications are carried out to achieve the goal of improved adhesion and differentiation of the osteoblast. In this work, the silk fibroins from both mulberry and non-mulberry sources are used for surface modification. Silk fibroins are immobilized on titanium surface to facilitate the initial cell adhesion followed by improved cell spreading and better mineralization in order to achieve enhanced osseointegration. The immunological responses along with the effect of cytokines on osteoblast adhesion and function are investigated. The non-mulberry fibroin performs better in the context of the cell adherence and differentiation, which lead to better mineralization. The results indicate that the silk fibroin from non-mulberry source can be used for better osteogenesis on orthopedic implants. PMID:24752225

  13. Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

    2006-11-01

    Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

  14. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  15. Analysis of Genetic Divergence for Classification of Morphological and Larval Gain Characteristics of Peanut Cocoon Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salehi Nezhad; S. Z. Mirhosseini

    2009-01-01

    A hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis was undertaken for grouping the 51 lines silkworm, Bombyx mori L., based on larval gains parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from one rearing seasons with all 51 peanut cocoon strains of silkworm and varying morphological development potentials. The results indicate that two clusters can be realized based on larval

  16. New and highly efficient expression systems for expressing selectively foreign protein in the silk glands of transgenic silkworm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aichun; Zhao, Tianfu; Zhang, Yuansong; Xia, Qingyou; Lu, Cheng; Zhou, Zeyang; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Nakagaki, M

    2010-02-01

    We constructed three different fibroin H-chain expression systems to estimate the efficacy of producing recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. The results showed that the three different EGFP/H-chain fusion genes were all expressed selectively in the posterior silk gland of the transgenic silkworm. The recombinant protein content of transgenic silkworm cocoons is up to 15% (w/w) when using the most highly efficient H-chain expression system. To our knowledge, in comparison with silkworm silk gland expression systems in the literature, the highly efficient expression system developed in this study is the most efficient silkworm silk gland expression system to date. This expression system is the best candidate for foreign gene production and for creation of novel functional silk material. The results suggested the N-terminal domain and the intron of the H-chain gene are important in the secretion of fibroin and its transcription, respectively. PMID:19533404

  17. Expression, purification and antigenicity of Neospora caninum-antigens using silkworm larvae targeting for subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Takahiro; Dong, Jinhua; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2013-02-18

    Infection of Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. Now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. In this study, N. caninum surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and SAG1-related sequence 2 (SRS2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. Expressed SAG1 and SRS2 clearly showed antigenicity against N. caninum-positive sera of cow. SAG1 and SRS2 were purified to near homogeneity from hemolymph of silkworm larvae using anti-FLAG M2 antibody agarose: approximately 1.7 mg of SAG1 from 10 silkworm larvae and 370 ?g of SRS2 from 17 silkworm larvae. Mice that were injected by antigens induced antibodies against SAG1 and SRS2. This study indicates that it is possible that this silkworm expression system leads to a large-scale production of N. caninum-antigens with biological function and low production cost. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system paves the way to produce largely and rapidly these recombinant antigens for its application to subunit vaccines against neosporosis in cattle. PMID:23102762

  18. Wild Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  19. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  20. Mulberry leaf polysaccharides modulate murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ming; Sun, Haiyan; Cao, Yan; Wang, Guangchuan; Meng, Yiming; Wang, Dongmei; Hong, Yansong

    2015-04-01

    Various components of mulberry leaves, such as iminosugars, flavonoids and polysaccharides, have been reported to exert anti-diabetic activity. The purpose of our present study was to examine the modulating effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharides (MLPs) on murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The ultrastructure, phenotype and functional maturation of BMDCs were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ?ow cytometry (FCM), and tested for phagocytosis, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrated that MLPs could markedly induce BMDC maturation by up-regulating the expression of membrane phenotypic markers, such as CD80, CD86, CD83,CD40, and MHC II, down-regulating phagocytosis and ACP activity, and by enhancing the production of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) secreted by BMDCs. We therefore concluded that MLPs can positively modulate BMDCs. PMID:25830302

  1. Surface ultrastructure of the uredinial stage of Cerotelium fici and its infection process on mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; S. K. Tewari; R. K. Datta

    1994-01-01

    Surface morphology of uredinia and urediniospores ofCerotelium fici (Cast.) Arth., and its infection process in mulberry (Morus alba L.) have been described using the scanning electron microscope. The uredinia ofC. fici are paraphysate and bear pedicellate urediniospores. The surface morphology of urediniospore is similar to most of the rust fungi which have pedicellate urediniospores. The infection process ofC. fici on

  2. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigation on sun and solar drying of white mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kavak Akpinar

    2008-01-01

    The drying kinetics of white mulberry was investigated in a solar dryer with forced convection and under open sun with natural\\u000a convection. The constant rate period is absent from the drying curve. The drying process took place in the falling rate period.\\u000a The drying data were fitted to the different mathematical models. The performance of these models was investigated by

  3. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Chang; Yu-Jen Lo

    2010-01-01

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming

  4. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Chang; Yu-Jen Lo

    2010-01-01

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO2 nanofluid with an average particle size of 25nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO2 nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a

  5. Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

    2005-01-01

    A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

  6. The extramacrochaetae gene is required for blastokinesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Chai, Dezhi; Wang, Cailian; Li, Qing; Lei, Jinfeng; Yang, Min; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    In silkworm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), blastokinesis results in embryo reversal from ventrally to dorsally convex flexion. In this study, we showed that the extramacrochaetae (emc) gene is required for blastokinesis in silkworm. Depletion of Bmemc expression via RNA interference led to severe phenotypic defects in blastokinesis. The defective embryos failed to invert their body sides during blastokinesis. This caused the posterior half of the abdomen to abnormally fold back toward the dorsal side, forming a U-shaped morphology. Dorsal closure was also disrupted. Our results suggest that Bmemc is involved in blastokinesis of silkworm embryos. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 405-409, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26055521

  7. Space flight experiment on chinese silkworm on board the Russian 10th biosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhen, Shi; Dahuan, Zhuang; Ilyin, Eugene A.

    Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The times of hatching and oviposition in the flight group were 2 to 3 days earlier than in the control group; the hatching rate of diapause eggs during space flight seemed higher than that of the control group; the life span of 2 of the 7 varieties flown was shortened; genetical variations appeared in 3 varieties. The results showed that the embryonic stage was probably the period most sensitive to the space flight environment.

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity by DNA profiling and its significance in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, J G; Singh, L

    1997-08-01

    Silkworm genetic resources that are being maintained in different countries are yet to be adequately tapped to develop elite varieties that are suited to different agro-eco-climatic conditions of countries like India. This is mostly due to unavailability of efficient protocols that could uncover usable genetic variability in silkworms. Molecular markers are known to provide unambiguous estimates of genetic variability of populations since they are independent of confounding effects of environment. The DNA fingerprinting assays, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and banded krait minor satellite DNA (Bkm) 2(8) multilocus probes, which successfully characterise the diverse silkworm genotypes at their DNA level, are described. The use of these two DNA fingerprinting assays in estimation of within- and between-population genetic diversity is discussed. PMID:9378144

  9. A novel granulocyte-specific ? integrin is essential for cellular immunity in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Tan, Juan; Xu, Man; Su, Jingjing; Hu, Renjian; Chen, Yibiao; Xuan, Fan; Yang, Rui; Cui, Hongjuan

    2014-12-01

    Haemocytes play crucial roles in immune responses and survival in insects. Specific cell markers have proven effective in clarifying the function and haematopoiesis of haemocytes. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a good model for studying insect haemocytes; however, little is known about haemocyte-specific markers or their functions in silkworm. In this study, we identified the ? subunit of integrin, Bmintegrin?PS3, as being specifically and highly expressed in silkworm haemocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis validated the specificity of Bmintegrin?PS3 in larval granulocytes. Further analyses indicated that haemocytes dispersed from haematopoietic organs (HPOs) into the circulating haemolymph could differentiate into granulocytes. In addition, the processes of encapsulation and phagocytosis were controlled by larval granulocytes. Our work demonstrated that Bmintegrin?PS3 could be used as a specific marker for granulocytes and could be applied to future molecular cell biology studies. PMID:25450560

  10. Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

    2009-04-01

    This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

  11. Vitellogenin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: An Effective Anti-Bacterial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Tulika; Kannan, Mani; König, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Silkworm, Bombyx mori, vitellogenin (Vg) was isolated from perivisceral fat body of day 3 of pupa. Both Vg subunits were co-purified as verified by mass spectrometry and immunoblot. Purified Vg responded to specific tests for major posttranslational modifications on native gels indicating its nature as lipo-glyco-phosphoprotein. The Vg fraction had strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microscopic images showed binding of Vg to bacterial cells and their destruction. When infected silkworm larvae were treated with purified Vg they survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. This result showed that Vg has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of bacteria in the silkworm fluid system without disturbing the regular metabolism of the host. PMID:24058454

  12. The advances and perspectives of recombinant protein production in the silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu

    2014-10-01

    The silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori, is one of the most important organs that has been fully studied and utilized so far. It contributes finest silk fibers to humankind. The silk gland has excellent ability of synthesizing silk proteins and is a kind tool to produce some useful recombinant proteins, which can be widely used in the biological, biotechnical and pharmaceutical application fields. It's a very active area to express recombinant proteins using the silk gland as a bioreactor, and great progress has been achieved recently. This review recapitulates the progress of producing recombinant proteins and silk-based biomaterials in the silk gland of silkworm in addition to the construction of expression systems. Current challenges and future trends in the production of valuable recombinant proteins using transgenic silkworms are also discussed. PMID:25113390

  13. Optimization for ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry fruits with antioxidant and hyperglycemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69°C, ultrasonic power 190W and extraction time 75min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions. PMID:26076608

  14. Silkworms can be used as an animal model to screen and evaluate gouty therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Pan, Zhonghua; Zheng, Xiaojian; Gong, Chengliang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, the mouse has been used as a mammalian model for hyperuricemia and gout, which has increased not only in prevalence, but also in clinical complexity, accentuated in part by a dearth of novel advances in treatments for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. However, the use of mice for the development of gouty therapeutic drugs creates a number of problems. Thus, identification and evaluation of the therapeutic effects of chemicals in an alternative animal model is desirable. In the present study, the effects of gouty therapeutic drugs on lowering the content of uric acid and inhibiting activity of xanthine oxidase were evaluated by using a silkworm model, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The results showed that the effectiveness of oral administration of various gouty therapeutic drugs to 5(th) instar silkworms is consistent with results for human. The activity of xanthine oxidase of silkworm treated with allopurinol was lower, and declined in a dose-dependent manner compared with control silkworms, while sodium bicarbonate failed at inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase. The concentration of uric acid in the both hemolymph and fat body declined by 90 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of allopurinol, respectively (p < 0.01), while the concentration of uric acid in both the hemolymph and fat body also declined by 81 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of sodium bicarbonate, respectively (p < 0.01). Moreover, the epidermis of silkworm treated with allopurinol or sodium bicarbonate became transparent compared with the negative control group. These results suggest that silkworm larva can be used as an animal model for screening and evaluation of gouty therapeutic drugs. PMID:22934965

  15. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  16. Nature of heterosis and combining ability in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Strunnikov, V A

    1986-07-01

    The isogenic, highly heterotic parthenoclone 29, originating from a hybrid silkworm female, was transformed via unisexual reproduction (meiotic and ameiotic parthenogenesis) into four genotypical variants differing in well-known various levels of hetero zygosity and combinations of useful and harmful genes. A comparison of these changes with the heterosis level made it possible to discover that both heterosity for adaptively neutral genes (overdominance hypothesis) and the number of allelic pairs, each of them being heterozygous for a favourable, completely dominant gene (dominance hypothesis) play no decisive role in the intensity of heterosis. The level of heterosis is largely determined by the relationship between the effects of useful and harmful genes, the first falling into the category of semidominant, cumulatively acting genes which control viability. Their favourable, joint well-coordinated effects, unlike those of genes which control quantitative characters, increase in relation to the number of genes in a geometric rather than an arithmetic progression. The interaction between semilethal genes is subjected to the same regularity. The high combining ability of parthenoclone 29 variants is determined by the number and homozygosity of the useful genes. PMID:24248023

  17. Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

  18. Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

  19. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

  20. Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman Microspectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Eve Rousseau; Thierry Lefèvre; Lilyane Beaulieu; Tetsuo Asakura; Michel Pézolet

    2004-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy has been used for the first time to determine quantitatively the orientation of the ‚-sheets in silk monofilaments from Bombyx moriand Samia cynthia ricini silkworms, and from the spider Nephila edulis. It is shown that, for systems with uniaxial symmetry such as silk, it is possible to determine the order parameters ?P2? and ?P4? of the orientation distribution

  1. High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  2. Intravital imaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin binding sites in the midgut of silkworm.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Jing; Han, Heyou; Huang, Liang; Shao, Feng; Li, Xuepu

    2014-02-15

    Identification of the resistance mechanism of insects against Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin is becoming an increasingly challenging task. This fact highlights the need for establishing new methods to further explore the molecular interactions of Cry1A toxin with insects and the receptor-binding region of Cry1A toxins for their wider application as biopesticides and a gene source for gene-modified crops. In this contribution, a quantum dot-based near-infrared fluorescence imaging method has been applied for direct dynamic tracking of the specific binding of Cry1A toxins, CrylAa and CrylAc, to the midgut tissue of silkworm. The in vitro fluorescence imaging displayed the higher binding specificity of CrylAa-QD probes compared to CrylAc-QD to the brush border membrane vesicles of midgut from silkworm. The in vivo imaging demonstrated that more CrylAa-QDs binding to silkworm midgut could be effectively and distinctly monitored in living silkworms. Furthermore, frozen section analysis clearly indicated the broader receptor-binding region of Cry1Aa compared to that of Cry1Ac in the midgut part. These observations suggest that the insecticidal activity of Cry toxins may depend on the receptor-binding sites, and this scatheless and visual near-infrared fluorescence imaging could provide a new avenue to study the resistance mechanism to maintain the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:24252542

  3. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Q. Huang; H. P. Zhao; X. Q. Feng; W. Cui; Z. Lin; M. Q. Xu

    2008-01-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical

  4. Biosynthesis and cocoon-export of a recombinant globular protein in transgenic silkworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Royer; Audrey Jalabert; Martine Da Rocha; Anne-Marie Grenier; Bernard Mauchamp; Pierre Couble; Gérard Chavancy

    2005-01-01

    A gene construct was made by fusing the coding sequence of the red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to the exon 2 of the fibrohexamerin gene (fhx), that encodes a subunit of fibroin, the major silk protein of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The fusion gene was inserted into a piggyBac vector to establish a series of transgenic lines. The expression of the

  5. A potential material for tissue engineering: Silkworm silk\\/PLA biocomposite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoi-Yan Cheung; Kin-Tak Lau; Xiao-Ming Tao; David Hui

    2008-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a kind of well recognized biodegradable polymer, was reinforced by silkworm silk fibers to form a completely biodegradable and biocompatible biocomposite for tissue engineering applications. The influence on the mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposite in relation to the length and weight content of silk fibers is studied in this paper. Through the micro-hardness test, optimized

  6. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus-induced differential gene expression in two silkworm strains of different susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2014-04-15

    Digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the gene expression profiles of 4008 and p50 silkworm strains at 48 h after oral infection with BmCPV. 3,668,437 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected p50 silkworms and 3,540,790 clean tags in the control p50. By contrast, 4,498,263 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected 4008 silkworms and 4,164,250 clean tags in the control 4008. A total of 691 differentially expressed genes were detected in the infected 4008 DGE library and 185 were detected in the infected p50 DGE library, respectively. The expression profiles identified some important differentially expressed genes involved in signal transduction, enzyme activity and apoptotic changes, some of which were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results provide important clues on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion and resistance mechanism of silkworms against BmCPV infection. PMID:24525400

  7. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  8. Expression profile analysis of silkworm P450 family genes after phoxim induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Fanchi; Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Binbin; Xu, Kaizun; Tian, Jianghai; Hu, Jingsheng; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2015-07-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect and a model species for Lepidopteran. Each year, O,O-diethyl O-(alpha-cyanobenzylideneamino) phosphorothioate (phoxim) pesticide poisoning in China results in huge economic losses in sericulture. Silkworm fat body is the main organ for nutrient storage, energy supply, intermediary metabolism, and detoxification. Microarray analysis of silkworm Cytochrome P450 detoxification enzyme genes revealed that all tested P450 4 (CYP4) family genes are expressed in the fat body. Quantitative Real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of CYP4 family genes in silkworm fat body 0, 24, 48, and 72?h after phoxim exposure. The expression levels of silkworm molting hormone synthesis-related genes started to change 24?h after phoxim exposure, with those of CYP302A1, CYP306A1, and CYP314A1 being elevated by 1.38-, 1.33-, and 2.10-fold, respectively. The CYP18A1 gene that participates in steroid hormone inactivation and the CYP15C1 gene that participates in the epoxidation during the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) from methyl farnesoate (MF) were increased by 3.85- and 7.82-fold, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these endogenous hormone metabolism-related genes belong to CYP mito clan and clan 2, and that phoxim exposure may affect silkworm development and metamorphosis. The CYP4, CYP6, and CYP9 families all showed some degrees of increases in gene expression; among them, CYP49A1, CYP4L6, CYP6AB4, CYP9G3, CYP9A19, and CYP9A22's transcription levels were significantly upregulated to 12.77-, 2.64-, 2.42-, 4.06-, 3.32-, and 2.98-fold, respectively, of the control levels. In the fat body, CYP49A1, CYP6AB4, CYP9A19, and CYP9A22 were constantly expressed at high levels after 24, 48, and 72?h of phoxim treatments; according to phylogenetic analysis, these genes belong to detoxification-related clan 3 and clan 4 CYP families. These genes may participate in the metabolism of phoxim in silkworm fat body. The results obtained in this study provide a basis for future in-depth investigations of insect P450 family genes in metabolic detoxification. PMID:26071814

  9. Identification of a novel strong and ubiquitous promoter/enhancer in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Suzuki, Takao K; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Kayukawa, Takumi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    Transgenic techniques offer a valuable tool for determining gene functions. Although various promoters are available for use in gene overexpression, gene knockdown, and identification of transgenic individuals, there is nevertheless a lack of versatile promoters for such studies, and this dearth acts as a bottleneck, especially with regard to nonmodel organisms. Here, we succeeded in identifying a novel strong and ubiquitous promoter/enhancer in the silkworm. We identified a unique silkworm strain whose reporter gene showed strong and ubiquitous expression during the establishment of enhancer trap strains. In this strain, the transposon was inserted into the 5'UTR of hsp90, a housekeeping gene that is abundantly expressed in a range of tissues. To determine whether the promoter/enhancer of hsp90 could be used to induce strong gene expression, a 2.9-kb upstream genomic fragment of hsp90 was isolated (hsp90(P2.9k)), and its transcriptional activation activity was examined. Strikingly, hsp90(P2.9k) induced strong gene expression in silkworm cell cultures and also strongly induced gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. hsp90(P2.9k) also exhibited significant promoter/enhancer activity in Sf9, a cell culture from the armyworm, suggesting that this fragment might possibly be used as a gene expression tool in other Lepidoptera. We further found that 2.0 kb of hsp90(P2.9k) is sufficient for the induction of strong gene expression. We believe that this element will be of value for a range of studies such as targeted gene overexpression, gene knockdown and marker gene expression, not only in the silkworm but also in other insect species. PMID:24875626

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein in silkworm related to virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the full-length cDNA of a peptidoglycan recognition protein named BmPGRP-S3 was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It is 807 bp and comprises the following: a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) with a length of 112 bp, a 3'-UTR with a length of 92 bp including a poly-adenylation signal sequence (AATAAA) and a poly(A) tail. The longest open reading frame (ORF) of BmPGRP-S3 is 603 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 22.3 kDa including a PGRP domain. Sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis results indicated that BmPGRP-S3 belongs to the group of insect PGRPs and is closer to BmPGRP-S4 with the highest identity of 68%. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the mRNA transcripts of BmPGRP-S3 were presented in all of the tissues, but were highest in the midgut. In the silkworm larvae infected with B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), the relative expression level of BmPGRP-S3 was upregulated. The DNA segment of a mature BmPGRP-S3 peptide was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. Western blot results revealed that mature BmPGRP-S3 could be detected in the hemolymph and midgut which were the most important immune tissues in silkworm. All the results suggested that BmPGRP-S3 may play an important role in the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection and provided helpful information for further studying the function of BmPGRP-S3 in silkworm. PMID:25218236

  11. Identification of a Novel Strong and Ubiquitous Promoter/Enhancer in the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Suzuki, Takao K; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Kayukawa, Takumi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic techniques offer a valuable tool for determining gene functions. Although various promoters are available for use in gene overexpression, gene knockdown, and identification of transgenic individuals, there is nevertheless a lack of versatile promoters for such studies, and this dearth acts as a bottleneck, especially with regard to nonmodel organisms. Here, we succeeded in identifying a novel strong and ubiquitous promoter/enhancer in the silkworm. We identified a unique silkworm strain whose reporter gene showed strong and ubiquitous expression during the establishment of enhancer trap strains. In this strain, the transposon was inserted into the 5?UTR of hsp90, a housekeeping gene that is abundantly expressed in a range of tissues. To determine whether the promoter/enhancer of hsp90 could be used to induce strong gene expression, a 2.9-kb upstream genomic fragment of hsp90 was isolated (hsp90P2.9k), and its transcriptional activation activity was examined. Strikingly, hsp90P2.9k induced strong gene expression in silkworm cell cultures and also strongly induced gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. hsp90P2.9k also exhibited significant promoter/enhancer activity in Sf9, a cell culture from the armyworm, suggesting that this fragment might possibly be used as a gene expression tool in other Lepidoptera. We further found that 2.0 kb of hsp90P2.9k is sufficient for the induction of strong gene expression. We believe that this element will be of value for a range of studies such as targeted gene overexpression, gene knockdown and marker gene expression, not only in the silkworm but also in other insect species. PMID:24875626

  12. Analysis of genetic relationship in mutant silkworm strains of Bombyx mori using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Velu, Dhanikachalam; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Muthulakshmi, Murugiah; Sinha, Randhir K; Qadri, Syed M H

    2008-05-01

    Amplified inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to determine genetic relationships among mutant silkworm strains of Bombyx mori. Fifteen ISSR primers containing simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were used in this study. A total of 113 markers were produced among 20 mutant strains, of which 73.45% were found to be polymorphic. In selected mutant genetic stocks, the average number of observed allele was (1.7080+/-0.4567), effective alleles (1.5194+/-0.3950) and genetic diversity (Ht) (0.2901+/-0.0415). The dendrogram produced using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) and cluster analysis made using Nei's genetic distance resulted in the formation of one major group containing 6 groups separated 20 mutant silkworm strains. Therefore, ISSR amplification is a valuable method for determining the genetic variability among mutant silkworm strains. This efficient molecular marker would be useful for characterizing a considerable number of silkworm strains maintained at the germplasm center. PMID:18499073

  13. A novel third chromosomal locus controls susceptibility to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Mon, Hiroaki; Li, Zhiqing; Zhu, Li; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Banno, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kaito; Lee, Jae Man

    2014-04-01

    Baculovirus demonstrates specific infection spectrums and thus one certain host exhibits particular response to single baculovirus isolate. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is considered to be not an innate pathogen to Bombyx mori, but some silkworm strains have been identified to be permissive to AcMNPV, indicating the positive or negative involvement of certain host factors in baculovirus replications in vivo. To provide a fundamental knowledge of this process, we performed large-scale screening to investigate the responses of 448 silkworm strains against recombinant AcMNPV inoculation. By genetic analysis between permissive and resistant strains identified, we further confirmed that a potential corresponding locus on chromosome 3 regulates host responses to AcMNPV in silkworm. Additionally, we found that it is available for AcMNPV-silkworm baculovirus expression vector system to produce proteins of interest. PMID:24337396

  14. Identification and synthesis of insect pheromone XXX. Sex pheromone of mulberry clearwing moth Paradoxecia pieli Lieu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Zhong-Xin; Lin Guo-Qiang; Liu Han-Quan; Pu Guan-Qin; Du He-Ming; Mao Jian-Pin; Meng Lian-Zhong; Wu Cai-Hong

    1992-01-01

    (E,Z)-3,13-OctadecadienyI acetate (1a) and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol(2a) were identified from the sex pheromone gland of the virgin female mulberry clearwing mothParadoxecia pieli L., by GC analysis, EAG, SCR survey, and field bioassay. One female equivalent contained 250 ng of1a and 30 ng of2a. In the field tests, 100µg of synthetic1a was attractive to male moths of the species.

