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1

Comparing the rheology of mulberry and "wild" silkworm spinning dopes.  

PubMed

Lepidoperan silks provide a superb opportunity for comparative studies of spinning and fiber characteristics. Comparing the four species, Bombyx mori (China), Actias selene (India), Antheraea yamamai (Japan), Gonometa postica (Africa), allows us to examine differences on the family, species, and race levels. Measured rheological properties were consistent with phylogenetic relationships and in the context of resource allocation and gland morphology. We propose that the thorough domestication of the mulberry silkworm B. mori for high silk yield has resulted in a compensatory optimization for spinning efficiency. This is in stark contrast to the wild silkworms, where Saturnids appear to minimize their energetic input toward silk output and G. postica seems to balance both. We conclude that comparative studies provide valuable baseline information for future biomimetic applications and modeling, as well as illuminating biologically important details of silk processing. PMID:22161905

Holland, C; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

2011-12-09

2

Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, Joăo F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

2013-07-09

3

Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: Enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Naoya Wasano; Masatoshi Nakamura

2007-01-01

4

Cell cycle events during the development of the silk glands in the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silk glands of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori are long and paired structures originating from the labial region and are anatomically and physiologically divided into three major compartments, the anterior, middle and posterior silk glands. The silk gland morphogenesis is complete by 8 days post egg laying. Extensive growth of silk glands during the larval stages is due to increase in

Sangeeta Dhawan; K. P. Gopinathan

2003-01-01

5

Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Thermotolerance  

PubMed Central

A tropical climate prevails in most of the sericultural areas in India, where temperature increases during the summer lead to adverse effects on temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and cause crop losses. Screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyxmori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant breeds/hybrids. In the current study, the aim was to identify potential bivoltine silkworm strains specific for tolerance to high temperature. The third day of fifth stage silkworm larvae of bivoltine strains were subjected to high temperature of 36 ± 1° C with RH of 50 ± 5 % for six hours (10:00–16:00) every day until spinning for three consecutive generations. Highly significant differences were found among all genetic traits of bivoltine silkworm strains in the treated groups. Three groups of silkworm resulted including susceptible, moderately tolerant, and tolerant by utilizing pupation rate or survival rate with thermal stress as the index for thermotolerance. Furthermore, based on the overall silkworm rearing performance of nine quantitative genetic traits such as larval weight, cocoon yield by number and weight, pupation, single cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and denier, three bivoltine silkworm strains, BD2-S, SOF-BR and BO2 were developed as having the potential for thermotolerance. The data from the present study enhance knowledge for the development of thermo tolerant silkworm breeds/ hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.

Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Subbarao, Sure Venkata; Misra, Sunil; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

2011-01-01

6

Antiviral activity in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm Bombyx mori is exploited both as a powerful biological model system and also as a tool to convert leaf protein into silk. Silkworm larvae\\u000a often suffer from viral infections causing heavy losses to the economy of the silk industry. Insects exhibit both humoral\\u000a and cellular immune responses that are effective against various pathogens like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.,

Hui-peng Yao; Xiao-feng Wu; K. Gokulamma

2006-01-01

7

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion.  

PubMed

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential, fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori are immunologically inert and invoke minimal immune response. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by these fibroin proteins both in solution and in the form of films assayed in terms of nitric oxide and TNFalpha production showed comparable stimulation as in collagen. Kinetics of adhesion of L929 murine fibroblasts, for biocompatibility evaluation, monitored every 4 h from seeding and studied over a period of 24 h, reveal A. mylitta fibroin film to be a better substrate in terms of rapid and easier cellularization. Cell viability studies by MTT assay and flow cytometric analyses indicate the ability of fibroin matrices to support cell growth and proliferation comparable to collagen for long-term culture. This matrix may have potential to serve in those injuries where rapid cellularization is essential. PMID:18322779

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-03-06

8

Carotenoids of mulberry leaves and of silkworm excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, great attention is being devoted to the search for new cheap sources of carotene [i]. The raw material for this may be certain industrial wastes and, in particular, silkworm excreta (SWE) the complex study of the composition of which has already been carried on over a number of years [2]. In the present communication we present

D. U. Uzakova; A. A. Kolesnik; Yu. L. Zherebin; I. K. Sarycheva

1987-01-01

9

Silk fibroin film from non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworms: A novel substrate for in vitro fibroblast culture.  

PubMed

The silk protein fibroin, isolated from the cocoon of the domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is used extensively in biomaterial design and in cell and tissue culture. We report here for the first time the potential application of fibroin obtained from the cocoon of non-mulberry tropical silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, as a substrate for in vitro cell culture. The mechanical strength of A. mylitta silk fibers indicates a stronger thread composition. The contact angle of A. mylitta fibroin films suggests that it has lower hydrophilicity and lower solubility in organic solvents compared to B. mori fibroin films. Retention of a secondary structure of fibroin in both A. mylitta and B. mori films is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The adherence, growth and proliferation patterns of feline fibroblast cells on A. mylitta fibroin films suggest that this kind of film has a greater ability to support cell growth than B. mori fibroin films and is comparable to that of control. This study demonstrates that, as well as being non-toxic to dermal fibroblast cells, non-mulberry fibroin might be a useful alternative substrate to the more common B. mori fibroin for a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:18676188

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-07-18

10

Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

2010-10-27

11

The emerging role of genomic tools in mulberry ( Morus ) genetic improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus L) is one of the economically important trees that have a long history of extensive cultivation in Asia. Mulberry leaf is\\u000a the sole food for the silkworm Bombyx mori; hence, the sustainability of the sericulture industry is dependent on the continuous supply of nutritious mulberry leaf.\\u000a Genetic improvement of mulberry for leaf yield, leaf nutritional contents, and adaptability

Kunjupillai Vijayan

2010-01-01

12

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

13

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

14

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

15

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman NeumĂĽller (None;)

2006-07-05

16

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. MĂĽller (None;)

2002-05-18

17

Recycling of urea associated with the host plant urease in the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea concentration and urease activity in the midgut content were compared between larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori fed an artificial diet and those fed fresh mulberry leaves. A considerable amount of urea was found in the midgut content of the both larvae, however it was significantly lower in the larvae fed fresh mulberry leaves than in the larvae fed

Chikara Hirayama; Masahiro Sugimura; Hiroshi Shinbo

1999-01-01

18

Effect of leaf ration on dietary water budget of the larvae of silkworm Bombyx mori and eri silkworm Philosamia ricini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary water intake in penultimate two instars of silkwormBombyx mori and eri silkwormPhilosamia ricini fedad libitum on mulberry leafMorus alba and castor leafRicinus communis respectively at 26±2°C is reported. The lower ration level results in accumulation of water content in the body of insects.\\u000a The water retention efficiency (per cent of absorbed water retained in the body) increases with the

M R Delvi; P G Radhakrishna; Noor Pasha

1988-01-01

19

Non-mulberry silk gland fibroin protein 3-D scaffold for enhanced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteocytes.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds of wild non-mulberry tropical tasar silk gland fibroin protein as substratum for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The novelty of the study lies in the fabrication of scaffolds from non-bioengineered silk fibroin directly extracted from the glands of non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworms using sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolution protocol and its osteogenic application using single- and double-seeding methods. The scaffolds were mechanically robust and showed homogenous pore distribution within the scaffold. hMSCs were seeded on the scaffolds and were cultured for up to 28days under static conditions in osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on fibroin scaffolds resulted in extensive mineralization with the formation of large calcium nodules, higher alkaline phosphatase activity and intense von Kossa staining. Real-time studies revealed higher transcript levels for osteopontin (OS) and bone sialoprotein (IBSP) under double-seeded conditions as compared to single-seeded scaffolds. Histological analysis showed the development of osteoblastic cells and large calcified nodules. The development and spreading of nuclei and actin filaments on fibroin matrices were revealed through confocal studies. The results suggest the suitability of non-mulberry silk-fibroin protein 3-D scaffolds as natural biomaterial for potential in vitro bone-tissue engineering applications. PMID:19345621

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

2009-03-05

20

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

2012-06-29

21

Identification of 2ndchromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

PubMed Central

In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

2010-01-01

22

The Origin and Dispersal of the Domesticated Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: A Reconstruction Based on Ancient Texts  

PubMed Central

Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm.

Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

2010-01-01

23

Biospinning by silkworms: silk fiber matrices for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

The mechanism of biospinning of natural silk fibers has been an open issue for decades. In this report a natural bio-polymeric matrix based on biospun silk fibers obtained from Antheraea mylitta, a wild non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm, is put forward for potential applications. This report deals with the conformational transitions of silk fibroin during the biospinning process and its potential to support cell adherence and proliferation. The silk fibers obtained were aligned into linear, mixed or random patterns forming interconnected, macroporous three-dimensional matrices. The matrices were morphologically and functionally characterized with respect to fiber diameter, crystallinity, mechanical strength and biocompatibility using feline fibroblast cells. Drawn silk fibers showed enhanced stability to protease treatment in comparison with naturally occurring native gland fibroin protein. A viability assay suggested biocompatibility of these matrices in vitro. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy indicated normal cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on these biospun silk matrices. The results provided evidence for the use of biospun silk matrices as natural, inexpensive and alternative substrata for tissue engineering applications. PMID:19716447

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-08-27

24

Molecular characterization of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene from mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

The genus Morus consists of trees and shrubs, which are distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. Commonly known as mulberry, a few of the Morus species are valued for their foliage, which constitutes the chief feed for mulberry silkworms. Steroids and isoprenoid compounds present in the foliage not only add nutritive factors to the feed but also contribute greatly to silkworm health and silk production. Mevalonate synthesis, which is the first step in isoprenoid biosynthesis, is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoAreductase (HMGR). A genomic clone, Mahmg1, was isolated from Morus alba and its expression characterized in mulberry and transgenic tobacco. In mulberry, Mahmg1 transcripts were highest in young leaves and flowers. The promoter region of the Mahmg1 gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and the fusion introduced into tobacco. In imbibed embryos, GUS expression was limited to the cotyledons, epicotyl, and root elongation zone. Later, GUS staining was observed in floral tissues, guard cells, and the heads of trichomes on the stem and petioles. Mahmg1::GUS activity increased 3-4-fold by treatment with 100 microM abscisic acid and 15-80-fold in dark-grown versus light-grown seedlings. These results show that expression of the Mahmg1 gene is differentially regulated by developmental and environmental cues, suggesting that its HMGR isozyme a may provide a precursor for synthesis of specific isoprenoids during mulberry growth and development. PMID:10809002

Jain, A K; Vincent, R M; Nessler, C L

2000-03-01

25

Complete Resequencing of 40 Genomes Reveals Domestication Events and Genes in Silkworm (Bombyx)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-base pair resolution silkworm genetic variation map was constructed from 40 domesticated and wild silkworms, each sequenced to approximately threefold coverage, representing 99.88% of the genome. We identified ~16 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, many indels, and structural variations. We find that the domesticated silkworms are clearly genetically differentiated from the wild ones, but they have maintained large levels of genetic

Qingyou Xia; Yiran Guo; Ze Zhang; Dong Li; Zhaoling Xuan; Zhuo Li; Fangyin Dai; Yingrui Li; Daojun Cheng; Ruiqiang Li; Tingcai Cheng; Tao Jiang; Celine Becquet; Xun Xu; Chun Liu; Xingfu Zha; Wei Fan; Ying Lin; Yihong Shen; Lan Jiang; Jeffrey Jensen; Ines Hellmann; Si Tang; Ping Zhao; Hanfu Xu; Chang Yu; Guojie Zhang; Jun Li; Jianjun Cao; Shiping Liu; Ningjia He; Yan Zhou; Hui Liu; Jing Zhao; Chen Ye; Zhouhe Du; Guoqing Pan; Aichun Zhao; Haojing Shao; Wei Zeng; Ping Wu; Chunfeng Li; Minhui Pan; Jingjing Li; Xuyang Yin; Dawei Li; Juan Wang; Huisong Zheng; Wen Wang; Xiuqing Zhang; Songgang Li; Huanming Yang; Cheng Lu; Rasmus Nielsen; Zeyang Zhou; Jian Wang; Zhonghuai Xiang; Jun Wang

2009-01-01

26

Isolation and Characterization of Lipase-Producing Bacteria in the Intestine of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Reared on Different Forage  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, is susceptible to entomopathogen infection when reared with tricuspid cudrania leaves. A total of 56 dominant bacterial strains, classified into 12 phylotypes based on bacteriological properties and analysis of 16S rRNA genes, were isolated from the intestine of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Ten and seven phylotypes exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae reared with mulberry leaves and tricuspid cudrania leaves, respectively. Four of them are common in the intestine of the two treatment groups. By screening their lipolytic ability on a Rhodamine B agar plate, nine lipase-producing bacterial strains were obtained and classified into six genera, including Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas. Except for Stenotrophomonas, which is common in both, the other genera only exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae fed with mulberry leaves. In addition, by culture and fermentation in vitro, the maximum cell density and lipase activity of lipase-producing bacteria were examined at about 48 hours. The results indicate that diet has a significant impact on the gut bacterial community, especially lipase-producing bacteria. We suggest that the difference of lipase-producing bacterial diversity might be related to disease resistance of the silkworm.

Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Guang-Ying

2011-01-01

27

Molecular distinction amongst varieties of Mulberry using RAPD and DAMD profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Mulberry trees are the most important host for rearing mulberry silkworms in sericulture. Improved varieties of mulberry tree have been developed through traditional breeding procedures. Not much work, however, has been carried out on the molecular characterization of these varieties. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) methods based on Polymerase Chain Reaction are important tools to analyze genetic diversity of mulberries. These have been used to determine variation amongst nine varieties of Morus spp. maintained at Banthra Research Station of National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. Results and Discussion The varieties were analyzed using 23 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for RAPD, and 3 minisatellite core sequence primers for DAMD reactions. The RAPD and DAMD band data, (a total of 200 bands), were used to determine the pair wise distances according to Jaccard's algorithm. From these distance values Neighbour Joining (NJ) analyses were carried out separately for the RAPD and the DAMD data. The triploid varieties were found to be most similar to each other using RAPD analysis, while the varieties S13 and S34 were more similar using DAMD analysis. Nearly 85% of the RAPD bands and 91% of the DAMD bands were polymorphic across the nine varieties. Conclusions The mulberry varieties could be distinguished by their RAPD and DAMD profiles. As many as five RAPD primers and one DAMD primer generated profiles that can together differentiate all the nine varieties in terms of unique bands.

Bhattacharya, Esha; Ranade, Shirish Anand

2001-01-01

28

Mulberry leaf powder prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Mulberry is commonly used to feed silkworms. Here we examined whether a dietary intake of mulberry leaf (ML) could affect atherogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed either normal chow (control group) or a diet containing 1% ML powder (ML group) from 6 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The susceptibility of plasma lipoprotein to oxidation was assessed using diene formation. A significant increase in the lag time of lipoprotein oxidation was detected in the ML group compared with the control group. Furthermore, the ML group showed a 40% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortae compared with the control. We also examined the direct anti-oxidative activity of ML in vitro. Aqueous extract of ML had a strong scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and inhibited lipoprotein oxidation. These results confirm that ML contains anti-oxidative substances that might help prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:17506985

Harauma, Akiko; Murayama, Toshinori; Ikeyama, Kazuyuki; Sano, Hideto; Arai, Hidenori; Takano, Ryo; Kita, Toru; Hara, Saburo; Kamei, Kaeko; Yokode, Masayuki

2007-05-07

29

Seasonal Variation in Food Consumption, Assimilation, and Conversion Efficiency of Indian Bivoltine Hybrid Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Food consumption and utilization is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Under different environmental, feeding, and nutritional conditions, and with ingestion of the same amount of mulberry leaves, the silkworm shows significant difference in its ability to digest, absorb, and convert food to body matter. Here, influences of season, temperature, and humidity on food intake, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of the Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2 × CSR4) Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were studied. The results indicated that food ingestion and assimilation were significantly higher among silkworm batches where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained compared with silkworm batches exposed to natural climatic conditions of the respective season. However, during summer the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher among silkworms reared under natural temperature and humidity conditions when compared with the control. During the winter and rainy season, the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher in control batches, where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained. Ingesta and digesta required to produce one gram of cocoon/shell were also lower in control batches for all seasons except summer. This may be due to the physiological adaptation of silkworms to overcome stress during the summer season.

Rahmathulla, V. K.; Suresh, H. M.

2012-01-01

30

Genetic variability and genetic structure of wild and semi-domestic populations of tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta ) ecorace Daba as revealed through ISSR markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity in the wild and semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace of Antheraea mylitta was studied to ascertain the distribution of variability within and among populations of semi-domestic bivoltine (DB), trivoltine (DT) and nature grown wild populations (DN) with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 138 markers were produced among 56 individuals of the three populations, of which 98% were polymorphic. For the individual populations, the percentage polymorphism was 58.69, 52.9 and 77.54 for DB, DT and DN, respectively. Average number of observed (1.791+/- 0.408) and effective alleles (1.389+/-0.348) was also high in the wild populations in comparison to the bivoltine and trivoltine semi-domestic populations. Genetic diversity (H(t)) in DB, DT and DN was 0.180+/- 0.033, 0.153+/- 0.032 and 0.235+/- 0.033, respectively and within-population genetic diversity (H(s)) ranged from 0.166 to 0.259 with a mean of 0.189. Mean gene differentiation (G(ST)) was found to be 0.25. Shanon's diversity index was 0.278, 0.237 and 0.361 for DB, DT and DN and overall it was 0.391. Gene flow (N(m)) among the populations was 1.509. The dendrogram produced by UPGMA with Dice's genetic distance matrices resulted in the formation of three major clusters separating the three populations. Considerable intra- and inter-population variability is found in all three populations. The population structure analysis further suggests that the semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace are at the threshold of differentiating themselves. The high genetic variability present within wild Daba population of A. mylitta is of much importance for conservation as well as utilization in systematic breeding program. PMID:16247690

Kar, P K; Vijayan, K; Mohandas, T P; Nair, C V; Saratchandra, B; Thangavelu, K

2005-11-01

31

Engineering silkworms for resistance to baculovirus through multigene RNA interference.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture. PMID:23105011

Subbaiah, Edupalli V; Royer, Corinne; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Satyavathi, Valluri V; Babu, Adari Sobhan; Sivaprasad, Vankadara; Chavancy, Gérard; Darocha, Martine; Jalabert, Audrey; Mauchamp, Bernard; Basha, Ibrahim; Couble, Pierre; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2012-10-26

32

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidia infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA: Morphological and ultrastructural characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and pathological, morphological and ultrastructural characterization were used to differentiate seven new microsporidian isolates infecting the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIK-4m was found to be more virulent than other isolates. However, all the isolates, except NIK-4m, showed

S. Nageswara Rao; B. Surendra Nath; G. Bhuvaneswari; S. Raje Urs

2007-01-01

33

Transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by the sericin 1 promoter. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vector, producing transgenic silkworms displaying DsRed fluorescence in their eyes. Genotyping analysis confirmed the integration of the MaSp1 gene into the genome of the transgenic silkworms, and silk protein analysis revealed its expression and secretion in the cocoon. Compared with wild-type silk, the recombinant silk displayed a higher tensile strength and elasticity. The results indicate the potential for producing recombinant spider silk in transgenic B. mori. PMID:19633923

Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Zhang, Yuansong; Zhao, Tianfu; Wang, Yujun; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

2009-07-25

34

Gut colonization by an ice nucleation active bacterium, Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas reduces the cold hardiness of mulberry pyralid larvae.  

PubMed

To evaluate the suitability of using ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria for the biological control of insect pests, the supercooling point (SCP) of larvae of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes duplicalis, and silkworm, Bombyx mori, ingesting INA strains of Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas and Pseudomonas syringae was determined. Mean SCP of the guts of silkworm larvae ingesting INA strains of E. ananas ranged from -2.5 to -2.8 degrees C, being 5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. Similarly, mean SCP of mulberry pyralid larvae ingesting INA strain of E. ananas, which can grow well in the gut, was -4.7 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, being 6.5 degrees C higher than that in control treatments. On the other hand, mean SCP of the larvae-ingesting INA strain of P. syringae, which cannot grow in the gut, was -9.0 degrees C at 3 days after treatment, rising by only 2.5 degrees C higher than that in the control treatments. In addition, more than 80% of the larvae of mulberry pyralid ingesting the INA strain of E. ananas froze and eventually died when exposed to -6 degrees C for 18 h, while only 36% of the larvae ingesting the INA strain of P. syringae, or approximately 20% of the control larvae, froze and died. Thus, the gut colonization by INA strains of E. ananas reduced remarkably the cold hardiness of the insects. These findings suggest that INA strains of E. ananas could be effective as a potential biological control agent of insect pests. PMID:10413571

Watanabe, K; Sato, M

1999-06-01

35

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with

Zhengzhong Shao; Fritz Vollrath

2002-01-01

36

Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and ubiquitous in all living organisms, including animals, plants, insects, and microbes. It plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification, and pheromone degradation, neurogenesis and regulating development. Previous studies mainly used Dipteran Drosophila and mosquitoes as model organisms to investigate the roles of the insect COEs in insecticide resistance. However, genome-wide characterization of COEs in phytophagous insects and comparative analysis remain to be performed. Results Based on the newly assembled genome sequence, 76 putative COEs were identified in Bombyx mori. Relative to other Dipteran and Hymenopteran insects, alpha-esterases were significantly expanded in the silkworm. Genomics analysis suggested that BmCOEs showed chromosome preferable distribution and 55% of which were tandem arranged. Sixty-one BmCOEs were transcribed based on cDNA/ESTs and microarray data. Generally, most of the COEs showed tissue specific expressions and expression level between male and female did not display obvious differences. Three main patterns could be classified, i.e. midgut-, head and integument-, and silk gland-specific expressions. Midgut is the first barrier of xenobiotics peroral toxicity, in which COEs may be involved in eliminating secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves and contaminants of insecticides in diet. For head and integument-class, most of the members were homologous to odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE) and antennal esterase. RT-PCR verified that the ODE-like esterases were also highly expressed in larvae antenna and maxilla, and thus they may play important roles in degradation of plant volatiles or other xenobiotics. Conclusion B. mori has the largest number of insect COE genes characterized to date. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the gene expansion mainly occurred in silkworm alpha-esterases. Expression evidence indicated that the expanded genes were specifically expressed in midgut, integument and head, implying that these genes may have important roles in detoxifying secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves, contaminants in diet, and odorants. Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects.

2009-01-01

37

Planning Studies Report for Mulberry, Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the basic information necessary to the formulation of a Comprehensive Development Plan for Mulberry, Arkansas--a community of 1,100 population. It contains the analyses and projections of the economy, population, and land use to 1990 a...

C. S. Scheck L. A. Godwin

1969-01-01

38

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with spider silk by changing their spinning habits, rather than by having their silk genes altered.

Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

2002-08-01

39

Mulberry improvements via plastid transformation and tissue culture engineering  

PubMed Central

The in vitro tissue culture and micropropagation studies for Morus spp., a pivotal sericulture plant, are well established. The rapid and reproducible in vitro response to plant growth regulator treatments has emerged as an essential complement of transformation studies for this plant species. A major area of study is the use of protoplast culture and fusion techniques where advantages to mulberry improvement can be applied. The advancements in genetic transformation of mulberry are reviewed, and a section on strategy for transforming plastids (chloroplasts) of mulberry is included. A role for mulberry in “molecular farming” is envisioned. The conclusions and future prospects for improvement of this economically important tree species are proposed.

2010-01-01

40

Transgenic Silkworm of Anti-NPV Ribozyme.  