  15. Identification and Expression Profiling of the BTB Domain-Containing Protein Gene Family in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yonghu; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    The BTB domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. In this study, we identified 56 BTB domain-containing protein genes in the silkworm, in addition to 46 in the honey bee, 55 in the red flour beetle, and 53 in the monarch butterfly. Silkworm BTB protein genes were classified into nine subfamilies according to their domain architecture, and most of them could be mapped on the different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that silkworm BTB protein genes may have undergone a duplication event in three subfamilies: BTB-BACK-Kelch, BTB-BACK-PHR, and BTB-FLYWCH. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the orthologs of each of 13 BTB protein genes present a rigorous orthologous relationship in the silkworm and other surveyed insects, indicating conserved functions of these genes during insect evolution. Furthermore, several silkworm BTB protein genes exhibited sex-specific expression in larval tissues or at different stages during metamorphosis. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of insect BTB protein gene families but also provide a basis for further investigation of the functions of BTB protein genes in the silkworm. PMID:24895545

  16. Fluorescence imaging for a noninvasive in vivo toxicity-test using a transgenic silkworm expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    In drug development, the toxicity of candidate chemicals must be carefully examined in an animal model. Here we developed a live imaging technique using silkworms for a noninvasive toxicity test applicable for drug screening. Injection of carbon tetrachloride, a tissue-injuring chemical, into transgenic silkworms expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced leakage of GFP from the tissues into the hemolymph. The leakage of GFP was suppressed by pre-administration of either cimetidine, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, or N-acetyl cysteine, a free-radical scavenger. The transgenic silkworm was made transparent by feeding a diet containing chemicals that inhibit uric acid deposition in the epithelial cells. In the transparent silkworms, GFP fluorescence in the fat body could be observed from outside the body. Injection of salicylic acid or iron sulfate, tissue-injuring chemicals, into the transparent silkworms decreased the fluorescence intensity of the GFP in the fat body. These findings suggest that the transparent GFP-expressing silkworm model is useful for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals that induce tissue injury. PMID:26061948

  17. Fluorescence imaging for a noninvasive in vivo toxicity-test using a transgenic silkworm expressing green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    In drug development, the toxicity of candidate chemicals must be carefully examined in an animal model. Here we developed a live imaging technique using silkworms for a noninvasive toxicity test applicable for drug screening. Injection of carbon tetrachloride, a tissue-injuring chemical, into transgenic silkworms expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced leakage of GFP from the tissues into the hemolymph. The leakage of GFP was suppressed by pre-administration of either cimetidine, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, or N-acetyl cysteine, a free-radical scavenger. The transgenic silkworm was made transparent by feeding a diet containing chemicals that inhibit uric acid deposition in the epithelial cells. In the transparent silkworms, GFP fluorescence in the fat body could be observed from outside the body. Injection of salicylic acid or iron sulfate, tissue-injuring chemicals, into the transparent silkworms decreased the fluorescence intensity of the GFP in the fat body. These findings suggest that the transparent GFP-expressing silkworm model is useful for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals that induce tissue injury. PMID:26061948

  18. Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) T. Suzuki acrotonic form, in which only a few upper buds grow out to form branches (Suzuki et al., 1988). In contrast, the majority of the buds of 1 yr old stems, including the basal buds, burst into growth almost simultaneously

  19. Integration of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and chemical elicitors for induction of systemic resistance in mulberry against multiple diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; Sidhartha Mishra; N. B. Chowdary; G. S. Vindhya; R. K. Rajan

    2008-01-01

    In mulberry (Morus alba L.), various individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and synthetic analogs of naturally occurring plant activators have demonstrated their potential to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against either brown leaf spot (Cercospora moricola) or leaf rust (Cerotelium fici) diseases. However, these biological and chemical elicitors have not been evaluated so far against multiple infections of

  20. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  1. Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruits protects pancreatic ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Park, Jun Myoung; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin?3?glucoside (C3G), isolated from mulberry fruits, on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of this compound. MIN6N pancreatic ??cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G. In addition, the effects of C3G on the glucotoxicity?induced apoptosis of pancreatic ??cells was evaluated using MTT assay, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometric and western blot analyses. The pancreatic ??cells cultured under high glucose conditions exhibited distinct apoptotic features. C3G decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptosis. C3G also prevented pancreatic ??cell apoptosis induced by high glucose conditions by interfering with the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, C3G treatment resulted in increased insulin secretion compared with treatment with high glucose only. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that C3G obtained from mulberry fruits may be a potential phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25501967

  2. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

  3. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Audomkasok, Suthin; Singpha, Waraporn; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Somsak, Voravuth

    2014-01-01

    Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000?mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:25485155

  4. Metabolic Effects of Mulberry Leaves: Exploring Potential Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Hunyadi, A.; Liktor-Busa, E.; Márki, Á.; Martins, A.; Jedlinszki, N.; Hsieh, T. J.; Báthori, M.; Hohmann, J.; Zupkó, I.

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

  5. Directly obtaining high strength silk fiber from silkworm by feeding carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ting; Li, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Meng-Yuan; Liu, Si-Lu; Jiang, Lin-Hai; Shen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    By feeding silkworm with the carbon nanotube, CNT, we directly obtained high strength silk fiber, SF, from silkworm. The CNT-based SF, SF/CNT, has a stress at 1.69GPa and a strain at about 24% both higher than those of the SF and are capable to compare with the super SF and even the spider fiber. Morphology comparison showed that the presence of CNT in SF caused the cross-section changed from triangle to ellipse. X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis indicated that the embedded CNT in SF caused an increase in silk-I structure. Specifically the amide-II structure reduced by about 5% and the amide-III structure increased by about 10%. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the presence of CNT in SF enhanced the thermal stability. Additionally, the presence of CNT in SF also enhanced the electrical property. PMID:24268277

  6. Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

  7. Mapping of major quantitative trait loci for economic traits of silkworm cocoon.

    PubMed

    Lie, Z; Cheng, L; Fang-yin, D; Shou-min, F

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cocoon traits in silkworms were mapped in 44 individuals of a backcross of Dazao females with hybrid F(1) males; the hybrid males were from females of inbred C(1)00 strain, which have white cocoons and superior cocoon traits, crossed with males of inbred strain Dazao, which have green cocoons and inferior cocoon traits. Nineteen putative major QTLs of silkworm cocoon traits, five QTLs of whole cocoon weight, four QTLs of cocoon shell weight, six QTLs of pupa weight, and four QTLs of cocoon shell rate were scattered across nine linkage groups. The variances explained by QTLs for whole cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, pupa weight, and cocoon shell rate were 51.0, 73.69, 51.80, and 59.52%, respectively. The numbers of major QTLs with contributions above 10% for these traits were two, three, two, and four, respectively. PMID:20092037

  8. Identification of a new protein from silkworm pupas by biological mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Qiong; Hu, Decong; Jiang, Liang; Xu, Huibi; Wang, Hongxia

    2005-01-01

    To find out the efficient peptide of selenium-rich silkworm pupas in inducing the apoptosis of hepatoma cells, selenium-containing proteins were isolated and characterized. One of the two major proteins in selenium-rich silkworm pupas was identified to be a new protein by peptide mass fingerprinting on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry. Amino acid sequences of peptides digested by trypsin from the new protein were determined by capillary liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - quadrupole/time of flight - mass spectrometry and searched with Mascot in NCBI database. Results showed that the six major peptides from the protein were also new peptides that could not be found in the database up to date. PMID:17281553

  9. Taming the Wild Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lystad, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Reviews "Where the Wild Things Are," by Maurice Sendak. Includes excerpts from the speech Sendak gave when he accepted the Caldecott Medal for "Wild Things" and commentaries by child development professionals. Briefly reviews other books written by Sendak. (RJC)

  10. Mechanical Properties of Regenerated Bombyx mori Silk Fibers and Recombinant Silk Fibers Produced by Transgenic Silkworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenghua Zhu; Yuka Kikuchi; Katsura Kojima; Toshiki Tamura; Nobuo Kuwabara; Takashi Nakamura; Tetsuo Asakura

    2010-01-01

    Regenerated silk fibroin fibers from the cocoons of silkworm, Bombyx mori, were prepared with hexafluoro solvents, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) or hexafluoroacetone-trihydrate (HFA), as dope solvents and methanol as coagulation solvent. The regenerated fiber prepared from the HFIP solution showed slightly larger tensile strength when the draw ratio is 1:3 than that of native silk fiber, but the strength of the regenerated

  11. Genetic variants of the Bombyx mori silkworm encoding sericin proteins of different lengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuma Gamo

    1982-01-01

    A variant sericin polypeptide originally found by acid gel electrophoresis in the Nd-s mutant strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been analyzed genetically. The vriant polypeptide (called S-2v) is encoded by a gene which behaves as a codominant allele of the gene encoding the standard S-2 sericin polypeptide. Linkage analysis locates these alleles at 0.0 map unit on chromosome

  12. Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Xiaolong; Xue Renyu; Cao Guangli; Zhang Xing; Zhang Yilin; Yu Xiaohua; Zhang Yuqing; Gong Chengliang

    To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm,\\u000a Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon\\u000a were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and\\u000a silk glands.

  13. Tensile behavior and morphology of differently degummed silkworm ( Bombyx mori) cocoon silk fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Jiang; Huifen Liu; Changhe Wang; Lingzhi Wu; Jianguo Huang; Cong Guo

    2006-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on silkworm cocoon silk fibres degummed using five different methods: distilled water, boracic acid–sodium borate buffer, sodium carbonate, urea and succinic acid. Using an electronic single-fibre tensile instron, the force–displacement curves were obtained for each condition. Effects of degumming on silk include a decrease in the initial elastic modulus and a decrease in the proportional

  14. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Q. Huang; H. P. Zhao; X. Q. Feng; W. Cui; Z. Lin; M. Q. Xu

    2008-01-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment.\\u000a In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon\\u000a being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical

  15. Transgenic silkworms ( Bombyx mori ) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongxiu Wen; Xiqian Lan; Yuansong Zhang; Tianfu Zhao; Yujun Wang; Zenta Kajiura; Masao Nakagaki

    2010-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation\\u000a of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by

  16. A new continuous cell line from larval ovaries of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun M. Khurad; Min-Juan Zhang; Chanchal G. Deshmukh; Ravindra S. Bahekar; Ashish D. Tiple; Chuan-Xi Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new continuous cell line from ovarian tissue of commercial variety “Kolar Gold” of silkworm, Bombyx mori, was established and designated as DZNU-Bm-12. The tissue was grown in MGM-448 insect cell culture medium supplemented with\\u000a 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 3% heat-inactivated B. mori hemolymph at 25?±?1°C. The migration of partially attached small round refractive cells from the fragments

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of three new microsporidian isolates from the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nageswara Rao; M. Muthulakshmi; S. Kanginakudru; J. Nagarajua

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenicity, mode of transmission, tissue specificity of infection and the small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequences of the three new microsporidian isolates from the silkworm Bombyx mori were studied. Out of the three, NIK-2r revealed life cycle features and SSU-rRNA gene sequence similar to Nosema bombycis, suggesting that it is N. bombycis. The other two, NIK-4m and NIK-3h, differed

  18. Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

  19. Expression pattern of immunoglobulin superfamily members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-09-15

    Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins are involved in cell adhesion, cell communication and immune functions. In this study, 152 IgSF genes containing at least one immunoglobulin (Ig) domain were predicted in the Bombyx mori silkworm genome. Of these, 145 were distributed on 25 chromosomes with no genes on chromosomes 16, 18 and 26. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic evolution analysis indicated that IgSFs evolved rapidly. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that IgSF members functioned as cellular components and in molecular functions and biological processes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis suggested that IgSF proteins were involved in signal transduction, signaling molecules and interaction, and cell communication. Microarray-based expression data showed tissue expression for 136 genes in anterior silkgland, middle silkgland, posterior silkgland, testis, ovary, fat body, midgut, integument, hemocyte, malpighian tubule and head. Expression pattern of IgSF genes in the silkworm ovary and midgut was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Expression of 105 genes was detected in the ovary in strain Dazao. Expression in the midgut was detected for 74 genes in strain Lan5 and 75 genes in strain Ou17. Expression of 34 IgSF genes in the midgut relative to the actin A3 gene was significantly different between strains Lan5 and Ou17. Furthermore, 1 IgSF gene was upregulated and 1 IgSF gene was downregulated in strain Lan5, and 4 IgSF genes were upregulated and 2 IgSF genes were downregulated in strain Ou17 after silkworms were challenged with B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV), indicating potential involvement in the response to BmCPV-infection. These results provide an overview of IgSF family members in silkworms, and lay the foundation for further functional studies. PMID:25020261

  20. Cloning and purification of recombinant silkworm dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Huo; Haifeng Shi; Qin Yao; Huiqin Chen; Lin Wang; Keping Chen

    2010-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH), a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase is essential for energy metabolism. As an oxidoreductase it catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of dihydrolipoamide. In this study, a putative Bombyx mori dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (BmDLDH) gene was cloned, expressed, purified and characterized for the first time. The BmDLDH gene was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli

  1. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) to Infection by the Microsporidian Nosema bombycis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guoqing; Li, Zhihong; Han, Bing; Xu, Jinshan; Lan, Xiqian; Chen, Jie; Yang, Donglin; Chen, Quanmei; Sang, Qi; Ji, Xiaocun; Li, Tian; Long, Mengxian; Zhou, Zeyang

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia have attracted much attention because they infect a variety of species ranging from protists to mammals, including immunocompromised patients with AIDS or cancer. Aside from the study on Nosema ceranae, few works have focused on elucidating the mechanism in host response to microsporidia infection. Nosema bombycis is a pathogen of silkworm pébrine that causes great economic losses to the silkworm industry. Detailed understanding of the host (Bombyx mori) response to infection by N. bombycis is helpful for prevention of this disease. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by N. bombycis was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, B. mori genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, N. bombycis can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. N. bombycis also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of N. bombycis-specific response factors suggested their important roles in anti-microsporidia defense. Overall, this study primarily provides insight into the potential molecular mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction between B. mori and N. bombycis and may provide a foundation for further work on host-parasite interaction between insects and microsporidia. PMID:24386341

  2. MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiping Liu; Liang Zhang; Qibin Li; Ping Zhao; Jun Duan; Daojun Cheng; Zhonghuai Xiang; Qingyou Xia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA

  3. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  4. Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xiaolong, Hu; Renyu, Xue; Guangli, Cao; Xing, Zhang; Yilin, Zhang; Xiaohua, Yu; Yuqing, Zhang; Chengliang, Gong

    2012-02-01

    To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm, Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and silk glands. The different fluorescent colors of cocoons between the male and female may be mainly caused by the difference of accumulation and transportation for fluorescent pigments in the midgut and in the silk glands. Furthermore the midgut proteins were separated with Native-PAGE, and the proteins respectively recovered from three fluorescent regions presenting on a Native-PAGE gel for the female silkworms were determined using shotgun proteomics and mass spectrometry sequencing, of which 60, 40 and 18 proteins respectively from the region 1, 2 and 3 were identified. It was found that the several kinds of low molecular mass 30 kDa lipoproteins and the actins could be detected in all three regions, troponin, 30 kDa lipoprotein and 27 kDa glycoprotein precursor could be detected in the region 2 and 3, suggesting these proteins may be fluorescent pigments binding candidates proteins. Analysis of gene ontology indicated that the identified proteins in the three regions linked to the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. These results provide a new clew to understand the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm. PMID:21604173

  5. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  6. Efficient silkworm expression of human GPCR (nociceptin receptor) by a Bombyx mori bacmid DNA system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Mizuho; Sasaki, Kaori [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Wakimoto, Yoshitaro; Toyooka, Masaru [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Motohashi, Tomoko; Shimojima, Tsukasa [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan)] [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Takeda, Shigeki [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Maenaka, Katsumi, E-mail: kmaenaka-umin@umin.net [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2009-07-31

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (G{sub i}{alpha}) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [{sup 35}S]GTP{gamma}S-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.

  7. Roles of Piwi Proteins in Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by HP1s in Cultured Silkworm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhiqing; Mitsunobu, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Kaito; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Piwi proteins are part of a superfamily of Argonaute proteins, which are one of the core components of the RNA silencing pathway in many eukaryotes. Piwi proteins are thought to repress the transposon expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster Piwi was recently reported to associate with chromatin and to interact directly with the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a). However, similar interactions have not been reported in other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that silkworm Piwi proteins interact with HP1s in the nucleus. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has two Piwi proteins, Ago3 and Siwi, and two typical HP1 proteins, HP1a and HP1b. We found that HP1a plays an important role in the interaction between Ago3/Siwi and HP1b in the ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We also found that Ago3/Siwi regulates the transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. These results suggest that silkworm Piwi proteins function as a chromatin regulator in collaboration with HP1a and HP1b. PMID:24637637

  8. Recombinant canine parvovirus-like particles express foreign epitopes in silkworm pupae.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao; Liang, Meng; Wang, Hua-lei; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Ping-sen; Shen, Xing-jia; Zhang, Ren-zhou; Hu, Gui-qiu; Gao, Yu-qei; Wang, Cheng-yu; Wang, Tie-cheng; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Song-tao; Xia, Xian-zhu

    2011-12-29

    The capsid structural protein VP2 of canine parvovirus (CPV) can self-assemble into highly organized virus-like particles (VLPs) and retain major immunoreactivity. In this study, different recombinant baculoviruses that expressed varying fusion proteins of the CPV VP2 protein with the T cell determinant and/or the linear virus-neutralizing epitope of rabies virus (RV) were generated. Infection with these baculoviruses changed BmN cell morphology and inhibited their proliferation as well as damaged silkworms and pupae. However, infection with these baculoviruses induced high levels of recombinant protein expression in silkworms and pupae. More importantly, these fusion proteins self-assembled VLPs with properties similar to CPV virions and retained their VP2-specific immunoreactivity, but some retained their RV-specific immunoreactivity. Interestingly, only one fusion protein, T-VP2, maintained its haemagglutination activity. These data indicated that these insertions and replacements in the loop 2 of VP2 did not interfere with the formation of VLP, and silkworms and pupae could act as a low-costing bioreactor for the production of heterologous proteins. Therefore, our findings may provide a new framework for the development of subunit vaccines against RV and CPV. PMID:21782359

  9. Primed Immune Responses Triggered by Ingested Bacteria Lead to Systemic Infection Tolerance in Silkworms

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Takahashi, Shinji; Ishii, Kenichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether microorganisms collaterally ingested by insects with their food activate the innate immune system to confer systemic resistance against subsequent bacterial invasion. Silkworms orally administered heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells showed resistance against intra-hemolymph infection by P. aeruginosa. Oral administration of peptidoglycans, cell wall components of P. aeruginosa, conferred protective effects against P. aeruginosa infection, whereas oral administration of lipopolysaccharides, bacterial surface components, did not. In silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells, P. aeruginosa growth was inhibited in the hemolymph, and mRNA amounts of the antimicrobial peptides cecropin A and moricin were increased in the hemocytes and fat body. Furthermore, the amount of paralytic peptide, an insect cytokine that activates innate immune reactions, was increased in the hemolymph of silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells. These findings suggest that insects sense bacteria present in their food by peptidoglycan recognition, which activates systemic immune reactions to defend the insects against a second round of infection. PMID:26107254

  10. Stable isotope labeling of glycoprotein expressed in silkworms using immunoglobulin G as a test molecule.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Yokoyama, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kondo, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y; Nakazawa, Shiori; Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana; Kato, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Silkworms serve as promising bioreactors for the production of recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins and membrane proteins, for structural and functional protein analyses. However, lack of methodology for stable isotope labeling has been a major deterrent to using this expression system for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural biology. Here we developed a metabolic isotope labeling technique using commercially available silkworm larvae. The fifth instar larvae were infected with baculoviruses for co-expression of recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a test molecule, with calnexin as a chaperone. They were subsequently reared on an artificial diet containing (15)N-labeled yeast crude protein extract. We harvested 0.1 mg of IgG from larva with a (15)N-enrichment ratio of approximately 80 %. This allowed us to compare NMR spectral data of the Fc fragment cleaved from the silkworm-produced IgG with those of an authentic Fc glycoprotein derived from mammalian cells. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated that our method enables production of isotopically labeled glycoproteins for NMR studies. PMID:25902760

  11. Wild Berries in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Himelrick

    2001-01-01

    Finland abounds with wild berries. The annual harvest of wild berries in Finland has been estimated at more than 50 million kilograms (110 million lb)-more than ten kilograms (22 lb) per Finn. Approximately 50 different species can be found in Finland in all kinds of environments from rocky seashores to swamps and forests. Of all the different species of wild

  12. CONSERVATION NOTES WILD CHICKENS

    E-print Network

    ^-^ CONSERVATION NOTES AMERICA'S WILD CHICKENS Most natural environments in the United States once had at least one kind of Nature's wild chickens, the upland game birds. Just as there are many kinds, wild turkey, and chachalaca. Like domestic chickens they are ground dwellers. They scratch chickenlike

  13. In vivo hypoglycaemic effect and inhibitory mechanism of the branch bark extract of the mulberry on STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  14. Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

    2010-04-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

  15. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  16. Silkworm eggs: An ideal model for studying the biological effects of low energy Ar + ion interaction in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Lin; Liu, Xuelan; Xu, Jiaping; You, Zhengying; Zhou, Jingbo

    2011-09-01

    The object of the current work was to study low energy Ar + ion beam interactions with silkworm eggs and thus provide further understanding of the mechanisms involved in ion bombardment-induced direct gene transfer into silkworm eggs. In this paper, using low-energy Ar + ion beam bombardment combined with piggyBac transposon, we developed a novel method to induce gene transfer in silkworm. Using bombardment conditions optimized for egg-incubation (25 keV with ion fluences of 800 × 2.6 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 in dry state under vacuum), vector pBac{3 × P3-EGFPaf} and helper plasmid pHA3pig were successfully transferred into the silkworm eggs. Our results obtained from by PCR assay and genomic Southern blotting analysis of the G1 generations provide evidence that low-energy ion beam can generate some craters that play a role in acting as pathways of exogenous DNA molecules into silkworm eggs.