PubMed

The plasmid pGL2Rz including ribozyme gene was linearized and introduced into early eggs of silkworm (G(0)) by gene gun. The luciferase activity in blood of the G(1) generation was detected, then the resistant silkworm was selected by NPV infection from G(2) generation. The transgenic silkworm resistant against NPV 10 times more than control ones was got at the G(4) generation. PCR and Southern blotting proved that the ribozyme gene was integrated into the genome of silkworm multicopily. The expression of ribozyme was also detected by RT-PCR in pupa. The results showed that the transgenic silkworm strain of anti-NPV ribozyme has been got. PMID:12136190

Zhang, Feng; Chen, Xiu; Zhao, Yun; Qi, Guo-Rong; Huang, Jun-Ting; Lu, Chang-De

1999-01-01

41

Effects of Altered Catecholamine Metabolism on Pigmentation and Physical Properties of Sclerotized Regions in the Silkworm Melanism Mutant  

PubMed Central

Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln) silkworm strain as a model. Injection of ?-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant) and Dazao (wild-type) silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research.

Liu, Xiaofan; He, Songzhen; Tong, Xiaoling; Wu, Songyuan; Hu, Hai; Wang, Rixin; Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Lushi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Jie; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-01-01

42

Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes.

2011-01-01

43

Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2009-12-01

44

Knockdown of ecdysis-triggering hormone gene with a binary UAS/GAL4 RNA interference system leads to lethal ecdysis deficiency in silkworm.  

PubMed

Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is an integration factor in the ecdysis process of most insects, including Bombyx mori (silkworm). To understand the function of the ETH gene in silkworm, we developed an effective approach to knockdown the expression of ETH in vivo based on RNA interference (RNAi) and a binary UAS/GAL4 expression system that has been successfully used in other insect species. Two kinds of transgenic silkworm were established with this method: the effector strain with the ETH RNAi sequence under the control of UAS and the activator strain with the GAL4 coding sequence under the control of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic actin3. By crossing the two strains, double-positive transgenic silkworm was obtained, and their ETH expression was found to be dramatically lower than that of each single positive transgenic parent. Severe ecdysis deficiency proved lethal to the double-positive transgenic silkworm at the stage of pharate second instar larvae, while the single positive transgenic or wild-type silkworm had normal ecdysis. This UAS/GAL4 RNAi approach provides a way to study the function of endogenous silkworm genes at different development stages. PMID:18776991

Dai, Hongjiu; Ma, Li; Wang, Jue; Jiang, Rongjing; Wang, Zhugang; Fei, Jian

2008-09-01

45

Diversity analysis of Beauveria bassiana isolated from infected silkworm in southwest China based on molecular data and morphological features of colony.  

PubMed

Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus that not only often causes infection and epidemics of wild insects but some strains also show pathogenicity to the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The present study is about diversity of B. bassiana isolated from the silkworm in southwest China. Five strains of B. bassiana were isolated from infected silkworm. Two isolates, GXtr1009 and GXtr1010, were isolated from infected silkworms treated with two kinds of biological pesticides applied in Guangxi province, and three isolates, SCsk1006, YNsk1106 and GXsk1011, were collected from naturally infected silkworms from different geographical locations in Yunnan and Sichuan. All of the isolates showed highly similar conidia and conidial fructification, but the colony characteristics demonstrated great differences among the isolates. The ITS and 18S rDNA sequence analysis was sufficient to identify all five isolates as B. bassiana. However, the dendrogram, based on the ISSR data, produced two large genetic groups. GXtr1009 and GXtr1010 comprised one group, and SCsk1006, YNsk1106 and GXsk1011 converged in a different large group. The results suggested that, although all of these five B. bassiana strains were pathogenic to silkworms, strains of biological pesticides could be differentiated from strains of naturally infected silkworm via ISSR analysis. PMID:23417263

Wang, Jing-jie; Yang, Li; Qiu, Xin; Liu, Yong-gui; Zhou, Wei; Wan, Yong-Ji

2013-02-16

46

Non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices for potential biotechnological applications.  

PubMed

This study reports a novel biopolymeric matrix fabricated by chemically cross-linking poly (vinyl alcohol) with silk sericin protein obtained from cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta. Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent with hydrochloric acid acting as an initiator. The matrices were biophysically characterized and the cytocompatibility of the matrices was evaluated for their suitability as biomaterials. The surface morphology was assessed using atomic force microscopy while the changes taking place after cross-linking were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced thermal stability of the constructs was assessed by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that sericin was chemically cross-linked with poly (vinyl alcohol) using glutaraldehyde. Silk sericin protein demonstrated a favorable effect on animal cell culture by successfully improving the adhering and spreading of cells on the poorly adhering surface of poly (vinyl alcohol). Confocal microscopy revealed cell spreading and actin filament development in sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices. These findings prove the potential of non-mulberry silk sericin/poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel matrices to be used as biocompatible and biopolymeric material for tissue-engineering and biotechnological applications. PMID:21549749

Mandal, Biman B; Ghosh, Borna; Kundu, S C

2011-04-28

47

Oxyresveratrol from Mulberry as a dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(E)-2-(3,5-dihy­droxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]benzene-1,3-diol dihydrate}, C14H12O4·2H2O, a derivative of resveratrol, was isolated from mulberry. The linking C=C double bond has a trans conformation and allows the formation of a conjugated system throughout the mol­ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 9.39?(9)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture through O—H?O hydrogen bonds between hy­droxy groups of oxyresveratrol and solvent water mol­ecules.

Deng, Hui; He, Xixin; Xu, Yujuan; Hu, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

48

Shotgun proteomic analysis of mulberry dwarf phytoplasma  

PubMed Central

Background Mulberry dwarf (MD), which is caused by phytoplasma, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of mulberry. Phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases in several hundred plant species. The inability to culture phytoplasmas in vitro has hindered their characterization at the molecular level. Though the complete genomes of two phytoplasmas have been published, little information has been obtained about the proteome of phytoplasma. Therefore, the proteomic information of phytoplasmas would be useful to elucidate the functional mechanisms of phytoplasma in many biological processes. Results MD phytoplasmas, which belong to the 16SrI-B subgroup based on the 16S DNA analysis, were purified from infected tissues using a combination of differential centrifugation and density gradient centrifugation. The expressed proteome of phytoplasma was surveyed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and nanocapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 209 phytoplasma proteins were unambiguously assigned, including the proteins with the functions of amino acid biosynthesis, cell envelope, cellular processes, energy metabolism, nucleosides and nucleotide metabolism, replication, transcription, translation, transport and binding as well as the proteins with other functions. In addition to these known function proteins, 63 proteins were annotated as hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins. Conclusions Taken together, a total of 209 phytoplasma proteins have been experimentally verified, representing the most extensive survey of any phytoplasma proteome to date. This study provided a valuable dataset of phytoplasma proteins, and a better understanding of the energy metabolism and virulence mechanisms of MD phytoplasma.

2010-01-01

49

Tussah Silk Fibroin Excels Silk Fibroin from the Domesticated Silkworm in Supporting the Development of Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Artificial prostheses that are made of biomaterials hold great promise in nerve tissue engineering for the regeneration of\\u000a nervous system after injury. Silk fibroin, a fibrous protein from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been studied\\u000a extensively for its biocompatibility with a variety of cells. However, little is known about the tussah silk fibroin (TSF),\\u000a a type of wild silks

J. Qu; L. Xin; X. Xu; F. Zhang; B. Zuo; H. Zhang

50

Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of two 30 kDa proteins from silkworm haemolymph  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP) and the low-molecular-mass lipo­protein PBMHP-12 belong to a group of 30?kDa proteins that comprise the major protein component of the haemolymph specific to the fifth-instar larvae stage of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. Proteins from this group are often essential for the development of the insect. In a project aimed at crystallographic characterization of B. mori JHBP (BmJHBP), it was copurified together with PBMHP-12. Eventually, the two proteins were isolated and crystallized separately. The BmJHBP crystals were orthorhombic (space group C2221) and the PBMHP-12 crystals were triclinic. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.9?Ĺ (BmJHBP) and 1.3?Ĺ (PBMHP-12) resolution.

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; Lochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2011-01-01

51

20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

52

Oxyresveratrol from Mulberry as a dihydrate.  

PubMed

The title compound {systematic name: 4-[(E)-2-(3,5-dihy-droxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]benzene-1,3-diol dihydrate}, C(14)H(12)O(4)·2H(2)O, a derivative of resveratrol, was isolated from mulberry. The linking C=C double bond has a trans conformation and allows the formation of a conjugated system throughout the mol-ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 9.39?(9)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture through O-H?O hydrogen bonds between hy-droxy groups of oxyresveratrol and solvent water mol-ecules. PMID:22590220

Deng, Hui; He, Xixin; Xu, Yujuan; Hu, Xiaopeng

2012-04-06

53

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties.  

PubMed

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers. PMID:22215590

Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J; Lewis, Randolph V; Jarvis, Donald L

2012-01-03

54

Cloning and expression of a cellulase gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori by improved Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV baculovirus expression system.  

PubMed

Cellulases catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose which are mainly three types: endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases. It can be used in converting cellulosic biomass to glucose that can be used in different applications such as production of fuel ethanol, animal feed, waste water treatment and in brewing industry. In this paper, we cloned a 1380-bp endoglucanase I (EG I) gene from mycelium of filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride strain AS 3.3711 using PCR-based exon splicing methods, and expressed the recombinant EG I mature peptide protein in both silkworm BmN cell line and silkworm larvae with a newly established Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV mutant baculovirus expression system, which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). An around 49-kDa protein was visualized after mBacmid/BmNPV/EG I infection, and the maximum expression in silkworm larvae was at 84 h post-infection. The ANOVA showed that the enzymes from recombinant baculoviruses infected silkworms exhibited significant maximum enzyme activity at the environmental condition of pH 7.0 and temperature 50°C. It was stable at pH range from 5.0 to 10.0 and at temperature range from 50 to 60°C, and increased 24.71 and 22.84% compared with that from wild baculoviruses infected silkworms and normal silkworms, respectively. The availability of large quantities of EG I that the silkworm provides maybe greatly facilitate the future research and the potential application in industries. PMID:20195768

Li, Xing-hua; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Hua-jun; Bhaskar, Roy; Hu, Jia-biao; Sun, Chun-guang; Miao, Yun-gen

2010-03-02

55

The pathway of ammonia assimilation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia can easily be assimilated into amino acids and used for silk-protein synthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. To determine the metabolic pathway of ammonia assimilation, silkworm larvae were injected with methionine sulfoximine (MS), a specific inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS). Activity of GS in the fat body 2h after treatment with 400?g MS decreased to less than 10% of

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1997-01-01

56

Effects of Mulberry Leaf Extract Rich in 1-Deoxynojirimycin on Blood Lipid Profiles in Humans  

PubMed Central

Mulberry leaves are rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase. We previously showed that DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract suppressed elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract on plasma lipid profiles in humans. An open-label, single-group study was conducted in 10 subjects with initial serum triglyceride (TG) level ?200 mg/dl. Subjects ingested capsules containing DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract at 12 mg three times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Our findings showed a modest decrease in serum TG level and beneficial changes in the lipoprotein profile following 12-week administration of DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract. No significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed during the study period; no adverse events associated with DNJ-rich mulberry leaf extract occurred.

Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Hasumi, Keiji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2010-01-01

57

Construction of fingerprinting and genetic diversity of mulberry cultivars in China by ISSR markers.  

PubMed

The ISSR fingerprintings of 24 mulberry cultivars were constructed. Totally 80 bands were produced using 17 primers selected from 20 primers. Of them, 40 bands showed polymorphism. From the bands amplified, there were three independent ways to identify the mulberry varieties, such as unique ISSR markers, unique band patterns and a combination of the band patterns provided by different primers. ISSRs were very effective in differentiating the mulberry varieties. The mean genetic similarity coefficient, the mean Nei's gene diversity (h), and the mean Shannon's Information index (I) of mulberry cultivars were 0.8731, 0.1210, and 0.1942, respectively. This suggests that the genetic diversity of mulberry cultivars was low and the genetic base was narrow. Both UPGMA cluster and PCA (Principal Coordinates Analysis) analysis showed clear genetic relationships among the 24 mulberry cultivars. The major clusters were related to known pedigree relationships. PMID:16980132

Zhao, Wei-Guo; Miao, Xue-Xia; Zang, Bo; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Yi-Le; Huang, Yong-Ping

2006-09-01

58

Diversity in Copy Number and Structure of a Silkworm Morphogenetic Gene as a Result of Domestication  

PubMed Central

The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strains, ranging from 1 to 20. The copies of CBP are of several types, based on the presence of a retrotransposon or partial deletion of the coding sequence. In contrast to B. mori, B. mandarina was found to possess a single copy of CBP without the retrotransposon insertion, regardless of habitat. Several other lepidopterans were found to contain sequences homologous to CBP, revealing that this gene is evolutionarily conserved in the lepidopteran lineage. Thus, domestication can generate significant diversity of gene copy number and structure over a relatively short evolutionary time.

Sakudoh, Takashi; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kuroki, Yoko; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Shimada, Toru; Nakagaki, Masao; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

2011-01-01

59

Molecular profiling of silkworm biodiversity in India.  

PubMed

Molecular tools opened a new vista to understand nature's bio-diversity and its relevance and the same approach was availed of to build-up the foundation work on the bio-diversity of silkworm spp in India. It is well established that the heritage of usage of silk for dress materials in India, Russia and China dates back to premedieval period and in spite of industrial development resulting to de-forestation, India still can claim as the owner of wide bio-diversity, espicially in northern India for silkworm spp. The molecular diversity was assessed among Antheraea mylitta, A. assama, A. pernyi, A. provlei, A. roylei and Philcosomia cynthia wiht 11 ISSR and 8 non-random primers on agarose gel. Nei's statistics as also Euclidean distance matrix was applied to find the genetic diversity between the six species, wherein the closest relationship between A. pernyi and A. proylei is established. With the help of POPGEN statistics, the average genetic heterozygosity appeared as 0.271 while Shanon's index is 0.4312 and alleles with segregation ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 9:1 (generated with ISSR primers) were identified which can be utilized for future molecular breeding porgram. Further, and attempt was made to isolate a number of bands generated with 3 ISSR and six non-random primers, specific for different species and 22 such markers have been characterized through sequencing which will be made available through international public domain database. PMID:15648144

Chatterjee, S N; Tanushree, T

2004-12-01

60

Isolation and characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ripe mulberries in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study.

Chen, Yi-sheng; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2010-01-01

61

Purification and biochemical characterization of a 70 kDa sericin from tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Sericin isolated from the cocoon of the tropical tasar silkmoth Antheraea mylitta showed three major bands, with the lowest 70 kDa. This band was purified by anion exchange chromatography. Immunoblotting with concanavalin-A suggests a glycoprotein and CD analysis of secondary structure includes beta-sheet. Amino acid analysis shows that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine while the mole percentages of these two amino acids are different from sericin of mulberry silkworm. An anti A. mylitta sericin antibody was able to cross-react with sericin from A. assamensis but not the sericin of Bombyx mori and Philosamia ricini. Immunoblot analysis with proteins isolated from middle silk gland of A. mylitta at different developmental stages of larva showed that the 70 kDa sericin is developmentally regulated. These data extend the range of biochemical features found in this unusual family of proteins and may help in developing an improved understanding of their role in forming environmentally stable fibroin fiber-sericin composite structures (cocoons). PMID:17350301

Dash, Rupesh; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kaplan, David L; Kundu, S C

2007-01-30

62

Protein Profile of Nomuraea rileyi Spore Isolated from Infected Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based\\u000a approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252

Lvgao Qin; Xiaoyong Liu; Jun Li; Huiqing Chen; Qin Yao; Zhe Yang; Lin Wang; Keping Chen

2009-01-01

63

Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial\\u000a purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a\\u000a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3–6 months).\\u000a The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and

Tatsuya Kato; Mizuho Kajikawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2010-01-01

64

Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the

Yong Hou; Yong Zou; Fei Wang; Jing Gong; Xiaowu Zhong; Qingyou Xia; Ping Zhao

2010-01-01

65

A new mapping method for quantitative trait loci of silkworm  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm is the basis of sericultural industry and the model organism in insect genetics study. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying economically important traits of silkworm is of high significance for promoting the silkworm molecular breeding and advancing our knowledge on genetic architecture of the Lepidoptera. Yet, the currently used mapping methods are not well suitable for silkworm, because of ignoring the recombination difference in meiosis between two sexes. Results A mixed linear model including QTL main effects, epistatic effects, and QTL × sex interaction effects was proposed for mapping QTLs in an F2 population of silkworm. The number and positions of QTLs were determined by F-test and model selection. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was employed to estimate and test genetic effects of QTLs and QTL × sex interaction effects. The effectiveness of the model and statistical method was validated by a series of simulations. The results indicate that when markers are distributed sparsely on chromosomes, our method will substantially improve estimation accuracy as compared to the normal chiasmate F2 model. We also found that a sample size of hundreds was sufficiently large to unbiasedly estimate all the four types of epistases (i.e., additive-additive, additive-dominance, dominance-additive, and dominance-dominance) when the paired QTLs reside on different chromosomes in silkworm. Conclusion The proposed method could accurately estimate not only the additive, dominance and digenic epistatic effects but also their interaction effects with sex, correcting the potential bias and precision loss in the current QTL mapping practice of silkworm and thus representing an important addition to the arsenal of QTL mapping tools.

2011-01-01

66

Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves. PMID:23292544

Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2012-12-22

67

WildSilkbase: An EST database of wild silkmoths  

PubMed Central

Background Functional genomics has particular promise in silkworm biology for identifying genes involved in a variety of biological functions that include: synthesis and secretion of silk, sex determination pathways, insect-pathogen interactions, chorionogenesis, molecular clocks. Wild silkmoths have hardly been the subject of detailed scientific investigations, owing largely to non-availability of molecular and genetic data on these species. As a first step, in the present study we generated large scale expressed sequence tags (EST) in three economically important species of wild silkmoths. In order to make these resources available for the use of global scientific community, an EST database called 'WildSilkbase' was developed. Description WildSilkbase is a catalogue of ESTs generated from several tissues at different developmental stages of 3 economically important saturniid silkmoths, an Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama, an Indian tropical tasar silkmoth, A. mylitta and eri silkmoth, Samia cynthia ricini. Currently the database is provided with 57,113 ESTs which are clustered and assembled into 4,019 contigs and 10,019 singletons. Data can be browsed and downloaded using a standard web browser. Users can search the database either by BLAST query, keywords or Gene Ontology query. There are options to carry out searches for species, tissue and developmental stage specific ESTs in BLAST page. Other features of the WildSilkbase include cSNP discovery, GO viewer, homologue finder, SSR finder and links to all other related databases. The WildSilkbase is freely available from . Conclusion A total of 14,038 putative unigenes was identified in 3 species of wild silkmoths. These genes provide important resources to gain insight into the functional and evolutionary study of wild silkmoths. We believe that WildSilkbase will be extremely useful for all those researchers working in the areas of comparative genomics, functional genomics and molecular evolution in general, and gene discovery, gene organization, transposable elements and genome variability of insect species in particular.

Arunkumar, KP; Tomar, Archana; Daimon, Takaaki; Shimada, Toru; Nagaraju, J

2008-01-01

68

DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

69

Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity.

Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

2013-01-01

70

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Mulberry, Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials.

Zou, Tang-Bin; Wang, Min; Gan, Ren-You; Ling, Wen-Hua

2011-01-01

71

Fruit Body Formation on Silkworm by Cordyceps militaris  

PubMed Central

Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori (B. mori). Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body production. Use of Daeseungjam rather than Baegokjam or Keumokjam varieties of B. mori is thought to be suitable for infection by C. militaris. From mounting, nine-day-old to 11-day-old pupae showed the best incidence of infection with a 100 µL injection volume. Silkworm pupae injected with a hyphal suspension concentration of more than 2 × 105 colony-forming unit (cfu) recorded a greater than 96% incidence of infection. Also, fruit bodies of C. militaris were induced and produced at a light intensity between 500 and 1,000 lx.

Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Ki-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Lee, Man-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Humber, Richard A.

2010-01-01

72

Antioxidant Capacities of Fruit Extracts of Five Mulberry Genotypes with Different Assays and Principle Components Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a basis and principle for developing an integrated antioxidant assay of mulberry. Five genotypes (Miaoli No. 1, 73C020, 46C019, 74H3023, and 68H22024) and three maturity stages (unripe, medium ripe and fully ripe) of mulberry (Morus sp.) fruit were analyzed for their total phenolic contents (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl–scavenging (DPPH-SC) ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical antioxidant

Ran-Juh Wang; Miao-Lin Hu

2011-01-01

73

The nutritive value of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) as a feed supplement for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg?1 on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral\\u000a detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in

K. Kandylis; I. Hadjigeorgiou; P. Harizanis

2009-01-01

74

Nature of heterosis and combining ability in the silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isogenic, highly heterotic parthenoclone 29, originating from a hybrid silkworm female, was transformed via unisexual reproduction (meiotic and ameiotic parthenogenesis) into four genotypical variants differing in well-known various levels of hetero zygosity and combinations of useful and harmful genes. A comparison of these changes with the heterosis level made it possible to discover that both heterosity for adaptively neutral

V. A. Strunnikov; N. K. Koltsov

1986-01-01

75

Mulberry Fruit (Moris fructus) Extracts Induce Human Glioma Cell Death In Vitro Through ROS-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibits Glioma Tumor Growth In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry has been reported to contain wide range of polyphenols and have chemopreventive activity. However, little has been known regarding the effect of mulberry fruit extracts on cell viability in vitro in human glioma cells and the anticancer efficacy in vivo. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of mulberry fruit (Moris fructus; MF) extracts on cell viability in

Ji Cheon Jeong; Sang Won Jang; Thae Hyun Kim; Chae Hwa Kwon; Yong Keun Kim

2010-01-01

76

Expansion of the silkworm GMC oxidoreductase genes is associated with immunity.  

PubMed

The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases constitute a large gene family in insects. Some of these enzymes play roles in developmental or physiological process, such as ecdysteroid metabolism. However, little is known about the functional diversity of the insect GMC family. Here, we identified 43 GMC genes in the silkworm genome, the largest number of GMC genes among all the insect genomes sequenced to date. Similar to the other insects, there is a highly conserved GMC cluster within the second intron of the silkworm flotillin-2 (flo-2) gene. However, the silkworm GMC genes outside of the conserved GMC cluster have experienced a large expansion. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the silkworm GMC? subfamily contained 22 copies and made a major contribution to expansion of the silkworm GMC genes. Eighteen of the 22 members of the silkworm GMC? subfamily are located outside of the conserved GMC cluster, and are known as silkworm expansion genes (SEs). Relative-rate tests showed that SEs evolved significantly faster than the GMC? genes inside the conserved GMC cluster. Accordingly, the third position GC content (GC3s) and codon bias of SEs are significantly different from those of the GMC? genes in the conserved GMC cluster. The elevated evolutionary rate of the silkworm GMC? genes outside of the conserved GMC cluster may reflect the evolution of function diversity. At least 24 of the 43 silkworm GMC genes were differently transcribed and expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner during the larval stage. Strikingly, microarray data revealed that four different pathogens upregulated most of the silkworm GMC? genes. Furthermore, RNA interference of representative upregulated GMC? genes reduced the survival rate of the silkworm when infected by pathogens. Taken together, the results suggested that expansion of the silkworm GMC oxidoreductase genes is associated with immunity. PMID:23022604

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Yang, Wen-Juan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhang, Ze

2012-09-25

77

33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.280 James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry...

2010-07-01

78

33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.280 James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry...

2009-07-01

79

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) as a commensal model for human mobility in Oceania: anthropological, botanical and genetic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.) was one of the most widely distributed crop species in prehistoric Oceania, occurring from continental East Asia to the Polynesian islands. Its broad distribution is largely due to human-mediated dispersal during colonization of the islands of Near and Remote Oceania. We explore the potential for analyses of genetic variation in paper mulberry and the

D Seelenfreund; AC Clarke; N Oyanedel; R Pińa; S Lobos; EA Matisoo-Smith; A Seelenfreund

2011-01-01

80

Phenolics and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves depend on cultivar and harvest month in southern china.  

PubMed

To elucidate the effects of cultivar and harvest month on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves, four major phenolics, including chlorogenic acid (ChA), benzoic acid (BeA), rutin (Rut) and astragalin (Ast), were quantified using an HPLC-UV method. Leaves from six mulberry cultivars, collected from April to October, were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HSA) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SSA) assays. The results showed that the total values of the four phenolic compounds ranged from 2.3 dry weight (DW) to 4.2 mg/g DW, with ChA being the major compound. The mean total phenol (TP) content of the six cultivars ranged from 30.4 equivalents (GAE) mg/g DW to 44.7 GAE mg/g DW. Mulberry leaves harvested in May had the highest TP content. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves harvested from April to October differed noticeably. In general, Kq 10 and May were considered to be a better cultivar and harvest month concerning phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. PMID:23443117

Zou, Yuxiao; Liao, Shentai; Shen, Weizhi; Liu, Fan; Tang, Cuiming; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Sun, Yuanming

2012-12-05

81

Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries.  

PubMed

Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an agricultural pest with a wide host range. It is known to infest fruit that are still ripening on the plant, as well as rotting and damaged fruit. Our study sought to determine whether D. suzukii use mulberries (Morus spp.) and figs (Ficus carica (L.)) as hosts, as their host status was ambiguous. Accordingly, we collected 25 field-infested fruit and counted the numbers of D. suzukii emerging from them. We also sought to determine whether female D. suzukii would respond to olfactory cues from ripe figs and mulberries. As the host population has been known to impact host odor response, flies from mulberry, fig, and cherry origins were tested in "one-choice" olfactometry studies. Our results show that mulberries and figs can serve as hosts for D. suzukii and that female flies will respond to their odors. The host population did affect response to fruit odors, although further studies are necessary to determine habitat fidelity. This has implications for management of this pest, especially in backyard and mixed fruit orchard situations, which commonly occur in the current range of D. suzukii, and fig and mulberry may serve as a pest reservoir for other hosts and cultivated crops. PMID:24020313

Yu, Doris; Zalom, F G; Hamby, K A

2013-08-01

82

Use of silkworms to evaluate the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen.  

PubMed

Injection of a Japanese cedar pollen suspension into silkworm hemolymph kills the silkworms. A certain species of bacteria proliferated in the hemolymph of the dead silkworms. A 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that the proliferating bacteria were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Among them, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis exhibited hemolysis against sheep red blood cells and were lethal to mice. A culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens showed enzyme activity toward the pectic membrane of cedar pollen. These results suggest that silkworms as an animal model are useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen. PMID:24071577

Hu, Y; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K

2013-08-01

83

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

84

Unusually high concentration of free glycine in the midgut content of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and other lepidopteran larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of investigating the digestion and the absorption of dietary protein by the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on an artificial diet, we found the existence of an unusually high concentration of free glycine in the midgut content compared with other amino acids. To test whether this free glycine is from diet or from the silkworm itself, silkworm larvae

Kotaro Konno; Chikara Hirayama; Hiroshi Shinbo

1996-01-01

85

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

2009-01-01

86

Proteomic Analysis of Larval Midgut from the Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

PubMed Central

The midgut is the major organ for food digestion, nutrient absorption and also a barrier for foreign substance. The 5th-instar larval stage of silkworm is very important for larval growth, development, and silk production. In the present study, we used 2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to analyze the midgut proteins from the 5th-instar larvae as well as the midgut proteins under starvation condition. A total of 96 proteins were identified in this study; and among them, 69 proteins were observed in midgut for the first time. We also found that the silkworm larval midgut responded to starvation by producing a 10?kDa heat shock protein and a diapause hormone precursor.

Zhang, Sai; Xu, Yunmin; Fu, Qiang; Jia, Ling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2011-01-01

87

Protein profile of Nomuraea rileyi spore isolated from infected silkworm.  

PubMed

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252 proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and were subjected to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, 121 proteins have good MS signal, and 24 of them were identified due to unavailability of genomic information from N. rileyi. This data will be helpful in understanding the biochemistry of N. rileyi. PMID:19288155

Qin, Lvgao; Liu, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun; Chen, Huiqing; Yao, Qin; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Lin; Chen, Keping

2009-03-14

88

Utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2–30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME=2905–2935 kcal\\/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds

P. V Rangacharyulu; S. S Giri; B. N Paul; K. P Yashoda; R. Jagannatha Rao; N. S Mahendrakar; S. N Mohanty; P. K Mukhopadhyay

2003-01-01

89

Optical penetration-based silkworm pupa gender sensor structure.  

PubMed

This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates for what is believed to be the first time a highly sought-after optical structure for highly-accurate identification of the silkworm pupa gender. The key idea is to exploit a long wavelength optical beam in the red or near infrared spectrum that can effectively and safely penetrate the body of a silkworm pupa. Later on, simple image processing operations via image thresholding, blob filtering, and image inversion processes are applied in order to eliminate the unwanted image noises and at the same time highlight the gender gland. Experimental proof of concept using three 636 nm wavelength light emitting diodes, a two-dimensional web camera, an 8 bit microcontroller board, and a notebook computer shows a very high 95.6% total accuracy in identifying the gender of 45 silkworm pupae with a measured fast identification time of 96.6 ms. Other key features include low cost, low component counts, and ease of implementation and control. PMID:22307109

Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Kamtongdee, Chakkrit

2012-02-01

90

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

91

Identification and Characterization of an Arginine Kinase as a Major Allergen from Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important insect in the textile industry and its pupa are used in Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine. The silk, urine and dander of silkworms is often the cause of allergies in sericulture workers and the pupa has been found to be a food allergen in China. Recent studies have focused on reporting

Zhigang Liu; Lixin Xia; Yulan Wu; Qingyou Xia; Jiajie Chen; Kenneth H. Roux

2009-01-01

92

?-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry ( Morus alba) leaves on Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brewing time on dry weight content and ?-glucosidase inhibitory active component released from mulberry (Morus alba) tea were studied. Different tea products showed significant differences in inhibitory activity against both sucrase and maltase. The most effective enzyme inhibition was observed when 3 to 5 min brewing time was applied in tea preparation. In a Caco-2 cell culture experiment

Chanida Hansawasdi; Jun Kawabata

2006-01-01

93

Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry ( Morus indica L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of methanol, acetone and water extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves were examined. Various experimental models including iron (III) reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and in vitro inhibition of ferrous sulphate-induced oxidation of lipid system were used for characterization of antioxidant activity of extracts. The three extracts showed

Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2007-01-01

94

Heterologous expression characteristics of Trichoderma viride endoglucanase V in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

Efficient degradation of cellulose needs a synergistic reaction of the cellulolytic enzymes, which include exoglucanases, endoglucanases, and ?-1,4-glucosidase. In this study, we used an improved Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV baculovirus expression system, which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), to express the endoglucanase V (EG V) gene from Trichoderma viride in silkworm BmN cells and silkworm larvae, and analyzed the characteristics of the recombinant enzyme in silkworm larvae. The result showed that an around 36-kDa protein was visualized in BmN cells at 48 h after the second-generation recombinant mBacmid/BmNPV/EG V baculovirus infection. The crude enzyme extract from the recombinant baculoviruses-infected silkworms exhibited a significant maximum activity at the environmental condition of pH 5.0 and a temperature of 50 °C, and increased 39.86% and 37.76% compared with that from blank mBacmid/BmNPV baculovirus-infected silkworms and normal silkworms, respectively. It was stable at pH range from 5.0 to 10.0 and at temperature range from 40 to 60 °C. The availability of large quantities of EG V that the silkworm provides might greatly facilitate the future research and the potential application in industries. PMID:21625870

Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Mei-Xian; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Jia-Biao; Sun, Chun-Guang; Liu, Xin-Ju; Zhou, Fang; Niu, Yan-Shan; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Bhaskar, Roy; Yang, Hua-Jun; Miao, Yun-Gen

2011-05-31

95

Transcriptome Analysis of the Silkworm (Bombyx mori) by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model insect with important economic value for silk production that also acts as a bioreactor for biomaterial production. The functional complexity of the silkworm transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated, although genomic sequencing and other tools have been widely used in its study. We explored the transcriptome of silkworm at different developmental stages using high-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing. A total of about 3.3 gigabases (Gb) of sequence was obtained, representing about a 7-fold coverage of the B. mori genome. From the reads that were mapped to the genome sequence; 23,461 transcripts were obtained, 5,428 of them were novel. Of the 14,623 predicted protein-coding genes in the silkworm genome database, 11,884 of them were found to be expressed in the silkworm transcriptome, giving a coverage of 81.3%. A total of 13,195 new exons were detected, of which, 5,911 were found in the annotated genes in the Silkworm Genome Database (SilkDB). An analysis of alternative splicing in the transcriptome revealed that 3,247 genes had undergone alternative splicing. To help with the data analysis, a transcriptome database that integrates our transcriptome data with the silkworm genome data was constructed and is publicly available at http://124.17.27.136/gbrowse2/. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the silkworm transcriptome using high-throughput RNA sequencing technology. Our data indicate that the transcriptome of silkworm is much more complex than previously anticipated. This work provides tools and resources for the identification of new functional elements and paves the way for future functional genomics studies.

Tian, Jian; Liu, Huifen; Yang, Huipeng; Yi, Yongzhu; Wang, Jinhui; Shi, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Feng; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Zhifang

2012-01-01

96

The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. Results From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Conclusions Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori.

2010-01-01

97

Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly  

PubMed Central

Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the “empty neuron” system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A.; Leal, Walter S.

2010-01-01

98

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

99

[Effects of mulberry/soybean intercropping on the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbial number and enzyme activities].  

PubMed

A root separation experiment was conducted to investigate the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbes and enzyme activities in a mulberry/soybean intercropping system. As compared with those in plastic barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments, the plant height, leaf number, root length, root nodule number, and root/shoot ratio of mulberry and soybean in non-barrier treatment were significantly higher, and the soybean's effective nodule number was larger. The available phosphorous content in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean in no barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments was increased by 10.3% and 11.1%, and 5.1% and 4.6%, respectively, as compared with that in plastic barrier treatment. The microbial number, microbial diversity, and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean were higher in the treatments of no barrier and nylon mesh barrier than in the treatment of plastic barrier. All the results indicated that there was an obvious interspecific synergistic effect between mulberry and soybean in the mulberry/soybean intercropping system. PMID:24015565

Hu, Ju-Wei; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Li, Xin; Yue, Bing-Bing; Sun, Guang-yu

2013-05-01

100

Microarray-based gene expression profiles in multiple tissues of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We designed and constructed a genome-wide microarray with 22,987 70-mer oligonucleotides covering the presently known and predicted genes in the silkworm genome, and surveyed the gene expression in multiple silkworm tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. Clusters of tissue-prevalent and tissue-specific genes and genes that are differentially expressed in different tissues were identified, and they reflect well major tissue-specific functions on the molecular level. The data presented in this study provide a new resource for annotating the silkworm genome.

Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Cheng, Tingcai; Zha, Xingfu; Liu, Chun; Zhao, Ping; Dai, Fangyin; Zhang, Ze; He, Ningjia; Zhang, Liang; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2007-01-01

101

A comparative analysis of serpin genes in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of proteins, most of which control protease-mediated processes by inhibiting their cognate enzymes. Sequencing of the silkworm genome provides an opportunity to investigate serpin structure, function, and evolution at the genome level. There are thirty-four serpin genes in Bombyx mori. Six are highly similar to their Manduca sexta orthologs that regulate innate immunity. Three alternative exons in serpin1 gene and four in serpin28 encode a variable region including the reactive site loop. Splicing of serpin2 pre-mRNA yields variations in serpin2A, 2A? and 2B. Sequence similarity and intron positions reveal the evolutionary pathway of seven serpin genes in group C. RT-PCR indicates an increase in the mRNA levels of serpin1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 25, 27, 32 and 34 in fat body and hemocytes of larvae injected with bacteria. These results suggest that the silkworm serpins play regulatory roles in defense responses.

Zou, Zhen; Picheng, Zhao; Weng, Hua; Mita, Kazuei; Jiang, Haobo

2009-01-01

102

Microarray-based gene expression profiles of silkworm brains  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. Results We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains at four stages including V7, P1, P3 and P5. A total of 4,550 genes were transcribed in at least one selected stage. Of these, clustering algorithms separated the expressed genes into stably expressed genes and variably expressed genes. The results of the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis of stably expressed genes showed that the ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were principal pathways. Secondly, four clusters of genes with significantly different expression patterns were observed in the 1,175 variably expressed genes. Thirdly, thirty-two neuropeptide genes, six neuropeptide-like precursor genes, and 117 cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected developmental stages. Conclusion Major characteristics of the transcriptional profiles in the brains of Bombyx mori at specific development stages were present in this study. Our data provided useful information for future research.

2011-01-01

103

Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals.

2012-01-01

104

The chloroplast genome of mulberry: complete nucleotide sequence, gene organization and comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of mulberry (Morus indica cv. K2) chloroplast genome (158,484 bp) has been determined using a combination of long PCR and shotgun-based approaches. This is the third angiosperm tree species whose plastome sequence has been completely deciphered. The circular double-stranded molecule comprises of two identical inverted repeats (25,678 bp each) separating a large and a small single-copy region of

V. Ravi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Paramjit Khurana

2006-01-01

105

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

106

An Evolutionary Perspective of Pierce's Disease of Grapevine, Citrus Variegated Chlorosis, and Mulberry Leaf Scorch Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa causes diseases on a growing list of economically important plants. An understanding of how xylellae diseases originated\\u000a and evolved is important for disease prevention and management. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic relationships\\u000a of X. fastidiosa strains from citrus, grapevine, and mulberry through the analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and conserved\\u000a 16S rDNA genes. RAPD

Jianchi Chen; John S. Hartung; Chung-Jan Chang; Anne K. Vidaver

2002-01-01

107

Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

2005-01-01

108

An integrated diagnostic approach to understand drought tolerance in mulberry ( Morus indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four popular mulberry cultivars (Morus indica L. cvs.V-1, MR-2, S-36 and K-2) were assessed for drought tolerance with an integration of selective approaches. The potted plants were subjected to two watering treatments for 75 days: control pots were watered up to 100% field capacity (FC) and stressed pots were maintained at 25–30% FC. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs),

Anirban Guha; Debashree Sengupta; Girish Kumar Rasineni; Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy

2010-01-01

109

Dosage analysis of Z chromosome genes using microarray in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many organisms, dosage compensation is needed to equalize sex-chromosome gene expression in males and females. Several genes on silkworm Z chromosome were previously detected to show a higher expression level in males and lacked dosage compensation. Whether silkworm lacks global dosage compensation still remains poorly known. Here, we analyzed male:female (M:F) ratios of expression of chromosome-wide Z-linked genes in

Xingfu Zha; Qingyou Xia; Jun Duan; Chunyun Wang; Ningjia He; Zhonghuai Xiang

2009-01-01

110

Evaluating efficacy of bacteriophage therapy against Staphylococcus aureus infections using a silkworm larval infection model.  

PubMed

Silkworm larva has recently been recognized as an alternative model animal for higher mammals to evaluate the effects of antibiotics. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which harnesses phages as antibacterial agents, against Staphylococcus aureus infections, using the silkworm larval infection model. Two newly isolated staphylococcal phages, S25-3 and S13', were used as therapeutic phage candidates. They were assigned to two different lytic phage genera, Twort-like and AHJD-like viruses, based on their morphologies and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major capsid proteins. Both had a broad host range and strong lytic activity and showed preservative quality. Administration of these phages alone caused no adverse effects in the silkworm larvae. Moreover, the viruses showed life-prolonging effects in the silkworm larval infection model 10 min, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h following infection. Such phage effects in the silkworm larval model were almost paralleled to the therapeutic efficacies in mouse models. These results suggest that phages S25-3 and S13' are eligible as therapeutic candidates and that the silkworm larval model is valid for the evaluation of phage therapy as well as mouse models. PMID:23869440

Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Ujihara, Takako; Ohara, Naoya; Daibata, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu

2013-08-06

111

Analysis of the activity of virus internal ribosome entry site in silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been widely used in genetic engineering; however, the application in silkworm (Bombyx mori) has hardly been reported. In this study, the biological activity of partial sequence of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES, Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) IRES, and the hybrid of IRES of EMCV and RhPV were investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell line and silkworm tissues. The hybrid IRES of EMCV and RhPV showed more effective than EMCV IRES or RhPV IRES in promoting downstream gene expression in insect and silkworm. The activities of all IRESs in middle silk gland of silkworm were higher than those in the fat body and posterior silk gland. The hybrid IRES of EMCV and RhPV was integrated into silkworm genome by transgenic technology to test biological activity of IRES. Each of the positive transgenic individuals had significant expression of report gene EGFP. These results suggested that IRES has a potential to be used in the genetic engineering research of silkworm. PMID:23644592

Ye, Lupeng; Zhuang, Lanfang; Li, Jisheng; You, Zhengying; Liang, Jianshe; Wei, Hao; Lin, Jianrong; Zhong, Boxiong

2013-05-03

112

Toxicity of two type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (cinnamomin and ricin) to domestic silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Cinnamomin and ricin are two type II ribosome-inactivating proteins. They exhibited a different toxicity to domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae by oral feeding bioassay. The LC50 of ricin to the silkworm larvae at third instar was much lower than that of cinnamomin. When the isolated 80S ribosome from domestic silkworm pupae was treated separately with the reduced cinnamomin or the reduced ricin, a specific RNA fragment (R-fragment) was produced as characterized by 8 M urea-denatured polyacrylamide gel (3.5%) electrophoresis. The purified A-chains of both cinnamomin and ricin showed a slightly different RNA N-glycosidase activity to the domestic silkworm pupal ribosome. It was proposed that the difference of their toxicity to domestic silkworm larvae was not related to their A-chains but to the properties of their B-chains. It was also found that the vomit obtained from the midgut of domestic silkworm larvae could hydrolyze these two proteins apparently to a similar extent. PMID:15540278

Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Ren-Shui; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Wang-Yi

2004-12-01

113

Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells on non-mulberry and mulberry silk gland fibroin 3D scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of 3D silk scaffolds fabricated using tropical tasar non-mulberry, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry, Bombyx mori silk gland fibroin proteins as substrate for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). The scaffolds are mechanically robust and show homogenous pore distribution with high porosity and interconnected pore walls. Low immunogenicity of fabricated silk scaffolds as estimated through TNF alpha release indicates its potential as future biopolymeric graft material. Rat bone marrow cells cultured on scaffolds for 28 days under static conditions in osteogenic and adipogenic media respectively led to induction of differentiation. Proliferation and spreading of fibroblasts and bone marrow cells on silk scaffolds were observed to be dependent on scaffold porosity as revealed through confocal microscopic observations. Histological analysis shows osteogenic differentiation within silk scaffolds resulting in extensive mineralization in the form of deposited nodules as observed through intense Alizarin Red S staining. Similarly, adipogenesis was marked by the presence of lipid droplets within scaffolds on staining with Oil Red O. Real-time PCR studies reveal higher transcript levels for osteopontin (Spp1), osteocalcin (Bglap2) and osteonectin (Sparc) genes under osteogenic conditions. Similarly, upregulated adipogenic gene expression was observed within A. mylitta and B. mori scaffolds under adipogenic conditions for Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adipocyte binding protein (aP2) genes. The results suggest suitability of silk fibroin protein 3D scaffolds as natural biopolymer for potential bone and adipose tissue engineering applications. PMID:19577292

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-07-03

114

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-06-12

115

Fine mapping of a supernumerary proleg mutant (E(Cs) -l) and comparative expression analysis of the abdominal-A gene in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Patterning and phenotypic variations of appendages in insects provide important clues on developmental genetics. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, morphological variations associated with the E complex, an analogue of the Drosophila melanogaster bithorax complex, mainly determine the shape and number of prolegs on abdominal segments. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the allele responsible for the supernumerary crescents and legs-like (E(Cs) -l) mutant, a model derived from spontaneous mutation of the E complex, with supernumerary legs and extra crescents. Fine mapping with 1605 individuals revealed a ?68?kb sequence in the upstream intergenic region of B.?mori abdominal-A (Bmabd-A) clustered with the E(Cs) -l locus. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses disclosed a marked increase in Bmabd-A expression in the E(Cs) -l mutant at both the transcriptional and translational levels, compared to wild-type Dazao. Furthermore, we observed ectopic expression of the Bmabd-A protein in the second abdominal segment (A2) of the E(Cs) -l mutant. Our results collectively suggest that the 68?kb region contains important regulatory elements of the Bmabd-A gene, and provide evidence that the gene is required for limb development in abdominal segments in the silkworm. PMID:23803144

Chen, P; Tong, X-L; Li, D-D; Liang, P-F; Fu, M-Y; Li, C-F; Hu, H; Xiang, Z-H; Lu, C; Dai, F-Y

2013-06-27

116

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope.  

PubMed

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species. PMID:17057700

Holland, C; Terry, A E; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

2006-10-22

117

Identification of plasmalogen in the gut of silkworm (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

Herbivorous insect species are constantly challenged with endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress. Consequently, they possess an array of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants. Lipid-soluble small molecular antioxidants, such as tocopherols, have not been well studied in insects but may play important antioxidant roles. In this study, we identified plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamines (pPEs) as well as ?-, ?/?-, ?-tocopherol in the larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori by LCMS analyses and examined their distribution. Plasmalogen are reported to inhibit the metal ion induced oxidation. The composition of tocopherols was the same among gut contents, gut tissues, and the other tissues. However, plasmalogens, a unique class of glycerophospholipids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and containing a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position, were mainly distributed in gut tissues. Plasmalogens might protect gut tissues from oxidation stress. PMID:22580185

Aboshi, Takako; Nishida, Ritsuo; Mori, Naoki

2012-05-03

118

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

2006-11-01

119

Zygotic amplification of secondary piRNAs during silkworm embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 23–30-nucleotide-long small RNAs that act as sequence-specific silencers of transposable elements in animal gonads. In flies, genetics and deep sequencing data have led to a hypothesis for piRNA biogenesis called the ping-pong cycle, where antisense primary piRNAs initiate an amplification loop to generate sense secondary piRNAs. However, to date, the process of the ping-pong cycle has never been monitored at work. Here, by large-scale profiling of piRNAs from silkworm ovary and embryos of different developmental stages, we demonstrate that maternally inherited antisense-biased piRNAs trigger acute amplification of secondary sense piRNA production in zygotes, at a time coinciding with zygotic transcription of sense transposon mRNAs. These results provide on-site evidence for the ping-pong cycle.

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Arai, Yuji; Kadota, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hara, Kahori; Sugano, Sumio; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2011-01-01

120

Specificity determinants of the silkworm moth sex pheromone.  

PubMed

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1-C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A; Leal, Walter S

2012-09-05

121

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

122

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone-Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

123

ISSR profiling of genetic variability in the ecotypes of Antheraea mylitta Drury, the tropical Tasar silkworm.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta, Drury, the semi-wild silk-producing lepidopteran insect commonly known as tasar silkworm is unique to India and is distributed over a wide tropical forest range covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madnya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttaranchal. The populations found in different areas are know by their specific local names and are considered as different ecotypes, but it is difficult to separate the populations on the basis of morphological and life-cycle traits and thus molecular characterization was attempted. The present communication relates to the results obtained from the analysis of polymorphism unraveled by twelve ISSR primers for 11 populations of A. mylitta belonging to six ecotypes and 41 individuals of "Railey"--ecotype collected from five zones of Dandakarnya forest in Madnya Pradesh. This communication, further, presents molecular evidences on genetic differences between eleven ecotype populations and highlights the genotypic diversification of a single ecotype into further separate discrete gene pools. The canonical discriminant function analysis revealed grouping of the five populations of Railey ecotype into two "clumps", while accessions of other ecotypes stood separated from each other. Thr "Railey" populations on detailed study, further, revealed separation of two (Tokapal and Nangur) populations into discrete gene pools and the other three (Kondagaon, Darba and Tongpal) populations, in spite of larger geographic distance between them, overlapped one on the other. The analysis also identified nine markers, which can be utilized to characterize specific population and will be of help to follow the ongoing genetic changes triggered by various ecological factors and human influences on the "Railey" ecotype. PMID:15065428

Chatterjee, S N; Vijayan, K; Roy, G C; Nair, C V

2004-02-01

124

Analysis of Genetic Divergence for Classification of Morphological and Larval Gain Characteristics of Peanut Cocoon Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis was undertaken for grouping the 51 lines silkworm, Bombyx mori L., based on larval gains parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from one rearing seasons with all 51 peanut cocoon strains of silkworm and varying morphological development potentials. The results indicate that two clusters can be realized based on larval

M. Salehi Nezhad; S. Z. Mirhosseini

2009-01-01

125

Silkworm eggs: An ideal model for studying the biological effects of low energy Ar+ ion interaction in animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of the current work was to study low energy Ar+ ion beam interactions with silkworm eggs and thus provide further understanding of the mechanisms involved in ion bombardment-induced direct gene transfer into silkworm eggs. In this paper, using low-energy Ar+ ion beam bombardment combined with piggyBac transposon, we developed a novel method to induce gene transfer in silkworm. Using bombardment conditions optimized for egg-incubation (25 keV with ion fluences of 800 × 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2 in dry state under vacuum), vector pBac{3 × P3-EGFPaf} and helper plasmid pHA3pig were successfully transferred into the silkworm eggs. Our results obtained from by PCR assay and genomic Southern blotting analysis of the G1 generations provide evidence that low-energy ion beam can generate some craters that play a role in acting as pathways of exogenous DNA molecules into silkworm eggs.