  17. A Review of the Implications of Heterozygosity and Inbreeding on Germplasm Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Jingade, A.H.; Vijayan, K.; Somasundaram, P.; Srivasababu, G.K.; Kamble, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Silkworm genebanks assume paramount importance as the reservoirs of biodiversity and source of alleles that can be easily retrieved for genetic enhancement of popular breeds. More than 4000 Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) strains are currently available and these strains are maintained through continuous sibling mating. This repeated sibling mating makes the populations of each strain more homozygous, but leads to loss of unique and valuable genes through the process of inbreeding depression. Hence, it is essential to maintain a minimal degree of heterozygosity within the population of each silkworm strain, especially in the traditional geographic strains, to avoid such loss. As a result, accurate estimation of genetic diversity is becoming more important in silkworm genetic resources conservation. Application of molecular markers help estimate genetic diversity much more accurately than that of morphological traits. Since a minimal amount of heterozygosity in each silkworm strain is essential for better conservation by avoiding inbreeding depression, this article overviews both theoretical and practical importance of heterozygosity together with impacts of inbreeding depression and the merits and demerits of neutral molecular markers for measurements of both heterozygosity and inbreeding depression in the silkworm Bombyx mori. PMID:21521139

  18. A review of the implications of heterozygosity and inbreeding on germplasm biodiversity and its conservation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Jingade, A H; Vijayan, K; Somasundaram, P; Srivasababu, G K; Kamble, C K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Silkworm genebanks assume paramount importance as the reservoirs of biodiversity and source of alleles that can be easily retrieved for genetic enhancement of popular breeds. More than 4000 Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) strains are currently available and these strains are maintained through continuous sibling mating. This repeated sibling mating makes the populations of each strain more homozygous, but leads to loss of unique and valuable genes through the process of inbreeding depression. Hence, it is essential to maintain a minimal degree of heterozygosity within the population of each silkworm strain, especially in the traditional geographic strains, to avoid such loss. As a result, accurate estimation of genetic diversity is becoming more important in silkworm genetic resources conservation. Application of molecular markers help estimate genetic diversity much more accurately than that of morphological traits. Since a minimal amount of heterozygosity in each silkworm strain is essential for better conservation by avoiding inbreeding depression, this article overviews both theoretical and practical importance of heterozygosity together with impacts of inbreeding depression and the merits and demerits of neutral molecular markers for measurements of both heterozygosity and inbreeding depression in the silkworm Bombyx mori. PMID:21521139

  19. Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Ikuko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was examined in the diet-induced obese mouse model. Mulberry DNJ was administered to the obese mice for 12 weeks. As a result, DNJ decreased both the visceral fat weight and adipocyte size. To determine the influence of DNJ on lipid metabolism, lipid parameters of the plasma and the liver and the activities of several molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver were measured. DNJ activated the ?-oxidation system, suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced plasma triacylglycerol. Since it was thought that the factor activated in the ?-oxidation system was adiponectin, plasma adiponectin levels were measured and it was shown that plasma adiponectin was increased with DNJ. Therefore, it was suggested that DNJ promoted an increase in plasma adiponectin and activated the ?-oxidation system. Overall, it was shown that DNJ prevents diet-induced obesity through an increase in adiponectin. PMID:23561072

  20. Cyanidin-3-glucoside isolated from mulberry fruit protects pancreatic ?-cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam-In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2015-02-01

    The extract obtained from berries contains high amounts of anthocyanins, and this extract is used as a phytotherapeutic agent for different types of diseases. In this study, we examined the cytoprotective effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) isolated from mulberry fruit against pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. The MIN6 pancreatic ?-cells were used to investigate the cytoprotective effects of C3G on the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of cells. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and lipid peroxidation was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis were also used to determine apoptosis and the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis. Our results revealed that H2O2 increased the rate of apoptosis by stimulating various pro-apoptotic processes, such as the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. However, C3G reduced the H2O2-induced cell death in the MIN6N pancreatic ?-cells. In addition, we confirmed that H2O2 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. C3G inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 without inducing the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, C3G regulated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway-associated proteins, such as proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family, cytochrome c and caspase-3. Taken together, our results suggest that C3G isolated from mulberry fruit has potential for use as a phytotherapeutic agent for the prevention of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress-induced ?-cell apoptosis. PMID:25435295

  1. A homolog of the human Hermansky-Pudluck syndrome-5 (HPS5) gene is responsible for the oa larval translucent mutants in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Banno, Y; Abe, H; Katsuma, S; Shimada, T

    2012-12-01

    Normally, many granules containing uric acid accumulate in the larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. These uric acid granules cause the wild-type larval integument to be white or opaque, and the absence of these granules results in a translucent integument. Although about 30 B. mori loci governing larval translucency have been mapped, most have not been molecularly identified yet. Here, based on a structural analysis of a deletion of chromosome 14 that included the oa (aojyuku translucent) locus, we concluded that the BmHPS5 encoding a Bombyx homolog of the HPS5 subunit of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 is the candidate for the oa locus. Nucleotide sequence analyses of cDNAs and genomic DNAs in three mutant strains, each of which were homozygous for the respective allele of the oa locus (oa, oa ( 2 ), and oa ( v )), revealed that each mutant strain has a frame shift or a premature stop codon (caused by deletion or nonsense mutation, respectively) in the BmHPS5 gene. Our findings indicate that some genes that cause the translucent phenotype in Bombyx, some HPS-associated genes in humans, and some genes that cause mutant eye color phenotypes in Drosophila are homologous and participate in an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that leads to biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. PMID:23250771

  2. Regeneration of the femoral epicondyle on calcium-binding silk scaffolds developed using transgenic silk fibroin produced by transgenic silkworm.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Aya; Tanioka, Yumi; Sakurai, Nobuko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kuboyama, Noboru; Kiba, Hideo; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2011-03-01

    Genetically modified silk fibroin containing a poly-glutamic acid site, [(AGSGAG)4E8AS]4, for mineralization was produced as fibers by transgenic silkworms through systematic transformation of the silkworms. The Ca binding activity and mineralization of the transgenic silk fibroin were examined in vitro, showing that this transgenic silk fibroin had relatively high Ca binding activity compared with native silk fibroin. Porous silk scaffolds were prepared with the transgenic and native silk fibroins. Healing of femoral epicondyle defects in rabbit femurs treated with the scaffolds was examined by observing changes in images of the defects using micro-computed tomography. Earlier mineralization and bone formation were observed with scaffolds of transgenic silk fibroin compared with those of native silk fibroin. Thus, this study shows the feasibility of using genetically modified silk fibroin from transgenic silkworms as a mineralization-accelerating material for bone repair. PMID:21055485

  3. Transposable elements in commercially useful insects: I. Southern hybridization study of silkworms and honeybees using Drosophila probes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Okumura, T; Ninaki, O; Kidwell, M G; Suzuki, K

    1993-02-01

    As a first step in surveying transposable elements in silkworms and honeybees, hybridization analyses were carried out using 16 known families of Drosophila transposable elements as probes. jockey and G were the only transposable elements that hybridized with genomic DNA of either honeybees or silkworms under the conditions of this study. jockey hybridized with genomic DNA of both European honeybees (Apis mellifera) and silkworms (Bombyx mori and Antheraea yamamai) and showed significant bands in Southern blots. Banding patterns were highly polymorphic. jockey did not, however, hybridize with any strains of the Asian honeybee (A. cerana). G elements showed a faint signal with the Asian honeybee, but not with any other insects tested. The results suggest that, even though it has some limitations, this approach can be used in practice as a first preliminary step in surveys for the presence of transposable elements in organisms which do not have good genetic information. PMID:8391286

  4. Differentially expressed genes in the cuticle and hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, injected with the fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Qin, Guang-Xing; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xing-Lin; Li, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The most important pathogenic fungus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli ) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which causes significant damage to sericulture production. Therefore, diagnosing fungal disease and developing new control measures are crucial to silk production. To better understand the responsive and interactive mechanisms between the host silkworm and this fungus, variations in silkworm gene expression were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method following the injection of B. bassiana conidia. Two cDNA libraries were constructed, and 140 cDNA clones were isolated. Of the 50 differentially expressed genes identified, 45 (112 clones) were identified in the forward library, and 5 (28 clones) were identified in the reverse library. Expression profiling of six of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) verified that they were induced by the fungal challenge. The present study provides insight into the interaction between lepidopteran insects and pathogenic fungi. PMID:24794288

  5. GC/MS-based metabolomic studies reveal key roles of glycine in regulating silk synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinjie; Xiong, Ying; Xu, Guowang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic profiling of silkworm, especially the factors that affect silk synthesis at the metabolic level, is little known. Herein, metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to identify key metabolic changes in silk synthesis deficient silkworms. Forty-six differential metabolites were identified in Nd group with the defect of silk synthesis. Significant changes in the levels of glycine and uric acid (up-regulation), carbohydrates and free fatty acids (down-regulation) were observed. The further metabolomics of silk synthesis deficient silkworms by decreasing silk proteins synthesis using knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene or extirpating silk glands operation showed that the changes of the metabolites were almost consistent with those of the Nd group. Furthermore, the increased silk yields by supplying more glycine or its related metabolite confirmed that glycine is a key metabolite to regulate silk synthesis. These findings provide important insights into the regulation between metabolic profiling and silk synthesis. PMID:25533535

  6. Reducing blood glucose level in TIDM mice by orally administering the silk glands of transgenic hIGF-I silkworms.

    PubMed

    Cong, Liang; Cao, Guangli; Renyu, Xue; Zhonghua, Pan; Xiaojian, Zheng; Zhou, Wenlin; Gong, Chengliang

    2011-07-15

    To realize the secretory expression of human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I) in the posterior silk glands (PSGs) of transgenic silkworms, the piggyBac transposon vector pigA3GFP-fibHS-hIGF-i.e.-neo containing a neomycin-resistance gene (neo), green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) and human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) gene controlled by the Bombyxmori fibroin heavy chain gene (fib-H) promoter with its downstream signal peptide sequence, and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the B. mori actin 3 gene (A3) promoter were transferred into silkworm eggs by sperm-mediated gene transfer. Transformed silkworms were obtained after being screened for green fluorescence and by the antibiotic G418. In the PSGs of the transformed silkworms, a specific band representing hIGF-I could be detected by Western blotting, and the content of the hIGF-I estimated by ELISA was approximately 1.84 ?g/gram of cocoon and 19.18 ?g/gram of freeze-dried PSG powder. To further estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered with the PSG powder of the transgenic silkworms, the results showed the blood glucose levels of mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the the PSGs powder of transgenic hIGF-I silkworms could possibly be used as a perorally administered medicine. PMID:21672515

  7. HPLC-MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.

    PubMed

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-15

    Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC-MS(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450-568 mgkg(-1) FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mgkg(-1) FW of total: chokeberry (267mgkg(-1)), eastern shadbush (261 mgkg(-1)), wild grown blackberry (260 mgkg(-1)), rowanberry (232 mgkg(-1)), american cranberry (213 mgkg(-1)) and blackcurrants (204 mgkg(-1)). Strawberry (10.5 mgkg(-1)) and white currants (4.5 mgkg(-1)) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46-100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50-62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49-66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and Vaccinium genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one. PMID:22980782

  8. Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease.

    PubMed

    Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants. PMID:24946736

  9. Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, P.-Y.; Lin, K.-H.; Chiu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Huang, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-?-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR ? DNA binding in 50??g/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation. PMID:24371453

  10. A hevein-like protein and a class I chitinase with antifungal activity from leaves of the paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Pan, Ying-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Wen-Xia

    2011-08-01

    Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, syn. Morus papyrifera L.) is a Chinese traditional medicine and its low-molecular-weight extracts are reported to have antifungal activity. In this study, two proteins (PMAPI and PMAPII) with activity against Trichoderma viride were obtained from paper mulberry leaves with a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) unit. The purification protocol employed (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography on FPLC. Molecular masses were 18,798?Da for PMAPI, and 31,178?Da for PMAPII determined by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping fingerprint analysis showed that PMAPI has no peptides similar to PMAPII. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that PMAPI is a hevein-like protein, and PMAPII is a class I chitinase. They both had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1?µg/µL against T. viride. This is the first report of high-molecular-weight extracts with antifungal activity from paper mulberry. PMID:21268047

  11. Fine mapping of E(kp)-1, a locus associated with silkworm (Bombyx mori) proleg development.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; Li, M; Yang, F; Guo, Q; Zhan, S; Lin, H; Miao, X; Huang, Y

    2008-05-01

    The silkworm homeotic mutant E(kp) has a pair of rudimentary abdominal legs, called prolegs, in its A2 segment. This phenotype is caused by a single dominant mutation at the E(kp)-1 locus, which was previously mapped to chromosome 6. To explore the possible association of Hox genes with proleg development in the silkworm, a map-based cloning strategy was used to isolate the E(kp)-1 locus. Five E(kp)-1-linked simple sequence repeat markers on chromosome 6 were used to generate a low-resolution map with a total genetic distance of 39.5 cM. Four additional cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were developed based on the initial map. The closest marker to E(kp)-1 was at a genetic distance of 2.7 cM. A high-resolution genetic map was constructed using nine BC1 segregating populations consisting of 2396 individuals. Recombination suppression was observed in the vicinity of E(kp)-1. Four molecular markers were tightly linked to E(kp)-1, and three were clustered with it. These markers were used to screen a BAC library. A single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone spanning the E(kp)-1 locus was identified, and E(kp)-1 was delimited to a region less than 220 kb long that included the Hox gene abdominal-A and a non-coding locus, iab-4. These results provide essential information for the isolation of this locus, which may shed light on the mechanism of proleg development in the silkworm and possibly in Lepidoptera. PMID:18364737

  12. Systematic cloning and analysis of autophagy-related genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Zhan-Ying; Li, Wei-Fang; Li, Qing-Rong; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Wan-Ying; Cao, Yang; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Background Through the whole life of eukaryotes, autophagy plays an important role in various biological events including development, differentiation and determination of lifespan. A full set of genes and their encoded proteins of this evolutionarily conserved pathway have been identified in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to mammals. However, this pathway in the insect model organism, the silkworm Bombyx mori, remains poorly investigated. Results Based on the autophagy pathway in several model organisms and a series of bioinformatic analyses, we have found more than 20 autophagy-related genes from the current database of the silkworm Bombyx mori. These genes could be further classified into the signal transduction pathway and two ubiquitin-like pathways. Using the mRNA extracted from the silkgland, we cloned the full length cDNA fragments of some key genes via reverse transcription PCR and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). In addition, we found that the transcription levels of two indicator genes BmATG8 and BmATG12 in the silkgland tend to be increased from 1st to 8th day of the fifth instar larvae. Conclusion Bioinformatics in combination with RT-PCR enable us to remodel a preliminary pathway of autophagy in the silkworm. Amplification and cloning of most autophagy-related genes from the silkgland indicated autophagy is indeed an activated process. Furthermore, the time-course transcriptional profiles of BmATG8 and BmATG12 revealed that both genes are up-regulated along the maturation of the silkgland during the fifth instar. These findings suggest that the autophagy should play an important role in Bombyx mori silkgland. PMID:19470186

  13. Molecular size of the diapause hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kubota, I; Isobe, M; Goto, T; Hasegawa, K

    1976-01-01

    The diapause hormone (DH) responsible for arrested development of the silkworm Bombix mori consists of two active principles of peptide (A and B). Since both hormones form aggregates in aqueous phases, the molecular weights were determined by gel permeation chromatography of Merckogel OR 6000 using methanol-dichloromethane mixture as the developing agent. Gramicidins and modified peptides soluble in the organic solvents were used as the standard markers for the molecular weight measurements of the hormones. The molecular weights of DH-A and -B are estimated to be 3300 +/- 400 and 2000 +/- 200, respectively. PMID:134554

  14. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ? 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ? 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  15. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ? 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ? 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  16. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  17. Integrated management of the uzi fly, Exorista bombycis (Louis) (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradip Kumar; D. Manjunath; K. Sathya Prasad; Ram Kishore; Vinod Kumar; R. K. Datta

    1993-01-01

    Exorista bombycis (Louis), known as uzi fly, causes considerable damage to silkworm rearings in several silkproducing countries including India. Various control measures have been adopted by farmers to control uzi fly. Although these measures help to reduce uzi infestation, the economic loss is not completely avoided. We therefore undertook an IPM programme involving spraying of an insecticide (a liquid formulation

  18. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  19. Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupesh Dash; Soumen Mukherjee; S. C. Kundu

    2006-01-01

    A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and ?-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified

  20. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus, and densovirus infecting silkworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ravikumar; S. Raje Urs; N. B. Vijaya Prakash; C. G. P. Rao; K. V. Vardhana

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel PCR-based assay for individual and simultaneous detection of three major pathogens (microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and densovirus (DNV)) infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Multiplex PCR, using three primer pairs, two of which were designed from the conserved regions of 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of microsporidians, and polyhedrin gene of NPVs respectively, and a third

  1. Biological relevance of host plant-derived terpenoid in the cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Bindu; P. Jaisankar; F. Hauer; H. O. Gutzeit; S. C. Kundu

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized and studied the biological functions of a terpenoid derivative in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta reared on the primary host plant Arjun, Terminalia arjuna. The compound from insect cocoon turned out to be a terpenoid derivative which resembled oleanane type triterpene (Arjunolic acid) present in the host plant. The plant and cocoon compounds were anti-oxidative

  2. Overexpression of recombinant infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsid protein VP2 in the middle silk gland of transgenic silkworm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Song, Chunnuan; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease affecting young chickens and causes serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Development of subunit vaccine using its major caspid protein, VP2, is one of the promising strategies to protect against IBDV. This study aim to test the feasibility of using silkworm to produce recombinant VP2 protein (rVP2) derived from a very virulent strain of IBDV (vvIBDV). A total of 16 transgenic silkworm lines harboring a codon-optimized VP2 gene driven by the sericin1 promoter were generated and analyzed. The results showed that the rVP2 was synthesized in the middle silk gland of all lines and secreted into their cocoons. The content of rVP2 in the cocoon of each line was ranged from 0.07 to 16.10 % of the total soluble proteins. The rVP2 was purified from 30 g cocoon powders with a yield of 3.33 mg and a purity >90 %. Further analysis indicated that the rVP2 was able to tolerate high temperatures up to 80 °C, and exhibited specific immunogenic activity in mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of overexpressing rVP2 in the middle silk gland of transgenic silkworm, which demonstrates the capability of silkworm as an efficient tool to produce recombinant immunogens for use in new vaccines against animal diseases. PMID:25106848

  3. Effects of BmKIT3R gene transfer on the development and survival of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Xie, Min; Zhang, Xing; Yu, Xiaohua; Gong, Chengliang

    2011-12-01

    To verify the effects of gain-of-function mutation of the BmKIT3(R) gene (from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch) on the development and survival rate of insects and to explore a novel strategy for pest control, the effects of BmKIT3(R) gene transfer on the development and survival rate of silkworms were investigated. A novel transgenic vector derived from the piggyBac transposon with the BmKIT3(R) gene controlled by the Bmhsp20.4 promoter was transferred into silkworm eggs. Transgenic silkworms were obtained after screening with GFP and G418 antibiotics and verification by PCR and dot hybridization. The results showed that the oviposition number decreased by 18.9%, and the hatching and final survival rates were approximately 63% and 47.5%, respectively. Some 18.9% of surviving pupae died before developing into moths in the G3 generation. A specific band corresponding to BmKIT3(R) was detected for transgenic silkworms by Western blotting. This indicates that the Bmhsp 20.4 promoter has constitutive expression activity. The significant decrease in the survival rate suggests that pest population numbers could be effectively controlled by using BmKIT3(R) gene transfer. Furthermore, it can be speculated that pupal development to moths could be blocked if BmKIT3(R) were specially expressed in the pupal stage and reeling with fresh cocoons was performed. PMID:21890407

  4. Comparison of multilocus RFLPs and PCR-based marker systems for genetic analysis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, J; Reddy, K D; Nagaraja, G M; Sethuraman, B N

    2001-05-01

    The utility of multilocus RFLPs and three PCR-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat-PCR (ISSR-PCR) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) for genetic characterization was examined using 13 diverse silkworm strains. All four approaches successfully discriminated the 13 silkworm varieties but differed in the amount of polymorphism detected. The usefulness of each system was examined in terms of number of loci revealed (effective multiplex ratio, EMR) and the amount of polymorphism detected (diversity index, DI). For example, the six multilocus RFLP probes produced 180 products of which 97% were polymorphic; 15 SSR loci gave rise to an average of 8 alleles each, of which 86% were polymorphic. The ISSR-PCR produced 39 fragments of which 76.98% were polymorphic. The highest diversity index was observed for ISSR-PCR (0.957) and the lowest for RAPDs (0.744). The RAPD, ISSR-PCR and RFLP assays clearly separated the diapausing and non-diapausing silkworm varieties. These results are discussed in terms of choice of appropriate marker technology for different aspects of silkworm genome analysis. PMID:11554975

  5. Genetic mapping of Z chromosome and identification of W chromosome-specific markers in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, G M; Mahesh, G; Satish, V; Madhu, M; Muthulakshmi, M; Nagaraju, J

    2005-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the female is the heterogametic (ZW) sex and the male is homogametic (ZZ). The female heterogamety is a typical situation in the insect order Lepidoptera. Although the W chromosome in silkworm is strongly female determining, no W-linked gene for a morphological character has been found on it. The Z chromosome carries important traits of economic value as well as genes for various phenotypic traits, but only 2% of molecular information based on its relative size is known. Studies conducted so far indicate that the Z-linked genes are not dosage compensated. In the present study, we constructed a genetic map of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and fluorescent intersimple sequence repeat PCR (FISSR) markers for the Z chromosome using a backcross mapping population. A total of 16 Z-linked markers were identified, characterized, and mapped using od, a recessive trait for translucent skin as an anchor marker yielding a total recombination map of 334.5 cM. The linkage distances obtained suggested that the markers were distributed throughout the Z chromosome. Four RAPD and four SSR markers that were linked to W chromosome were also identified. The proposed mapping approach should be useful to identify and map sex-linked traits in the silkworm. The economic and evolutionary significance of Z- and W-linked genes in silkworm, in particular, and lepidopterans, in general, is discussed. PMID:15931240

  6. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

    2007-04-20

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

  7. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  8. Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

    2012-01-01

    The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

  9. PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

    In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “¿?brain hormone”

  10. A Wild Pony of Assateague

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A wild pony on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  11. Wild Ponies on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  12. Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Wild buckwheat

    E-print Network

    Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Wild buckwheat Polygonum convolvulus L. Life cycle Twining summer. Wild buckwheat plant. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Polygonaceae (Smartweed family, dull black, three-sided fruit. Reproduction Seeds. Wild buckwheat flowers. Similar weeds Mile

  13. Characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin family genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori in response to phoxim and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Ze; Jia, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Kun; An, Dong-Xu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Bao-Long; Yin, He-Nan

    2014-09-01

    The organophosphorus pesticide poisoning of the silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the major events causing serious damage to sericulture. Some antioxidant enzymes play roles in regulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pesticides including phoxim and chlorpyrifos, but relatively little is known about their effects on the silkworm peroxiredoxin family genes. Here, five peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes have been identified in silkworm genome, and Prx genes of silkworm and mammalian homologs have apparent ortholog relationship. Based on the genomic DNA sequence, putative 5'-flanking region of five BmPrxs were obtained and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Their expression profiles exposed to different concentrations of phoxim and chlorpyrifos for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h in midgut of silkworm were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that five BmPrxs and dual oxidase (BmDUOX) gene were all expressed in midgut of silkworm. After feeding with 0.375 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h). However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72 h). Similar to expose to phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24 h) under chlorpyrifos stress. However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72 h) under chlorpyrifos stress. These results revealed that BmPrxs that can be located in mitochondria were able to protect cells even more efficiently than cytosolic from an oxidative stress caused by OP. In addition, BmDUOX was also induced by phomix and chlorpyrifos. Overall, our results indicate that a complex expression regulation of Prxs that play important roles in maintaining redox equilibrium state of silkworm to reduce oxidative damage caused by pesticide. PMID:25175646

  14. Stress induction of Bm1 RNA in silkworm larvae: SINEs, an unusual class of stress genes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Richard H.; Choudary, Prabhakara V.; Stone, Koni K.; Schmid, Carl W.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys the induction of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–directed expression of short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts by various stresses in an animal model, silkworm larvae. Sublethal heat shock and exposure to several toxic compounds increase the level of Bm1 RNA, the silkworm SINE transcript, while also transiently increasing expression of a well-characterized stress-induced transcript, Hsp70 messenger RNA (mRNA). In certain cases, the Bm1 RNA response coincides with that of Hsp70 mRNA, but more often Bm1 RNA responds later in recovery. Baculovirus infection and exposure to certain toxic compounds increase Bm1 RNA but not Hsp70 mRNA, showing that SINE induction is not necessarily coupled to transcription of this particular heat shock gene. SINEs behave as an additional class of stress-inducible genes in living animals but are unusual as stress genes because of their high copy number, genomic dispersion, and Pol III–directed transcription. PMID:11599568

  15. Existence of prophenoloxidase in wing discs: a source of plasma prophenoloxidase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yupu; Lu, Anrui; Yang, Bing; Hu, Wenli; Peng, Qing; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Ling, Erjun

    2012-01-01

    In insects, hemocytes are considered as the only source of plasma prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO also exists in the hemocytes of the hematopoietic organ that is connected to the wing disc of Bombyx mori. It is unknown whether there are other cells or tissues that can produce PPO and release it into the hemolymph besides circulating hemocytes. In this study, we use the silkworm as a model to explore this possibility. Through tissue staining and biochemical assays, we found that wing discs contain PPO that can be released into the culture medium in vitro. An in situ assay showed that some cells in the cavity of wing discs have PPO1 and PPO2 mRNA. We conclude that the hematopoietic organ may wrongly release hemocytes into wing discs since they are connected through many tubes as repost in previous paper. In wing discs, the infiltrating hemocytes produce and release PPO probably through cell lysis and the PPO is later transported into hemolymph. Therefore, this might be another source of plasma PPO in the silkworm: some infiltrated hemocytes sourced from the hematopoietic organ release PPO via wing discs. PMID:22848488

  16. Expression, purification and characterization of an atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Lu, Z

    2015-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) play important roles in protecting organisms against damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we cloned a cDNA of Bombyx mori peroxiredoxin 5 (BmPrx5), which contained a 565-bp open reading frame for a 188-residue protein. Sequence analysis indicated that BmPrx5 belongs to the atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Recombinant BmPrx5 purified from Escherichia coli showed antioxidant activity that removes H2 O2 and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the level of BmPrx5 mRNA in haemocytes increased early and decreased by 24 h after injection of H2 O2 whereas, in the fat body, the transcript level decreased at 6 h and increased at 12 h. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus infection resulted in higher levels of H2 O2 in the haemolymph and of BmPrx5 mRNA in haemocytes at 8 h postinfection. These data suggest that BmPrx5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme to protect the silkworm from oxidative damage induced by bacterial infection. Further study is needed to elucidate the exact role of BmPrx5 in the silkworm immune system. PMID:25512182

  17. Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae

    PubMed Central

    Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

  18. TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields. PMID:25453359

  19. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0±0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92°C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. PMID:26005139