Ling, Lin; Liu, Xuelan; Xu, Jiaping; You, Zhengying; Zhou, Jingbo

2011-09-01

126

PhiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange in silkworm embryos.  

PubMed

To construct an effective site-specific integration system in the silkworm, we examined if phiC31 integrase works in silkworm embryos. As an assay system, we constructed an extrachromosomal cassette exchange reaction system between two attP sites of an acceptor plasmid and two attB sites of a donor plasmid. To evaluate the activity, integrase mRNAs synthesized from three different plasmids were used. We injected a mixture of the acceptor and donor plasmids with the mRNA synthesized in vitro from one of the three plasmids into silkworm embryos at 4-6 h after oviposition and recovered plasmid DNAs from the embryos 3 days after injection. The resultant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli and spread on selection medium plates containing the appropriate antibiotics. A colony-forming assay and restriction enzyme digestion of the plasmids purified from the colonies showed that the phiC31 integrase worked very efficiently in the silkworm embryos. Notably, a phiC31 integrase mRNA synthesized from two of the plasmids produced cassette exchange plasmids at a high frequency, suggesting that the mRNA can be used to construct a targeted integration system in silkworms. PMID:22842670

Yonemura, N; Tamura, T; Uchino, K; Kobayashi, I; Tatematsu, K; Iizuka, T; Sezutsu, H; Muthulakshmi, M; Nagaraju, J; Kusakabe, T

2012-07-29

127

Expression, purification and antigenicity of Neospora caninum-antigens using silkworm larvae targeting for subunit vaccines.  

PubMed

Infection of Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. Now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. In this study, N. caninum surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and SAG1-related sequence 2 (SRS2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. Expressed SAG1 and SRS2 clearly showed antigenicity against N. caninum-positive sera of cow. SAG1 and SRS2 were purified to near homogeneity from hemolymph of silkworm larvae using anti-FLAG M2 antibody agarose: approximately 1.7 mg of SAG1 from 10 silkworm larvae and 370 ?g of SRS2 from 17 silkworm larvae. Mice that were injected by antigens induced antibodies against SAG1 and SRS2. This study indicates that it is possible that this silkworm expression system leads to a large-scale production of N. caninum-antigens with biological function and low production cost. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system paves the way to produce largely and rapidly these recombinant antigens for its application to subunit vaccines against neosporosis in cattle. PMID:23102762

Otsuki, Takahiro; Dong, Jinhua; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2012-10-08

128

Identification and Evolution of the Silkworm Helitrons and their Contribution to Transcripts  

PubMed Central

In this study, we developed a structure-based approach to identify Helitrons in four lepidopterans and systematically analysed Helitrons in the silkworm genome. We found that the content of Helitrons varied greatly among genomes. The silkworm genome harboured 67 555 Helitron-related sequences that could be classified into 21 families and accounted for ?4.23% of the genome. Thirteen of the families were new. Three families were putatively autonomous and included the replication initiator motif and helicase domain. The silkworm Helitrons were widely and randomly distributed in the genome. Most Helitron families radiated within the past 2 million years and experienced a single burst of expansion. These Helitron families captured 3724 gene fragments and contributed to at least 1.4% of the silkworm full-length cDNAs, suggesting important roles of Helitrons in the evolution of the silkworm genes. In addition, we found that some new Helitrons were generated by combinations of other Helitrons. Overall, the results presented in this study provided insights into the generation and evolution of Helitron transposons and their contribution to transcripts.

Han, Min-Jin; Shen, Yi-Hong; Xu, Meng-Shu; Liang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Zhang, Ze

2013-01-01

129

Repression of tyrosine hydroxylase is responsible for the sex-linked chocolate mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation patterning has long interested biologists, integrating topics in ecology, development, genetics, and physiology. Wild-type neonatal larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are completely black. By contrast, the epidermis and head of larvae of the homozygous recessive sex-linked chocolate (sch) mutant are reddish brown. When incubated at 30 °C, mutants with the sch allele fail to hatch; moreover, homozygous mutants carrying the allele sch lethal (schl) do not hatch even at room temperature (25 °C). By positional cloning, we narrowed a region containing sch to 239,622 bp on chromosome 1 using 4,501 backcross (BC1) individuals. Based on expression analyses, the best sch candidate gene was shown to be tyrosine hydroxylase (BmTh). BmTh coding sequences were identical among sch, schl, and wild-type. However, in sch the ?70-kb sequence was replaced with ?4.6 kb of a Tc1-mariner type transposon located ?6 kb upstream of BmTh, and in schl, a large fragment of an L1Bm retrotransposon was inserted just in front of the transcription start site of BmTh. In both cases, we observed a drastic reduction of BmTh expression. Use of RNAi with BmTh prevented pigmentation and hatching, and feeding of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor also suppressed larval pigmentation in the wild-type strain, pnd+ and in a pS (black-striped) heterozygote. Feeding L-dopa to sch neonate larvae rescued the mutant phenotype from chocolate to black. Our results indicate the BmTh gene is responsible for the sch mutation, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis producing neonatal larval color.

Liu, Chun; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Narukawa, Junko; Liu, Shi-Ping; Han, Yu; Futahashi, Ryo; Kidokoro, Kurako; Noda, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Tamura, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Akio; Banno, Yutaka; Dai, Fang-Ying; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

2010-01-01

130

Space flight experiment on chinese silkworm on board the Russian 10th biosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The times of hatching and oviposition in the flight group were 2 to 3 days earlier than in the control group; the hatching rate of diapause eggs during space flight seemed higher than that of the control group; the life span of 2 of the 7 varieties flown was shortened; genetical variations appeared in 3 varieties. The results showed that the embryonic stage was probably the period most sensitive to the space flight environment.

Zhizhen, Shi; Dahuan, Zhuang; Ilyin, Eugene A.

131

Vitellogenin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: An Effective Anti-Bacterial Agent  

PubMed Central

Silkworm, Bombyx mori, vitellogenin (Vg) was isolated from perivisceral fat body of day 3 of pupa. Both Vg subunits were co-purified as verified by mass spectrometry and immunoblot. Purified Vg responded to specific tests for major posttranslational modifications on native gels indicating its nature as lipo-glyco-phosphoprotein. The Vg fraction had strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microscopic images showed binding of Vg to bacterial cells and their destruction. When infected silkworm larvae were treated with purified Vg they survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. This result showed that Vg has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of bacteria in the silkworm fluid system without disturbing the regular metabolism of the host.

Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Tulika; Kannan, Mani; Konig, Simone

2013-01-01

132

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. by sperm-mediated gene transfer.  

PubMed

The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. has important roles in basic biological research and applied science. To explore the practical use of transgenic technology in agricultural silkworm varieties, we fused the neomycin-resistance gene (Neo(R)) and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) into the piggyBac-based transposon vector and transduced it into silkworms by sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). Fluorescence observation indicated the positive rate of G0 egg-batches is 72.7%. After screening against the antibiotic G418, development of individual larvae in the same brood showed significant size differences. PCR detection indicated the existence of gfp and Neo(R) and confirmed the positive rate of transgenesis as 0.47%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the exogenous genes in the genome of G7 larvae. These results show that our strategy is practical and markedly improves the efficiency of SMGT. PMID:23100618

Zhou, Wenlin; Gong, Chengliang; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Cao, Jinru; Ye, Aihong; Weng, Hongbiao; Wang, Yongqiang

2012-12-21

133

Silkworms Can be Used as an Animal Model to Screen and Evaluate Gouty Therapeutic Drugs  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, the mouse has been used as a mammalian model for hyperuricemia and gout, which has increased not only in prevalence, but also in clinical complexity, accentuated in part by a dearth of novel advances in treatments for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. However, the use of mice for the development of gouty therapeutic drugs creates a number of problems. Thus, identification and evaluation of the therapeutic effects of chemicals in an alternative animal model is desirable. In the present study, the effects of gouty therapeutic drugs on lowering the content of uric acid and inhibiting activity of xanthine oxidase were evaluated by using a silkworm model, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The results showed that the effectiveness of oral administration of various gouty therapeutic drugs to 5th instar silkworms is consistent with results for human. The activity of xanthine oxidase of silkworm treated with allopurinol was lower, and declined in a dose-dependent manner compared with control silkworms, while sodium bicarbonate failed at inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase. The concentration of uric acid in the both hemolymph and fat body declined by 90 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of allopurinol, respectively (p < 0.01), while the concentration of uric acid in both the hemolymph and fat body also declined by 81 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of sodium bicarbonate, respectively (p < 0.01). Moreover, the epidermis of silkworm treated with allopurinol or sodium bicarbonate became transparent compared with the negative control group. These results suggest that silkworm larva can be used as an animal model for screening and evaluation of gouty therapeutic drugs.

Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Pan, Zhonghua; Zheng, Xiaojian; Gong, Chengliang

2012-01-01

134

Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages  

PubMed Central

Background The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the 3rd day of fifth instar, the 6th day of fifth instar, the 3rd day of pupation, the 8th day of pupal stage and the first day of the moth stage, was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that from the larval to moth stages, silkworm hemolymph proteins changed markedly. Not only did major proteins such as SP1, SP2, and the 30 K lipoprotein change, but other proteins varied greatly at different stages. To understand the functions of these proteins in silkworm development, 56 spots were excised from gels for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 34 proteins involved in metamorphosis, programmed cell death, food digestion, metabolism, and nutrient storage and transport. Most proteins showed different expression at different stages, suggesting functions in development and metamorphosis. An abundance of proteins related to immunity were found, including hemolin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, paralytic peptide-binding protein, and protease inhibitor. Conclusions Proteomics research not only provides the opportunity for direct investigation of protein expression patterns, but also identifies many attractive candidates for further study. Two-dimensional maps of hemolymph proteins expressed during the growth and metamorphosis of the silkworm offer important insights into hemolymph function and insect metamorphosis.

2010-01-01

135

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity  

PubMed Central

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others.

Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

2012-01-01

136

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Xin-Pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-Yang; Cao, Liang

2013-08-19

137

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

2011-02-08

138

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb.

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

2013-01-01

139

Heterologous Expression Characteristics of Trichoderma viride Endoglucanase V in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient degradation of cellulose needs a synergistic reaction of the cellulolytic enzymes, which include exoglucanases,\\u000a endoglucanases, and ?-1,4-glucosidase. In this study, we used an improved Bac-to-Bac\\/BmNPV baculovirus expression system,\\u000a which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), to express the endoglucanase V (EG V) gene from Trichoderma viride in silkworm BmN cells and silkworm larvae,

Xing-hua Li; Mei-xian Wang; Peng Zhang; Jia-biao Hu; Chun-guang Sun; Xin-ju Liu; Fang Zhou; Yan-shan Niu; Firdose Ahmad Malik; Roy Bhaskar; Hua-jun Yang; Yun-gen Miao

140

[Replication of Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus (Zhenjiang isolate) in different silkworm strains].  

PubMed

The invertebrate parvovirus Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus type 3(Zhenjiang isolate), named BmDNV-3, is a kind of bidensovirus. The most obvious characteristic in the genome of BmDNV-3 is that it has 2 sets of DNA molecular (VD1, VD2),and each of them is encapsidated respectively in the form of single-stranded liner DNA ( + VD1, - VD1, + VD2, - VD2) in equal percentage. So the BmDNV-3 has 4 kinds of virions. Furthermore the sequence of BmDNV-3 is able to encode DNA polymerase itself. Some strains of silkworm revealed complete resistance to BmDNV-3, so they didn' t fall sick. To investigate the difference in the process of infection and replication between the 2 virions ( VD1, VD2) of this bidensovirus, and the difference of the increment in the resistant or susceptible host, the 5th instar larvae of the susceptible silkworm strain (HUABA 35) and the resistant silkworm strain(QIUFENG d) were inoculated determinate dose of BmDNV-3 by oral ingestion. Then the midgut were collected at 9 timepoints. The silkworm cytoplasm actin A3 was used to be normalized gene, so the number of cells in collected tissue could be determined. The result shows that whatever in the susceptible silkworm strain or in the resistant one, the copies of VD1 and VD2 in the genome of BmDNV-3 collected at the different timepoint were almost at the equal level respectively, so that the VD1 and VD2 were replicated with synchronization. The process of infection in the susceptible silkworm strain was devided into 3 partitions, latent period( 2 - 12 hours post inoculation), exponential phase (12 - 36 hours post inoculation)and stationary phase (36- 96 hours post inoculation and there are about 2 x 10(5) copies per cell) . In the resistant silkworm strain, the virus were replicated at a very low level, that was from 6 - 10 copies 2 hours post inoculation to 150 - 200 copies 96 hours post inoculation (about 20 times) . So we predict that the resistance in some of the silkworm strains from BmDNV-3 was a kind of chronic representation that the host carried virus without being caused flacherie. PMID:17366904

Han, Xu; Yao, Qin; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yong-Jie; Bao, Fang; Chen, Ke-Ping

2007-01-01

141

Structure of Bombyx mori densovirus 1, a silkworm pathogen.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori densovirus 1 (BmDNV-1), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes significant losses to the silk industry. The structure of the recombinant BmDNV-1 virus-like particle has been determined at 3.1-Ĺ resolution using X-ray crystallography. It is the first near-atomic-resolution structure of a virus-like particle within the genus Iteravirus. The particles consist of 60 copies of the 55-kDa VP3 coat protein. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel "jelly roll" fold similar to that found in many diverse icosahedral viruses, including archaeal, bacterial, plant, and animal viruses, as well as other parvoviruses. Most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to other known parvovirus capsid proteins. In contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses, the N-terminal ?-strand of BmDNV-1 VP3 is positioned relative to the neighboring 2-fold related subunit in a "domain-swapped" conformation, similar to findings for other invertebrate parvoviruses, suggesting domain swapping is an evolutionarily conserved structural feature of the Densovirinae. PMID:21367906

Kaufmann, Bärbel; El-Far, Mohamed; Plevka, Pavel; Bowman, Valorie D; Li, Yi; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

2011-03-02

142

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing.

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-01-01

143

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing. PMID:23226833

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-12-06

144

Repetitive DNA in tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta is an endemic insect species producing the world famous tasar silk. Its populations occupying different ecological and geographical regions show certain degree of phenotypic variability for which they are known as 'eco-races'. In order to understand the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship among the different eco-races we characterized a repetitive TaqI genomic DNA fragment as a genetic marker. The sequence analysis and Southern hybridization show the repetitive nature of TaqI DNA fragment, designated as A. mylitta TaqI family repeat, AmTFR. The PCR amplification of AmTFR reveals its presence in all the tested eco-races of tasar silkworm and some other silk producing insects. The AmTFR is evenly distributed in all 31 meiotic metaphase I chromosomes as observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The AmTFR based phylogenetic analysis of the eco-races is not congruent with the morphological variations and their geographical distribution. PMID:16455212

Mahendran, Botlagunta; Acharya, Chitrangada; Dash, Rupesh; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2006-02-07

145

Effects of applaud on the growth of silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the insecticide Applaud (buprofezin 25% WP) on the silkworm Bombyx mori (L.). This insecticide belongs to the class of insect growth regulators (IGR). The larvae were fed on leaves treated with 3 different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 g/liter) of Applaud on the 1st d of each instar. Analysis of data with the Tukey-Kramer test at 1% significant level revealed that mortality and larval duration did not differ among the treatments. On the contrary, the larval weight, which was estimated just before mounting (procedure during which the mature larva climbing on a branch or other material to spin the cocoon), differed among the treatments. Also, cocoon weight, shell weight, and cocoon sericin and fibroin content were different among the treatments, except the shell cocoon ratio. Maximum weight was observed in the controls and minimum in the last instar treatments. Our data suggest that supplementation of Applaud through food to larvae does not affect their mortality rate. On the contrary, it affects larval growth and cocoon parameters. PMID:10826174

Vassarmidaki, M E; Harizanis, P C; Katsikis, S

2000-04-01

146

Structure of Bombyx mori Densovirus 1, a Silkworm Pathogen?‡  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori densovirus 1 (BmDNV-1), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes significant losses to the silk industry. The structure of the recombinant BmDNV-1 virus-like particle has been determined at 3.1-Ĺ resolution using X-ray crystallography. It is the first near-atomic-resolution structure of a virus-like particle within the genus Iteravirus. The particles consist of 60 copies of the 55-kDa VP3 coat protein. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel “jelly roll” fold similar to that found in many diverse icosahedral viruses, including archaeal, bacterial, plant, and animal viruses, as well as other parvoviruses. Most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to other known parvovirus capsid proteins. In contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses, the N-terminal ?-strand of BmDNV-1 VP3 is positioned relative to the neighboring 2-fold related subunit in a “domain-swapped” conformation, similar to findings for other invertebrate parvoviruses, suggesting domain swapping is an evolutionarily conserved structural feature of the Densovirinae.

Kaufmann, Barbel; El-Far, Mohamed; Plevka, Pavel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

2011-01-01

147

Analysis of Transcripts Expressed in One-Day-Old Larvae and Fifth Instar Silk Glands of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

Antheraea mylitta is one of the wild nonmulberry silkworms, which produces tasar silk. An EST project has been undertaken to understand the gene expression profile of A. mylitta silk gland. Two cDNA libraries, one from the whole bodies of one-day-old larvae and the other from the silkglands of fifth instar larvae, were constructed and sequenced. A total of 2476 good-quality ESTs (1239 clones) were obtained and grouped into 648 clusters containing 390 contigs and 258 singletons to represent 467 potential unigenes. Forty-five sequences contained putative coding region, and represented potentially novel genes. Among the 648 clusters, 241 were categorized according to Gene Ontology hierarchy and showed presence of several silk and immune-related genes. The A. mylitta ESTs have been organized into a freely available online database “AmyBASE”. These data provide an initial insight into the A. mylitta transcriptome and help to understand the molecular mechanism of silk protein production in a Lepidopteran species.

Maity, Samita; Goel, Sagar I.; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Venugopalan, Aravind; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2010-01-01

148

Analysis of Transcripts Expressed in One-Day-Old Larvae and Fifth Instar Silk Glands of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta is one of the wild nonmulberry silkworms, which produces tasar silk. An EST project has been undertaken to understand the gene expression profile of A. mylitta silk gland. Two cDNA libraries, one from the whole bodies of one-day-old larvae and the other from the silkglands of fifth instar larvae, were constructed and sequenced. A total of 2476 good-quality ESTs (1239 clones) were obtained and grouped into 648 clusters containing 390 contigs and 258 singletons to represent 467 potential unigenes. Forty-five sequences contained putative coding region, and represented potentially novel genes. Among the 648 clusters, 241 were categorized according to Gene Ontology hierarchy and showed presence of several silk and immune-related genes. The A. mylitta ESTs have been organized into a freely available online database "AmyBASE". These data provide an initial insight into the A. mylitta transcriptome and help to understand the molecular mechanism of silk protein production in a Lepidopteran species. PMID:20454581

Maity, Samita; Goel, Sagar I; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Venugopalan, Aravind; Ghosh, Ananta K

2010-05-04

149

Evaluation of therapeutic effects and pharmacokinetics of antibacterial chromogenic agents in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of dye compounds with antibacterial activity was evaluated in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Among 13 chromogenic agents that show antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.02 to 19 ?g/mL), rifampicin had a therapeutic effect. The ED(50) value in the silkworm model was consistent with that in a murine model. Other 12 dyes did not increase survival of the infected silkworms. We examined the reason for the lack of therapeutic efficacy. Amidol, pyronin G, and safranin were toxic to silkworms, which explained the lack of therapeutic effects. Fuchsin basic and methyl green disappeared quickly from the hemolymph after injection, suggesting that they are not stable in the hemolymph. Although coomassie brilliant blue R250/G250, cresyl blue, and nigrosin showed no toxic effects or instability in the hemolymph, they also did not have a therapeutic effect. The in vitro antibacterial actions of these dyes were inhibited by silkworm plasma or bovine serum albumin and filtration experiments demonstrated that cresyl blue bound to plasma proteins in the silkworm, suggesting that plasma protein binding inhibited the therapeutic efficacy of these four dyes. These findings indicate that drug screening using the silkworm infection model is useful for evaluating toxicity and pharmacokinetics of potential antibiotics. PMID:22491238

Fujiyuki, T; Imamura, K; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K

2010-10-01

150

Causal organism of flacherie in the silkworm Antheraea assama Ww: isolation, characterization and its inhibition by garlic extract.  

PubMed

Of the different bacterial strains isolated from diseased muga silkworms, the strain named as AC-3 was found to be most pathogenic to the silkworm. Different antibiotics and plant extracts were tested for their effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of AC-3. Fresh Allium sativum (garlic extract) was most effective against the strain. The stability and MIC of the garlic extract has also been studied. We report for the first time the effectiveness of garlic extract in controlling the bacterium causing disease in the muga silkworm. PMID:11933151

Choudhury, Arundhati; Guha, Arijit; Yadav, Archana; Unni, Bala G; Roy, Monoj K

2002-03-01

151

Synthesis of pheromone-oriented emergent behavior of a silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to clarify moth emergent behavior by synthesis with currently developed tools, including living sensors and recurrent neural networks. The antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive compared with artificial gas sensors. These living antennae can be used as living gas sensors that can detect pheromone molecules with high sensitivity. Recurrent artificial neural networks

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama; Yushi Sayama; Hirofumi Miura

1996-01-01

152

Phenol oxidase is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting which is regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. The molting process includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis excoriation etc. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the phenol oxidase was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that polyphenol oxidases are one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the role of ecdysone in regulation of molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of phenol oxidase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the phenol oxidase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. PPO1 RNAi induced phenol oxidase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae incomplete pupation. Overall, the results described that the phenol oxidase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23275200

Wang, Mei-xian; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Liang, Shuang; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2012-12-29

153

Sperm precedence and sperm movement under different copulation intervals in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm precedence and sperm movement were investigated under different copulation intervals in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The mass of sperm began to enter the spermatheca 1 h after copulation ended, and the number of sperm gradually increased in the spermatheca and attained a plateau when the spermatheca was filled at about 2.5 h after the end of copulation. Thereafter, the

Nobuhiko Suzuki; Takashi Okuda; Hitoshi Shinbo

1996-01-01

154

Conversion of Glycogen to Sorbitol and Glycerol in the Diapause Egg of the Bombyx Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of biochemical studies1 on the embryonic diapause of the Bombyx silkworm, it has been shown that the glycogen content of the egg decreases markedly at the onset of diapause and reaches the lowest level at about thirty days after oviposition. When diapause is broken by cold treatment, glycogen increases progressively even at low temperature and regains the

Haruo Chino

1957-01-01

155

Genomic analysis of carboxyl\\/cholinesterase genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carboxyl\\/cholinesterases (CCEs) have pivotal roles in dietary detoxification, pheromone or hormone degradation and neurodevelopment. The recent completion of genome projects in various insect species has led to the identification of multiple CCEs with unknown functions. Here, we analyzed the phylogeny, expression and genomic distribution of 69 putative CCEs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). RESULTS: A phylogenetic tree

Takuya Tsubota; Takahiro Shiotsuki

2010-01-01

156

A defective non-LTR retrotransposon is dispersed throughout the genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of long repetitive sequences is demonstrated in the genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Members of this BMC1 family reveal several features typical of the L1 (long interspersed sequence one) family of mammals, except for species specific elements. The number of BMC1 elements is estimated to be approximately 3500 per haploid genome. Elements containing the full length unit

Teru Ogura; Kazuhiro Okano; Kozo Tsuchida; Naoko Miyajima; Hideho Tanaka; Naoko Takada; Susumu Izumi; Shiro Tomino; Hideaki Maekawa

1994-01-01

157

Catalase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Gene sequence, distribution, and overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms require mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Catalase is one of the regulatory enzymes and facilitates the degradation of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Biochemical information on an insect catalase is, however, insufficient. Using mRNA from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a cDNA encoding a putative catalase was

Kohji Yamamoto; Yutaka Banno; Hiroshi Fujii; Fumio Miake; Nobuhiro Kashige; Yoichi Aso

2005-01-01

158

Expression of grass carp growth hormone by baculovirus in silkworm larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of five recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (BMNPV) carrying the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) cDNA were constructed in this study. Two of them were able to express the hormone up to a level of 12 ?g\\/ml medium when cultured B. mori cells were infected for 4 days. Inoculation of the viruses into silkworm (B.