  20. Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

  1. Hydrologic responses of streams to mining of the Mulberry coal reserves in eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the hydrologic responses of streams with respect to coal-mining activities in the Mulberry coal reserves of Miami, Linn, and Bourbon Counties, eastern Kansas. Results of a low-flow water-quality reconnaissance showed that small streams draining previously coal-mined areas generally have relatively large concentrations of sulfate. Large streams in the study area have been relatively unaffected by coal mining. A comparison of two small drainage basins showed that the basin affected by an active strip mine had less high flow and more low flow because of the regulating effects of sediment ponds. Effluent pumped from the strip mine increased the load of sulfate by 244 percent, the load of dissolved solids by 41 percent, and occasionally transported relatively large concentrations of iron, lead, manganese, and zinc to the receiving stream. Accelerated erosion caused by the exposure and disturbance of soil during clearing and excavation increased the sediment load of the receiving stream by 25 percent even though sediment ponds were installed. (USGS)

  2. Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

  3. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry ( Morus nigra ) juice concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Ghazale Hojjatpanah; Zahra Emam-Djomeh

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating,\\u000a at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes\\u000a of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at\\u000a 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using

  4. Molecular Markers for Biomass Traits: Association, Interaction and Genetic Divergence in Silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Appukuttannair R; Jingade, Anuradha H; Urs, Raje S

    2007-01-01

    Improvement of high yielding, disease resistant silkworm strains became imminent to increase production of silk, which is a major revenue earner for sericulturists. Since environment interacts with phenotype, conventional breeding did not result in commendable yield improvement in synthetic strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Identification of DNA markers associated with different economically important biomass traits and its introgression could assist molecular breeding and expression of stabilized high yielding characters, but genetic basis of most quantitative traits in silkworm is poorly understood due to its polygenic control. Correlation analysis (R = 0.9) revealed significant interrelation among biomass traits viz., larval duration (TLD), larval weight (LWT), cocoon weight (CWT), shell weight (SWT), shell ratio (SR) and floss content. PCR using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers revealed 92% polymorphism among 14 tropical and temperate strains of B. mori, with average diversity index of 0.747. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) selected 35 ISSR markers positively or negatively correlated with different biomass traits, illustrated polygenic control. ISSR marker 830.8(1050bp) was significantly associated with LWT, CWT, SWT, SR and floss content, indicated its pleiotropic role. Two ISSR markers, 835.5(1950bp) and 825.9(710bp) showed significant association with floss content and TLD. These markers were segregated in F(2) generation and Chi-square test confirmed (chi(2) = ~45; P < 0.05) its genetic contribution to the associated biomass traits. Strains, with both positively and negatively correlated markers, had intermediate mean value for biomass traits (eg. SWT = 0.17 +/- 0.014 g in GNM and Moria) indicated interaction of loci in natural populations. Low yielding Indian strains grouped together by Hierarchical clustering. Chinese and Japanese strains were distributed in the periphery of ALSCAL matrix indicated convergence of genetic characters in Indian strains. Average genetic distance between Chinese strains and Indian strains (0.193) significantly (P < 0.01) varied from that between Chinese and Japanese strains. Interaction of loci and allelic substitutions induced phenotypic plasticity in temperate B. mori populations on tropic adaptation in India. These outcomes show possibility to combine favorable alleles at different QTL to increase larval, cocoon and shell weight. PMID:19662204

  5. Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees). Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. bombycis genome has greatly expanded due to the following three molecular mechanisms: 1) the proliferation of host-derived transposable elements, 2) the acquisition of many horizontally transferred genes from bacteria, and 3) the production of abundnant gene duplications. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events (e.g., tandem duplications) but also from large-scale events (e.g., segmental duplications) have never been seen so abundant in any reported microsporidia genomes. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability. Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and transposable element expansion. We also showed that the duplicated genes can serve as raw materials for evolutionary innovations possibly contributing to the increase of pathologenic ability. Based on our research, we propose that duplicated genes of N. bombycis should be treated as primary targets for treatment designs against pébrine. PMID:23496955

  6. Survey and analysis of microsatellites in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: frequency, distribution, mutations, marker potential and their conservation in heterologous species.

    PubMed

    Prasad, M Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M; Madhu, M; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K; Nagaraju, J

    2005-01-01

    We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of >/=15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and >/=5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2-14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

  7. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

  8. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  9. Cre-mediated targeted gene activation in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jianping; Xu, Hanfu; Ma, Sanyuan; Guo, Huizhen; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-06-01

    Cre-mediated recombination is widely used to manipulate defined genes spatiotemporally in vivo. The present study evaluated the Cre/loxP system in Bombyx mori by establishing two transgenic lines. One line contained a Cre recombinase gene controlled by a sericin-1 gene (Ser1) promoter. The other line contained a loxP-Stop-loxP-DsRed cassette driven by the same Ser1 promoter. The precise deletion of the Stop fragment was found to be triggered by Cre-mediated site-specific excision, and led to the expression of DsRed fluorescence protein in the middle silk glands of all double-transgenic hybrids. This result was also confirmed by phenotypical analysis. Hence, the current study demonstrated the feasibility of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in B. mori, and opened a new window for further refining genetic tools in silkworms. PMID:23264031

  10. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  11. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry. PMID:24651079

  12. Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

  13. Mechanical properties of regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibers and recombinant silk fibers produced by transgenic silkworms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenghua; Kikuchi, Yuka; Kojima, Katsura; Tamura, Toshiki; Kuwabara, Nobuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Regenerated silk fibroin fibers from the cocoons of silkworm, Bombyx mori, were prepared with hexafluoro solvents, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) or hexafluoroacetone-trihydrate (HFA), as dope solvents and methanol as coagulation solvent. The regenerated fiber prepared from the HFIP solution showed slightly larger tensile strength when the draw ratio is 1:3 than that of native silk fiber, but the strength of the regenerated fiber with draw ratio 1:3 from the HFA solution is much lower than that of native silk fiber. This difference in the tensile strength of the regenerated silk fibers between two dope solvents comes from the difference in the long-range orientation of the crystalline region rather than that of short-range structural environment such as the fraction of beta-sheet structure. The increase in the biodegradation was observed for the regenerated silk fiber compared with native silk fiber. Preparations of regenerated silk fibroin fibers containing spider silk sequences were obtained by mixing silk fibroins and silk-like proteins with characteristic sequences from a spider, Naphila clavipes, to produce drag-line silk in E. coli in the fluoro solvents. A small increase in the tensile strength was obtained by adding 5% (w/w) of the silk-like protein to the silk fibroin. The production of silk fibroin fibers with these spider silk sequences was also performed with transgenic silkworms. Small increase in the tensile strength of the fibers was obtained without significant change in the elongation-at-break. PMID:20178693

  14. Transgenesis approaches for functional analysis of peptidergic cells in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Daubnerová, Ivana; Roller, Ladislav; Zitnan, Dusan

    2009-05-15

    The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori represents an insect model of great scientific and economic importance. Besides the establishment of a stable germline transformation using the PiggyBac vector, technically feasible methods for in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression were developed using viral based vectors, especially Sindbis viruses and baculoviruses. The recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), commonly used for large-scale protein production in permissive cell lines or insects, has been used for foreign gene transfer into specific peptidergic cells of B. mori in vivo. Since targeted gene expression is essential for functional analysis of neuropeptide genes and their receptors, the baculovirus-mediated gene transfer can serve as a reliable approach in reverse genetic studies in the silkworm. We review various strategies employing the baculovirus vector system for transient expression of molecular markers and transcription factors in specific peptidergic cells to investigate their roles in B. mori. We also use this system for functional analysis of neuropeptide signaling in the ecdysis behavioral sequence. Our data indicate that the AcMNPV vector is suitable for efficient delivery of foreign genes and their expression directed into specific peptidergic neurons and endocrine cells of B. mori larvae and pupae. However, some modifications of the vector and steps for optimization are necessary to minimize negative effects of viral infection on the host development. The transient gene expression using the AcMNPV and other virus vectors are promising tools for analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying various neuroendocrine processes during development of B. mori. PMID:19111552

  15. Two Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Paralogues Involved in Cell Proliferation and Spermatogenesis in the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Jouraku, Akiya; Nakakura, Takayo; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Takenori; Shinohara, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Hideto; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) specifically acts in ADP/ATP exchange through the mitochondrial inner membrane. This transporter protein thereby plays a significant role in energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Most mammals have four paralogous ANT genes (ANT1-4) and utilize these paralogues in different types of cells. The fourth paralogue of ANT (ANT4) is present only in mammals and reptiles and is exclusively expressed in testicular germ cells where it is required for meiotic progression in the spermatocytes. Here, we report that silkworms harbor two ANT paralogues, the homeostatic paralogue (BmANTI1) and the testis-specific paralogue (BmANTI2). The BmANTI2 protein has an N-terminal extension in which the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequence are distributed as in human ANT4. An expression analysis showed that BmANTI2 transcripts were restricted to the testis, suggesting the protein has a role in the progression of spermatogenesis. By contrast, BmANTI1 was expressed in all tissues tested, suggesting it has an important role in homeostasis. We also observed that cultured silkworm cells required BmANTI1 for proliferation. The ANTI1 protein of the lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (PxANTI1), but not those of other insect species (or PxANTI2), restored cell proliferation in BmANTI1-knockdown cells suggesting that ANTI1 has similar energy metabolism functions across the Lepidoptera. Our results suggest that BmANTI2 is evolutionarily divergent from BmANTI1 and has developed a specific role in spermatogenesis similar to that of mammalian ANT4. PMID:25742135

  16. Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane. PMID:24052236

  17. Mulberry Extracts Alleviate A?25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Yang, Hongpeng; Pang, Wei; Qie, Zhiwei; Lu, Hao; Tan, Long; Li, Haiqiang; Sun, Shoudan; Lian, Fuzhi; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yugang

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against ?-amyloid 25–35- (A?25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200??g/mL) for 24?h were treated with A?25–35 (20??mol/L) for another 24?h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent A?25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer's disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit A?25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. PMID:25580148

  18. Separation and identification of anthocyanin extracted from mulberry fruit and the pigment binding properties toward human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Yuning; Zhao, Xingchen; Tian, Na; Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia

    2014-07-16

    Purple pigments were isolated from mulberry extracts using preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified by ESI-MS/MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The solvent system containing methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (10:30:10:50:0.05; %, v/v) was developed in order to separate anthocyanins with different polarities. Cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-galactopyranoside) (also known as keracyanin) is the major component present in mulberry (41.3%). Other isolated pigments are cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) and petunidin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside. The binding characteristics of keracyanin with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that HSA fluorescence quenched by keracyanin follows a static mode. Binding of keracyanin to HSA mainly depends on van der Waals force or H-bonds with average binding distance of 2.82 nm. The results from synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra show that adaptive structure rearrangement and decrease of ?-helical structure occur in the presence of keracyanin. PMID:24930424

  19. The heuristic function of 'error' in the scientific methodology of Louis Pasteur: the case of the silkworm diseases.

    PubMed

    Cadeddu, A

    2000-01-01

    With the aid of the Cahiers de laboratoire, the Correspondence and, of course, the Oeuvre de Pasteur, this work reconstructs the extraordinary scientific undertakings of the great French scientist in his study of silkworm diseases. The focus of this study consists in the attempt to explain the initial perplexing behaviour of Pasteur, even in the presence of correct interpretations regarding the causes of these diseases (cfr. the results obtained by Béchamp); for a good three years he insisted on maintaining that the aetiology of silkworm diseases could not be attributed to pathogenetic germs from outside. And this was in spite of the fact that previously (through fermentation and spontaneous generation) he had been able to demonstrate the importance of microorganisms in biological processes. Finally it is intended to highlight the extraordinary methodological depth of that initial 'error', which was capable of paving the way for the future conquests of Pasteur in the field of aetiology and the prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:11258099

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the WW domain-containing protein genes in silkworm and their expansion in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Gang; Dai, Fangyin; Tong, Xiaoling; Li, Niannian; Ding, Xin; Song, Jiangbo; Lu, Cheng

    2015-06-01

    WW domains are protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions through recognition of proline-rich peptide motifs and phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline sites. WW domains are found in many different structural and signaling proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular processes. WW domain-containing proteins (WWCPs) and complexes have been implicated in major human diseases including cancer as well as in major signaling cascades such as the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, making them targets for new diagnostics and therapeutics. There are a number of reports about the WWCPs in different species, but systematic analysis of the WWCP genes and its ligands is still lacking in silkworm and the other organisms. In this study, WWCP genes and PY motif-containing proteins have been identified and analyzed in 56 species including silkworm. Whole-genome screening of B. mori identified thirty-three proteins with thirty-nine WW domains located on thirteen chromosomes. In the 39 silkworm WW domains, 15 domains belong to the Group I WW domain; 14 domains were in Group II/III, 9 domains derived from 8 silkworm WWCPs could not be classified into any group, and Group IV contains only one WW domain. Based on gene annotation, silkworm WWCP genes have functions in multi-biology processes. A detailed list of WWCPs from the other 55 species was sorted in this work. In 14,623 silkworm predicted proteins, nearly 18 % contained PY motif, nearly 30 % contained various motifs totally that could be recognized by WW domains. Gene Ontology and KEGG analysis revealed that dozens of WW domain-binding proteins are involved in Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, mTOR, EGF and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. Tissue expression patterns of WWCP genes and potential WWCP-binding protein genes on the third day of the fifth instar (L5D3) were examined by microarray analysis. Tissue expression profile analysis found that several WWCP genes and poly-proline or PY motif-containing protein genes took tissue- or gender-dependent expression manner in silkworms. We further analyzed WWCPs and PY motif-containing proteins in representative organisms of invertebrates and vertebrates. The results showed that there are no less than 16 and up to 29 WWCPs in insects, the average is 22. The number of WW domains in insects is no less than 19, and up to 47, the average is 36. In vertebrates, excluding the Hydrobiontes, the number of WWCPs is no less than 34 and up to 49, the average is 43. The number of WW domains in vertebrates is no less than 56 and up to 85, the average is 73. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most homologous genes of the WWCP subfamily in vertebrates were duplicated during evolution and functions diverged. Nearly 1,000 PY motif-containing protein genes were found in insect genomes and nearly 2,000 genes in vertebrates. The different distributions of WWCP genes and PY motif-containing protein genes in different species revealed a possible positive correlation with organism complexity. In conclusion, this comprehensive bio-information analysis of WWCPs and its binding ligands would provide rich fundamental knowledge and useful information for further exploration of the function of the WW domain-containing proteins not only in silkworm, but also in other species. PMID:25424044

  1. A fibroin secretion-deficient silkworm mutant, Nd-s D , provides an efficient system for producing recombinant proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Inoue; Toshio Kanda; Morikazu Imamura; Guo-Xing Quan; Katsura Kojima; Hiromitsu Tanaka; Masahiro Tomita; Rika Hino; Katsutoshi Yoshizato; Shigeki Mizuno; Toshiki Tamura

    2005-01-01

    The silkworm Nd-sD mutant is silk fibroin-secretion deficient. In the mutant, a disulfide linkage between the heavy (H) and light (L) chains, which is essential for the intracellular transport and secretion of fibroin, is not formed because of a partial deletion of the L-chain gene. To utilize the inactivity of the mutant L-chain, we investigated the possibility of using the

  2. Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.. Kurihara; H. Sezutsu; T. Tamura; K. Yamada

    2007-01-01

    We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk

  3. Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: Silkworm Inheritance Experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900–1912

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Onaga

    2010-01-01

    Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro’s report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American\\u000a entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama’s work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny\\u000a at a time

  4. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Commercial Traits of the Bivoltine Crossbreed Races of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Kochi; B. B. Kaliwal

    Topical application with 100, 200 and 300 ng\\/ml phytohormone salicyclic acid on commercial traits was analysed in bivoltine CSR2, CSR4 and CSR2XCSR4 crossbreed races of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The results showed that there was significant increase in larval weight female cocoon weight, male cocoon shell weight, and hatching percentage with 100 and 200 ng\\/ml, silkgland weight, female cocoon

  5. Simplified purification of soluble histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein from cocoon of transgenic silkworm in metal affinity hydroxyapatite chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Sugo; Tomohiko Yoshitake; Masahiro Tomita; Shintaro Kobayashi; Yae Kurosawa; Katsumi Kawamura; Tsuneo Okuyama

    2011-01-01

    Histidine-tagged proteins have been purified with immobilized nickel affinity chromatography. This method, however, bears some serious disadvantages, including carcinogenicity and potential leakage of the nickel and the handling and disposal costs. We developed a novel purification process for water-soluble histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein from the cocoons of transgenic silkworms, unlike conventional E. coli expression system which sometimes produced insoluble and

  6. Isolation of a cDNA encoding a CHH-family peptide from the silkworm Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotoshi Endo; Hiromichi Nagasawa; Toshiki Watanabe

    2000-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) peptide family includes four types of neuropeptide in decapod and isopod crustaceans, and the ion-transport peptide in orthopteran insects. To identify a new member of this family in Insecta, a PCR-based search for cDNAs encoding CHH-family peptides was carried out in the silkworm Bombyx mori. A cDNA, named BmCHHL (Bombyx moriCHH-like protein), with an open

  7. Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Suhrid R; Kar, Prasanta K; Srivastava, Ashok K; Sinha, Manoj K; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2012-12-01

    The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F(2) progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16(905 bp) showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F(2) progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16(826 bp)). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

  8. Hyperproduction of Polyhedrin-IGF II Fusion Protein in Silkworm Larvae Infected with Recombinant Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUMASA MARUMOTO; YOSHINARI SATO; H. Fujiwara; K. Sakano; Y. Saeki; M. Agata; M. Furusawa; S. Maeda

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY A gene coding for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) was constructed from 16 oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized chemically and cloned into EcoRI-SalI sites of pBR322. In this gene an ATG codon for methionine was introduced for cleavage by CNBr at the beginning of mature IGF II. For expressing foreign genes, a new host- vector system, with Bombyx mori silkworm larvae

  9. Nanoparticle-induced morphological transition of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: a novel method to treat silkworm grasserie disease.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumistha; Bhattacharya, Ankita; Debnath, Nitai; Datta, Alokmay; Goswami, Arunava

    2013-07-01

    Grasserie, a polyorganotrophic disease caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), accounts for lethal infection to fifth instar silkworm larvae. It was found that nanoparticle (NP)-induced morphological transformation of BmNPV polyhedra could reduce the infectivity of BmNPV both in cell line and in silkworm larvae. Initially, 11 NPs were screened for evaluation of their nature of interaction with polyhedra surface through scanning electron microscopy. Amongst these NPs, lipophilically coated silica nanoparticle (SNPL), alumina nanoparticles in the hexagonal close-packed ? structure and aspartate capped gold nanoparticle transformed polyhedra were tested for their infectivity in B. mori cell line using cytopathic effect and plaque reduction assay. SNPL was evaluated for its bio-efficacy in fifth instar silkworm larvae. The study of polyhedra morphology as a function of NP concentration showed severe 'roughening' of the polyhedra with replacement of the regular facets by a large number of irregular ones by SNPL, and this caused transition of highly infectious polyhedra into a nearly spherical, non-infectious structure. A moderate polyhedra roughening was observed for alumina NPs, and no roughening was noticed for gold NPs. The morphological changes could be correlated with reduction of virus-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation, and increased survival rate of SNPL transformed polyhedra infected silkworm larvae to 70.09±6.61% after 96 h. In this group, 61.04±8.03% larvae formed normal cocoons from which moths eclosed, laid eggs and larvae emerged. This study could lead to open up newer pathways for designing nano pharmaceuticals to combat other viral diseases. PMID:23588933

  10. Coordination of wing motion and walking suggests common control of zigzag motor program in a male silkworm moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryohei Kanzaki

    1998-01-01

    The male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, exhibits a zigzagging pattern as it walks upwind to pheromones. This species usually does not fly, but obvious wing-beating\\u000a accompanies the pheromone-mediated walking. Males supported by a `sled', after having their legs removed, also moved upwind\\u000a in a pheromone plume along zigzagging tracks, indicating that wing-generated thrust and torque result in locomotory paths\\u000a similar

  11. Frozen Wild River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS gages the Wild River at Gilead, Maine at station 01054200. This photo was taken during a winter trip to the site. During this trip, the gage equipment was checked and a discharge measurement was made by drilling holes through the ice and lowering velocity meters into the water....

  12. Flooded Wild Rice River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild Rice River at Great Bend North Dakota, streamflow 1,890 cubic feet per second.  Photograph taken during spring 2010 flooding looking downstream of the bridge which was clogged with debris.  The river also had flooded over the road approaching the bridge....

  13. Wild Cat Wilderness Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen staff members from Roselle Park (NJ) High School were the first faculty group in New Jersey to experience a workshop to acquaint them with the Wild Cat Mountain Wilderness Center and improve communication, trust, and enhance problem-solving skills. Challenging activities, suitable to the area, are described. (CM)

  14. Call of the Wild

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Whaley

    2009-04-19

    Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

  15. Molecular markers (RAPD) associated with growth, yield and origin of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Pradeep, A R

    2003-12-01

    To identify the molecular markers associated with growth and yield parameters in silkworm, Bombyx mori, RAPD profiles generated with seven UBC primers for fourteen silkworm stocks, originated from China, Japan, India and Russia, were statistically analyzed. Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis establishes significant association of 45 markers with larval span, growth indices and four cocoon yield parameters relevant for silk production and t-test attest significance of the association of 89.5(1500 bp) and 54.13(300 bp), respectively with longer larval duration and high cocoon weight. The validity of this selection of markers was further supported with Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) done on the basis of Mahalanobis D2 statistics. The two indices of yield/growth were also tested with DFA, which helped in identifying a few markers and thereby opened scope of using such marker (e.g. 91.11(900 bp)) for incorporating molecular markers in the breeding program for crop improvement in silkworm. PMID:14964827

  16. The silkworm GSTe4 is sensitive to phoxim and protects HEK293 cells against UV-induced cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Liu, J; Zhang, C D; Li, Y F; Liu, T H; Wang, L; Yu, Q Y; Zhang, Y H; Lu, C; Pan, M H

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are a family of super enzymes with multiple functions that play a major role in the detoxification of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In our previous study, we have predicted 23 putative cytosolic GSTs in the silkworm genome using bioinformatic methods. In this study, we cloned and studied the insect-specific epsilon-class GST gene GSTe4 from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The recombinant BmGSTe4 (Bac-BmGSTe4) was overexpressed in SF-9 cell lines, and it was found to have effective GST activity. We also found that the expression of BmGSTe4 was especially down-regulated after the silkworms were fumigated with or ingested phoxim. Moreover, BmGSTe4 protected HEK293 cells against UV-induced cell apoptosis. These results demonstrated that BmGSTe4 has GST activity, is sensitive to phoxim, and plays a role in inhibition of UV-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:25850432

  17. Smaylilh or Wild People Archaeology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudy Reimer

    2007-01-01

    The native peoples who inhabit the Pacific Northwest Coast and Interior Plateau possess oral traditions concerning cryptozoology, including the 'wild people' also known as Sasquatch or Bigfoot. For the Squamish Nation, these are Wild People, or \\

  18. In vitro evaluation of a novel non-mulberry silk scaffold for use in tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Musson, David S; Naot, Dorit; Chhana, Ashika; Matthews, Brya G; McIntosh, Julie D; Lin, Sandy T C; Choi, Ally J; Callon, Karen E; Dunbar, P Rod; Lesage, Stephanie; Coleman, Brendan; Cornish, Jillian

    2015-05-01

    Tearing of the rotator cuff tendon in the shoulder is a significant clinical problem, with large/full-thickness tears present in ?22% of the general population and recurrent tear rates postarthroscopic repair being quoted as high as 94%. Tissue-engineered biomaterials are increasingly being investigated as a means to augment rotator cuff repairs, with the aim of inducing host cell responses to increase tendon tissue regeneration. Silk-derived materials are of particular interest due to the high availability, mechanical strength, and biocompatibility of silks. In this study, Spidrex(®), a novel knitted, non-mulberry silk fibroin scaffold was evaluated in vitro for its potential to improve tendon regeneration. Spidrex was compared with a knitted Bombyx mori silk scaffold, a 3D collagen gel and Fiberwire(®) suture material. Primary human and rat tenocytes successfully adhered to Spidrex and significantly increased in number over a 14 day period (p<0.05), as demonstrated by fluorescent calcein-AM staining and alamarBlue(®) assays. A similar growth pattern was observed with human tenocytes cultured on the B. mori scaffold. Morphologically, human tenocytes elongated along the silk fibers of Spidrex, assuming a tenocytic cell shape, and were less circular with a higher aspect ratio compared with human tenocytes cultured on the B. mori silk scaffold and within the collagen gel (p<0.05). Gene expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that rat tenocytes cultured on Spidrex had increased expression of tenocyte-related genes such as fibromodullin, scleraxis, and tenomodulin (p<0.05). Expression of genes that indicate transdifferentiation toward a chondrocytic or osteoblastic lineage were significantly lower in tenocytes cultured on Spidrex in comparison to the collagen gel (p<0.05). Immunogenicity assessment by the maturation of and cytokine release from primary human dendritic cells demonstrated that Spidrex enhanced dendritic cell maturation in a similar manner to the clinically used suture material Fiberwire, and significantly upregulated the release of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.05). This suggests that Spidrex may induce an early immune response postimplantation. While further work is required to determine what effect this immune response has on the tendon healing process, our in vitro data suggests that Spidrex may have the cytocompatibility and bioactivity required to support tendon regeneration in vivo. PMID:25604072

  19. The Oscar Wilde Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all." Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include "The Happy Prince and Other Stories", "A House of Pomegranates", and plays like "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".