W. K. K. Ho; Z. Q. Meng; H. R. Lin; C. T. Poon; Y. K. Leung; K. T. Yan; N. Dias; A. P. K. Che; J. Liu; W. M. Zheng; Y. Sun; A. O. L. Wong

1998-01-01

159

Analysis of the genetic information of a DNA segment of a new virus from silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 1983, a parvo-like virus (Yamanashi isolate) was newly isolated from silkworm. However, unlike parvovirus, two DNA molecules (VD1 and 2) were always extracted from purified virions. To investigate the structure and organization of the virus genomes, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of VD2. The sequence consisted of 6031 nucleotides (nts) and contained a large open reading frame

H. Bando; T. Hayakawa; S. Asano; K. Sahara; M. Nakagaki; T. Iizuka

1995-01-01

160

Expression and functions of dopa decarboxylase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori was regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. Molting includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis shed and other series of continuous processes. Polyphenol oxidases, dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the dopa decarboxylase (BmDdc) was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that dopa decarboxylase is one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the regulation of ecdysone at the time of biological molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of dopa decarboxylase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was also observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the dopa decarboxylase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. BmDdc RNAi induced dopa decarboxylase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae appeared no pupation or incomplete pupation. BmDdc was mainly expressed and stored in the peripheral plasma area near the nucleus in BmN cells. In larval, BmDdc was mainly located in the brain and epidermis, which is consisted with its function in sclerotization and melanization. Overall, the results described that the dopa decarboxylase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23640098

Wang, Mei-xian; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Liang, Shuang; Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Kim, Jong-Nam; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2013-05-03

161

Opioid detection in pupal extract of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi guerin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pupae of the Chinese oak silkworm were extracted with 50% ethanol solution. The extract was evaporated on a rotary vaporizer to remove most of the ethanol, and then freeze-dried. The freeze-dried product was dissolved in the original volume of water and lipids were extracted from the preparation by the addition of two volumes of ethyl acetate, after which the ethyl

V. A. Gorlenko; S. I. Kolin'ko; S. F. Psjenichkin; N. V. Kost; Yu. B. Filippovich; A. A. Zozulya

1992-01-01

162

Immunocytochemical location of vitellin in the egg of the silkworm, Bombyx mori , during early developmental stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellin was purified from eggs of the silkworm,Bombyx mori, by a new method in which vitellin was extracted from isolated yolk granules. The purified vitellin had a molecular weight of 540,000. An antibody against purified vitellin was prepared in rabbits. It reacted with the hemolymph vitellogenin as well as with purified vitellin, but not with other proteins in the hemolymph

Sachiko Takesue; Kazuo Onitake; Hiroomi Keino; Yoshiki Takesue

1983-01-01

163

Identification of a midgut-specific promoter in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The midgut is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients and immune defense in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In an attempt to create a tool for midgut research, we cloned the 1080 bp P2 promoter sequence (P2P) of a highly expressed midgut-specific gene in the silkworm. The transgenic line (P2) was generated via embryo microinjection, in which the expression of EGFP was driven by P2P. There was strong green fluorescence only in the midgut of P2. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that P2P was a midgut-specific promoter with activity throughout the larval stage. A transgenic truncation experiment suggested that regions -305 to -214 and +107 to +181 were very important for P2P activity. The results of this study revealed that we have identified a midgut-specific promoter with a high level of activity in the silkworm that will aid future research and application of silkworm genes. PMID:23524268

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Dang, Yinghui; Peng, Zhengwen; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Shiping; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Sun, Qiang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-03-21

164

Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics and adsorption mechanism studies of methyl orange by surfactant modified silkworm exuviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of organo-modified silkworm exuviae (MSE) adsorbent prepared by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) for removing methyl orange (MO), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The natural and modified samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to remove

Hao Chen; Jie Zhao; Junyong Wu; Guoliang Dai

2011-01-01

165

Construction of a brain-machine hybrid system to analyze adaptive behavior of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a brain-machine hybrid system (BMHS) which is able to solve the chemical plume tracking (CPT) problem using the brain of the male silkworm moth. The purpose of the system is to investigate adaptability which results from interactions between brain, body, and environment. In this paper, we describe a BMHS architecture and experiments to verify that the behavior

Atsushi Takashima; Ryo Minegishi; Daisuke Kurabayashi; Ryohei Kanzaki

2010-01-01

166

Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) bioconsortia mediates induction of defense-related proteins against infection of root rot pathogen in mulberry plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Pf1 and Py15 and Bacillus subtilis isolate 16 (Bs16) was found to protect mulberry plants from root rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Induction of defense-related proteins and chemicals by the mixture of Pf1, Py15 and Bs16 against challenge inoculation with M. phaseolina in mulberry were studied. The activity of defense enzymes peroxidase (PO),

P. Ganeshamoorthi; T. Anand; V. Prakasam; M. Bharani; N. Ragupathi; R. Samiyappan

2008-01-01

167

Influence of auxins, cytokinins, and nitrogen on production of rutin from callus and adventitious roots of the white mulberry tree ( Morus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutin is an economically valuable flavone compound with anticancer activity, dietary effects, and anti-aging activity. In\\u000a this study, callus and adventitious roots were induced from three Morus (mulberry) species. Among the three mulberry species tested for rutin production, roots of the Sugye (M.\\u000a alba L.) had the highest levels (242.2 ?g\\/g fresh tissue) of rutin. In addition, the mature leaves of

Yew Lee; Dong-Eun Lee; Hak-Soo Lee; Seong-Ki Kim; Woo Sung Lee; Soo-Hwan Kim; Myoung-Won Kim

2011-01-01

168

Improvement of quality and antioxidant properties of dried mulberry leaves with combined far-infrared radiation and air convection in Thai tea process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined far-infrared radiation with hot-air convection (FIR–HA) drying was used for improving colour and antioxidant properties of mulberry leaf tea. Antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds of FIR–HA dried mulberry tea were determined and compared with the commercial product and with fresh leaves. We found that a smaller decrease in L and b values of the FIR–HA dried tea than those

Pitchaporn Wanyo; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Naret Meeso

2011-01-01

169

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles relieve biochemical dysfunctions of fifth-instar larvae of silkworms following exposure to phoxim insecticide.  

PubMed

Phoxim insecticide is widely used in agriculture, which is toxic to insect pests and nontarget organisms. The phoxim poisoning is hard to prevent for silkworms. TiO(2) NPs have been widely applied in whitening, brightening foods, toothpaste or sunscreens, and orally-administered drugs. However, whether TiO(2) NPs can increase resistance of silkworm to phoxim poisoning has not been reported. The results demonstrated that added TiO(2) NPs significantly decreased reduction of protein, glucose and pyruvate contents, lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, and attenuated increases of free amino acids, urea, uric acid and lactate levels, activities of protease, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the hemolymph of silkworms caused by phoxim exposure. From the present study, it is clearly evident that added TiO(2) NPs may relieve toxic impacts of phoxim insecticide on silkworm metabolism, which in turn may result in an increase in silk yield. PMID:22682359

Li, Bing; Hu, Rengping; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Xie, Yi; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Sang, Xuezi; Gong, Xiaolan; Cui, Yaling; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-06

170

The scanning electron microscopic study of the infection and conidial development of Aspergillus tamarii Kita on its host, the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Aspergillosis on the integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn., was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Aspergillosis is a fungal disease caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus tamarii Kita, which infects the silkworms in countries where sericulture (the rearing of silkworms)is prevalent. The present study\\u000a showed the course of infection and the conidial development of A. tamarii on

Vineet Kumar

2007-01-01

171

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of serine proteases and homologs in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Serine proteases (SPs) and serine proteases homologs (SPHs) are a large group of proteolytic enzymes, with important roles in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell signalling, defense and development. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of serine proteases and their homologs in the silkworm might provide valuable information about their biological functions. Results In this study, 51 SP genes and 92 SPH genes were systematically identified in the genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that six gene families have been amplified species-specifically in the silkworm, and the members of them showed chromosomal distribution of tandem repeats. Microarray analysis suggests that many silkworm-specific genes, such as members of SP_fam12, 13, 14 and 15, show expression patterns that are specific to tissues or developmental stages. The roles of SPs and SPHs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Batrytis bassiana and B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus, respectively. Microarray experiment and real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that 18 SP or SPH genes were significantly up-regulated after pathogen induction, suggesting that SP and SPH genes might participate in pathogenic microorganism resistance in B. mori. Conclusion Silkworm SP and SPH genes were identified. Comparative genomics showed that SP and SPH genes belong to a large family, whose members are generated mainly by tandem repeat evolution. We found that silkworm has species-specific SP and SPH genes. Phylogenetic and microarray analyses provide an overview of the silkworm SP and SPHs, and facilitate future functional studies on these enzymes.

2010-01-01

172

Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori

Tomoko Motohashi; Tsukasa Shimojima; Tatsuo Fukagawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2005-01-01

173

Proteome analysis of silkworm, Bombyx mori, larval gonads: characterization of proteins involved in sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is initialed by the components of the sex determination pathway and is most evident in gonads and germ cells. Although striking dimorphic expressions have been detected at the transcriptional level between the silkworm larval testis and the ovary, the sex-dimorphic expressions at the protein level have not yet been well characterized. The proteome of silkworm larval gonads was investigated using a shotgun-based identification. A total of 286 and 205 nonredundant proteins were identified from the silkworm testis and ovary, respectively, with a false discovery rate (FDR) lower than 1%. Only 40 and 16 proteins were previously identified, and 246 and 189 proteins were newly identified in the silkworm testis and the ovary, respectively. The gametogenesis mechanism of silkworm was demonstrated using the protein expression profile and bioinformatics analysis. Cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) showed to be highly abundant in testis, while tubulins were abundant in ovary. Several homologies of Drosophila essential proteins for gametogenesis were identified in silkworm, such as male meiotic arrest gene product ALY and VISMAY in testis, and maternal mRNA localization protein exuperantia and SQUID in ovary. The gene ontology (GO) annotation and pathway analysis provide system-level insights into the sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis. PMID:23607740

Chen, Jin-e; Li, Jian-ying; You, Zheng-ying; Liu, Li-li; Liang, Jian-she; Ma, Ying-ying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Hua-rong; Jiang, Zhen-dong; Zhong, Bo-xiong

2013-05-02

174

ST2B1-2: Appropriate Waste Water Treatment System in Pulp and Paper Mill of Paper Mulberry ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of pulping and paper making waste water for a small plant was studied. The pilot scale treatment system was simulated for a continuous 1,000 pcs\\/day paper mulberry making plant at Nongmungkai District, Phare Province. The 8.69 m3\\/d waste water with 13,371 mg\\/l COD and 1,251 mg\\/l BOD was treated by biochemical anaerobic process. Subsequently it is was passed through

Nusara Sinbuatong; Pramote Siriroj; Prisnar Siriacha; Bussarin Khongseri

175

ST1A-1-3: Effects of Spacings on Growth and Yields of Paper Mulberry at Different Harvesting Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate spacing of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) planted for making hand-made papers. Field investigation was carried out at Wangchin district of Phrae province in northern Thailand. Five spacings were considered as treatments varying from 1x1 m, 1x2 m, 2x2 m, 2x4 m, and 4x4 m together with 3 replications. Fifteen sample

Bunvong Thaiutsa; Ladawan Puangchit

176

Enzymatic properties of ?-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes  pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the ?-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and ?-amylase activity was assayed using

Elham Yezdani; Jalal Jalali Sendi; Arash Zibaee; Mohammad Ghadamyari

2010-01-01

177

A hevein-like protein and a class I chitinase with antifungal activity from leaves of the paper mulberry.  

PubMed

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, syn. Morus papyrifera L.) is a Chinese traditional medicine and its low-molecular-weight extracts are reported to have antifungal activity. In this study, two proteins (PMAPI and PMAPII) with activity against Trichoderma viride were obtained from paper mulberry leaves with a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) unit. The purification protocol employed (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography on FPLC. Molecular masses were 18,798?Da for PMAPI, and 31,178?Da for PMAPII determined by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping fingerprint analysis showed that PMAPI has no peptides similar to PMAPII. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that PMAPI is a hevein-like protein, and PMAPII is a class I chitinase. They both had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1?µg/µL against T. viride. This is the first report of high-molecular-weight extracts with antifungal activity from paper mulberry. PMID:21268047

Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Pan, Ying-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Wen-Xia

2011-01-26

178

Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.  

PubMed

Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry. PMID:22160463

Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

2011-12-09

179

Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination  

PubMed Central

In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4%) were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2%) were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4%) were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151) was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination.

Li, Yu-Ping; Xia, Run-Xi; Wang, Huan; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2009-01-01

180

Worms and Trees: An Exciting Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines procedures for using silkworms in elementary science, mathematics, history, ecology, social studies, language arts, art, and physical education. Also focuses on the silkworm's use of the mulberry tree. (DDR)|

El Harim, Jean Love

1997-01-01

181

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2008-10-07

182

Identification and expression of the achaete-scute complex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Recently, the study of achaete-scute (AS-C) homologues has contributed enormously to understanding of gene duplication and function evolution, particularly in Diptera. We identified four AS-C homologue genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, referred to as BmASH, BmASH2, BmASH3, and Bmase. The complex displayed tandem array structure in the genome. Analysis of spatial expression profiles showed that they all were expressed in obviously higher levels in wing disc than in other tissues, suggesting that they might play important roles in the development of the wing. Furthermore, we found that their expression profiles in the wing discs were mostly correlated with the development of the scales, especially the BmASH gene. RNA interference results further indicated that BmASH was necessary for scale formation in silkworm wing. PMID:18651921

Tong, X-L; Dai, F-Y; Su, M-K; Ma, Y; Tan, D; Zhang, Z; He, N-J; Xia, Q-Y; Lu, C; Xiang, Z-H

2008-08-01

183

Proteomic-Based Insight into Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) and Absolute protein expression (APEX) analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera.

Liu, Shi-ping; Yi, Qi-ying; Hu, Cui-mei; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qing-you; Zhao, Ping

2013-01-01

184

Shotgun analysis on the peritrophic membrane of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The insect midgut epithelium is generally lined with a unique chitin and protein structure, the peritrophic membrane (PM), which facilitates food digestion and protects the gut epithelium. We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify the extracted proteins from the silkworm PM to obtain an in-depth understanding of the biological function of the silkworm PM components. A total of 305 proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 8.02 kDa to 788.52 kDa and the isoelectric points ranging from 3.39 to 12.91, were successfully identified. We also found several major classes of PM proteins, i.e. PM chitin-binding protein, invertebrate intestinal mucin, and chitin deacetylase. The protein profile provides a basis for further study of the physiological events in the PM of Bombyx mori. PMID:23187007

Zhong, Xiaowu; Zhang, Liping; Zou, Yong; Yi, Qiying; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-11-01

185

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

PubMed Central

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin families, were upregulated at 24 hours post the infection.

Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

2009-01-01

186

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

Davies, Gwilym J G; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-08-28

187

Identification and expression of the achaete-scute complex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the study of achaete-scute ( AS-C ) homo- logues has contributed enormously to understanding of gene duplication and function evolution, particularly in Diptera. We identified four AS-C homologue genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori , referred to as BmASH , BmASH2 , BmASH3 , and Bmase . The complex displayed tandem array structure in the genome. Analysis of spatial

X.-L. Tong; F.-Y. Dai; M.-K. Su; Y. Ma; D. Tan; Z. Zhang; N.-J. He; Q.-Y. Xia; C. Lu; Z.-H. Xiang

2008-01-01

188

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-01-01

189

Utilization of ammonia as a nitrogen source in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of ammonium salt in comparison to non-essential amino acids for growth of the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Newly ecdysed 5th-instar larvae were fed chemically defined diets containing only the ten essential amino acids supplemented with diammonium citrate (DAC), potassium glutamate (K-Glu) or a mixture of acidic plus non-essential amino acids (NEA). Alterations in larval

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1996-01-01

190

Purification and characterization of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase from the silkworm fat body ( Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) was purified 766-fold from the fat body of 5th instar larvae of the silkworm with a final specific activity of 13.8 units\\/mg protein by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fraction, Q-Sepharose HP ion exchange column chromatography, Blue Sepharose FF affinity column chromatography and Superdex 200HR gel filtration. The purified enzyme yielded a single band

Chikara Hirayama; Hitoshi Saito; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1998-01-01

191

Comparative Proteome Analysis of Silkworm in Its Susceptibility and Resistance Responses to Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombyx mori densonucleosis virus (BmDNV) is one of the most disastrous viruses in cocoon production. Silkworm resistance to BmDNV has been examined previously using a number of traditional biochemical and molecular techniques. In this study, a near isogenic line, BC6, was constructed to eliminate the difference in inherited background, which has 99.9% identity with the susceptible strain but carries a

Hui-qing Chen; Qin Yao; Fang Bao; Ke-ping Chen; Xiao-yong Liu; Jun Li; Lin Wang

2012-01-01

192

Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm,\\u000a Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon\\u000a were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and\\u000a silk glands.

Hu Xiaolong; Xue Renyu; Cao Guangli; Zhang Xing; Zhang Yilin; Yu Xiaohua; Zhang Yuqing; Gong Chengliang

193

Cloning and purification of recombinant silkworm dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH), a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase is essential for energy metabolism. As an oxidoreductase it catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of dihydrolipoamide. In this study, a putative Bombyx mori dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (BmDLDH) gene was cloned, expressed, purified and characterized for the first time. The BmDLDH gene was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli

Juan Huo; Haifeng Shi; Qin Yao; Huiqin Chen; Lin Wang; Keping Chen

2010-01-01

194

Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

2010-10-15

195

Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from mulberry and identification of anthocyanins in extract using HPLC-ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruits, vegetables, and plants. This study aims to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions of anthocyanins from mulberry (M. atropurpurea Roxb.) using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken experiment was employed in this regard. Methanol concentration, microwave power, and extraction time were chosen as independent variables. The optimized conditions of MAE were as follows: 59.6% acidified methanol, 425 W power, 25 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 132 s time. Under these conditions, 54.72 mg anthocyanins were obtained from 1.0 g mulberry powder. Furthermore, 8 anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in mulberry extract. The results showed that cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside are the major anthocyanins in mulberry. In addition, in comparison with conventional extraction, MAE is more rapid and efficient for extracting anthocyanins from mulberry. PMID:22260102

Zou, Tangbin; Wang, Dongliang; Guo, Honghui; Zhu, Yanna; Luo, Xiaoqin; Liu, Fengqiong; Ling, Wenhua

2011-11-10

196

Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm, Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and silk glands. The different fluorescent colors of cocoons between the male and female may be mainly caused by the difference of accumulation and transportation for fluorescent pigments in the midgut and in the silk glands. Furthermore the midgut proteins were separated with Native-PAGE, and the proteins respectively recovered from three fluorescent regions presenting on a Native-PAGE gel for the female silkworms were determined using shotgun proteomics and mass spectrometry sequencing, of which 60, 40 and 18 proteins respectively from the region 1, 2 and 3 were identified. It was found that the several kinds of low molecular mass 30 kDa lipoproteins and the actins could be detected in all three regions, troponin, 30 kDa lipoprotein and 27 kDa glycoprotein precursor could be detected in the region 2 and 3, suggesting these proteins may be fluorescent pigments binding candidates proteins. Analysis of gene ontology indicated that the identified proteins in the three regions linked to the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. These results provide a new clew to understand the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm. PMID:21604173

Xiaolong, Hu; Renyu, Xue; Guangli, Cao; Xing, Zhang; Yilin, Zhang; Xiaohua, Yu; Yuqing, Zhang; Chengliang, Gong

2011-05-22

197

Comparative analysis on the expression of inducible HSPs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (HSPs), well-known in respond to various kinds of stress situations, have been widely studied in Drosophila. However, a few reports related to silkworm bombyx mori. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting on the expression of some HSPs in heat-treated silkworm were studied at the present paper. The mRNA levels of HSPs were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and compared with their expression in the proteome profiles. The results showed up-regulation of two small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), HSP19.9 and HSP20.4 and down-regulation of HSP70 in the fat body, testis and ovary of heat exposed larvae. Higher variation of the sHSPs than HSP70 was observed in the different conditions such as heat exposures and genetic backgrounds. Significant difference in the HSP19.9 expression between two breeds was observed which implied the importance of this gene in the genetic differences. There was significant difference between responses of severe and mild heat shocks after 4 h heat recovery. The HSPs expression in male was significantly higher than that in female silkworm larva for all transcript measurements (P < 0.001). Comparison of two methods of quantification showed a fair similarity between HSPs expression in the transcriptome and proteome levels. Nistari breed as a naturally thermo-tolerant breed was expressed lower HSPs than a thermo-sensitive breed. PMID:21744262

Li, Jun; Moghaddam, S Hossein Hosseini; Du, Xin; Zhong, Bo-Xiong; Chen, Yu-Yin

2011-07-10

198

Subacute and delayed toxicity of iminoctadine liquid formulation, which contains iminoctadine triacetate as an antifungal component on a nontarget domesticated insect, the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated insecticidal effects of iminoctadine liquid formulation, a fungicide containing iminoctadine triacetate, on the silkworm Bombyx mori that is an important domesticated insect. Iminoctadine liquid formulation was incorporated in an artificial diet and fed to silkworms for 24h on the first day of either the third or fourth instar, thereafter reared without the fungicide. Third instar larvae that ingested

T. Arakawa; F. Yukuhiro; H. Noda

2011-01-01

199

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin.

2010-01-01

200

Comparison of Inhibitory Activities and Mechanisms of Five Mulberry Plant Bioactive Components against ?-Glucosidase.  

PubMed

The ?-glucosidase inhibitory effects of five bioactive components, namely 1-deoxynojirimycin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, resveratrol and oxyresveratrol contained in mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) plants have been compared. Spectroscopy methods were employed to compare their ?-glucosidase inhibitory mechanisms. The results revealed that 1-deoxynojirimycin (competitive), resveratrol and oxyresveratrol (noncompetitive) were stronger inhibitors than acarbose, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (mix competitive and noncompetitive) showed modest activities. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, resveratrol and oxyresveratrol could quench the fluorescence spectra statically by forming stable complexes, while the quenching of cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside belonged to dynamic quenching by the collision of molecules. The interactions between ligands and ?-glucosidase were mainly driven by hydrophobic force, or hydrogen bonding consequently induced conformational changes and reduced surface hydrophobicity. Docking results suggested that they could bind to ?-glucosidase at different sites. This work provides useful information for the understanding of the ligands-?-glucosidase interactions and identifies oxyresveratrol as a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:23909841

He, Hao; Lu, Yan-Hua

2013-08-13

201

A review of the implications of heterozygosity and inbreeding on germplasm biodiversity and its conservation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Abstract Silkworm genebanks assume paramount importance as the reservoirs of biodiversity and source of alleles that can be easily retrieved for genetic enhancement of popular breeds. More than 4000 Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) strains are currently available and these strains are maintained through continuous sibling mating. This repeated sibling mating makes the populations of each strain more homozygous, but leads to loss of unique and valuable genes through the process of inbreeding depression. Hence, it is essential to maintain a minimal degree of heterozygosity within the population of each silkworm strain, especially in the traditional geographic strains, to avoid such loss. As a result, accurate estimation of genetic diversity is becoming more important in silkworm genetic resources conservation. Application of molecular markers help estimate genetic diversity much more accurately than that of morphological traits. Since a minimal amount of heterozygosity in each silkworm strain is essential for better conservation by avoiding inbreeding depression, this article overviews both theoretical and practical importance of heterozygosity together with impacts of inbreeding depression and the merits and demerits of neutral molecular markers for measurements of both heterozygosity and inbreeding depression in the silkworm Bombyx mori. PMID:21521139

Jingade, A H; Vijayan, K; Somasundaram, P; Srivasababu, G K; Kamble, C K

2011-01-01

202

Influence of thyroxine on different ion-dependent ATPase activities in fat body of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D.  

PubMed

The activities of Na(+)-K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-ATPase of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D. fat body were investigated from fifth larval stage to adult emergence after injection of various doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 micrograms/g) of mammalian thyroxine (T4) to 1-hr-old fifth instar larvae. In normal silkworms, both sexes exhibited maximum enzyme activity before spinning (Day 12). Na(+)-K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in fat body of silkworms markedly declined after pupation and more so on the 1-day-old adults. All doses of thyroxine treated on fifth instar larvae significantly altered ATPase activity in the larval, pupal, and adult stages in both sexes. ATPase activity was not altered by lower dose of T4 (0.5 micrograms/g) in 2-day-old fifth stage larvae, while the higher dose (5.0 micrograms/g) surprisingly caused a reduction in ATPase activity during the different developmental stages. The fat body ATPases were influenced by thyroxine in all the stages of silkworm in a dose-dependent manner. Our results thus indicate that thyroxine has a controlling influence on the ATPase system in silkworm fat body. PMID:8921351

Reddy, K D; Chaudhuri, A; Thangavelu, K

1996-10-01

203

The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.  

PubMed

Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root/shoot ratios, root surface areas, specific root areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the young mulberry trees in the DH were all significantly higher than those of the control group (DM). Leaf water potential, instantaneous water use efficiency, and abscisic acid content of DH were all significantly lower than DM. Under different degrees of drought stress, the growth of mulberry trees will be inhibited, but the trees can respond to the stress by increasing the root absorptive area and enhancing capacity for water retention. Mulberry trees demonstrate strong resistance to drought stress, and furthermore drought resistance can be improved by drought hardening during the seedling stage. PMID:23250728

Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

2012-12-19

204

Rabies virus nucleoprotein expressed in silkworm pupae at high-levels and evaluation of immune responses in mice.  

PubMed

Rabies is one of the most fatal zoonotic diseases in developing countries, where a safe, cheap and effective vaccine against the disease remains unaffordable. In this paper, we describe a new silkworm-baculovirus expression system to express the nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus and evaluation of the immune response in BALB/c mice. A recombinant baculovirus -rBmNPV(RV-N) carrying the N gene of rabies virus Evelyn Rokitniki Abelseth (ERA) strain was constructed and the N protein expression was evaluated in Bombyx mori (BmN) cells and silkworm pupae by immunofluorescence staining, Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immune response to vaccines was evaluated based on serum IgG antibody titers and challenge experiments. The study revealed that N protein of rabies virus can be highly expressed in silkworm baculovirus expression system and the vaccine of N antigen presents a promising approach for the prevention of rabies virus. PMID:23178898

Yin, Xiangping; Li, Zhiyong; Li, Jiangtao; Yi, Yongzhu; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xuerui; Li, Baoyu; Yang, Bin; Lan, Xi; Li, Yinv; Jiao, Wenqiang; Zhang, Zhifang; Liu, Jixing

2012-11-23

205

Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133?mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333?mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133?mg MLE and 67?mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333?mg MLE and 167?mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity. PMID:24000381

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

2013-09-02

206

Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry ( Morus nigra ) juice concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating,\\u000a at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes\\u000a of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at\\u000a 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Ghazale Hojjatpanah; Zahra Emam-Djomeh

207

Preparation of mulberry branch biomass char and its usage in wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Biomass char was prepared from mulberry branches by physical activation. An examination by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the functional groups of Si-O were mostly burnt out, significantly decreasing the ash content Analysis of data from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test also revealed increased surface roughness and pore structure, which improved the adsorption capacity of biomass char after preparation. The optimum conditions for preparation were found to be pyrolysis at 700 degrees C for 30 minutes, and then activation at 750 degrees C for one hour, with 3.4% steam content for the activating agent. The prepared biomass char was then employed to adsorb ammonium, copper(II) actetate [Cu(II)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in a solution. The results indicated that the prepared biomass char had a better adsorptive performance than the raw material. Moreover, the removal of determinands increased along with the dosage, and the highest adsorption efficiency of ammonium, copper(II) acetate [Cu(II)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were found to be 20%, 100% and 50%, respectively. The adsorptions of ammonium and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] can be simulated by a pseudo-second order model, while the adsorption of copper(II) acetate [Cu(II)] is better simulated by a pseudo-first order model. The adsorption isotherms of copper(II) acetate [Cu(II)] by biomass char were also investigated, and the Langmuir isotherm was found to best describe the adsorption process. PMID:23356022

Wu, Dong Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing Hui; Fu, Hao; Lv, Xiao Shu; Xu, Xin Hua

2012-11-01

208

A homolog of the human Hermansky-Pudluck syndrome-5 (HPS5) gene is responsible for the oa larval translucent mutants in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Normally, many granules containing uric acid accumulate in the larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. These uric acid granules cause the wild-type larval integument to be white or opaque, and the absence of these granules results in a translucent integument. Although about 30 B. mori loci governing larval translucency have been mapped, most have not been molecularly identified yet. Here, based on a structural analysis of a deletion of chromosome 14 that included the oa (aojyuku translucent) locus, we concluded that the BmHPS5 encoding a Bombyx homolog of the HPS5 subunit of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 is the candidate for the oa locus. Nucleotide sequence analyses of cDNAs and genomic DNAs in three mutant strains, each of which were homozygous for the respective allele of the oa locus (oa, oa ( 2 ), and oa ( v )), revealed that each mutant strain has a frame shift or a premature stop codon (caused by deletion or nonsense mutation, respectively) in the BmHPS5 gene. Our findings indicate that some genes that cause the translucent phenotype in Bombyx, some HPS-associated genes in humans, and some genes that cause mutant eye color phenotypes in Drosophila are homologous and participate in an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that leads to biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. PMID:23250771

Fujii, T; Banno, Y; Abe, H; Katsuma, S; Shimada, T

2012-12-19

209

End-sequencing and characterization of silkworm (Bombyx mori) bacterial artificial chromosome libraries  

PubMed Central

Background We performed large-scale bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end-sequencing of two BAC libraries (an EcoRI- and a BamHI-digested library) and conducted an in silico analysis to characterize the obtained sequence data, to make them a useful resource for genomic research on the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Results More than 94000 BAC end sequences (BESs), comprising more than 55 Mbp and covering about 10.4% of the silkworm genome, were sequenced. Repeat-sequence analysis with known repeat sequences indicated that the long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) were abundant in BamHI BESs, whereas DNA-type elements were abundant in EcoRI BESs. Repeat-sequence analysis revealed that the abundance of LINEs might be due to a GC bias of the restriction sites and that the GC content of silkworm LINEs was higher than that of mammalian LINEs. In a BLAST-based sequence analysis of the BESs against two available whole-genome shotgun sequence data sets, more than 70% of the BESs had a BLAST hit with an identity of ? 99%. About 14% of EcoRI BESs and about 8% of BamHI BESs were paired-end clones with unique sequences at both ends. Cluster analysis of the BESs clarified the proportion of BESs containing protein-coding regions. Conclusion As a result of this characterization, the identified BESs will be a valuable resource for genomic research on Bombyx mori, for example, as a base for construction of a BAC-based physical map. The use of multiple complementary BAC libraries constructed with different restriction enzymes also makes the BESs a more valuable genomic resource. The GenBank accession numbers of the obtained end sequences are DE283657–DE378560.

Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Minami, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Michihiko; Sasanuma, Shun-ichi; Narukawa, Junko; Mita, Kazuei; Yamamoto, Kimiko

2007-01-01

210

Identification and analysis of Toll-related genes in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model system for Lepidoptera, has contributed enormously to the study of insect immunology especially in humoral immunity. But little is known about the molecular mechanism of immune response in the silkworm. Toll receptors are a group of evolutionarily ancient proteins, which play a crucial role in the innate immunity of both insects and vertebrates. In human, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the typical pattern recognition receptors for different kinds of pathogen molecules. Toll-related receptors in Drosophila, however, were thought to function as cytokine receptors in immune response and embryogenesis. We have identified 11 putative Toll-related receptors and two Toll analogs in the silkworm genome. Phylogenetic analysis of insect Toll family and human TLRs showed that BmTolls is grouped with Drosophila Tolls and Anopheles Tolls. These putative proteins are typical transmembrane receptors flanked by the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and the cytoplasmic TIR domain. Structural prediction of the TIR domain alignment found five stranded sheets and five helices, which are alternatingly joined. Microarray data indicated that BmToll and BmToll-2 were expressed with remarkable enrichment in the ovary, suggesting that they might play a role in the embryogenesis. However, the enriched expression of BmToll-2 and -4 in the midgut suggested that the proteins they encode may be involved in immune defense. Testis-specific expression of BmToll-10 and -11 and BmToLK-2 implies that these may be involved in sex-specific biological functions. The RT-PCR results indicated that 10 genes were induced or suppressed with different degrees after their immune system was challenged by different invaders. Expression profiles of BmTolls and BmToLKs reported here provide insight into their role in innate immunity and development. PMID:17499357

Cheng, Ting-Cai; Zhang, Yu-Li; Liu, Chun; Xu, Ping-Zhen; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Xia, Qing-You; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2007-04-20

211

Genomic analysis of carboxyl/cholinesterase genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) have pivotal roles in dietary detoxification, pheromone or hormone degradation and neurodevelopment. The recent completion of genome projects in various insect species has led to the identification of multiple CCEs with unknown functions. Here, we analyzed the phylogeny, expression and genomic distribution of 69 putative CCEs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Results A phylogenetic tree of CCEs in B. mori and other lepidopteran species was constructed. The expression pattern of each B. mori CCE was also investigated by a search of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database, and the relationship between phylogeny and expression was analyzed. A large number of B. mori CCEs were identified from a midgut EST library. CCEs expressed in the midgut formed a cluster in the phylogenetic tree that included not only B. mori genes but also those of other lepidopteran species. The silkworm, and possibly also other lepidopteran species, has a large number of CCEs, and this might be a consequence of the large cluster of midgut CCEs. Investigation of intron-exon organization in B. mori CCEs revealed that their positions and splicing site phases were strongly conserved. Several B. mori CCEs, including juvenile hormone esterase, not only showed clustering in the phylogenetic tree but were also closely located on silkworm chromosomes. We investigated the phylogeny and microsynteny of neuroligins in detail, among many CCEs. Interestingly, we found the evolution of this gene appeared not to be conserved between B. mori and other insect orders. Conclusions We analyzed 69 putative CCEs from B. mori. Comparison of these CCEs with other lepidopteran CCEs indicated that they had conserved expression and function in this insect order. The analyses showed that CCEs were unevenly distributed across the genome of B. mori and suggested that neuroligins may have a distinct evolutionary history from other insect order. It is possible that such an uneven genomic distribution and a unique neuroligin evolution are shared with other lepidopteran insects. Our genomic analysis has provided novel information on the CCEs of the silkworm, which will be of value to understanding the biology, physiology and evolution of insect CCEs.

2010-01-01

212

Comparison of lodging safety factor of untreated and succinic Acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide-treated shoots of mulberry tree.  

PubMed

This study examined the lodging resistance of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv Kenmochi) shoots treated or not treated with succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH). The lodging safety factor, an indicator of lodging resistance, was defined as the ratio of critical lodging load to the leaf fresh weight observed, provided that the distribution of the critical lodging load along the stem was similar to that of the leaf fresh weight observed. The critical lodging load was experimentally estimated by loading weights onto the stems. In the untreated trees, the lodging safety factor was maintained at about 3.2. In the SADH-treated trees, the stem elongation was inhibited to about 80% of that in the untreated trees, and the percentage of shoot dry matter partitioned into the leaves was always larger than that of the untreated trees. This dwarfing of the stem caused by SADH increased the critical lodging load supported by the unit stem dry weight, while this large investment of materials in leaves increased the leaf fresh weight supported by the unit stem dry weight. Since the increments canceled each other, the lodging safety factor of the SADH-treated shoots was similar to that of the untreated ones. These results suggest that the shoot formation of the mulberry tree is controlled to maintain the lodging safety factor at a constant level. PMID:16667232

Tateno, M; Bae, K

1990-01-01

213

DNA fingerprinting using AFLP markers to search for markers associated with yield attributes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out on 11 Chinese and 12 Japanese silkworm strains maintained by the Center for the Technological Development of Sericulture (CDTS) germplasm bank, located in Pereira, Colombia. The goals were to determine the genetic population structure of the two groups and the association between molecular markers (AFLPs) and important productivity characters. Group analysis showed the separation of

Duverney A. Gaviria; Enrique Aguilar; Herman J. Serrano; Alvaro H. Alegria

2006-01-01

214

A Pheromone-Guided Mobile Robot that Behaves like a Silkworm Moth with Living Antennae as Pheromone Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the pheromone-oriented behavior of moths will be demonstrated by synthesis with biosensors and a small mobile robot that is controlled by recurrent neural networks. Since antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive as compared to conventional arti ficial gas sensors, they can be used as living gas sensors that detect pheromone molecules. A simple recurrent artificial

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama

1998-01-01

215

Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus, and densovirus infecting silkworms.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel PCR-based assay for individual and simultaneous detection of three major pathogens (microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and densovirus (DNV)) infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Multiplex PCR, using three primer pairs, two of which were designed from the conserved regions of 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of microsporidians, and polyhedrin gene of NPVs respectively, and a third primer pair designed from the internal sequences of B. mori DNVs (BmDNV), showed discrete and pathogen specific PCR products. The assay showed high specificity and sensitivity for the pathogenic DNA. Under optimized PCR conditions, the assay yielded a 794bp DNA fragment from Nosema bombycis, 471bp fragment from B. mori NPV (BmNPV) and 391bp fragment from BmDNV. Further, this detection method was successfully applied to other silkworm species such as Antheraea mylitta and Samia cynthia ricini, in detecting same or similar pathogens infecting them. This method is a valuable supplement to the conventional microscopic diagnostic methods and can be used for the early detection of pathogens infecting silkworms. Furthermore it can assist research and extension centers for the safe supply of disease-free silkworms to farmers. PMID:21570404

Ravikumar, G; Raje Urs, S; Vijaya Prakash, N B; Rao, C G P; Vardhana, K V

2011-05-05

216

Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus, and densovirus infecting silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel PCR-based assay for individual and simultaneous detection of three major pathogens (microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and densovirus (DNV)) infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Multiplex PCR, using three primer pairs, two of which were designed from the conserved regions of 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of microsporidians, and polyhedrin gene of NPVs respectively, and a third

G. Ravikumar; S. Raje Urs; N. B. Vijaya Prakash; C. G. P. Rao; K. V. Vardhana

2011-01-01

217

Digestive sites of dietary proteins and absorptive sites of amino acids along the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify where dietary proteins are digested and where the digested amino acids are absorbed in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Analysis by electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels shows that few of the protein bands existing in the artificial diet were found among the contents of the foremost part of the midgut; instead, this

Hiroshi Shinbo; Kotaro Konno; Chikara Hirayama; Kijiro Watanabe

1996-01-01

218

Changes in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Hemolymph and Fat Body of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L., Exposed to Organophosphorus Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of lethal and sublethal doses of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides, namely fenitrothion and ethion, as a function of carbohydrate metabolism of hemolymph and fat body on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the fifth-instar silkworm, Bombyx mori, were investigated. The results showed that pyruvate level and lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased with elevated lactate levels, indicating reduced mobilization

B. Surendra Nath

2000-01-01

219

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “ż?brain hormone”

CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

220

Surface Ultrastructural Studies on the Germination, Penetration and Conidial Development of Aspergillus Flavus Link : Fries Infecting Silkworm, Bombyx Mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillosis is a common disease of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linn., caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus flavus Link : Fries. The present study reveals the germination, penetration and conidial development of A. flavus on the larval integument of B. mori under SEM. Four different strains (NB18, KA, NB4D2 and NB7) of B. mori was surface inoculated with ca. of

Vineet Kumar; G. P. Singh; A. M. Babu

2004-01-01

221

Abnormal red body coloration of the silkworm, Bombyx mori , is caused by a mutation in a novel kynureninase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the body color mutant red blood (rb) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, display reddish skin whose hemolymph becomes red in air, whereas hemolymphs of normal strains become black during melanization. The irregular coloring was assumed to result from an abnormal accumulation of 3-hydroxykynurenine. However, the gene responsible for the rb phenotype is not yet known. Here, we provide

Yan Meng; Susumu Katsuma; Kazuei Mita; Toru Shimada

2009-01-01

222

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury  

PubMed Central

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk.

Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2012-01-01

223

Study on impact of parasite (Nosema species) on characters of tropical tasar silkworm Anthereae mylitta drury.  

PubMed

Infection of the pebrine disease has been found to be highly virulent and harm the cocoon yield as well as characters of silkworm Anthereae mylitta. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the impact of parasite Nosema species on the ecorace (Sukinda) of A. mylitta in respect of transovarial transmitted (T1), secondary infection (T2) and healthy silkworm (T3). In comparison to T3, the number of larval mortality was 16 and 11 in T1 and T2 respectively; whereas as number of pupal mortality was 6 and 5 in T1 and T2 respectivelyThe larval weight, number of moths emerged, number of eggs laid and percent hatchability were reduced in T1 and T2 in comparison to T3.The infected layings were high in T1 (51%) and T2 (42%) as against T3 (0%). Similarly, the infected moths were 34% in T1 and 15% in T2 as against 0 percent in T3. All the characteristics parameters of cocoon were reduced in T1 and T2 against T3. The study explains that there was no significant variation between T1 and T2 on different parameters of larva, pupa and cocoon characters. PMID:24006810

Velide, Lakshmi; Bhagavanulu, M V K; Rao, A Purushotham

2013-01-01

224

Estimation of amino acids, urea and uric acid in tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury.  

PubMed

The tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury, Andhra local ecorace is an exclusive race of Andhra Pradesh. It is on the verge of extinction due to difficulty of acclimatisation at breeding and rearing stages. As an attempt to protect this race, a method of total indoor rearing has been done. In this context, the estimation of free amino acids, excretory products- urea and uric acid were compared during the fourth and fifth instars of tasar silkworm, reared under outdoor and indoor conditions. The study has revealed that amino acids decreased in the fat body in outdoor and indoor reared larvae in contrast to that in the haemolymph where it has gradually increased from first to third crops. This is an important finding as it reveals that indoor worms seem to adopt proteolytic activity in the haemolymph. Secondly, in the fifth instar the excretory products are more compared to fourth instar in the indoor reared worms. During fifth instar, formation of nitrogenous products lessens as silk synthesis enhances. The present study reveals that decrease in uric acid in fifth instar implies increase in growth rate and silk synthesis in both outdoor and indoor worms. The findings of the present investigation is helpful in the conservation and protection of the A. mylitta, Andhra local ecorace. PMID:19297987

Shamitha, G; Rao, A Purushotham

2008-11-01

225

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

Xia, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Qing-Xiang; Yu, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Guo; Yi, Yong-Zhu; Zhang, Yao-Zhou; Zhang, Zhi-Fang

2006-01-01

226

Shotgun proteomic analysis of wing discs from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) during metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Proteomic profiles from the wing discs of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages were determined using shotgun proteomics and MS sequencing. We identified 241, 218, and 223 proteins from the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively, of which 139 were shared by all three stages. In addition, there were 55, 37, and 43 specific proteins identified at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively. More metabolic enzymes were identified among the specific proteins expressed in the wing disc of larvae compared with pupae and moths. The identification of FKBP45 and the chitinase-like protein EN03 as two proteins solely expressed at the larval stage indicate these two proteins may be involved in the immunological functions of larvae. The myosin heavy chain was identified in the pupal wing disc, suggesting its involvement in the formation of wing muscle. Some proteins, such as proteasome alpha 3 subunits and ribosomal proteins, specifically identified from the moth stage may be involved in the degradation of old cuticle proteins and new cuticle protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis of proteins specific to each of these three stages enabled their association with cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. The analysis of similarities and differences in these identified proteins will greatly further our understanding of wing disc development in silkworm and other insects. PMID:24005483

Zhang, Yi-Ling; Xue, Ren-Yu; Cao, Guang-Li; Zhu, Yue-Xiong; Pan, Zhong-Hua; Gong, Cheng-Liang

2013-09-05

227

Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous substrate for the silkworm cytosolic sulfotransferase, bmST1.  

PubMed

Sulfotransferase enzymes are known to regulate physiologically active substances such as steroids and catecholamines in mammals. Although invertebrates also express sulfotransferases, their biological function is mostly unclear. In a previous study, we reported that 4-nitrocatechol and the gallete ester are substrates for the silkworm sulfotransferase bmST1. The K(m) of bmST1 for these substrates is high. However, endogenous substrates of bmST1 have not yet been determined. We therefore investigated endogenous bmST1 substrates and carried out a detailed expression profile analysis of bmST1. We found that xanthurenic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, is a possible endogenous substrate of bmST1. The K(m) of bmST1 for xanthurenic acid is low, in the ?M range, which is lower than that for previously reported substrates. Additionally, xanthurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that characteristically shows toxicity in vivo. High dose administration of xanthurenic acid resulted in inhibition of cuticular biosynthesis. The expression of the bmST1 gene reached a maximal level in the Malpighian tubule at the 4th molting stage, when amino acid metabolism might be activated. Our results suggest that bmST1 plays a role in detoxification of xanthurenic acid in the silkworm. PMID:22036934

Kushida, Akira; Horie, Ryo; Hattori, Kenji; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Tamura, Hiroomi

2011-10-20

228

The silkworm W chromosome is a source of female-enriched piRNAs  

PubMed Central

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the W chromosome plays a dominant role in female determination. However, neither protein-coding genes nor transcripts have so far been isolated from the W chromosome. Instead, a large amount of functional transposable elements and their remnants are accumulated on the W chromosome. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 23–30-nt-long small RNAs that potentially act as sequence-specific guides for PIWI proteins to silence transposon activity in animal gonads. In this study, by comparing ovary- and testis-derived piRNAs, we identified numerous female-enriched piRNAs. Our data indicated that female-enriched piRNAs are derived from the W chromosome. Moreover, comparative analyses on piRNA profiles from a series of W chromosome mutant strains revealed a striking enrichment of a specific set of transposon-derived piRNAs in the putative sex-determining region. Collectively, we revealed the nature of the silkworm W chromosome as a source of piRNAs.

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Kadota, Koji; Arai, Yuji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fujii, Tsuguru; Abe, Hiroaki; Yasukochi, Yuji; Mita, Kazuei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2011-01-01

229

Expression of Trichoderma viride endoglucanase III in the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. and characteristic analysis of the recombinant protein.  