  20. Sensitivity to wild vegetation.

    PubMed

    Menz, J; Winkelmann, R K

    1987-03-01

    74 patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis to wild vegetation were patch tested with either extracts of 13 plants of the family Compositae and 7 other weeds or trees. Anthemis cotula (dog fennel) and Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur) gave the most frequent positive results, demonstrating a change of frequency in sensitivity compared to the 1950s, when Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) was recognized as the most frequently sensitizing weed. The reasons for these changes of incidence and clinical patterns are examined. PMID:3581826

  1. Evaluation of bioactive compounds of black mulberry juice after thermal, microwave, ultrasonic processing, and storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Mantri, Nitin; Hu, Ya; Lu, Jiayin; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Hongfei

    2015-07-01

    The effect of different sterilization methods (thermal, microwave, and ultrasonic processing) on the main bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of black mulberry juice during selected storage time (8 days) and temperatures (5, 15, and 25??) was investigated. The antioxidant activity of thermal-treated juice depleted with storage time, whilst both ultrasound- and microwave-treated juices showed transient increase in antioxidant activity during the first 2 days that later decreased with storage time. Lower temperature storage preserved more bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, especially in ultrasound sterilized samples. The activation energy values were 15.99, 13.07, and 12.81?kJ/mol for ultrasonic, microwave, and thermal pasteurization processes, respectively. In general, ultrasound-sterilized samples showed higher total phenolics, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity compared to the microwave- and thermal-processed juice during the storage time especially at lower temperatures. PMID:24917651

  2. Expression profiling and regulation of genes related to silkworm posterior silk gland development and fibroin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-ying; Yang, Hui-juan; Lan, Tian-yun; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Hua-rong; Chen, Ming; Fan, Wei; Ma, Ying-ying; Zhong, Bo-xiong

    2011-08-01

    The posterior silk gland (PSG) is the most important suborgan responsible for the synthesis and secretion of silk core fibroin proteins in silkworm. Here, we performed genome-scale expression profiling analysis of silkworm PSG at the fourth molting (M4) and at day 1 (V1), day 3 (V3), day 5 (V5), and wandering stage (W) of the fifth instar by microarray analysis with 22?987 probes. We found that the five genes of silk proteins secreted from PSG including fibroin heavy (H) and light (L) chains, P25, seroin 1, and seroin 2 basically showed obvious up-regulation at V3 which lasted to V5, while slight down-regulation at W. The expression of translation-related genes including ribosomal proteins and translation initiation factors generally remained stable from M4 to V5, whereas it showed clear down-regulation at W. Clustering analysis of the 643 significantly differentially expressed transcripts revealed that 43 of the important genes including seroin 1 and sugar transporter protein had co-expression patterns which were consistent with the rate changes of fibroin synthesis and PSG growth. Pathway analysis disclosed that the genes in different clusters might have co-regulations and direct interactions. These genes were supposed to be involved in the fibroin synthesis and secretion. The differential expression of several hormone-related genes also suggested their functions on the regulation of PSG development and fibroin synthesis. 2D gel-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics profiling revealed that the phosphorylated proteins accounted for no more than one-sixth of the total proteins at each stage, which was much lower than the level in normal eukaryotic cells. Changes in the phosphorylation status and levels of several proteins such as actin-depolymerizing factor 1 and enolase might be deeply involved in fibroin secretion and tissue development. Shotgun proteomic profiling combined with label-free quantification analysis on the PSG at V3, V5, and W revealed that many small heat shock proteins (sHSP) were specially expressed at W, which was substantially consistent with the results from 2-DE analysis, and implied the close correlations of sHSP with the physiological states of PSG at W. A majority of significantly up-regulated proteins at V5 were related to ribosome pathway, which was different from the microarray results, implying that the translation-level regulation of ribosomal proteins might be critical for fibroin synthesis. In contrast, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway related proteins appeared obviously up-regulated at W, suggesting that the programmed cell death process of PSG cells might be started before cocooning. PMID:21657221

  3. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15?53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

  4. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

  5. Effect of ATG initiation codon context motifs on the efficiency of translation of mRNA derived from exogenous genes in the transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tatematsu, Ken-Ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    The context sequence motif surrounding the ATG initiation codon influences mRNA translation efficiency and affects protein production; however, the optimal sequence differs among species. To determine the optimal sequence for production of recombinant proteins in a transgenic silkworm, we compared 14-nucleotide context motifs around the ATG (ATG-context) in 50 silkworm genes and found the following consensus: (A/T)AN(A/T)ATCAAAatgN. We were also able to define the least-common motif: CCN(C/G)CGN(C/T/G)(G/C/T)(T/G)atgC, which served as a negative control. To examine the regulatory role of these motifs in protein expression, we constructed reporter plasmids containing different ATG-context motifs together with either the luciferase gene or an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. These constructs were then used for comparison of luciferase reporter activity and EGFP production in BmN4 cells in vitro as well as in transgenic silkworms in vivo. We detected 10-fold higher luciferase activity in BmN4 cells transfected with the consensus ATG-context motif construct, compared to the negative control plasmid. ELISA measurements of EGFP translation products with the corresponding constructs in BmN4 cells showed consistently similar results. Interestingly, the translation efficiency of the novel consensus ATG-context motif did not show the highest activity in the transgenic silkworms in vivo, except for the fat body. The highest efficiency in the middle and posterior silk glands was produced by the sericin 1 context. Our results show that the ATG-context motifs differ among silkworm tissues. This result is important for the further improvement of the transgenic silkworm system for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:25674439

  6. Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach

    E-print Network

    Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach #12;Scotland'sWildDeer ANationalApproach i Scotland's Wild Deer A National Approach November 2008 #12;Scotland'sWildDeer ANationalApproach iii Wild deer approach to wild deer management sets out ways to make the most of this asset, managing deer

  7. Production of a Chimeric Fibroin Light-chain Polypeptide in a Fibroin Secretion-deficient Naked Pupa Mutant of the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyuki Mori; Kazunori Tanaka; Yoshimi Kikuchi; Miho Waga; Shou Waga; Shigeki Mizuno

    1995-01-01

    The allelicNd-sandNd-sDmutations of the silkwormBombyx moriare mapped to the same locus as that of the fibroin light (L)-chain gene (Fib-L). The silkworm carrying the homozygousNd-sorNd-sDmutation secretes less than 0.3% of the normal level of fibroin and produces a thin cocoon (naked pupa). In this study, cDNA sequences of theNd-sandNd-sDL-chains were compared with the cDNA and genomic sequences of the L-chain

  8. Genes encoding small heat shock proteins of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sakano, Daisuke; Li, Bin; Xia, Qingyou; Yamamoto, Kohji; Banno, Yutaka; Fujii, Hiroshi; Aso, Yoichi

    2006-10-01

    Small heat shock protein (sHSP) is a family of ubiquitous polypeptides involved in a variety of physiological phenomena. From the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we isolated and sequenced the following cDNAs encoding sHSPs: shsp19.9, shsp20.1, shsp20.4, shsp20.8, shsp21.4, and shsp23.7. shsp21.4 was nearly twice as large in size as other shsps. The deduced amino acid sequence of sHSP21.4 was similar to that of Drosophila melanogaster CG14207-PA. Other sHSPs were highly similar to each other and, in a phylogenetic tree, formed a cluster including Plodia interpunctella alphaCP25. It was speculated that shsp21.4 has at least one intron in genome while other shsps do not. The transcripts of all shsps were subtle, but were constitutively detected in various tissues. Heat shock triggered a substantial increase in the transcripts other than shsp21.4. The B. mori sHSPs are perhaps classified into at least two groups: sHSP21.4 and others. PMID:17031055

  9. New insight into the mechanism underlying fibroin secretion in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Qing; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of different parts of the fibroin heavy chain (H-chain) in the secretion of fibroin in the silk gland of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) in vivo, two enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)/H-chain fusion genes with deduced protein sequences containing an identical N-terminal region and different C-terminal regions of the H-chain were introduced into the B. mori genome using a piggyBac-mediated germline transformation. EGFP fluorescence and molecular analysis showed the products of two different EGFP/H-chain fusion proteins were secreted into the posterior silk gland lumen and aggregated in the middle silk gland and spun into cocoons. The results revealed that only the non-repetitive N terminus of the H-chain is essential for secretion of the H-chain into the posterior silk gland lumen. In addition, our results also indicated that the most likely post-translational modification of the H-chain is at the C-terminal domain. Here, our results not only provide a theoretical basis for the genetic modification of silk fiber as a functional biomaterial but also are of great significance to establishing a new silk gland bioreactor to mass-produce exogenous proteins in an active form. PMID:25302556

  10. Comparative proteome analysis of multi-layer cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

  11. Proton spin-lattice relaxation in silkworm cocoons: physisorbed water and serine side-chain motions.

    PubMed

    Geppi, Marco; Mollica, Giulia; Borsacchi, Silvia; Cappellozza, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    The molecular dynamic behavior of silkworm cocoons produced by a single Bombyx mori strain was investigated by means of high- and low-resolution solid-state NMR experiments. Cocoons with different moisture content were prepared to study the effects of physisorbed water on their molecular dynamics in the MHz regime, which was probed through the measurement of (1)H T(1) relaxation times at 25 MHz in the 25-95 degrees C temperature range. The water content of the different samples was determined from the analysis of (1)H free-induction decays. In addition to the rotation of methyl groups, mostly from alanine, and to the reorientation of physisorbed water molecules, already identified in previous works as relaxation sinks, the reorientation of serine side-chains was here found to contribute to (1)H T(1) above room temperature. The analysis of the trends of (1)H T(1) versus temperature was carried out in terms of semiempirical models describing the three main motional processes, and indicated that methyl rotation, water reorientation and serine side-chain motions are the most efficient relaxation mechanisms below 0 degrees C, between 0 and 60 degrees C, and above 60 degrees C, respectively. The activation energies were found to decrease passing from serine to water to methyl motions. PMID:20136080

  12. Virulence of an exotoxin A-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chieda, Yuuka; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yasunaga-Aoki, Chisa; Shimizu, Susumu

    2011-12-01

    We studied the contribution of exotoxin A to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against the silkworm, Bombyx mori. First, an exotoxin A-deficient mutant strain (PAO1toxA) was created, and its virulence compared with that of the parental PAO1 strain. In a short-term mortality assay, the mutant harboring pBBR1MCS2 did not kill B. mori until 120 h after inoculation and complementation of the corresponding gene in trans restored the strain's virulence. Next, to ascertain whether or not it lost all virulence, PAO1toxA (pBBR1MCS2, pGFP) was used in a long-term mortality assay. B. mori inoculated with the mutant strain did not die until early in the 5th instar (240 h after inoculation). However, 50% of the inoculated B. mori died late in the 5th instar or in the early pupal stage (408 h after inoculation). All had died by the pupal stage (600 h after inoculation). The mutant strain was isolated from dead larvae and cocoons. The bacterial population of PAO1toxA in hemolymph reached 4.77 × 10(7) cfu/ml. These results indicated that exotoxin A acts as a virulence factor in B. mori and that other virulence factor(s) are involved during the late stages of infection. PMID:21945328

  13. Comparison of phenotypic and genetic performance of local silkworm groups and two commercial lines.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Ziaeddin; Nematollahian, Shahla; Ghanipoor, Mani; Seidavi, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    Five Iranian native silkworm groups: Baghdad, Khorasan Orange, Guilan Orange, Khorasan Pink, Khorasan Lemon, and 107 and 110 commercial lines (12 families from each breed) were randomly selected and reared during 2003-2005 (five generations in spring and autumn). In each family, 30 male and 30 female cocoons were individually recorded for weight, shell weight and shell ratio. From among the native groups, the highest average in all three traits belonged to Baghdad and Khorasan Pink, and the lowest to Khorasan Orange and Khorasan Lemon. From among the commercial lines, the highest average in all three traits belonged to 107. In comparing heritability for cocoon weight in native groups, the highest heritability belonged to Guilan Orange (0.5147) and Khorasan Orange (0.5036) and the lowest heritability belonged to Khorasan Pink (0.0967). In the two other traits, the highest heritability belonged to Khorasan Orange and Baghdad and the lowest to Khorasan Pink. In the commercial lines, line110 had higher heritability than line107 for cocoon weight and cocoon shell weight. In all the groups, genetic correlations between cocoon weight and cocoon shell weight were high, expect for the Baghdad group. There was medium or low genetic correlation among cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight and cocoon shell ratio. PMID:21526267

  14. A new continuous cell line from larval ovaries of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Khurad, Arun M; Zhang, Min-Juan; Deshmukh, Chanchal G; Bahekar, Ravindra S; Tiple, Ashish D; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2009-09-01

    A new continuous cell line from ovarian tissue of commercial variety "Kolar Gold" of silkworm, Bombyx mori, was established and designated as DZNU-Bm-12. The tissue was grown in MGM-448 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 3% heat-inactivated B. mori hemolymph at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. The migration of partially attached small round refractive cells from the fragments of ovarioles began from the beginning of explantation. The cells multiplied partially attached in the primary culture initially, and some of them become freely suspended after 20 passages. The cells were adapted to MGM-448 and TNM-FH media each with 10% FBS and the population doubling time of cell line was about 36 and 24 hr, respectively. The chromosome number was near diploid at initial passages and slightly increased at 176th passage, but a few tetraploids and hexaploids were also observed. DNA profiles using simple sequence repeat loci established the differences between DZNU-Bm-12 and DZNU-Bm-1 and most widely used Bm-5 and BmN cell lines. The cell line was found susceptible to B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) with 85-90% of the cells harboring BmNPV and having an average of 3-17 OBs/infected cell. We suggest the usefulness of this cell line in BmNPV-based baculoviral expression system and also for studying in vitro virus replication. PMID:19357932

  15. Advanced technologies for genetically manipulating the silkworm Bombyx mori, a model Lepidopteran insect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu; O'Brochta, David A

    2015-07-01

    Genetic technologies based on transposon-mediated transgenesis along with several recently developed genome-editing technologies have become the preferred methods of choice for genetically manipulating many organisms. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a Lepidopteran insect of great economic importance because of its use in silk production and because it is a valuable model insect that has greatly enhanced our understanding of the biology of insects, including many agricultural pests. In the past 10 years, great advances have been achieved in the development of genetic technologies in B. mori, including transposon-based technologies that rely on piggyBac-mediated transgenesis and genome-editing technologies that rely on protein- or RNA-guided modification of chromosomes. The successful development and application of these technologies has not only facilitated a better understanding of B. mori and its use as a silk production system, but also provided valuable experiences that have contributed to the development of similar technologies in non-model insects. This review summarizes the technologies currently available for use in B. mori, their application to the study of gene function and their use in genetically modifying B. mori for biotechnology applications. The challenges, solutions and future prospects associated with the development and application of genetic technologies in B. mori are also discussed. PMID:26108630

  16. Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2014-04-01

    Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

  17. A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinxin Yang; Pihui Pi; Xiufang Wen; Dafeng Zheng; Mengyi Xu; Jiang Cheng; Zhuoru Yang

    2009-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO3\\/SiO2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164±2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro–submicro–nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite

  18. Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

  19. Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin pleiotropically inhibits glucose-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration by activation of AMPK/RhoB and down-regulation of FAK.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2013-10-16

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, has been reported to help prevent diabetes mellitus and suppress lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry DNJ has pleiotropic effects on the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which mulberry DNJ might inhibit migration of A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic conditions mimicking diabetes were investigated. The antimigratory effects of DNJ on VSMCs were assessed by Western blot analysis of migration-related proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton. Two pathways of DNJ-mediated inhibition of VSMC migration were identified. The first involved AMPK activation to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Akt activity and then RhoB activation to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP) activity. The second involved inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras, and RhoA activity leading to inhibition of F-actin activity. PMID:24050301

  20. Structure-function relationship of SW-AT-1, a serpin-type protease inhibitor in silkworm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10-5 M-1s-1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10-6 M-1s-1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4-10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed. PMID:24901510

  1. An optimized sericin-1 expression system for mass-producing recombinant proteins in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Ma, Sanyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Duan, Xiaoli; Duan, Jianping; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-10-01

    The middle silk gland (MSG) of silkworm is thought to be a potential host for mass-producing valuable recombinant proteins. Transgenic MSG expression systems based on the usage of promoter of sericin1 gene (sericin-1 expression system) have been established to produce various recombinant proteins in MSG. However, further modifying the activity of the sericin-1 expression system to yield higher amounts of recombinant proteins is still necessary. In this study, we provide an alternative modification strategy to construct an efficient sericin-1 expression system by using the hr3 enhancer (hr3 CQ) from a Chongqing strain of the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and the 3'UTRs of the fibroin heavy chain (Fib-HPA), the fibroin light chain (Fib-LPA), and Sericin1 (Ser1PA) genes. We first analyzed the effects of these DNA elements on expression of luciferase, and found that the combination of hr3 CQ and Ser1PA was most effective to increase the activity of luciferase. Then, hr3 CQ and Ser1PA were used to modify the sericin1 expression system. Transgenic silkworms bearing these modified sericin1 expression vectors were generated by a piggyBac transposon mediated genetic transformation method. Our results showed that mRNA level of DsRed reporter gene in transgenic silkworms containing hr3 CQ and Ser1PA significantly increased by 9 fold to approximately 83 % of that of endogenous sericin1. As the results of that, the production of recombinant RFP increased by 16 fold to 9.5 % (w/w) of cocoon shell weight. We conclude that this modified sericin-1 expression system is efficient and will contribute to the MSG as host to mass produce valuable recombinant proteins. PMID:23435751

  2. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene from the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), an 802 bp 3'-terminal region (3'-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

  3. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Dual Oxidase (BmDuox) Gene from the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5?-terminal untranslated region (5?-UTR), an 802 bp 3?-terminal region (3?-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

  4. pH induced changes in the rheology of silk fibroin solution from the middle division of Bombyx mori silkworm.

    PubMed

    Terry, Ann E; Knight, David P; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of fibroin silk solutions extracted from the middle division of Bombyx mori silkworms were examined. Acidification of the solutions with acetic acid vapor gelled the material, a process which at short time scales could be reversed by exposure to ammonia vapor. The solution could also be converted to sol from the gel state by the addition of EDTA. The possible mechanisms for gel formation in fibroin solutions is discussed as are the implications for the process of spinning silk fibers. PMID:15132659

  5. Sericin, a protein derived from silkworms, accelerates the proliferation of several mammalian cell lines including a hybridoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Terada; Taeko Nishimura; Masahiro Sasaki; Hideyuki Yamada; Masao Miki

    2002-01-01

    Sericin, a constituent of the silkworm cocoon, was added to the culture of four mammalian cell lines: murine hybridoma 2E3-O,human\\u000a hepatoblastoma HepG2, human epithelial HeLa and human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The proliferation of all cell lineswas accelerated\\u000a in the presence of sericin. The hybridoma cellline was further studied. The 2E3-O cell line was so well adapted to serum-free\\u000a medium

  6. DNA fingerprinting using AFLP markers to search for markers associated with yield attributes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gaviria, Duverney A; Aguilar, Enrique; Serrano, Herman J; Alegria, Alvaro H

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out on 11 Chinese and 12 Japanese silkworm strains maintained by the Center for the Technological Development of Sericulture (CDTS) germplasm bank, located in Pereira, Colombia. The goals were to determine the genetic population structure of the two groups and the association between molecular markers (AFLPs) and important productivity characters. Group analysis showed the separation of the strains according to their geographic origin. The molecular markers and the productivity characters were correlated by multiple variance analysis. The analysis permitted the identification of molecular markers associated with the cocoon weight or the shell weight separately. Some markers were associated with both characters. PMID:19537986

  7. Wild, Wild Wikis: A way forward Robert Charles1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wild, Wild Wikis: A way forward Robert Charles1 and Adigun Ranmi2 1 Laboratoire Lorrain de yaba ­ Nigeria ranmiadigun@yahoo.com Abstract Wikis can be considered as public domain knowledge encyclopaedia. In this study, we consider the importance of wikis as a way of creating, sharing and improving

  8. Novel enhancer and promoter elements indispensable for the tissue-specific expression of the sericin-1 gene of the silkworm Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeharu Takiya; Hiroshige Inoue; Mai Kimoto

    2011-01-01

    Sericins are glue proteins produced specifically in the middle silk gland (MSG) of the silkworm Bombyx mori, while the silk fiber protein, fibroin, is produced in the posterior silk gland (PSG). These silk proteins are expected to be useful biomaterials in medical technology as well as biotechnology. In this study, we analyzed promoter elements of the sericin-1 gene (ser1) in

  9. The silk cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Macro structure and its influence on transmural diffusion of oxygen and water vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Blossman-Myer; Warren W. Burggren

    2010-01-01

    The cocoon of insect larvae is thought to help conserve water while affording mechanical protection. If the cocoon is a barrier to water loss, then it must also impose a barrier to inward oxygen diffusion. We tested this hypothesis in pupae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The rate of water loss and oxygen uptake (V?O2) at 25°C was measured in

  10. Electron transport and bulk-like behavior of Wiedemann-Franz law for sub-7 nm-thin iridium films on silkworm silk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-07-23

    For ultrathin metallic films, either supported or free-standing, the inside nanocrystalline nature significantly reduces the electron and thermal transport. Quantum mechanical reflection of electrons at the grain boundary reduces the electrical conductivity further than the thermal conductivity, leading to a Lorenz number in the order of 7.0 × 10(-8) W ? K(-2), much higher than that of the bulk counterpart. We report on a finding that for ultrathin (0.6-6.3 nm) iridium films coated on degummed silkworm silk fibroin, the electron transport is around 100-200% higher than that of the same film on glass fiber, even though the grain size of Ir film on silkworm silk is smaller than that on glass fiber. At the same time, the thermal conductivity of the Ir film is smaller or close to that of the film on glass fiber. Its Lorenz number is found close to that of bulk crystalline Ir despite the nanocrystalline structure in the Ir films. This is similar to the behavior of metallic glasses. Our study of gold films on silkworm silk reveals the same trend of change as compared to that on glass fiber. Electron hopping and tunneling in silkworm silk is speculated to be responsible for the observed electron transport. The finding points out that silk could provide a better substrate for flexible electronics with significantly faster electron transport. PMID:24988039

  11. Effect of induced oxidative stress and herbal extracts on acid phosphatase activity in lysosomal and microsomal fractions of midgut tissue of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Gaikwad; S. M. Gaikwad; G. P. Bhawane

    Lysosomal and microsomal acid phosphatase activity was estimated in midgut tissue of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), after induced oxidative stress by D- galactose. The larvae were simultaneously were treated with ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monniera and Lactuca sativa to study their antioxidant properties. Lipid peroxidation and fluorescence was measured to analyze extent of oxidative stress. The ethanolic

  12. 'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

  13. Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Wild mustard

    E-print Network

    Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Wild mustard Sinapis arvensis L. Life cycle Erect winter or summer an. Wild mustard lower leaf. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family-inch-long, cylinder-shaped capsules with a four-angled beak at the tip that contain round, black

  14. Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

    2012-02-01

    Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

  15. Production of a recombinant mouse monoclonal antibody in transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masashi; Ogawa, Shingo; Takeuchi, Atsushi; Nakakita, Shinichi; Kubo, Yuhki; Miyawaki, Yoshitaka; Hirabayashi, Jun; Tomita, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, we describe the production of transgenic silkworms expressing a recombinant mouse mAb in their cocoons. Two transgenic lines, L- and H-, were generated that carried cDNAs encoding the L- and H-chains of a mouse IgG mAb, respectively, under the control of the enhancer-linked sericin-1 promoter. Cocoon protein analysis indicated that the IgG L- or H-chain was secreted into the cocoons of each line. We also produced a transgenic line designated L/H, which carried both cDNAs, by crossing the L- and H-lines. This line efficiently produced the recombinant mAb as a fully assembled H(2)L(2) tetramer in its cocoons, with negligible L- or H-chain monomer and H-chain dimer production. Thus, the H(2)L(2) tetramer was synthesized in, and secreted from, the middle silk gland cells. Crossing of the L/H-line with a transgenic line expressing a baculovirus-derived trans-activator produced a 2.4-fold increase in mAb expression. The recombinant mAb was extracted from the cocoons with a buffer containing 3 m urea and purified by protein G affinity column chromatography. The antigen-binding affinity of the purified recombinant mAb was identical to that of the native mAb produced by a hybridoma. Analysis of the structure of the N-glycans attached to the recombinant mAb revealed that the mAb contained high mannose-, hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans. By contrast, insect-specific paucimannose-type glycans were not detected. Fucose residues alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,6-linked to the core N-acetylglucosamine residue, both of which are found in insect N-glycans, were not observed in the N-glycans of the mAb. PMID:19740109