PubMed

Endoglucanase is a part of cellulase which hydrolyzes cellulose into glucose. In this study, we cloned endoglucanase III (EG III) gene from Trichoderma viride strain AS 3.3711 using a PCR-based exon splicing method, and expressed EG III recombinant protein in both silkworm BmN cell line and silkworm larvae with an improved Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV mutant baculovirus expression system, which lacks the chiA and v-cath genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). The result showed that around 45 kDa protein was visualized in BmN cells at 48 h after the second generation recombinant mBacmid/BmNPV/EG III baculovirus infection. The enzymes from recombinant baculoviruses infected silkworms exhibited significant maximum enzyme activity at the environmental condition of pH 8.0 and temperature 50°C, and increased 20.94 and 19.13% compared with that from blank mBacmid/BmNPV baculoviruses infected silkworms and normal silkworms, respectively. It was stable at pH range from 5.0 to 9.0 and at temperature range from 40 to 60°C. It provided a possibility to generate transgenic silkworms expressing bio-active cellulase, which can catabolize dietary fibers more efficiently, and it might be of great significance for sericulture industry. PMID:21107717

Li, Xing-hua; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Mei-xian; Zhou, Fang; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Yang, Hua-jun; Bhaskar, Roy; Hu, Jia-biao; Sun, Chun-guang; Miao, Yun-gen

2010-11-25

230

Silkworm Thermal Biology: A Review of Heat Shock Response, Heat Shock Proteins and Heat Acclimation in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to play ecological and evolutionary roles in this postgenomic era. Recent research suggests that HSPs are implicated in cardiovascular biology and disease development, proliferation and regulation of cancer cells, cell death via apoptosis, and several other key cellular functions. These activities have generated great interest amongst cell and molecular biologists, and these biologists are keen to unravel other hitherto unknown potential functions of this group of proteins. Consequently, the biological significance of HSPs has led to cloning and characterization of genes encoding HSPs in many organisms including the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). However, most of the past investigations in B. mori were confined to expression of HSPs in tissues and cell lines, whereas information on their specific functional roles in biological, physiological, and molecular processes is scarce. Naturally occurring or domesticated polyvoltines (known to be the tropical race) are more resistant to high temperatures and diseases than bi- or univoltines (temperate races). The mechanism of ecological or evolutionary modification of HSPs during the course of domestication of B. mori - particularly in relation to thermotolerance in geographically distinct races/strains - is still unclear. In addition, the heat shock response, thermal acclimation, and hardening have not been studied extensively in B. mori compared to other organisms. Towards this, recent investigations on differential expression of HSPs at various stages of development, considering the concept of the whole organism, open ample scope to evaluate their biological and commercial importance in B. mori which has not been addressed in any of the representative organisms studied so far. Comparatively, heat shock response among different silkworm races/strains of poly-, bi-, and univoltines varies significantly and thermotolerance increases as the larval development proceeds. Hence, this being the first review in this area, an attempt has been made to collate all available information on the heat shock response, HSPs expression, associated genes, amino acid sequences, and acquired/unacquired thermotolerance. The aim is to present this as a valuable resource for addressing the gap in knowledge and understanding evolutionary significance of HSPs between domesticated (B. mori) and non-domesticated insects. It is believed that the information presented here will also help researchers/breeders to design appropriate strategies for developing novel strains for the tropics.

Manjunatha, H. B.; Rajesh, R. K.; Aparna, H. S.

2010-01-01

231

Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

232

Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees). Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. bombycis genome has greatly expanded due to the following three molecular mechanisms: 1) the proliferation of host-derived transposable elements, 2) the acquisition of many horizontally transferred genes from bacteria, and 3) the production of abundnant gene duplications. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events (e.g., tandem duplications) but also from large-scale events (e.g., segmental duplications) have never been seen so abundant in any reported microsporidia genomes. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability. Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and transposable element expansion. We also showed that the duplicated genes can serve as raw materials for evolutionary innovations possibly contributing to the increase of pathologenic ability. Based on our research, we propose that duplicated genes of N. bombycis should be treated as primary targets for treatment designs against pébrine.

2013-01-01

233

Toxic impact of organophosphorus insecticides on acetylcholinesterase activity in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

The effect of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides, namely, fenitrothion and ethion, on acetylcholinesterase activity and acetylcholine levels in brain, fat body, and silk gland of Bombyx mori on Days 1, 3, and 5 and food intake of the fifth instar were studied. Acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be inhibited, followed by a concomitant increase in acetylcholine levels in the target tissues. These changes suggest an acceleration in energy metabolism of nerve cells, leading to death of the insects. Food consumption during the fifth instar underwent a significant decrease at lethal doses and an insignificant increase at sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion. The overall changes observed in acetylcholinestease, acetylcholine, and food intake due to fenitrothion and ethion were, insecticidewise, in the order fenitrothionsilkworms exposed to fenitrothion and ethion. PMID:10051365

Surendra Nath, B; Surendra Kumar, R P

1999-02-01

234

Molecular identification of tropical tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta) ecoraces with RAPD and SCAR markers.  

PubMed

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, has several ecoraces, 10 of which are commercially exploited for the production of tasar silk. These ecoraces are identified by morphological markers that are greatly influenced by photoperiod, humidity, altitude, and host plants. The DNA markers, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) are identified to complement the existing morphological markers. Seven RAPD bands are selected that identify 8 of the 10 ecoraces. These identified RAPD fragments are sequenced and primers are designed for SCAR markers. Of the seven sets of primers, a single primer pair produced polymorphic SCAR bands that diagnose 5 of the 10 ecoraces. All 10 ecoraces are identified by the use of RAPD and SCAR markers together. PMID:16648996

Saha, Monalee; Kundu, S C

2006-04-29

235

Differential expression of the fibroin gene in developmental stages of silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (Saturniidae).  

PubMed

Fibroin gene expression during the larval developmental stages of the Saturniid silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, was analyzed. Northern blot analysis of larval silk gland total RNA using the fibroin gene as a probe showed that fibroin is expressed in the intermoult stages and repressed during the moulting stages. Abundance of fibroin transcripts gradually increased from the third to fifth intermoult stage, reaching a peak in the fifth intermoult. Transcripts declined during the early spinning stage. Western blot analysis of fibroin protein production with anti-fibroin antibody confirmed the differential fibroin expression, in accordance with fibroin mRNA synthesis. Dot blot hybridization of genomic DNA isolated from each larval developmental stage with the labelled fibroin gene showed that at the genomic level, the relative concentration of the fibroin gene was constant throughout the developmental stages. Our data confirm that fibroin gene expression in A. mylitta, like in B. mori, is transcriptionally controlled and shows differential temporal variations. PMID:11337263

Datta, A; Ghosh, A K; Kundu, S C

2001-05-01

236

Transgene-based, female-specific lethality system for genetic sexing of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Transgene-based genetic sexing methods are being developed for insects of agricultural and public health importance. Male-only rearing has long been sought in sericulture because males show superior economic characteristics, such as better fitness, lower food consumption, and higher silk yield. Here we report the establishment of a transgene-based genetic sexing system for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We developed a construct in which a positive feedback loop regulated by sex-specific alternative splicing leads to high-level expression of the tetracycline-repressible transactivator in females only. Transgenic animals show female-specific lethality during embryonic and early larval stages, leading to male-only cocoons. This transgene-based female-specific lethal system not only has wide application in sericulture, but also has great potential in lepidopteran pest control. PMID:23569267

Tan, Anjiang; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Guo, Qiuhong; Li, Zhiqian; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke; Huang, Yongping

2013-04-08

237

Production in Escherichia of moricin, a novel type antibacterial peptide from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Moricin is a novel type antibacterial peptide recently isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Two foreign gene expression systems in Escherichia coli were employed to obtain a large amount of the peptide for further characterization. An artificial moricin gene was chemically synthesized and inserted into two expression vectors, pXa1 and pMAL-c2. The recombinant moricin was efficiently produced in E. coli as fusion proteins and released by chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide or o-iodosobenzoic acid. Eleven milligrams of pure recombinant moricin was obtained from 2 L of E. coli culture. The primary structure and molecular mass of the purified recombinant moricin was the same as those of the natural moricin. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the recombinant moricin against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus was comparable to that of the natural moricin. PMID:8607822

Hara, S; Yamakawa, M

1996-03-27

238

Transgenesis approaches for functional analysis of peptidergic cells in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori represents an insect model of great scientific and economic importance. Besides the establishment of a stable germline transformation using the PiggyBac vector, technically feasible methods for in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression were developed using viral based vectors, especially Sindbis viruses and baculoviruses. The recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), commonly used for large-scale protein production in permissive cell lines or insects, has been used for foreign gene transfer into specific peptidergic cells of B. mori in vivo. Since targeted gene expression is essential for functional analysis of neuropeptide genes and their receptors, the baculovirus-mediated gene transfer can serve as a reliable approach in reverse genetic studies in the silkworm. We review various strategies employing the baculovirus vector system for transient expression of molecular markers and transcription factors in specific peptidergic cells to investigate their roles in B. mori. We also use this system for functional analysis of neuropeptide signaling in the ecdysis behavioral sequence. Our data indicate that the AcMNPV vector is suitable for efficient delivery of foreign genes and their expression directed into specific peptidergic neurons and endocrine cells of B. mori larvae and pupae. However, some modifications of the vector and steps for optimization are necessary to minimize negative effects of viral infection on the host development. The transient gene expression using the AcMNPV and other virus vectors are promising tools for analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying various neuroendocrine processes during development of B. mori.

Daubnerova, Ivana; Roller, Ladislav; Zitnan, Dusan

2010-01-01

239

Getting a Full Dose? Reconsidering Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation—equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number—is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. Although this is observed in some organisms, recent genome-wide expression studies in other taxa have revealed striking exceptions. In particular, reports that both birds and the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) lack dosage compensation have spurred speculation that this is the rule for all female-heterogametic taxa. Here, we revisit the issue of dosage compensation in silkworm by replicating and extending the previous analysis. Contrary to previous reports, our efforts reveal a pattern typically associated with dosage compensated taxa: the global male:female expression ratio does not differ between the Z and autosomes. We believe the previous report of unequal male:female ratios on the Z reflects artifacts of microarray normalization in conjunction with not testing a major assumption that the male:female global expression ratio was unbiased for autosomal loci. However, we also find that the global Z chromosome expression is significantly reduced relative to autosomes, a pattern not expected in dosage compensated taxa. This combination of male:female parity with an overall reduction in expression for sex-linked loci is not consistent with the prevailing evolutionary theory of sex chromosome evolution and dosage compensation.

Walters, James R.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

240

The Effect of Supplementation of Dried Mulberry Leaf Meal on the Growth and Carcass Characteristics of young Boer and Crossbred Boer Goats in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve growing male goats (6 Boers and 6 crossbred Boers), 3-4 months old with mean initial body weight of 18.29 ± 1.98 kg, were used to evaluate the effect of supplementation with mulberry leaf meal (MLM) on body weight, growth rate (ADG), body measurements, carcass yield and non-carcass components. The kids were matched by weight and randomly assigned to 2

David Miller; Delroy McDonald; Francis Asiedu

241

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

242

Mulberry 1-Deoxynojirimycin Pleiotropically Inhibits Glucose-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration by Activation of AMPK/RhoB and Down-regulation of FAK.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, has been reported to help prevent diabetes mellitus and suppress lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry DNJ has pleiotropic effects on the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which mulberry DNJ might inhibit migration of A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic conditions mimicking diabetes were investigated. The antimigratory effects of DNJ on VSMCs were assessed by Western blot analysis of migration-related proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton. Two pathways of DNJ-mediated inhibition of VSMC migration were identified. The first involved AMPK activation to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Akt activity and then RhoB activation to inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP) activity. The second involved inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras, and RhoA activity leading to inhibition of F-actin activity. PMID:24050301

Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Chau-Jong

2013-10-02

243

Nanoparticle-induced morphological transition of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: a novel method to treat silkworm grasserie disease.  

PubMed

Grasserie, a polyorganotrophic disease caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), accounts for lethal infection to fifth instar silkworm larvae. It was found that nanoparticle (NP)-induced morphological transformation of BmNPV polyhedra could reduce the infectivity of BmNPV both in cell line and in silkworm larvae. Initially, 11 NPs were screened for evaluation of their nature of interaction with polyhedra surface through scanning electron microscopy. Amongst these NPs, lipophilically coated silica nanoparticle (SNPL), alumina nanoparticles in the hexagonal close-packed ? structure and aspartate capped gold nanoparticle transformed polyhedra were tested for their infectivity in B. mori cell line using cytopathic effect and plaque reduction assay. SNPL was evaluated for its bio-efficacy in fifth instar silkworm larvae. The study of polyhedra morphology as a function of NP concentration showed severe 'roughening' of the polyhedra with replacement of the regular facets by a large number of irregular ones by SNPL, and this caused transition of highly infectious polyhedra into a nearly spherical, non-infectious structure. A moderate polyhedra roughening was observed for alumina NPs, and no roughening was noticed for gold NPs. The morphological changes could be correlated with reduction of virus-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation, and increased survival rate of SNPL transformed polyhedra infected silkworm larvae to 70.09±6.61% after 96 h. In this group, 61.04±8.03% larvae formed normal cocoons from which moths eclosed, laid eggs and larvae emerged. This study could lead to open up newer pathways for designing nano pharmaceuticals to combat other viral diseases. PMID:23588933

Das, Sumistha; Bhattacharya, Ankita; Debnath, Nitai; Datta, Alokmay; Goswami, Arunava

2013-04-16

244

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of novel carboxyl\\/cholinesterases with GQSAG motif in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously cloned and characterized BmJHE, a juvenile hormone (JH)-selective esterase (JHE) that is important for JH titer regulation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we sought to determine whether multiple genes might function as JH-specific esterase in this species. We searched for putative carboxyl\\/cholinesterase (CCE) genes having GQSAG, a highly conserved motif in JHE, by the use of

Takuya Tsubota; Masaru Shimomura; Takehiko Ogura; Atsushi Seino; Takayo Nakakura; Kazuei Mita; Tetsuro Shinoda; Takahiro Shiotsuki

2010-01-01

245

Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, subcellular localization and actin-sequestering function of a thymosin protein from silkworm.  

PubMed

We identified a novel gene encoding a Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY) protein from a cDNA library of silkworm pupae, which has an open reading frame (ORF) of 399 bp encoding 132 amino acids. It was found by bioinformatics that BmTHY gene consisted of three exons and two introns and BmTHY was highly homologous to thymosin betas (T?). BmTHY has a conserved motif LKHTET with only one amino acid difference from LKKTET, which is involved in T? binding to actin. A His-tagged BmTHY fusion protein (rBmTHY) with a molecular weight of approximately 18.4 kDa was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The purified fusion protein was used to produce anti-rBmTHY polyclonal antibodies in a New Zealand rabbit. Subcellular localization revealed that BmTHY can be found in both Bm5 cell (a silkworm ovary cell line) nucleus and cytoplasm but is primarily located in the nucleus. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR showed that during silkworm developmental stages, BmTHY expression levels are highest in moth, followed by instar larvae, and are lowest in pupa and egg. BmTHY mRNA was universally distributed in most of fifth-instar larvae tissues (except testis). However, BmTHY was expressed in the head, ovary and epidermis during the larvae stage. BmTHY formed complexes with actin monomer, inhibited actin polymerization and cross-linked to actin. All the results indicated BmTHY might be an actin-sequestering protein and participate in silkworm development. PMID:22383992

Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Changrong; Lv, Zhengbing; Fang, Dailing; Wang, Dan; Nie, Zuoming; Yu, Wei; Lan, Hanglian; Jiang, Caiying; Zhang, Yaozhou

2012-02-22

246

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury.  

PubMed

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F(2) progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16(905 bp) showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F(2) progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16(826 bp)). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

Dutta, Suhrid R; Kar, Prasanta K; Srivastava, Ashok K; Sinha, Manoj K; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K

2012-10-02

247

A novel RNA helicase-like protein during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: Molecular characterization and intracellular localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the molecular mechanism of development during early embryogenesis in diapause and non-diapause of the silkworm, mRNA from diapause and non-diapause eggs was compared using the differential display technique. We cloned the full length of a cDNA encoding a novel RNA helicase-like (RHL) protein by the RACE method using a cDNA fragment which was one of the

H. Sawada; Y. Yamahama; T. Yamamoto; K. Mase; H. Ogawa; T. Iino

2006-01-01

248

Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: Silkworm Inheritance Experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900–1912  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro’s report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American\\u000a entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama’s work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny\\u000a at a time

Lisa Onaga

2010-01-01

249

Overexpression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant CIb1, a Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor of silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present research provided an efficient approach to obtain large quantities of active recombinant CI-b1, a Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor of silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding mature CI-b1 was cloned into pDEST17 vector. Recombinant protein with hexa-histidine tag attached to the N-terminal of CI-b1 was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B cells. It can be purified to homogeneity via the gel

Ningjia He; Hiroshi Fujii; Takahiro Kusakabe; Yoichi Aso; Yutaka Banno; Kohji Yamamoto

2004-01-01

250

Characterization of the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene corresponding to the white egg 1 mutant in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO, EC 1.14.13.9), which catalyzes the oxidation of kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, is involved in the synthesis of ommochrome pigments in insects. A silkworm mutant, white egg 1 (w-1), has been shown to be deficient in this enzyme activity. The mutant is characterized morphologically by its white eyes and the fact that the females lay white eggs. To analyze

G.-X. Quan; I. Kim; N. Kômoto; H. Sezutsu; M. Ote; T. Shimada; T. Kanda; K. Mita; M. Kobayashi; T. Tamura

2002-01-01

251

Gene expression analysis from phoxim-induced domesticated silkworm ( Bombyx mori) by whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the gene expression of domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) exposed to phoxim, we used a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray to survey the B. mori larvae induced by phoxim [O,O-diethyl O-(alpha-cyanobenzylideneamino) phosphorothioate] after 24h, and examined the gene expression profile. The results showed that, 6177 genes expressed in the tested B. mori larvae, and 247 genes were differentially transcribed

Y. H. Wang; J. M. Wang; G. D. Peng; B. X. Sun; B. Li; W. D. Shen

2011-01-01

252

Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively. PMID:23403062

Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

2013-01-03

253

Involvement of MicroRNAs in Infection of Silkworm with Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (BmCPV)  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the most important pathogens of silkworm. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in regulating host-pathogen interaction. However, there are limited reports on the miRNAs expression profiles during insect pathogen challenges. In this study, four small RNA libraries from BmCPV-infected midgut of silkworm at 72 h post-inoculation and 96 h post-inoculation and their corresponding control midguts were constructed and deep sequenced. A total of 316 known miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 90 novel miRNAs were identified. Fifty-eight miRNAs displayed significant differential expression between the infected and normal midgut (P value ?=?2.0 or silkworm.

Wu, Ping; Han, Shaohua; Chen, Tao; Qin, Guangxing; Li, Long; Guo, Xijie

2013-01-01

254

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of novel carboxyl/cholinesterases with GQSAG motif in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

We have previously cloned and characterized BmJHE, a juvenile hormone (JH)-selective esterase (JHE) that is important for JH titer regulation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we sought to determine whether multiple genes might function as JH-specific esterase in this species. We searched for putative carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) genes having GQSAG, a highly conserved motif in JHE, by the use of silkworm genomic database. Five novel CCE genes (Bmcce-1-5) were identified and their cDNA sequences and intron-exon structures were determined. We investigated the developmental expression patterns of these CCE genes by real-time quantitative PCR analysis and found that their expression patterns varied among developmental stages and organs. Of the proteins produced by the five genes, only BmCCE-5 had the ability to degrade JH; however, this protein might not function as a JH-specific esterase in vivo as it had a high K(m) value for JH. On the other hand, BmCCE-5 degraded general esterase substrates efficiently. Since Bmcce-5 was strongly expressed in Malpighian tubules and the gut, it might function in digestion or xenobiotic metabolism. Our results suggest that of the CCEs containing a GQSAG motif only BmJHE can function as a JH-specific degradation enzyme in the silkworm. PMID:20060470

Tsubota, Takuya; Shimomura, Masaru; Ogura, Takehiko; Seino, Atsushi; Nakakura, Takayo; Mita, Kazuei; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

2010-01-07

255

Molecular cloning and characterization of peroxiredoxin 4 involved in protection against oxidative stress in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a ubiquitous family of proteins that play important roles in insects in protection against oxidative stress through the detoxification of cellular peroxides. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a Prx4 cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmPrx4). The BmPrx4 gene has an open reading frame of 744?bp encoding 248 amino acids and a conserved motif, VCP, involved in its presumed redox functions. The heterologously expressed proteins of the gene in Escherichia coli showed antioxidant activity, removed hydrogen peroxide and protected DnA. Western blotting analysis showed the presence of BmPrx4 in the haemolymph, suggesting that the protein is secretable. Moreover, BmPrx4 was expressed at all developmental stages. The expression level of BmPrx4 was relatively low during the feeding stage but high at the wandering stage. BmPrx4 was induced by quercetin or temperature stress. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that BmPrx4 is present in the brain, neurones and olfactory organ of the head in silkworms. Overall, our results indicate that the expression profile of BmPrx4 correlates well with protection from oxidative damage. Our data provide clues for the development of control technology for agricultural and forestry pests as the silkworm is a representative of lepidopteran pests. PMID:22946963

Shi, G-Q; Yu, Q-Y; Shi, L; Zhang, Z

2012-09-05

256

In vivo site-specific integration of transgene in silkworm via PhiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange.  

PubMed

Current techniques for genetic engineering of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome utilize transposable elements, which result in positional effects and insertional mutagenesis through random insertion of exogenous DNA. New methods for introducing transgenes at specific positions are therefore needed to overcome the limitations of transposon-based strategies. Although site-specific recombination systems have proven powerful tools for genome manipulation in many organisms, their use has not yet been well established for the integration of transgenes in the silkworm. We describe a method for integrating target genes at pre-defined chromosomal sites in the silkworm via phiC31/att site-specific recombination system-mediated cassette exchange. Successful recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) was observed in the two transgenic target strains with an estimated transformation efficiency of 3.84-7.01%. Our results suggest that RMCE events between chromosomal attP/attP target sites and incoming attB/attB sites were more frequent than those in the reciprocal direction. This is the first report of in vivo RMCE via phiC31 integrase in the silkworm, and thus represents a key step toward establishing genome manipulation technologies in silkworms and other lepidopteran species. PMID:23974010

Long, Dingpei; Zhao, Aichun; Xu, Longxia; Lu, Weijian; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-08-22

257

Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2008-09-17

258

Taming the Wild Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

Allyn, Pam

2012-01-01

259

Blastomycosis in wild wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blastomycosis was fatal to a wild wolf in Minnesota, and serologic evidence of blastomycosis was found in a Wisconsin wolf. No unusual movements were detected in the Minnesota animal from October 1983 through October 1985. However, by early December 1985, this wolf was weak and debilitated, and it perished on 14 December after approaching a human residence.

Thiel, R.P; Mech, L.D.; Ruth, G.R.; Archer, J.R.; Kaufman, L.

1987-01-01

260

Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

261

Cannibalism among Wild Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANNIBALISM has been observed twice in East African chimpanzee populations. This behaviour is rarely seen among wild mammals and is hitherto unrecorded in non-human primates. It provides some basis for speculation concerning the relationship between the predatory and aggressive behaviour of chimpanzees.

J. D. Bygott

1972-01-01

262

Brucellosis in Wild Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents data on the role of wild animals and blood-sucking arthropods as vectors of brucellae under natural conditions in foci of brucellosis. The greater part of the monograph analyzes the course of experimental brucellosis infection in various...