  16. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Microvitellogenin from the Chinese Oak Silkworm Antheraea pernyi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqun; Chen, Miaomiao; Su, Junfang; Ma, Hongfang; Zheng, Xixi; Li, Qun; Shi, Shenglin; Qin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Microvitellogenin (mVg) is a relatively small vitellogenic protein only characterized in the eggs of the lepidopteran insects Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori. In the present study, we report a novel mVg (ApmVg) isolated from the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi. The obtained ApmVg cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 783 bp encoding a protein of 260 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29.96 kDa. This gene does not contain introns. Structural analysis revealed that this protein shares putative conserved domains with the lepidopteran low-molecular weight lipoprotein, which belongs to the lipoprotein_11 superfamily. The protein sequence of ApmVg exhibits 48% sequence identity with mVg from M. sexta and 40–47% sequence identity with the 30K lipoproteins from B. mori. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ApmVg is a novel member of the lepidopteran low-molecular weight lipoproteins. Transcriptional analysis indicated that ApmVg mRNA is mainly expressed in the fat body (both female and male) during post-diapause development of the pupal stage, and it was also detected in ovaries and spermaries in smaller amounts. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that ApmVg is synthesized by the fat body and secreted into hemolymph and ultimately accumulates in eggs. The ApmVg transcript can be detected in the fat bodies of female pupae four days after treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone and shows an expression pattern distinct from that of vitellogenin (Vg), which is detectable throughout diapausing and in post-diapause development. ApmVg decreased dramatically during embryonic development. These results represent the first study of mVg outside M. sexta and B. mori and provide insight into the physiological role and evolution of mVgs. PMID:26126120

  17. Gloverins of the silkworm Bombyx mori: Structural and binding properties and activities

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hui-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Wan-Ying; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Cao, Yang; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Gloverins are basic, glycine-rich and heat-stable antibacterial proteins (~14-kDa) in lepidopteran insects with activity against Escherichia coli, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and a virus. Hyalophora gloveri gloverin adopts a random coil structure in aqueous solution but has ?-helical structure in membrane-like environment, and it may interact with the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Manduca sexta gloverin binds to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of LPS. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, there are four gloverins with slightly acidic to neutral isoelectric points. In this study, we investigate structural and binding properties and activities of B. mori gloverins (BmGlvs), as well as correlations between structure, binding property and activity. Recombinant BmGlv1–4 were expressed in bacteria and purified. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that all four BmGlvs mainly adopted random coli structure (>50%) in aqueous solution in regardless of pH, but contained ?-helical structure in the presence of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), smooth and rough mutants (Ra, Rc and Re) of LPS and lipid A. Plate ELISA assay showed that BmGlvs at pH 5.0 bound to rough mutants of LPS and lipid A but not to smooth LPS. Antibacterial activity assay showed that positively charged BmGlvs (at pH 5.0) were active against E. coli mutant strains containing rough LPS but inactive against E. coli with smooth LPS. Our results suggest that binding to rough LPS is the prerequisite for the activity of BmGlvs against E. coli. PMID:23567591

  18. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics and leaf protein analyses to track dynamics of photosynthetic performance in mulberry during progressive drought.

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Sengupta, Debashree; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of photosynthesis and the underlying mechanisms were studied in mulberry (Morus indica L. genotype V1) under progressive drought stress conditions. Five months old potted mulberry plants were arranged in a semi-controlled glasshouse chamber in completely randomized block design with four replications. On day 1 (D1), the plants were subjected to two watering treatments: well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS). In WS plants, watering was completely withheld for next 10days (D1-D10), whereas the WW plants were maintained at 100% pot water holding capacity. Photosynthetic performance was tracked periodically (from D0 to D10) through measurements of leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and additionally leaf protein analyses were performed on D10. Down-regulation in net CO(2) fixation (P(n)) was primarily mediated through stomatal limitation which concurrently reduced transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). The OJIP transients and other associated biophysical parameters elucidated the events of photoacclimatory changes in photosystem II (PSII) with progressive increase in drought stress. Down-regulation of PSII activity occurred predominantly due to increase in inactive reaction centers (RCs), decrease in electron transport per RC (ET(O)/RC) as well as per leaf cross-section (ET(O)/CS(m)) and enhanced energy dissipation. The L and K-bands appeared only in the stage of extreme drought severity indicating the ability of genotype V1 to resist drought-induced damage on structural stability of PSII and imbalance between the electrons at the acceptor and donor sides of PSII, respectively. Drought-induced changes in leaf protein analyses revealed significant up-regulation of important proteins associated to photostability of thylakoid membrane including oxygen evolving enhancer, chlorophyll a/b binding proteins, rubisco and rubisco activase. Further, the antioxidative defense proteins including peroxiredoxin and NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase were also enhanced. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an integrated down-regulation of the photosynthetic process to maintain intrinsic balance between electron transfer reactions and reductive carbon metabolism without severe damage to PSII structural and functional integrity. PMID:23357190

  19. A short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein from the silkworm: expression, characterization and involvement in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kangkang; Liu, Chen; He, Yan; Jiang, Haobo; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Recognition of invading microbes as non-self is the first step of immune responses. In insects, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) detect peptidoglycans (PGs) of bacterial cell wall, leading to the activation of defense responses. Twelve PGRPs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, through bioinformatics analysis. However, their biochemical functions are mostly uncharacterized. In this study, we found PGRP-S5 transcript levels were up-regulated in fat body and midgut after bacterial infection. Using recombinant protein isolated from Escherichia coli, we showed that PGRP-S5 binds to PGs from certain bacterial strains and induces bacteria agglutination. Enzyme activity assay confirmed PGRP-S5 is an amidase; we also showed it is an antibacterial protein effective against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Additionally, we demonstrated that specific recognition of PGs by PGRP-S5 is involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Together, these data suggest the silkworm PGRP-S5 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for the prophenoloxidase pathway initiation and as an effecter to inhibit bacterial growth as well. We finally discussed possible roles of PGRP-S5 as a receptor for antimicrobial peptide gene induction and as an immune modulator in the midgut. PMID:24508981

  20. BmICE-2 is a novel pro-apoptotic caspase involved in apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hua-Shan; Pan, Cai-Xia; Pan, Chun; Song, Juan; Hu, Yan-Fen; Wang, La; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2014-02-28

    In this study we identified a potential pro-apoptotic caspase gene, Bombyx mori(B. mori)ICE-2 (BmICE-2) which encoded a polypeptide of 284 amino acid residues, including a (169)QACRG(173) sequence which surrounded the catalytic site and contained a p20 and a p10 domain. BmICE-2 expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibited high proteolytic activity for the synthetic human initiator caspase-9 substrates Ac-LEHD-pNA, but little activity towards the effector caspase-3 substrates Ac-DEVD-pNA. When BmICE-2 was transiently expressed in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells, we found that the high proteolytic activity for Ac-LEHD-pNA triggered caspase-3-like protease activity resulting in spontaneous cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. This effect was not replicated in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. In addition, spontaneous cleavage of endogenous BmICE-2 in BmN-SWU1 cells could be induced by actinomycin D. These results suggest that BmICE-2 may be a novel pro-apoptotic gene with caspase-9 activity which is involved apoptotic processes in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells. PMID:24491540

  1. Ecdysone Receptor (EcR) Is Involved in the Transcription of Cell Cycle Genes in the Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wenliang; Kang, Lixia; Zhang, Tianlei; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yonghu; Li, Zhiqing; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-01-01

    EcR (ecdysone receptor)-mediated ecdysone signaling pathway contributes to regulate the transcription of genes involved in various processes during insect development. In this work, we detected the expression of EcR gene in silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cells and found that EcR RNAi result in an alteration of cell shape, indicating that EcR may orchestrate cell cycle progression. EcR RNAi and EcR overexpression analysis revealed that in the cultured BmN4 cells, EcR respectively promoted and suppressed the transcription of E2F-1 and CycE, two genes controlling cell cycle progression. Further examination demonstrated that ecdysone application in BmN4 cells not only changed the transcription of these two cell cycle genes like that under EcR overexpression, but also induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In vivo analysis confirmed that E2F-1 expression was elevated in silk gland of silkworm larvae after ecdysone application, which is same as its response to ecdysone in BmN4 cells. However, ecdysone also promotes CycE transcription in silk gland, and this is converse with the observation in BmN4 cells. These results provide new insights into understanding the roles of EcR-mediated ecdysone signaling in the regulation of cell cycle. PMID:25654229

  2. In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-03-24

    In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

  3. Translationally controlled tumor protein, a dual functional protein involved in the immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Hu, Cuimei; Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-01-01

    Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

  4. Isolation, purification, and identification of an important pigment, sepiapterin, from integument of the lemon mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junshan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Chaoliang; Meng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Sepiapterin is the precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin, an important coenzyme of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, the lack of which leads to a variety of physiological metabolic diseases or neurological syndromes in humans. Sepiapterin is a main pigment component in the integument of the lemon mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and is present there in extremely high content, so lemon is a valuable genetic resource to extract sepiapterin. In this study, an effective experimental system was set up for isolation and purification of sepiapterin from lemon silkworms by optimizing homogenization solvent, elution buffer, and separation chromatographic column. The results showed that ethanol was the most suitable solvent to homogenize the integument, with a concentration of 50% and solid:liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL). Sepiapterin was purified successively by column chromatography of cellulose Ecteola, sephadex G-25-150, and cellulose phosphate, and was identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry. A stable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method was constructed to identify sepiapterin and conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses. Sepiapterin of high purity was achieved, and the harvest reached about 40 ug/g of integument in the experiments. This work helps to obtaining natural sepiapterin in large amounts in order to use the lemon B. mori mutant to produce BH4 in vitro. PMID:24773269

  5. Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Thibert, C; Royer, C; Kanda, T; Abraham, E; Kamba, M; Komoto, N; Thomas, J L; Mauchamp, B; Chavancy, G; Shirk, P; Fraser, M; Prudhomme, J C; Couble, P; Toshiki, T; Chantal, T; Corinne, R; Toshio, K; Eappen, A; Mari, K; Natuo, K; Jean-Luc, T; Bernard, M; Gérard, C; Paul, S; Malcolm, F; Jean-Claude, P; Pierre, C

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac transposase. The reporter gene construct was coinjected into preblastoderm eggs of two strains of B. mori. Approximately 2% of the individuals in the G1 broods expressed GFP. DNA analyses of GFP-positive G1 silkworms revealed that multiple independent insertions occurred frequently. The transgene was stably transferred to the next generation through normal Mendelian inheritance. The presence of the inverted terminal repeats of piggyBac and the characteristic TTAA sequence at the borders of all the analyzed inserts confirmed that transformation resulted from precise transposition events. This efficient method of stable gene transfer in a lepidopteran insect opens the way for promising basic research and biotechnological applications. PMID:10625397

  6. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  7. Translational enhancement of recombinant protein synthesis in transgenic silkworms by a 5'-untranslated region of polyhedrin gene of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masashi; Tomita, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2008-06-01

    Previously, we established a method to produce recombinant proteins (r-proteins) in cocoons of germline transgenic silkworms, and showed that a step(s) in post-transcription processes was rate-limiting in obtaining a high yield of r-proteins. In this study, we examined whether the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the polyhedrin gene (pol) of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has a translational enhancer activity in the r-protein expression by middle silk gland (MSG) cells of silkworm Bombyx mori (Bm). Sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven transformation vectors were constructed in which pol5'-UTRs of NPVs isolated from four different species, Bm, Spodoptera frugiperda, Ectropis oblique, and Malacosoma neustria, were each placed upstream of a reporter gene. Transient expression assays in MSGs showed that these pol5'-UTRs all enhanced the protein expression of reporter genes, and the pol5'-UTR of Bm NPV (pol5'-UTR/Bm) was the most effective among them. Thus, transgenic silkworms were generated, which bore the ser1 promoter-driven His-tagged secretory EGFP (sEGFP-His) gene under the control of pol5'-UTR/Bm. The synthesis of sEGFP-His proteins in MSGs of the transgenic worms was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in those bearing null vectors. However, its mRNA expression levels were 67% of the control worms, indicating that the pol5'-UTR/Bm specifically enhanced the translational level. In conclusion, pol5'-UTR/Bm increased the yield of r-protein production in transgenic silkworms by enhancing the translational activity and this 5'-UTR could be useful for the mass production of r-proteins in germline transgenic silkworms. PMID:18640598

  8. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE...gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals,...

  9. Conserving our wild plant heritage

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.F.

    1980-11-01

    Conservationists who have neglected the protection of wild plants in the past are becoming more active in pressing for a broad range of programs. One tenth of the world's vascular plants are endangered, threatened, or rare. Plant habitats are being destroyed by logging, draining of wetlands, and clearing for agriculture. The international trade in wild plants and the growing number of plant collectors are also endangering wild plants. Federal legislation is needed to regulate foreign and interstate plant trade, while international regulations must be strengthened. (10 photos, 21 references)

  10. Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy. PMID:24587809

  11. Non-bioengineered silk gland fibroin protein: characterization and evaluation of matrices for potential tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

    2008-08-15

    The possibility of using wild non-mulberry silk protein as a biopolymer remains unexplored compared to domesticated mulberry silk protein. One of the main reasons for this was for not having any suitable method of extraction of silk protein fibroin from cocoons and silk glands. In this study non-bioengineered non-mulberry silk gland fibroin protein from tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta, is regenerated and characterized using 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The new technique is important and unique because it uses a mild surfactant for fibroin dissolution and is advantageous over other previous reported techniques using chaotropic salts. Fabricated fibroin films are smooth as confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectrometry along with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal random coil/alpha-helix conformations in regenerated fibroin which transform to beta-sheets, resulting in crystalline structure and protein insolubility through ethanol treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry shows an increase in glass transition (Tg) temperature and enhanced degradation temperature on alcohol treatment. Enhanced cell attachment and viability of AH927 feline fibroblasts were observed on fibroin matrices. Higher mechanical strength along with controllable water stability of regenerated gland fibroin films make non-mulberry Indian tropical tasar silk gland fibroin protein a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. PMID:18383269

  12. A dense genetic map of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, covering all chromosomes based on 1018 molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Y

    1998-12-01

    A dense linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori, containing 1018 genetic markers on all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Most of the markers, covering approximately 2000 cM, were randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs amplified with primer-pairs in combinations of 140 commercially available decanucleotides. In addition, eight known genes and five visible mutations were mapped. Bombyx homologues of engrailed and invected genes were found to be closely linked, as in Drosophila melanogaster. The average interval between markers was approximately 2 cM, equal to approximately 500 kb. The correspondence of seven linkage groups to counterparts of the conventional linkage map was determined. This map is the first linkage map in insects having a large number of chromosomes (n = 28) that covers all chromosomes without any gaps. PMID:9832528

  13. Free radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activity of oils and sericin extracted from Thai native silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Boonpisuttinant, Korawinwich; Winitchai, Supanida; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2010-08-01

    Oils and sericin were extracted from pupae and silk cocoons, respectively, of the five Thai native silkworms (Bombyx mori, Linnaeus (Bombycidae)), namely, Keawsakol, Nangnoi, Somrong, Nangleung, and Noneruesee, which are variations of the same species. The oils were extracted by a hot process using Soxhlet apparatus and a cold process using petroleum ether, while sericin was extracted by basic hydrolysis and autoclaving. Sericin from the five Thai native silkworms showed free radical scavenging activity lower than the standard antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and BHT) by about 20-100-fold, but all oils gave higher activity than that of the standard linoleic acid by 11-22-fold. Oil extracted from Noneruesee by the cold process gave the highest DPPH scavenging activity, compared with other oil samples. All sericin samples showed tyrosinase inhibition activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-18.76 mg/mL, but only oils from Noneruesee extracted by the hot process, and Nangleung, Somrong, and Noneruesee extracted by the cold process, showed this activity. Oil extracted by the hot process and sericin by basic hydrolysis from Noneruesee gave the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity, but lower than that of the standards vitamin C and kojic acid by 20-49 and 3-8 times, respectively. This study has suggested that sericin and oil from Noneruesee extracted by basic hydrolysis and the cold process, which gave the highest tyrosinase inhibition and free radical scavenging activity, respectively, can be applied in antiaging and whitening cosmetic products. PMID:20673171

  14. [Construction of AFLP molecular markers linkage map and localization of green cocoon gene in silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ai-Chun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Bin; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Ze-Yang; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

    2004-08-01

    Based on an improved method of AFLP, AFLP markers were employed for construction of a linkage map and localization of Gc gene used a set of 44 backcross lines( BC1) of silkworm ( Bombyx mori) as a mapping population. In this work, all together 3 956 bands were obtained by 28 pairs of primers and 141.3 bands each primer pair on average. Among them 2 836 bands were in good agreement with the segregation pattern. A total of 1 018 (25.7%) polymorphic AFLP markers were detected. The 693 (68.1%) of polymorphic markers with 1:1 segregation ratio ( P < or = 0.05) were obtained. Furthermore,The analytical model was based on the backcross type and the parameters were set as following: LOD = 3.0, maximum recombination value of 0. 20 and use the command ' group', 'compare', 'try', 'map' and 'ripple' to construct the linkage maps. 407 of the 693 loci were chi2 tested in agreement with 1:1 segregation were divided into 33 linkages by Mapmaker/Exp(Version 3.0), with a total map distance of 3 676.7 cM and a mean distance of 9.1 cM between markers. The morphological gene Gc was located between L-P4T6-107 and L-PT6T4-84 on linkage group 22. In addition, 286 markers were not included in the linkage groups. The efficiency of loci mapping was 58.7%. Among the 33 linkage groups, the morphological marker Gc classically localized on linkage group 15 was relocated on linkage group 22 on the map, suggesting that this molecular linkage group corresponds to linkage group 15 on the linkage map based on morphological characters. All these have laid an important base for the marker assisted breeding of the silkworm. PMID:15481532

  15. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  16. Comparative genetic diversity and genetic structure of three Chinese silkworm species Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Meneville and Samia cynthia ricini Donovan (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Qin, Li; Li, Yu-Ping; Wang, Huan; Xia, Run-Xi; Qi, Yong-Hong; Li, Xi-Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and genetic structure of three Chinese silkworm species Bombyx mori L., Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Meneville and Samia cynthia ricini Donovan were comparatively assessed based on RAPD markers. At the species level, A. pernyi and B. mori showed high levels of genetic diversity, whereas S. cynthia ricini showed low level of genetic diversity. However, at the strain level, A. pernyi had relatively highest genetic diversity and B. mori had lowest genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that 60% and 72% of genetic variation resided within strains in A. pernyi and S. cynthia ricini, respectively, whereas only 16% of genetic variation occurred within strains in B. mori. In UPGMA dendrogram, individuals of A. pernyi and B. mori formed the strain-specific genetic clades, whereas those of S. cynthia ricini were distributed in a mixed way. The implications of these results for the conservation and utilization in breeding programs of three silkworm species are discussed. PMID:21271066

  17. A novel angiotensin-? converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein: Biochemical characterization and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiongying; Jia, Junqiang; Yan, Hui; Du, Jinjuan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2015-06-01

    Silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and ?-chymotrypsin). Then, the hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, Ala-Ser-Leu, with the IC50 value of 102.15?M, was identified by IT-MS/MS. This is the first report of Ala-Ser-Leu from natural protein. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that the peptide is a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibition of Ala-Ser-Leu is mainly attributed to forming very strong hydrogen bonds with the S1 pocket (Ala354) and the S2 pocket (Gln281 and His353). The results indicate that silkworm pupa (B. mori) protein or its gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate could be used as a functional ingredient in auxiliary therapeutic foods against hypertension. PMID:25111373

  18. Identification of Highly Active Genes from the Posterior Silk Gland of the Oak Silkworm, Antheraea yamamai, Through Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Pil Jeon; Jae-Sam Hwang; Jeong-Hae Lee; Sang-Mong Lee; Hyun-Ah Kang; Uik Sohn

    2000-01-01

    Gene discovery from highly specialized tissues is important for understanding of development and tissue-dependent gene regulation in organism. To identify highly active genes from the posterior silk gland of the oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai, which is specialized for the production of silk proteins, we constructed an oligo (dT) primed directional cDNA library from the posterior silk gland of the final

  19. Generation of a transgenic silkworm that secretes recombinant proteins in the sericin layer of cocoon: Production of recombinant human serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Ogawa; Masahiro Tomita; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

    2007-01-01

    In this study we produced germline transgenic silkworms that spin cocoons containing recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in the sericin layer. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried HSA cDNA driven by sericin-1 gene promoter, viral enhancer hr3, and gene encoding viral trans-activator IE1. Isolated silk glands were bombarded with the vector and transplanted into host larvae. Three days

  20. Production of a non-triple helical collagen alpha chain in transgenic silkworms and its evaluation as a gelatin substitute for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaobiao; Murata, Tomoko; Obara, Masanobu; Akutsu, Hidenori; Machida, Masakazu; Umezawa, Akirihiro; Tomita, Masahiro

    2010-08-15

    We generated transgenic silkworms that synthesized human type I collagen alpha1 chain [alpha1(I) chain] in the middle silk glands and secreted it into cocoons. The initial content of the recombinant alpha1(I) chain in the cocoons of the transgenic silkworms was 0.8%. The IE1 gene, a trans-activator from the baculovirus, was introduced into the transgenic silkworm to increase the content of the chain. We also generated silkworms homozygous for the transgenes. These manipulations increased the alpha1(I) chain content to 8.0% (4.24 mg per cocoon). The alpha1(I) chain was extracted and purified from the cocoons using a very simple method. The alpha1(I) chain contained no hydroxyprolines due to the absence of prolyl-hydroxylase activity in the silk glands. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the secondary structure of the alpha1(I) chain is similar to that of denatured type I collagen, demonstrating the absence of the triple helical structure. Human skin fibroblasts were seeded on the alpha1(I) chain-coated dishes. The cells attached and spread, although at decreased chain concentrations the spreading rate was lower than that of the collagen and gelatin. Cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem cells cultured on the alpha1(I) chain-coated dishes maintained an undifferentiated state after 30 passages, and their pluripotency was confirmed by teratoma formation in severe combined immunodeficient mice. These results show that the recombinant human alpha1(I) chain is a promising candidate biomaterial as a high-quality and safe gelatin substitute for cell culture. PMID:20589667

  1. Studies on middle silkgland proteins of cocoon colour sex-limited silkworm ( Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Xiang Jin; Yu-Yin Chen; Meng-Kui Xu; Yong-Huang Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins expressed in the middle silkglands of male and female silkworm larvae\\u000a that differ in silk colour were investigated by high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE),\\u000a followed by computer assisted image analysis. About 1000 protein spots were resolved in both the sexes and most proteins were\\u000a shown to be distributed in the area

  2. Molecular properties and tissue distribution of 30K proteins as ommin-binding proteins from diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Sawada; Yumi Yamahama; Keisuke Mase; Haruka Hirakawa; Teruhiko Iino

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported the purification of an ommin-binding protein (OMBP) from an acid-methanol extract of diapause eggs of the silkworm and that OMBP reacted with the anti-30K proteins antiserum. In order to clarify the relationship between OMBP and the 30K proteins, we attempted to determine the sequence of the N-terminal amino acid of OMBP, which was separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide

  3. Cold Acclimation-Induced WAP27 Localized in Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cortical Parenchyma Cells of Mulberry Tree Was Homologous to Group 3 Late-Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that two 27-kD proteins, designated as WAP27A and WAP27B, were abundantly accumulated in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions isolated from cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz.) during winter (N. Ukaji, C. Kuwabara, D. Takezawa, K. Arakawa, S. Yoshida, S. Fujikawa [1999] Plant Physiol 120: 480–489). In the present study, cDNA clones encoding WAP27A and WAP27B were isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of WAP27A and WAP27B cDNAs had 12 repeats of an 11-mer amino acid motif that was the common feature of group 3 late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins. Under field conditions, transcripts of WAP27 genes were initially detected in mid-October, reached maximum level from mid-November to mid-December, and then gradually decreased. The transcript levels of WAP27 genes in cortical parenchyma cells harvested in October was drastically induced by cold treatment within a few days, whereas those in cortical parenchyma cells harvested in August were low even by cold treatment for 3 weeks. Immunocytochemical analysis by electron microscopy confirmed that WAP27 was localized specifically in vesicular-form ER and also localized in dehydration-induced multiplex lamellae-form ER. The role of WAP27 in the ER is discussed in relation to acquisition of freezing tolerance of cortical parenchyma cells in mulberry tree during winter. PMID:11500557

  4. Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    “A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

  5. Morphological and molecular studies of Vairimorpha necatrix BM, a new strain of the microsporidium V. necatrix (Microsporidia, Burenellidae) recorded in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bo; Liu, Handeng; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Tian; Li, Zeng; Dang, Xiaoqun; Liu, Tie; Zhou, Zeyang

    2014-08-01

    Vairimorpha sp. BM (2012) is a recent isolate of the microsporidia from the silkworm in Shandong, China. The ultrastructure, tissue pathology and molecular characterization of this isolate is described in this study. This pathogenic fungus causes pebrine disease in silkworms which manifests as a systemic infection. Meanwhile, the silkworm eggs produced by the infected moths were examined using a microscope and PCR amplification. Neither spores nor the expected PCR band were observed, suggesting that no vertical transmission occurred in Bombyx mori. In addition, the ultrastructure of the isolate was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Two types of spores were observed: diplokaroytic spores with 13-17 coils of polar tubes and monokaryotic spores with less coils of polar tubes which could form octospores; however, no sporophorous vesicles were observed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of Vairimorpha species showed that this isolate has a closer relationship to Vairimorpha necatrix than the other species studied. This result also is supported by phylogenetic analysis based on their actin genes, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and RNA polymerase II (RPB1). Based on the information gained during this study, we propose that this microsporidian species infecting B. mori should be given the name V. necatrix BM. PMID:24818618

  6. Long-term preservation, regeneration, and cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson (Ascomycetes), an entomopathogenic fungus inoculated into the silkworm larva of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hee; Li, Chun Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Kang, Seok Woo; Lee, Kwang Gill; Yeo, Joo Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Ji Young; Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Ki Man

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes reportedly have anticancer and immune activities, along with various other medicinal uses. Cultured products with P. tenuipes are certified for use in food in South Korea, and processed goods containing this fungus have been developed in many countries, particularly South Korea, Japan, and China. Research on mass production technology-procured raw materials for the manufacture of P. tenuipes is very important; however, cultures of the fungus have been unstable. This study identified stable cultivation conditions, focusing on growth inhibition and revitalization. Moisture regulation and preservation of pupae inoculated with P. tenuipes were used to control growth inhibition and revitalization. When inoculated silkworm pupae were dehydrated to 4% moisture and preserved freeze-dried or at -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C, or 4 degrees C, the mycelia in their bodies were able to survive for 14 d. Inoculated silkworm pupae were rehydrated for 3 h and the mycelia within their bodies were recovered at 94.3-96.3%. Silkworm pupae at 4% moisture were able to survive for 135 d at temperatures < 4 degrees C and for 1 y after freeze-drying. Optimal conditions for synnemata induction were 25 degrees C and 100-300 1x. PMID:22135907

  7. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on the Synthesis of Fibroin in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Ni, Min; Li, FanChi; Tian, JiangHai; Hu, JingSheng; Zhang, Hua; Xu, KaiZun; Wang, BinBin; Li, YangYang; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect, and its silk production capacity largely depends on its ability to synthesize fibroin. While breeding of B. mori varieties has been a key strategy to improve silk production, little improvement of B. mori silk production has been achieved to date. As a result, the development of sericulture economy has not progressed well, pointing to the need of new ways for improvement of B. mori silk production. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a food additive widely used for livestock, have been shown to promote animal growth and increase the protein synthesis in animals. However, no studies on effect of TiO2 NPs on fibroin synthesis in B. mori have been available. In this study, the differential expression profiles of genes and proteins in the silk gland of B. mori fed without or with TiO2 NPs (5 ?g ml(-1)) were analyzed and compared using digital gene expression (DGE), reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), semi-qPCR, and Western blot analysis. The effects of TiO2 NPs feeding on the activity of proteases in the midgut and the synthesis and transportation of amino acids in hemolymph were also investigated. DGE analyses showed that among a total of 4,741 genes detected, 306 genes were differentially expressed after the TiO2 NPs feeding, of which 137 genes were upregulated whereas 169 genes were downregulated. 106 genes were shown to be involved in fibroin synthesis, of which 97 genes, including those encoding cuticular protein glycine-rich 10, serine protease inhibitor 28, aspartate aminotransferase, lysyl-tRNA synthetase, and splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 6, and silk gland factor-1 (SGF-1), were upregulated with the maximum induction of 8.52-folds, whereas nine genes, including those encoding aspartylglucosaminidase, the cathepsin L in Tribolium castaneum, and similar to SPRY domain-containing SOCS box protein 3, were downregulated with the maximum reduction of 8.11-folds. Transcription levels of nine genes were further verified by RT-qPCR, and the results were consistent with those with DGE. Transcription and expression levels of fibroin light chain (Fib-L) gene were increased after TiO2 NPs feeding, indicating that TiO2 NPs improves fibroin synthesis. Compared with that of control, the mean protease activity was increased by 56.67 % in the B. mori fed with TiO2 NPs, and the transport of four key amino acids used for fibroin synthesis in hemolymph was also increased. These findings indicated that TiO2 NPs feeding can improve the absorption and utilization of amino acids from the feed and could be a new way to increase the fibroin synthesis in B. mori. PMID:25876086

  8. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  9. Wild QTLs for Rice Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of plants for agricultural use has brought about profound genetic change in ancestral plant species. Intensive, scientific breeding of crop varieties by modern plant breeders over the last century hs narrowed the gene pool in many crops. Many wild ancestors of modern crop plants can s...

  10. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID:25822202

  11. Mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers assembled with apogossypolone amphiphilic starch micelles and doxorubicin hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for tumor combination and targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Liu, Hao; Gao, Wei; Chen, Mu; Zeng, Yun; Liu, Jiajun; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy for the preparation of mulberry-like dual-drug complicated nanocarriers (MLDC NCs) with high drug loading and adjustable dual-drug ratio was developed. First, apogossypolone (ApoG2) amphiphilic starch micelles (AASt MCs) were prepared by self-assembly process, and doxorubicin (DOX) hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (DHA NPs) were prepared by DOX absorption with excess HA by electrostatic absorption. MLDC NCs were obtained by adsorption of 8-9 DHA NPs around one AASt MC via electrostatic interaction. UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometers were used to measure the entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of the two drugs. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering method were used to observe the size distribution and morphology of the particles. The tumor-targeting feature caused by HA-receptor mediation was confirmed by in vitro cell uptake and in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging. MLDC NCs were found to possess a mulberry-like shape with a dynamic size of 83.1 ± 6.6 nm. The final encapsulation efficiencies of ApoG2 and DOX in MLDC NCs were 94 ± 1.7% and 87 ± 5.8% with respect to drug-loading capacities of 13.3 ± 1.2% and 13.1 ± 3.7%, respectively. Almost no ApoG2 release was found within 80 h and less than 30% of DOX was released into the outer phase even after 72 h. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed that MLDC NCs had highly efficient targeting and accumulation at the tumor in vivo and was maintained for 96 h after being injected intravenously in mice. Low LD50 for the two drugs in MLDC NCs was found after acute toxicity test. One-fifth normal dosage of the two drugs in MLDC NCs exhibited significantly higher anti-tumor efficiency in reducing tumor size compared with free drugs combination or single drug-loaded nanoparticles individually, indicating that the mulberry-like dual-drug nanoplatform has a great potential in tumor therapy. PMID:25477180

  12. Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Myllymäki, Petri

    Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian Networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen, Petri Karlsson and Ingemar Per¨a December 22, 2002 HIIT TECHNICAL REPORT 2002­7 #12;PREDICTING THE WILD SALMON elsewhere. #12;Predicting the wild salmon production using Bayesian networks Kimmo Valtonen, Tommi Mononen

  13. Sex chromosome aneuploidy in wild small mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Searle; R. M. Jones

    2002-01-01

    We describe four examples of the XO condition in wild mammals. One XO house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) was caught in nature and subsequently gave birth to three litters in captivity, confirming for wild mice the fertility observed for XO laboratory mice. Two other XO house mice were produced from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice. An immature XO common shrew

  14. Oral Administration of a Fusion Protein between the Cholera Toxin B Subunit and the 42-Amino Acid Isoform of Amyloid-? Peptide Produced in Silkworm Pupae Protects against Alzheimer's Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-? peptide (A?42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-A?42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-A?42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-A?42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased A? deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-A?42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD. PMID:25469702

  15. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  16. Wheel running in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

  17. Characterization of fibroin and PEG-blended fibroin matrices for in vitro adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Chitrangada; Kumary, T V; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

    2009-01-01

    Silk fibroin protein, isolated from cocoons of the domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, finds extensive application in biomaterial design. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 4000 has been used for blending fibroin from both B. mori and Antheraea mylitta, the wild tropical non-mulberry silkworm. PEG-blended films have shown marked changes from the pure fibroin films with respect to thermal properties and mechanical properties. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed incorporation of new functional groups like quinone oximes. Pure fibroin and PEG-blended fibroin films showed biocompatibility with the HOS osteosarcoma cell line. Von Kossa staining confirmed nodule formation due to mineralization and differentiation of osteoblasts on pure and blended matrices. On account of increased surface roughness, higher elongation percentage, higher thermostability and better activity of osteoblasts in terms of intracellular alkaline phosphatase production, PEG-blended A. mylitta fibroin film shows better potential than PEG-blended B. mori fibroin film for use as potential biomaterial. PMID:19323875

  18. A polysaccharide extract of mulberry leaf ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat-diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunjiu; Zhang, Yao; Cui, Weizheng; Lu, Guobing; Wang, Yanwen; Gao, Huiju; Huang, Lu; Mu, Zhimei

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry leaf is a traditional medicine used to treat diabetes in the clinic. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII), improves hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and streptozotocin (STZ). MLPII was administered for 6 weeks after establishment of type 2 diabetes in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance, liver glycogen content, glucose synthase (GS) activity and insulin resistance were determined. Expression patterns of proteins and genes associated with insulin signaling as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed. Compared with normal control rats, MLPII treatment significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01) and restored the glycogen level (P < 0.01) and GS activity (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats. Insulin resistance was improved in MLPII-treated diabetic rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) involved in insulin signaling were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while protein–tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression was markedly reduced (P < 0.01). The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in livers of the MLPII-treated group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), while activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The results clearly indicate that MLPII treatment effectively normalizes hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling by inhibiting the expression of PTP1B, activating the PI3K–AKT pathway and mitigating oxidative stress in the livers of rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat and STZ. PMID:25316427

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of cathepsin O in silkworm Bombyx mori related to bacterial response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Su, Jingjing; Chen, Siyuan; Yu, Shuang; Tan, Juan; Xu, Man; Liang, Hanghua; Zhao, Yuzu; Chao, Huijuan; Yang, Liqun; Cui, Hongjuan

    2015-08-01

    Cathepsins are the main members of the cysteine family and play important roles in immune response in vertebrates. The Cathepsin O of Bombyx mori (BmCathepsin O) was cloned from the hemocytes by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The genomic DNA was 6131bp long with a total of six exons and five introns. Its pre-mRNA was spliced to generate two spliceosomes. By comparisons with other reported cathepsins O, it was concluded that the identity between them ranged from 29 to 39%. Expression analysis indicated that BmCathepsin O was specific-expressed in hemocytes, and highly expressed at the 4th molting and metamorphosis stages. Immunofluorescence assay and qRT-PCR showed that BmCathepsin O was expressed in granulocytes and plasmatocytes. Interestingly, BmCathepsin O was significantly up-regulated after stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) in vivo, which suggested that BmCathepsin O may be regulated by 20E. Moreover, activation of BmCathepsin O was also observed in hemocytes challenged by Escherichia coli, indicating its potential involvement in the innate immune system of silkworm, B. mori. In summary, our studies provide a new insight into the functional features of Cathepsin O. PMID:25996894

  20. Genetic mapping of RAPD markers linked to the densonucleosis refractoriness gene, nsd-1, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Abe, H; Harada, T; Kanehara, M; Shimada, T; Ohbayashi, F; Oshiki, T

    1998-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, nonsusceptibility to B. mori densonucleosis virus type-1 (BmDNV-1) is controlled by a recessive gene, nsd-1 (nonsusceptibility to DNV-1), located on the twenty-first chromosome. We investigated genetic linkage between five random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the +nsd-1 gene. Initially, we constructed the CSD-1 strain (nsd-1/+) which is congenic to strain C137 (nsd-1/nsd-1) for the twenty-first chromosome, starting with a female of C137 and a male of strain J137 (+nsd-1/+nsd-1). For the crossing over experiment, a female of C137 was crossed with a male (nsd-1/+) of CSD-1. Segregation analysis showed that the most closely linked RAPD marker mapped 3.0 cM distant from +nsd-1. A more specific marker for +nsd-1 was made by converting this RAPD band into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) using a series of newly designed primer pairs based on its DNA sequence. PMID:9880921

  1. Effects of diet-deprivation and physical stimulation on the feeding behaviour of the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shinji; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2006-08-01

    Continuous observations of larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, revealed that feeding occurred at regular intervals throughout larval development. To investigate possible factors influencing meal-timing, the behaviours of diet-deprived Bombyx larvae were also analysed. Diet-deprivation resulted in longer durations of the first meals after diet replacement, but did not affect feeding patterns. Furthermore, long-term diet-deprivation promoted wandering behaviour and a consequent delay in feeding after diet replacement. Under diet-deprivation conditions, meal-starts appeared to be inducible by defecation and physical stimulation. However, stimulation-induced meal-starts were dependent on the time elapsed since the larvae's previous meals. Provided that more than 1h had elapsed since their previous meals, larvae could be induced to feed by defecation and tapping. At less than 1h post-meal, larvae were less likely to begin feeding after defecation or physical stimulation. Activated locomotions such as wandering and feeding were observed in the long-term diet-deprived larvae only after diet blocks were replaced, while long-term diet-deprived larvae did not show activated locomotion during the absence of diet blocks. Collectively, these data suggest that a combination of elevated locomotion activity and the presence of diet may be necessary for the initiation of feeding in diet-deprived larvae. PMID:16828111

  2. Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild Dr. Silke Schworm

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild Dr. Silke Schworm Stephanie Hiltmann, M. A. Dipl.-Päd. Magdalena Würfl Schritten Prof. Dr. K.-P. Wild #12;Sekretariat des Lehrstuhls Prof. Wild Prof. Dr. K.-P. Wild #12;silke.schworm@paedagogik.uni-r.de Dr. Silke Schworm klaus-peter.wild@paedagogik.uni-r.de Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wild stephanie

  3. Characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidia infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori, using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, S Nageswara; Nath, B Surendra; Saratchandra, B

    2005-06-01

    This study is the first report on the genetic characterization and relationships among different microsporidia infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using inter simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) analysis. Six different microsporidians were distinguished through molecular DNA typing using ISSR-PCR. Thus, ISSR-PCR analysis can be a powerful tool to detect polymorphisms and identify microsporidians, which are difficult to study with microscopy because of their extremely small size. Of the 100 ISSR primers tested, only 28 primers had reproducibility and high polymorphism (93%). A total of 24 ISSR primers produced 55 unique genetic markers, which could be used to differentiate the microsporidians from each other. Among the 28 SSRs tested, the most abundant were (CA)n, (GA)n, and (GT)n repeats. The degree of band sharing was used to evaluate genetic similarity between different microsporidian isolates and to construct a phylogenetic tree using Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The results indicate that the DNA profiles based on ISSR markers can be used as diagnostic tools to identify different microsporidia with considerable accuracy. In addition, the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) sequence gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from each of the 6 microsporidian isolates. These sequences were compared with 20 other microsporidian SSU-rRNA sequences to develop a phylogenetic tree for the microsporidia isolated from the silkworms. This method was found to be useful in establishing the phylogenetic relationships among the different microsporidians isolated from silkworms. Of the 6 microsporidian isolates, NIK-1s revealed an SSU-rRNA gene sequence similar to Nosema bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s is similar to N. bombycis; the remaining 5 isolates, which differed from each other and from N. bombycis, were considered to be different variants belonging to the species N. bombycis. PMID:16121233

  4. Wild sex in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Able, Jason A; Langridge, Peter

    2006-06-01

    To date, alien introgression of agronomically important traits into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) from wild relatives has not been readily achievable through traditional breeding practices. However, this door might now be unlocked. The insightful research published recently by Graham Moore and his team delivers a likely candidate in the form of a cdc2-kinase-related gene family for the Ph1 locus--a chromatin region located on chromosome 5B that is responsible for homologous chromosome pairing integrity in bread wheat. PMID:16697246

  5. A simple and accurate method for generating co-dominant markers: an application of conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis to linkage analysis in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Y

    1999-06-01

    A simple and sensitive method for linkage analysis is described, which is based on conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE). Using urea-containing agarose gels or a commercially available polyacrylamide-derived matrix, 13 polymorphic markers were newly identified for known genes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which had been scored as monomorphic by PCR-RFLP analysis. This method for detecting polymorphisms is quite sensitive, and can be performed with inexpensive reagents and apparatus that is available in most molecular biology laboratories. PMID:10394917

  6. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  7. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  8. Expression of the hIGF-I gene driven by the Fhx/P25 promoter in the silk glands of germline silkworm and transformed BmN cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanmei; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Yang; Xue, Renyu; Zhou, Wenlin; Gong, Chengliang

    2011-03-01

    The expression of the human insulin-like growth factor (hIGF-I) gene driven by the Fhx/P25 promoter in the silk glands of transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) and in transformed silkworm cells, was achieved using BmN cells transfected with a piggyBac vector, pigA3GFP-Fhx/P25-hIGF-ie-neo containing a neomycin-resistance gene (neo), a green fluorescent protein gene (gfp), an hIGF-I gene, and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the B. mori actin 3 (A3) promoter. We selected stably transformed BmN cells expressing hIGF-I using the antibiotic G418. The expression level of hIGF-I was about 450 pg in 3 × 10(6) cells, determined by ELISA. The piggyBac vector was transferred into the silkworm eggs using sperm-mediated gene transfer. The expression level of hIGF-I per gram fresh posterior silk glands of G4 transgenic silkworms was approx. 150 ng. PMID:21072564

  9. Isolation and bioactivities of a non-sericin component from cocoon shell silk sericin of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Li-Xia; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2012-02-01

    The cocoon shell of the silkworm Bombyx mori consists of silk fibroin fiber (70%) surrounded by a sericin layer made up of sericin (25%) and non-sericin (5%) components. The non-sericin component which consists of carbohydrate, salt, wax, flavonoids and derivatives is often overlooked in applied research into sericin and its hydrolysate. Here, sericin and non-sericin compounds were obtained from the sericin layer of five types of cocoon shell by means of degumming in water followed by extraction and separation in ethanol. These ethanol extracts were found to mainly contain flavonoids and free amino acids possessing scavenging activities of the 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting activities of tyrosinase, which were much greater than the corresponding activities of the purified sericin proteins. The extracts also strongly inhibited ?-glucosidase while the sericins had no such activity. In particular, the inhibitory activities of the ethanol extract of Daizo cocoons were much greater than those of the other cocoons. The IC(50) values of the Daizo cocoons for DPPH free radicals, tyrosinase, and ?-glucosidase were 170, 27, and 110 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The bioactivities of the non-sericin component were much higher than the activity of sericin alone. In addition, the in vivo test showed preliminarily that the administration of the non-sericin component had effectively resistant activity against streptozocin (STZ) oxidation and that of the purified sericin could also evidently decrease the induction ratio of diabetic mice induced by STZ. Therefore, ethanol extract protocols of the sericin layer of cocoon shells provide a novel stock which, together with sericin protein, has potential uses in functional food, biotechnological and medical applications. PMID:22101964

  10. Use of plant-derived protein hydrolysates for enhancing growth of Bombyx mori (silkworm) insect cells in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Sun; Dojima, Takashi; Park, Enoch Y

    2005-08-01

    The successful suspension culture of the Bombyx mori (silkworm) cell lines Bm5 and BmN4 without FBS (fetal-bovine serum) was first realized in Sf-900 II SFM (serum-free medium) (Gibco BRL, Rockville, MD, U.S.A.) supplemented with a plant-derived protein hydrolysate. The addition of 0.5% HyPep 1510 (Difco Co., Detroit, MI, U.S.A.) and 10 mM glutamine to Sf-900 II SFM at 4 days of culture was found effective in increasing the cell concentration to 8.5x10(6) cells/ml. The replacement of medium with Sf-900 II SFM supplemented with 0.5% HyPep 1510 at 6 days of culture increased the cell concentration by 1.1x10(7) cells/ml. When Sf-900 II SFM was supplemented with 0.5% Hypep 1510, 16 days, which was half of the conventional adaptation time, was sufficient for the B. mori cell line to adapt to SFM and shear stress while maintaining a stable viability. The beta-galactosidase activity in Sf-900 II SFM supplemented with 0.5% Hypep 1510 was 4.9x10(3) units/ml, which was 2-fold higher than that of the FBS-supplemented medium. By SDS/PAGE, only the band corresponding to beta-galactosidase was detected in the sample from the media supplemented with plant-derived protein hydrolysates, while thick bands corresponding to proteins having lower molecular masses than beta-galactosidase were detected in samples from the FBS-supplemented media. These results suggest that plant-derived protein hydrolysates are promising FBS substitutes for enhancing the growth of B. mori cells and facilitating the purification of recombinant proteins produced by baculovirus infection. PMID:15527419

  11. Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, Appukuttannair R.; Jingade, Anuradha H.; Singh, Choba K.; Awasthi, Aravind K.; Kumar, Vikas; Rao, Guruprasad C.; Prakash, N.B. Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei’s genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R2 = 0.71) and geographic distance (R2 = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R2 = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D’2IS exceeded D’2ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool. PMID:21931526

  12. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies on the carotenoid transport system using cocoon-color mutants of the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kozo; Sakudoh, Takashi

    2015-04-15

    The existence of tissue-specific delivery for certain carotenoids is supported by genetic evidence from the silkworm Bombyx mori and the identification of cocoon color mutant genes, such as Yellow blood (Y), Yellow cocoon (C), and Flesh cocoon (F). Mutants with white cocoons are defective in one of the steps involved in transporting carotenoids from the midgut lumen to the middle silk gland via the hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin, and the different colored cocoons are caused by the accumulation of specific carotenoids into the middle silk gland. The Y gene encodes carotenoid-binding protein (CBP), which is expected to function as the cytosolic transporter of carotenoids across the enterocyte and epithelium of the middle silk gland. The C and F genes encode the C locus-associated membrane protein, which is homologous to a mammalian high-density lipoprotein receptor-2 (Cameo2) and scavenger receptor class B member 15 (SCRB15), respectively; these membrane proteins are expected to function as non-internalizing lipophorin receptors in the middle silk gland. Cameo2 and SCRB15 belong to the cluster determinant 36 (CD36) family, with Cameo2 exhibiting specificity not only for lutein, but also for zeaxanthin and astaxanthin, while SCRB15 seems to have specificity toward carotene substrates such as ?-carotene and ?-carotene. These findings suggest that Cameo2 and SCRB15 can discriminate the chemical structure of lutein and ?-carotene from circulating lipophorin during uptake. These data provide the first evidence that CD36 family proteins can discriminate individual carotenoid molecules in lipophorin. PMID:25579881

  13. Influenza infection in wild raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

  14. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2001-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  15. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    PubMed

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two). PMID:18766880

  16. Nutritional Composition of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Colak; Özlem Faiz

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the nutritional content of some wild edible mushrooms from Turkey Trabzon-Maçka District. Methods: Eight different species of wild edible mushrooms (Craterellus cornuco- pioides (L.) P. Karst, Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm., Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst., Lycoperdon perlatum Pers., Lactarius volemus (Fr.) Fr., Ramaria flava (Schaeff.) Quél. Cantharellus cibarius Fr., Hydnum

  17. Hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S H; Jones, L P; Rappole, J H; Twedt, D; Lack, L L; Craig, T M

    1988-07-01

    Twelve coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus) and six ocelots (Felis pardalis) from the Gulf Coast of Texas were infected with Hepatozoon sp. The geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir. PMID:3411720

  18. American Experience: The Wild West

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In American history, the West is a place of fact, myth, legend, lore, larger-than-life individuals, and a host of other ideas and notions ripe for discussion and analysis. The PBS program "American Experience" takes all of this on in their series, "The Wild West". They have developed this complementary website which expands on some of the themes of each individual program by offering an interactive "American Frontiers" timeline for visitors, a teacher's guide to using these materials, and two full-length episodes from the series. The "American Frontiers" area allows users to scan through a timeline of important events that begins with the French and Indian War in 1754 and concludes with the annexation of Hawaii in 1898. Moving on, the site also includes "The Westernizer" which asks users to respond to a number of questions to determine what type of person they would have been in the American West. Finally, visitors can watch several episodes from the program in their entirety.

  19. Wild deer management An issues paper to inform the

    E-print Network

    Wild deer management in Wales An issues paper to inform the preparation of a management strategy and action plan for wild deer in Wales #12;Contents Introduction and explanatory note.................................................... 3 1. Background: wild deer in Wales.................................................... 5 2. Current

  20. Mulberry water extracts inhibit atherosclerosis through suppression of the integrin-??/focal adhesion kinase complex and downregulation of nuclear factor ?B signaling in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Chien-Ning; Huang, Hui-Pei; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in vivo and in vitro through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Histological analysis was performed on atherosclerotic lesions from high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed rabbits after treatment with 0.5-1% MWEs for 10 weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of SMA, Ras, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the VSMCs were dose-dependently inhibited after MWE treatment. The antimigratory effects of MWEs on A7r5 VSMCs were assessed by western blot analysis of migration-related proteins, visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MWEs inhibited VSMC migration through reducing interactions of the integrin-?3/focal adhesion kinase complex, alterations of the cytoskeleton, and downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3?/nuclear factor ?B signaling. Taken together, MWEs inhibited HCD-induced rabbit atherogenesis through blocking VSMC migration via reducing interactions of integrin-?3 and focal adhesion kinase and downregulating migration-related proteins. PMID:25197764

  1. Two Distinct Jacalin-Related Lectins with a Different Specificity and Subcellular Location Are Major Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Bark of the Black Mulberry Tree1

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Els J.M.; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research. PMID:12376642

  2. Comparison of 1-deoxynojirimycin and aqueous mulberry leaf extract with emphasis on postprandial hypoglycemic effects: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Chung, Ji Young; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-04-13

    Carbohydrate digestion by ?-glucosidase and subsequent glucose uptake at the brush border are critical for postprandial blood glucose control. Any specific inhibitors are useful as hyperglycemia modulating agents. In this study, it was postulated that an array of active components in mulberry leaf extract (MLE) may provide higher potency in inhibiting intestinal glucose absorption compared to the single component 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is recognized as a promising inhibitor of intestinal glucose absorption. Both MLE and DNJ were active in inhibiting ?-glucosidase. However, in Caco-2 cells, only MLE showed significant inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose uptake, whereas DNJ was ineffective. For glucose loading, co-administration of MLE resulted in potent inhibitions of glucose responses compared to those by DNJ in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, but this was not found for maltose loading. These novel findings add evidence that the unabsorbed phytochemicals in MLE compete with glucose for intestinal glucose transporters, but DNJ itself does not. We also evaluated the timing of MLE consumption. By administering MLE for 30 min before glucose loading, the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was significantly lowered in the rats, as compared to a simultaneously administered group. Similarly, cellular glucose uptake was significantly reduced in Caco-2 cells following pretreatment. PMID:21370820

  3. RIP-seq of BmAgo2-associated small RNAs reveal various types of small non-coding RNAs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. Previously, only microRNAs (miRNAs) and piRNAs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Furthermore, only ncRNAs (50-500nt) of intermediate size have been systematically identified in the silkworm. Results Here, we performed a systematic identification and analysis of small RNAs (18-50nt) associated with the Bombyx mori argonaute2 (BmAgo2) protein. Using RIP-seq, we identified various types of small ncRNAs associated with BmAGO2. These ncRNAs showed a multimodal length distribution, with three peaks at ~20nt, ~27nt and ~33nt, which included tRNA-, transposable element (TE)-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. The tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) were found at an extremely high abundance and accounted for 69.90% of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs. Northern blotting confirmed that many tRFs were expressed or up-regulated only in the BmNPV-infected cells, implying that the tRFs play a prominent role by binding to BmAgo2 during BmNPV infection. Additional evidence suggested that there are potential cleavage sites on the D, anti-codon and T?C loops of the tRNAs. TE-derived small RNAs and piRNAs also accounted for a significant proportion of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs, suggesting that BmAgo2 could be involved in the maintenance of genome stability by suppressing the activities of transposons guided by these small RNAs. Finally, Northern blotting was also used to confirm the Bombyx 5.8 s rRNA-derived small RNAs, demonstrating that various novel small RNAs exist in the silkworm. Conclusions Using an RIP-seq method in combination with Northern blotting, we identified various types of small RNAs associated with the BmAgo2 protein, including tRNA-, TE-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. Our findings provide new clues for future functional studies of the role of small RNAs in insect development and evolution. PMID:24074203

  4. Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

  5. Abstract The fitness of crop-wild hybrids can influence gene flow between crop and wild populations. Seed pre-

    E-print Network

    Snow, Allison A.

    predation, seeds were collect- ed from wild sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) and wild×crop F1 hybrids Crop-wild hybridization · Seed predation · Sunflower · Helianthus annuus Introduction Gene flow between

  6. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  7. Learning to Walk on the Wild Side

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faught, Jon

    1977-01-01

    A program at Moorpark Community College, in Moorpark, California, offers a two-and-a-half-year major in Exotic Animal Training and Management. Emphasis is on the practical, everyday handling and training of wild animals. (LBH)

  8. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Biggins, Julia E.; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction. PMID:24912183

  9. Porcine teschovirus in wild boars in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Ákos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    The genus Teschovirus, family Picornaviridae, currently includes 12 serotypes (PTV 1 to 12) isolated from swine. PTVs have been well studied in domestic pigs, but knowledge about PTVs in wild boars is deficient. Here, we report the first complete PTV genome sequence from 7 (70%) of 10 fecal samples of wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa) by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Analysis of the wild boar PTV strain WB2C-TV/2011/HUN (JQ429405) showed considerable difference, especially in VP1 (66–74% amino acid identity) compared to the available PTVs. PTV is present in wild boars, and WB2C-TV/2011/HUN represents a novel PTV genotype, provisionally named PTV-13. PMID:22569887

  10. The wild-type Ras: road ahead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Singh; A. Pavani Sowjanya; Gayatri Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    The cellular Ras is known to play an important role in cellular proliferation mediated by growth factor receptor. Evidence also points to its role in growth arrest. Substantiated proof for growth-sup- pressive activity of wild-type Ras comes from studies that showed 1) loss of wild-type ras allele in tumors, 2) suppression of growth in cells transformed by onco- genic ras

  11. Earliest wild-man sculptures in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Tchalenko

    1990-01-01

    Depictions of the wild man in manuscript illuminations date back to A.D. 1000 or even earlier, but the oldest known sculputure is from the mid-thirteenth-century Notre-Dame de Semur-en-Auxois (Côte d'Or). An analysis of this wild man in the context of two adjacent figures and the sculpted tympanum behind them identifies him as the Old Testament character, Esau, and suggests that

  12. Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-02-01

    The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of a sex chromosome rearrangement causing a soft and pliable (spli) larval body phenotype in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Abe, Hiroaki; Ohnuma, Akio; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2010-01-01

    We carried out genetic and cytogenetic analyses of X-ray-induced deleterious Z chromosomes that result in a soft and pliable (spli) phenotype in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. In a B. mori strain with a spli phenotype, we found the Z chromosome broken between the sch (1-21.5) and od (1-49.6) loci. We also found a chromosomal fragment bearing a fifth-chromosome locus for egg and eye pigmentation fused to a Z chromosome fragment. By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome clones as probes, we confirmed that the fused chromosome is composed of a fragment of chromosome 5 and a fragment of the Z chromosome. Moreover, a predicted gene, GA002017, the Bombyx ortholog of the Drosophila gene acj6 (Bmacj6), was completely deleted by the Z chromosome breakage event. The relationship between Bmacj6 and the spli phenotype is discussed. PMID:20130748

  14. Differential Scanning Fluorimetry provides high throughput data on silk protein transitions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Hawkins, Nick; Porter, David; Holland, Chris; Boulet-Audet, Maxime

    2014-07-01

    Here we present a set of measurements using Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) as an inexpensive, high throughput screening method to investigate the folding of silk protein molecules as they abandon their first native melt conformation, dehydrate and denature into their final solid filament conformation. Our first data and analyses comparing silks from spiders, mulberry and wild silkworms as well as reconstituted `silk' fibroin show that DSF can provide valuable insights into details of silk denaturation processes that might be active during spinning. We conclude that this technique and technology offers a powerful and novel tool to analyse silk protein transitions in detail by allowing many changes to the silk solutions to be tested rapidly with microliter scale sample sizes. Such transition mechanisms will lead to important generic insights into the folding patterns not only of silks but also of other fibrous protein (bio)polymers.

  15. Generation of hybrid transgenic silkworms that express Bombyx mori prolyl-hydroxylase ?-subunits and human collagens in posterior silk glands: Production of cocoons that contained collagens with hydroxylated proline residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Adachi; Masahiro Tomita; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Shingo Ogawa; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

    2006-01-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a heterotetramer enzyme consisting of ?-subunits (P4H?) and ?-subunits (P4H?), and is required for collagen biosynthesis. Previously, we generated transgenic silkworms that produced human type III collagen fragments (mini-collagens) in the posterior silk gland (PSG). However, prolyl 4-hydroxylation did not occur on the mini-collagens, because in spite of an abundant expression of P4H? in PSGs, P4H?

  16. Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

    2011-12-01

    Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n?=?57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n?=?57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40?L-NEG and 33?L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32?L-NEG and 34?L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P?

  17. Effects of Wild Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon on Growth and Abundance of Wild Rainbow Trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. McMichael; Todd N. Pearsons

    1998-01-01

    We investigated some of the ecological impacts to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that could occur by supplementing spring chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in the upper Yakima River basin, Washington. Controlled field experiments conducted in three different streams indicated that presence of wild juvenile spring chinook salmon did not adversely affect growth of wild rainbow trout in high-elevation tributaries. Experiments at

  18. Nowzari et al. Habitat Associations of Persian Wild Ass in Iran HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF PERSIAN WILD

    E-print Network

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.

    25 Nowzari et al. · Habitat Associations of Persian Wild Ass in Iran HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF PERSIAN WILD ASS (EQUUS HEMIONUS ONAGER) IN QA- TROUYEH NATIONAL PARK, IRAN HANIYEH NOWZARI, Department of the IVth International Wildlife Management Congress: 25-30, 2013 Horses, zebras and asses, members

  19. GENETIC VARIATION AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CULTIVATED, WILD, AND SEMI-WILD SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Glycine accessions are intermediate between the standard phenotypes of G. ma and G. soja and have been labeled semi-wild. Few studies have examined both the genetic and phenotypic relationships among G. soja, G. max, and semi-wild types by combining morphological traits and DNA markers. The ob...

  20. Manuscripts and Letters of Oscar Wilde

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Morgan Library in New York City presents a digital version of a slim (50 handwritten pages) bound volume of manuscripts and letters by Oscar Wilde. The volume has an interesting provenance, since it came to the Library through the family of Lord Alfred Douglas, Wilde's lover. Wilde sued Douglas' father, John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, for libel, but the trial served to make public salacious details of Wilde's private life, which eventually led to his conviction and imprisonment on charges of indecency. Ironically, the volume's cover is stamped with the Marquess of Queensberry crest, since the letters and manuscripts within were collected by the eleventh Marquess of Queensberry, grandson of John Sholto Douglas. A letter documenting the start of Wilde and Alfred Douglas relationship, written around November 1892, is in the book, as well as manuscript versions of "The Doer of Good," "The Disciple," "The Master," "The House of Judgment," and "The Artist." The "read this page" feature of the web site translates the handwritten pages into easier-to-read typescript.

  1. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

  2. Evolutionary ecology of the wild cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Blumler, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The evolutionary ecology of the Near Eastern wild cereal grasses sheds light on the environmental conditions under which the Neolithic Revolution took place. Globally, as well as in the Near East, the annual habit, large seed size, and seasonal drought are associated with each other and with agricultural origins. The connection with agricultural appears to involve ease of cultivation and necessity for seasonal storage rather than hunter-gatherer preference for large seeds. The Near Eastern wild cereal species separate ecologically according to seasonality of precipitation, primarily, though there may also be minor differences in temperature and edaphic tolerances. This reflects the evolution, over the course of the Quaternary, of species with increased seed size in response to increasingly pronounced seasonal drought. Wild emmer and wild barley, the progenitors of perhaps the very first domesticates, are evolutionary monstrosities that represent the culmination of this trend. The possibly complex changes in seasonality, aridity, and atmospheric CO2 during the millenia leading up to the Neolithic should have produced equally complex, but to some extent predictable, changes in the abundance and distribution of the different wild cereal species.

  3. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1?:?1?:?1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6?g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75?g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D. PMID:22474520

  4. Rapid separation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside from crude mulberry extract using high-performance countercurrent chromatography and establishment of a volumetric scale-up process.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Choi, Janggyoo; Lee, Chang Uk; Yoon, Shin Hee; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the rapid separation of mulberry anthocyanins; namely, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, using high-performance countercurrent chromatography, and the establishment of a volumetric scale-up process from semi-preparative to preparative-scale. To optimize the separation parameters, biphasic solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate, sample amount and rotational speed were evaluated for the semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography. The optimized semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography parameters (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 4.0 mL/min; sample amount, 200-1000 mg; rotational speed, 1600 rpm) were transferred directly to a preparative-scale (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 28 mL/min; sample amount, 5.0-10.0 g; rotational speed, 1400 rpm) to achieve separation results identical to cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The separation of mulberry anthocyanins using semi-preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography and its volumetric scale-up to preparative-scale was addressed for the first time in this report. PMID:25800228

  5. The WildList Organization International

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The WildList is a free list of all known computer viruses that are spreading in the world, as compiled by volunteer antivirus experts of the WildList Organization International. It is updated monthly and, as one can imagine, is quite lengthy. The site has many other interesting features besides the list. For example, a somewhat humorous article by the WildList's founder describes his views on "how scientific naming works" for computer viruses. Several other papers are also offered that deal with virus issues. Some links to sites that test products or describe viruses are given as well. This site takes a very objective approach to releasing information and, therefore, does not endorse any particular antivirus software.

  6. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  7. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial learning abilities. Yet, the contrary seems to be true. Hence, artificial selection and breeding did not lead to a cognitive decline but rather to an adaptation to man-made environment that allows solving the task more efficiently. PMID:20334697

  8. Germination Requirements Vary in Wild Rubus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of blackberry and raspberry have a deep dormancy caused by one or more mechanisms. Rubus seeds are normally enclosed in a hard endocarp that is a major constraint for their germination. To better define the germination requirements of wild species we examined the effect of two scarification ...

  9. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  10. Answering the Call of the Wild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experience during his sabbatical leave of visiting the country about which Jack London wrote in "Call of the Wild" and other books. The journey which was initiated to learn more about the author and gather interesting teaching materials for teaching Literature. (NH)

  11. Mercury poisoning in a wild mink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. WOBESER; M. SWIFT

    1976-01-01

    Mercury poisoning was diagnosed in a clinically-ill wild mink (Mustela vision) on the basis of clinical signs, histopathologic lesions and tissue mercury concentrations. The probable source of mercury was through ingestion of fish from the nearby South Saskatchewan River which is known to be contaminated with mercury. This is believed to be the first documented case of mercury intoxication of

  12. WILD BERRIES OF THE WEST REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book 'Wild Berries of the West' is reviewed. The book is a comfortable field guide to the commonly found berry-type fruits of western North America. This book combines photographs for use as a field guide, ethnobotanical information concerning plant lore, and recipes for using native berries. ...

  13. Trade of Main Wild Berries in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Kangas

    The price trends and markets of the main wild berries, bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), were analysed in this study, which covered both domestic use of berries, imports and exports. The periods considered were for bilberries from 1988 to 1997 and for lingonberries from 1979 to 1994. The results indicated that both exports and imports

  14. Some remarks on the African wild ass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bemmel van A. C. V

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Without any doubt the African Wild Ass should be considered a species threatened with extinction. Therefore, it seems worth-while to collect as many data on this species as possible and to do this quickly. Data and material, however, are scarce. Many sportsmen and zoologists observed the animal in natural conditions and hardly any book or paper on the wildlife

  15. Mayaro Virus in Wild Mammals, French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    de Thoisy, Benoît; Gardon, Jacques; Salas, Rosa Alba; Morvan, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    A serologic survey for Mayaro virus (Alphavirus, Togaviridae) in 28 wild nonflying forest mammal species in French Guiana showed a prevalence ranging from 0% to 52% and increasing with age. Species active during the day and those who spent time in trees were significantly more infected, results consistent with transmission implicating diurnal mosquitoes and continuous infectious pressure. PMID:14609474

  16. Sunflower germplasm development utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of agronomic traits for crop improvement. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all native to North America. The...

  17. "Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Virginia P.

    2012-01-01

    Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

  18. State Department Report: Wilde Lake High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde Lake High School, Columbia, MD.

    The report describes general education courses offered at Wilde Lake High School--a school that maintains a flexible environment conducive to learning and hopefully fosters individual development and growth. The aim of the school is to create an environment that helps students: adjust and cope with their environment outside the school; develop…

  19. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

  20. WILD RUMINANT STUDY AT BRENDA MINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Taylor; R. P. Bio; P. McKee

    A wild ruminant study was undertaken at the Brenda Mines site in 1999 to determine the numbers of mule deer and whether they showed symptoms of molybdenosis. About 32 mule deer were estimated to utilise the site during the summer. This number included both breeding and non- breeding adults and fawns. Because animals tend to return to familiar summer home

  1. Lynne Cherry's "A River Ran Wild."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Carolyn; Brent, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Paraphrases the book "A River Ran Wild" by Lynne Cherry, contrasts how Native American and European settlers use a river, and discusses the pollution and cleanup of the river. Provides classroom discussion questions, and individual or group activities in language arts, art, role-playing, geography, and interviewing. Includes an annotated…

  2. Inhibitory effects of mulberry fruit extract in combination with naringinase on the allergic response in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Kim, Na Yeon; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Hyung Don; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic action of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) or MFE in combination with naringinase (MFEN) in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-allergic effects of MFEN. ?-hexosaminidase release assay was used to measure the amount of ?-hexosaminidase released from the cells, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We found that MFE significantly reduced the release of ?-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 10.59 mg/ml) and TNF-? (IC(50), 4.87 mg/ml). Moreover, MFEN enhanced the inhibitory effects on the release of ?-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 123.10 µg/ml) and TNF-? (IC(50), 65.01 µg/ml). Furthermore, MFEN had no cytotoxicity at the concentration range used to exert the anti-allergic effects. In addition, we evaluated the effects of MFEN on the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, such as prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MFEN markedly reduced the formation of PGD(2) (IC(50), 6.47 µg/ml) and LTC(4) (IC(50), 0.31 µg/ml), but not LTB(4) (IC(50), 25.75 µg/ml). In mechanistic analyses, we measured the phosphorylation of Syk, Lyn and Fyn by immunoblot analysis. MFEN significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not that of Lyn or Fyn. MFEN also suppressed the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)?1/2, protein kinase C (PKC)?, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, JNK, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2. In conclusion, these results suggest that MFEN exerts potent inhibitory effects on allergic response through the suppression of the activation of the Fc?RI signaling cascade. Our data demonstrating the anti-allergic effects of MFEN may provide further insight into the therapeutic application of MFEN or its use as a functional food. PMID:24336971

  3. CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011 Lecture Theatre 3, Ashworth Labs, Edinburgh All (University of Edinburgh): An introduction to Wild Immunology 10:15 Jan Bradley (University of Nottingham

  4. RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar 

    E-print Network

    Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

    2008-05-08

    This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

  5. Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats depending on nitrogen ­ In a field experiment, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grew with the infesting weed wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp

  6. Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus puddum Roxb, and the associated and their presence is of utmost importance for beekeeping in Himachal Pradesh, India. Wild cherry, Prunus pud- dum

  7. Habitat Appraisal Guide for Rio Grande Wild Turkey

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James; Locke, Shawn; Ransom, Dean; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

    2007-09-04

    Squirreltail grass Catnip noseburn Littleleaf sumac Tasajillo Croton Lotebush Texas cup grass Ephedra Milk vetch Tobosa grass Evening primrose Panic grass Walnut Filaree Pecan White tridens Gaura Pigeonberry Wild mercury Grama grasses Plantago Wild onion...

  8. Rio Grande Wild Turkey in Texas: Biology and Management

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James; Melton, Kyle; Dreibelbis, Justin; Cavney, Bob; Locke, Shawn; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

    2007-09-11

    plantago wild onion juniper rescuegrass walnut ground-cherry pigeonberry filaree wild mercury silverleaf nightshade ephedra honey mesquite gaura pecan agarita sand dropseed green matter lotebrush catnip noseburn bladderpod tobosa panicgrass evening...

  9. Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    OPINION Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institutes of Immunology & Infection Research and Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of `wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host

  10. Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population Timothe´e D. Fouqueray1 on a long-term study of wild yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to study the importance, Blumstein DT, Monclu´s R, Martin JGA (2014) Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot

  11. Distribution and conservation of African wild dogs in Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Breuer

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has de- clined dramatically during the last century and has experienced a significant reduction in its range throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Very little is known about wild dogs in Central Af- rica, especially the population in northern Cameroon. Human and ecological factors lim- iting wild dogs in and around Faro National Park were investigated in

  12. The Cost Efficiency of Wild Dog Conservation in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. LINDSEY; R. ALEXANDER; J. T. DU TOIT; M. G. L. MILLS

    2005-01-01

    Aside from Kruger National Park, no other suitable reserves of sufficient size exist in South Africa that will hold a viable population of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Consequently, conservation efforts have been focused on creating a metapopulation through a series of wild dog reintroductions into isolated fenced reserves. Additional potential exists for conserving wild dogs on private ranch land. Establishing

  13. The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    E-print Network

    Altwegg, Res

    The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) M.A.J. Frantzen, J.W.H. Ferguson the long-term survival of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). To aid this, a studbook was assembled the largest existing regional population of captive African wild dogs. These populations were investigated

  14. A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

  15. The Welsh Government's Action Plan for wild deer

    E-print Network

    The Welsh Government's Action Plan for wild deer management in Wales 2011 - 2016 www.cymru.gov.uk #12;2 Index Wild deer management in Wales action plan 2011 ­ 2016 Minister's Foreword ­ our approach to wild deer management. 5 4. Other Welsh Government strategies and policies which

  16. The Exotic & Wild Bird Aviary Schubot Exotic Bird

    E-print Network

    into all aspects of disease in wild and captive birds. We are especially interested in the large parrot are leaders in the fields of wild parrot research and conservation, through studies of salt licks, macaw nesting success, wild parrot nutrition, and satellite telemetry. The task of the Schubot Center

  17. Characteristics of wild turkey hunters in Texas: comparing turkey stamp buyers to members of the National Wild Turkey Federation 

    E-print Network

    Harmel-Garza, Karen D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis examined wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hunters in Texas. It also examined the differences between people who are members of the Texas Chapter of the National Wild Turkey Federation, and people who are not ...

  18. Novel enhancer and promoter elements indispensable for the tissue-specific expression of the sericin-1 gene of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Takiya, Shigeharu; Inoue, Hiroshige; Kimoto, Mai

    2011-08-01

    Sericins are glue proteins produced specifically in the middle silk gland (MSG) of the silkworm Bombyx mori, while the silk fiber protein, fibroin, is produced in the posterior silk gland (PSG). These silk proteins are expected to be useful biomaterials in medical technology as well as biotechnology. In this study, we analyzed promoter elements of the sericin-1 gene (ser1) in vivo by introducing reporter constructs into silk glands via gene gun technology. The region from -1602 to +47 was sufficient to induce MSG-specific expression. The 5' deletion mutants showed a three-step decrease in promoter activity with the key sequences located between -1362 and -1250, -201 and -116, and -115 and -37. We detected a tissue- and stage-specific factor complex (MSG-intermolt-specific complex: MIC) bound to the sequence elements around the -1350, -320, -180, and -70 regions. A mutation in the -70 region, which inhibits MIC-binding, diminished almost all promoter activity, while another mutation that did not inhibit MIC-binding showed no effect on promoter activity. The results suggest that the binding of MIC to the above elements is intrinsic for the spatiotemporal specificity of ser1 in vivo. PMID:21496486

  19. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Tayori; Wada, Ritsuko; Fukuda, Tsubasa; Harada, Kazuki; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

  20. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods

    PubMed Central

    TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975