M. M. Rementsova I. A. Galuzo E. V. Gvozdev

1987-01-01

263

Characterization of cypovirus isolates from tropical and temperate Indian saturniidae silkworms.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cypovirus, CPV) isolates from larvae of saturniidae silkworms Antheraea mylitta, Antheraea proylei, and Antheraea assamensis were obtained and characterized. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies revealed the presence of hexahedral (rhombic dodecahedron) polyhedral bodies of various size (1-4 microns) in individual hosts while transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies of isolated virions showed their uniform (icosahedral) shape and size (approximately 55 nm). Genomes of these isolates were obtained from purified polyhedral bodies and analyzed by agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eleven bands ranging from about 350 bp to 3.9 kb (total of 25.35 kb) were detected. These bands were completely degraded after treatment of the genome preparations with RNase A at low salt but not at high salt concentration. The banding pattern of the genomes remained unaffected by treatment of the respective preparations with DNase I, indicating that the genomes were composed of 11 double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. The RNA banding patterns of the CPV isolates from the saturniidae silkworms were similar to each other. These characteristics were similar to that of Antheraea mylitta cypovirus 4 (AmCPV-4) but different from that of Bombyx mori cypovirus 1 (BmCPV-1). In comparison to AmCPV-4 the isolates contained an additional, eleventh RNA segment and the size of the RNA segments was also different. Dot blot hybridization showed hybridization of the cloned 9th and 10th segment cDNAs from the A. mylitta CPV (AmCPV) isolate with RNAs from the A. proylei and A. assamensis CPV (ApCPV, AaCPV) isolates but not with RNA from BmCPV-1. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) of polyhedral proteins from the AmCPV isolate showed the presence of 3 major and 5 minor bands of M(r) from 29.4 K to 163 K, but BmCPV-1 polyhedral bodies showed different protein banding pattern. Two heterologous cell lines infected with the AmCPV isolate showed very slow virus growth with the accumulation of polyhedral bodies in the cytoplasm of infected cells indicating a restricted host range of this CPV isolate. PMID:11332278

Qanungo, K R; Kundu, S C; Ghosh, A K

2000-12-01

264

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

265

Determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat and mulberry by cation exchange HPLC/ESI-Q-MS.  

PubMed

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar first found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) which if used as a dietary supplement or functional food component may reduce the risks of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. As D-fagomine may become increasingly important to the food industry, a reliable analytical method for its determination in natural plant sources and foodstuffs is desirable. We have devised a method to separate D-fagomine from its diastereomers 3-epi-fagomine and 3,4-di-epi-fagomine in a single run by cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection and quantification by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionisation and a simple quadrupole analyser (ESI-Q-MS). The method is validated and applied to the determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat groats (6.7-44 mg kg(-1)), leaves, bran and flour. We show that buckwheat contains 3,4-di-epi-fagomine (1.0-43 mg kg(-1)), which has not previously been reported in this source. The procedure is also applied to mulberry (Morus alba) leaves, which contain D-fagomine and 3-epi-fagomine as minor components. The new method provides a means for convenient and accurate determination of D-fagomine in plant samples and foodstuffs. PMID:22207282

Amézqueta, Susana; Galán, Esther; Fuguet, Elisabet; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Torres, Josep Lluís

2011-12-30

266

Changes in leaf organisation, photosynthetic performance and wood formation during ex vitro acclimatisation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.).  

PubMed

Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area. PMID:19689776

Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A

2009-09-01

267

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-11-14

268

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences.

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

269

Molecular Chaperone-Assisted Production of Human ?-1,4- N -Acetylglucosaminyltransferase in Silkworm Larvae Using Recombinant BmNPV Bacmids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, human ?-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT) fused with GFPuv (GFPuv-?4GnT) was expressed using both a transformed cell system and silkworm larvae. A Tn-pXgp-GFPuv-?4GnT cell line, isolated after expression vector transfection, produced 106 mU\\/ml of ?4GnT activity in suspension culture.\\u000a When Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus containing a GFPuv-?4GnT fusion gene (BmNPV-CP\\u000a ?\\/GFPuv-?4GnT) bacmid was injected into silkworm larvae, ?4GnT activity in larval hemolymph

Makoto Nakajima; Tatsuya Kato; Shin Kanamasa; Enoch Y. Park

2009-01-01

270

Effects of male silkworm pupa powder on the erectile dysfunction by chronic ethanol consumption in rats  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of men worldwide. ED is now considered an early manifestation of atherosclerosis, and consequently, a precursor of systemic vascular disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of male silkworm pupa powder (SWP) on the levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, nitrite, and glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation; libido; and erectile response of the corpus cavernosum of the rat penis. We induced ED in the study animals by oral administration of 20% ethanol over 8 weeks. The SWP-treated male rats were divided into 3 groups that were orally administered 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. The libido of the SWP-administered male rats was higher than that of the ethanol control group. In addition, the erectile response of the corpus cavernosum was restored in males on SWP administration, to a level similar to that of the normal group without ED. The testosterone concentration did not increase significantly. The lipid peroxidation in the corpus cavernosum of the male rats administered SWP decreased significantly. In contrast, compared to the ethanol group, SWP-administered male rats showed increased GSH levels in the corpus cavernosum. The level of nitrite and NOS expression in the corpus cavernosum of SWP-administered male rats increased significantly. These results indicated that SWP effectively restored ethanol-induced ED in male rats.

Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Young-Rye; Moon, Dea-In; Seo, Min-Young; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Shin, Sook-Jeong; Ryu, Kang-Sun; Chae, Soo-Wan

2012-01-01

271

Detailed investigation of the sequential pathological changes in silkworm larvae infected with Bombyx densovirus type 1.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1) is a pathogen causing flacherie disease in silkworms. BmDNV-1 multiplies only in the nuclei of the columnar cells of larval midgut epithelium. Although several immunohistochemical studies using anti-BmDNV-1 antibody have been reported to date, sequential pathological changes in BmDNV-1-infected larvae have not been completely elucidated. In this paper, sequential investigations were performed on the pathological features of BmDNV-1-infected larvae and BmDNV-1 propagation. Oral infection experiments using newly ecdysed 4th instar larvae revealed that the larvae began to die 9 days post infection (dpi), and the remaining died 10 dpi. Histological observations revealed phenotypic alterations in the midgut cells from 4 dpi, and complete disruption of the midgut structure at 9 dpi. Quantitative RT-PCR of two BmDNV-1 genes indicated that BmDNV-1 began to propagate from 4 dpi, and gradually increased until the larvae died. These expression patterns revealed marked correlation with the histological changes observed in the virus-infected midgut cells. Moreover, bioassays using larvae at various developmental stages clearly indicated that the pathogenicity of this virus is not dependent on the larval stage or the molting process. PMID:23261951

Ito, Katsuhiko; Kidokoro, Kurako; Shimura, Sachiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko

2012-12-21

272

BmNPV resistance of silkworm larvae resulting from the ingestion of TiO? nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) causes infection in the silkworm that is often lethal. The infection is hard to prevent, partly because of the nature of the virus particles and partly because of the different strains of B. mori. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO? NPs) have been demonstrated to have antimicrobial properties. The present study investigated whether TiO? NPs added to an artificial diet can increase the resistance of B. mori larvae to BmNPV and examined the molecular mechanism behind any resistance shown. The results indicated that ingested TiO? NPs decreased reactive oxygen species and NO accumulation in B. mori larvae under BmNPV infection, which in turn led to a decrease in their growth inhibition and mortality. In addition, the TiO? NPs significantly promoted the expression of resistance-related genes, including those encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, acetylcholine esterase, carboxylesterase, heat shock protein 21, glutathione S transferase o1, P53, and transferring and of genes encoding cytochrome p302 and nitric oxide synthase. These findings are a useful addition to the understanding of the mechanism of BmNPV resistance of B. mori larvae in response to TiO? NPs addition. Such information also provides a theoretical basis for the use of TiO? NPs in sericulture. PMID:23054861

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Gui, Suxin; Sang, Xuezi; Sun, Qingqing; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-10-10

273

The Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Ras Oncogene (Bras2) in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

The Ras oncogene of silkworm pupae (Bras2) may belong to the Ras superfamily. It shares 77% of its amino acid identity with teratocarcinoma oncogene 21 (TC21) related ras viral oncogene homolog-2 (R-Ras2) and possesses an identical core effector region. The mRNA of Bombyx mori Bras2 has 1412?bp. The open reading frame contains 603?bp, which encodes 200 amino acid residues. This recombinant BmBras2 protein was subsequently used as an antigen to raise a rabbit polyclonal antibody. Western blotting and real-time PCR analyses showed that BmBras2 was expressed during four developmental stages. The BmBras2 expression level was the highest in the pupae and was low in other life cycle stages. BmBras2 was expressed in all eight tested tissues, and it was highly expressed in the head, intestine, and epidermis. Subcellular localization studies indicated that BmBras2 was predominantly localized in the nuclei of Bm5 cells, although cytoplasmic staining was also observed to a lesser extent. A cell proliferation assay showed that rBmBras2 could stimulate the proliferation of hepatoma cells. The higher BmBras2 expression levels in the pupal stage, tissue expression patterns, and a cell proliferation assay indicated that BmBras2 promotes cell division and proliferation, most likely by influencing cell signal transduction. PMID:23781494

Lv, Zhengbing; Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Wenhua; Wang, Dan; Chen, Jian; Nie, Zuoming; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Lisha; Wang, Deming; Wu, Xiangfu; Li, Jun; Qian, Lian; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-05-27

274

Structure of the induced antibacterial protein from tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. Implications to molecular evolution.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of an antibacterial protein of immune origin (TSWAB), purified from tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta) larvae after induction by Escherichia coli infection, has been determined. This is the first insect lysozyme structure and represents induced lysozymes of innate immunity. The core structure of TSWAB is similar to c-type lysozymes and alpha-lactalbumins. However, TSWAB shows significant differences with respect to the other two proteins in the exposed loop regions. The catalytic residues in TSWAB are conserved with respect to the chicken lysozyme, indicating a common mechanism of action. However, differences in the noncatalytic residues in the substrate binding groove imply subtle differences in the specificity and the level of activity. Thus, conformational differences between TSWAB and chicken lysozyme exist, whereas functional mechanisms appear to be similar. On the other hand, alpha-lactalbumins and c-type lysozymes exhibit drastically different functions with conserved molecular conformation. It is evident that a common molecular scaffold is exploited in the three enzymes for apparently different physiological roles. It can be inferred on the basis of the structure-function comparison of these three proteins having common phylogenetic origin that the conformational changes in a protein are minimal during rapid evolution as compared with those in the normal course of evolution. PMID:11522783

Jain, D; Nair, D T; Swaminathan, G J; Abraham, E G; Nagaraju, J; Salunke, D M

2001-08-24

275

Purification and characterization of fibroin from the tropical Saturniid silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

The fibroin protein isolated from the posterior silkgland of the tropical Saturniid silkworm Antheraea mylitta, was solubilized in lithium dodecyl sulfate and purified by gel filtration. The major fraction from gel filtration was analyzed by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. One major protein band of ca 395 kDa was obtained under non-reducing conditions and a doublet band of approximately 197 kDa under reducing conditions. The appearance of a single spot in two-dimensional electrophoresis confirmed the purity of the protein indicating that it may be a homodimeric protein of two similar sized polypeptides. Amino acid composition analysis showed that, like other Saturniid fibroins, it is rich in glycine, alanine and serine amino acids. N-terminal amino acid sequence shows significant homology with other Antheraea species. The enzymatic deglycosylation analysis indicates that the fibroin protein is glycosylated and the oligosaccharides are O-linked to the protein backbone by N-acetylgalactoseamine moiety which conforms to a Core 1 mucin-type glycosylation pattern. PMID:11483437

Datta, A; Ghosh, A K; Kundu, S C

2001-09-01

276

A protein delivery system using 30Kc19 cell-penetrating protein originating from silkworm.  

PubMed

Cell-penetrating protein and its protein transduction domain have been used to deliver drugs and proteins into the cells via receptor-independent endocytosis. A number of cell-penetrating proteins including TAT derived from HIV-1 virus, VP22 from herpes simplex virus and Antennapedia from drosophila have been discovered. Here, we report a cell-penetrating protein, 30Kc19, originating from the hemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori. The 30Kc19 is the first cell-penetrating protein that has been found in insect hemolymph. When the 30Kc19 protein produced from recombinant Escherichia coli was supplemented into the medium for mammalian cell culture, 30Kc19 efficiently penetrated into various types of cells and localized at subcellular compartments including mitochondria and cytoplasm. 30Kc19 also delivered cargo proteins such as green fluorescence protein into the cells even though cargo proteins are not able to penetrate into cells by themselves. In addition to the in vitro system, 30Kc19 exhibited the protein transduction property in vivo. When 30Kc19 was intraperitoneally injected into mice, 30Kc19 delivered cargo proteins into various organ tissues of model animals without producing toxicity. Therefore, 30Kc19 has a great potential as a cell-penetrating protein that can be used as a medicinal tool to deliver cargo molecules including proteins into the target organ tissues in the body. PMID:22981778

Park, Ju Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Hee Ho; Rhee, Won Jong; Choi, Shin Sik; Park, Tai Hyun

2012-09-13

277

Expression and Functional Analysis of Storage Protein 2 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Storage protein 2 (SP2) not only is an important source of energy for the growth and development of silkworm but also has inhibitory effects on cell apoptosis. Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis is an important contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis; therefore, study of the antiapoptotic activity of SP2 on ECs provides information related to the treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the sp2 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein, which was then used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot results revealed that SP2 levels were higher in the pupal stage and hemolymph of fifth-instar larvae but low in the egg and adult stages. Subcellular localization results showed that SP2 is located mainly on the cell membrane. In addition, a Bac-to-Bac system was used to construct a recombinant baculovirus for SP2 expression. The purified SP2 was then added to a culture medium for human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), which were exposed to staurosporine. A cell viability assay demonstrated that SP2 could significantly enhance the viability of HUVEC. Furthermore, both ELISA and flow cytometry results indicated that SP2 has anti-apoptotic effects on staurosporine-induced HUVEC apoptosis.

Yu, Wei; Wang, Meihui; Zhang, Hanming; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-01-01

278

Functional characterization of a cactus homolog from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding an IkappaB family protein was identified and the full nucleotide sequence was determined in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The IkappaB gene, designated BmCactus, was constitutively expressed mainly in the fat body and hemocytes. Transfection experiments on a B. mori cell line, NIAS-Bm-aff3, with expression vectors containing BmCactus, BmRelA, BmRelB, or the active portion of BmRelish1 showed that activation of the CecB1 gene promoter by either BmRelA or BmRelB, but not the active portion of BmRelish1, was strongly inhibited by BmCactus. In addition, activation of CecB1 gene by autoclaved E. coli in the cultured cells was observed regardless of the presence or absence of BmCactus. A glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and analysis using a yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated that BmCactus interacted with the BmRel Rel homology domain, but not with the BmRelish Rel homology domain. These results suggest that BmCactus is involved in the Toll signal transduction pathway in B. mori. PMID:19966488

Furukawa, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Ishibashi, Jun; Imanishi, Shigeo; Yamakawa, Minoru

2009-12-07

279

The silkworm Z chromosome is enriched in testis-specific genes.  

PubMed

The role of sex chromosomes in sex determination has been well studied in diverse groups of organisms. However, the role of the genes on the sex chromosomes in conferring sexual dimorphism is still being experimentally evaluated. An unequal complement of sex chromosomes between two sexes makes them amenable to sex-specific evolutionary forces. Sex-linked genes preferentially expressed in one sex over the other offer a potential means of addressing the role of sex chromosomes in sexual dimorphism. We examined the testis transcriptome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which has a ZW chromosome constitution in the female and ZZ in the male, and show that the Z chromosome harbors a significantly higher number of genes expressed preferentially in testis compared to the autosomes. We hypothesize that sexual antagonism and absence of dosage compensation have possibly led to the accumulation of many male-specific genes on the Z chromosome. Further, our analysis of testis-specific paralogous genes suggests that the accumulation on the Z chromosome of genes advantageous to males has occurred primarily by translocation or tandem duplication. PMID:19332883

Arunkumar, K P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, J

2009-03-30

280

The Oscar Wilde Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all." Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include "The Happy Prince and Other Stories", "A House of Pomegranates", and plays like "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".

281

Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Dual Oxidase (BmDuox) Gene from the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), an 802 bp 3'-terminal region (3'-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

2013-08-02

282

An optimized sericin-1 expression system for mass-producing recombinant proteins in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms.  

PubMed

The middle silk gland (MSG) of silkworm is thought to be a potential host for mass-producing valuable recombinant proteins. Transgenic MSG expression systems based on the usage of promoter of sericin1 gene (sericin-1 expression system) have been established to produce various recombinant proteins in MSG. However, further modifying the activity of the sericin-1 expression system to yield higher amounts of recombinant proteins is still necessary. In this study, we provide an alternative modification strategy to construct an efficient sericin-1 expression system by using the hr3 enhancer (hr3 CQ) from a Chongqing strain of the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and the 3'UTRs of the fibroin heavy chain (Fib-HPA), the fibroin light chain (Fib-LPA), and Sericin1 (Ser1PA) genes. We first analyzed the effects of these DNA elements on expression of luciferase, and found that the combination of hr3 CQ and Ser1PA was most effective to increase the activity of luciferase. Then, hr3 CQ and Ser1PA were used to modify the sericin1 expression system. Transgenic silkworms bearing these modified sericin1 expression vectors were generated by a piggyBac transposon mediated genetic transformation method. Our results showed that mRNA level of DsRed reporter gene in transgenic silkworms containing hr3 CQ and Ser1PA significantly increased by 9 fold to approximately 83 % of that of endogenous sericin1. As the results of that, the production of recombinant RFP increased by 16 fold to 9.5 % (w/w) of cocoon shell weight. We conclude that this modified sericin-1 expression system is efficient and will contribute to the MSG as host to mass produce valuable recombinant proteins. PMID:23435751

Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Ma, Sanyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Duan, Xiaoli; Duan, Jianping; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2013-02-23

283

Production of classical swine fever virus envelope glycoprotein E2 as recombinant polyhedra in baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Although, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) envelope glycoprotein E2 subunit vaccine has been developed using the baculovirus expression system, the expression of viral antigens in baculovirus-infected insect cells is often ineffective. Therefore, an alternative strategy to the traditional baculovirus expression system is needed that is more productive and effective. Here, we report a novel strategy for the large-scale production of a CSFV E2 in the larvae of a baculovirus-infected silkworm, Bombyx mori. We constructed a recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that expressed recombinant polyhedra together with the N-terminal 179 amino acids of CSFV E2 (E2?C). BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae expressed native polyhedrin and approximately 44-kDa fusion protein that was detected using both anti-polyhedrin and anti-CSFV E2 antibodies. Electron and confocal microscopy both demonstrated that the recombinant polyhedra contained both the fusion protein and native polyhedrin were morphologically normal and contained CSFV E2?C. The CSFV E2?C antigen produced in BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae reached 0.68 mg/ml of hemolymph and 0.53 mg/larva at 6-days post-infection. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice that were immunized with the E2?C protein purified from solubilized recombinant polyhedra elicited CSFV E2 antibodies, which indicated that the CSFV E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra was immunogenic. The virus neutralization test showed that the serum from mice that were treated with E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra contained significant levels of virus neutralization activity. These results demonstrate that this strategy can be used for the large-scale production of CSFV E2 antigen. PMID:21706129

Lee, Kwang Sik; Sohn, Mi Ri; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choo, Young Moo; Woo, Soo Dong; Yoo, Sung Sik; Je, Yeon Ho; Choi, Jae Young; Roh, Jong Yul; Koo, Hyun Na; Jin, Byung Rae

2012-03-01

284

A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces based on well-defined mulberry-like particles and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superhydrophobic surface was obtained by combining application of CaCO 3/SiO 2 mulberry-like composite particles, which originated from violent stirring and surface modification, and self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane. Water contact angle and sliding angle of the superhydrophobic surface were measured to be about 164 ± 2.5° and 5°, respectively. The excellent hydrophobicity is attributed to the synergistic effect of micro-submicro-nano-meter scale roughness (fabricated by composite particles) and the low surface energy (provided by polydimethylsiloxane). This procedure makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic film due to its simplicity and practicability.

Yang, Jinxin; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang; Zheng, Dafeng; Xu, Mengyi; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

2009-01-01

285

[The wild boar of Egypt].  

PubMed

The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars. PMID:10488431

Manlius, N; Gautier, A

1999-07-01

286

Molecular cloning, expression, and enzymatic activity of a novel endogenous cellulase from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari.  

PubMed

A novel endogenous beta-1,4-endoglucanase (Ag-EGase III) gene belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 5 was cloned from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari. The Ag-EGase III gene spans 1061 bp and consists of a single exon coding for 325 amino acid residues. The Ag-EGase III showed 89% protein sequence identity to another beetle, Psacothea hilaris, cellulase belonging to GHF 5. The Ag-EGase III has the potential proton donor and nucleophile amino acids conserved in GHF 5 and two putative N-glycosylation sites. Northern blot and Western blot analyses showed that Ag-EGases were expressed in the gut; Ag-EGase III and Ag-EGase I were expressed in three gut regions, and no Ag-EGase II was found in hindgut, indicating that the foregut and midgut are the prime sites for cellulase synthesis in A. germari larvae. The cDNA encoding Ag-EGase III was expressed as a 47-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells and the enzyme activity of the purified recombinant Ag-EGase III was approximately 1037 U per mg of recombinant Ag-EGase III. The enzymatic property of the purified recombinant Ag-EGase III showed the highest activity at 55 degrees C and pH 6.0, and was stable at 60 degrees C at least for 10 min. In addition, the N-glycosylation of Ag-EGase III was revealed by treatment with tunicamycin of recombinant virus-infected insect Sf9 cells and with endoglycosidase F of purified recombinant Ag-EGase III, demonstrating that the carbohydrate moieties are not necessary for enzyme activity. PMID:16945565

Wei, Ya Dong; Lee, Kwang Sik; Gui, Zhong Zheng; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kim, Iksoo; Zhang, Guo Zheng; Guo, Xijie; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

2006-07-25

287

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

288

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

289

Silkworm exuviae—A new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, silkworm exuviae (SE) waste, an agricultural waste available in large quantity in China, was utilized as low-cost adsorbent to remove basic dye (methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution by adsorption. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that MB adsorption onto SE for different initial dye concentrations

Hao Chen; Jie Zhao; Guoliang Dai

2011-01-01

290

A Shark Liver Gene-Derived Active Peptide Expressed in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: Preliminary Studies for Oral Administration of the Recombinant Protein  

PubMed Central

Active peptide from shark liver (APSL) is a cytokine from Chiloscyllium plagiosum that can stimulate liver regeneration and protects the pancreas. To study the effect of orally administered recombinant APSL (rAPSL) on an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the APSL gene was cloned, and APSL was expressed in Bombyx mori N cells (BmN cells), silkworm larvae and silkworm pupae using the silkworm baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). It was demonstrated that rAPSL was able to significantly reduce the blood glucose level in mice with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin. The analysis of paraffin sections of mouse pancreatic tissues revealed that rAPSL could effectively protect mouse islets from streptozotocin-induced lesions. Compared with the powder prepared from normal silkworm pupae, the powder prepared from pupae expressing rAPSL exhibited greater protective effects, and these results suggest that rAPSL has potential uses as an oral drug for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future.

Liu, Yunlong; Chen, Ying; Chen, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenping; Sheng, Qing; Chen, Jian; Yu, Wei; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Wu, Wutong; Wang, Lisha; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Li, Jun; Qian, Lian; Lv, Zhengbing

2013-01-01

291

Changes in Protein Metabolism in Hemolymph and Fat Body of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in Response to Organophosphorus Insecticides Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in protein metabolism were studied in hemolymph and fat body of 5th instar silkwormBombyx moriexposed to lethal and sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion. The total protein content indicated a depletion followed by a concomitant increase in accumulation of free amino acids. Concurrently, the activity of protease in both of the tissues was also increased. A sharp enhancement in

B. Surendra Nath; A. Suresh; B. Mahendra Varma; R. P. Surendra Kumar

1997-01-01

292

Shifts in glycogen metabolism in hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in response to organophosphorus insecticides toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic potential of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides namely, fenitrothion and ethion, as a function of gycogen metabolism of hemolymph and fat body on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the fifth-instar silkworm, Bombyx mori were studied. Results showed that both lethal and sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion registered significant depletion in fat body glycogen reserves followed

B. Surendra Nath

2002-01-01

293

Construction of New Ligation-Independent Cloning Vectors for the Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins in Silkworms Using BmNPV Bacmid System  

PubMed Central

A ligation independent cloning (LIC) system has been developed to facilitate the rapid and high-efficiency cloning of genes in a Bombyx mori expression system. This system was confirmed by the expression of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (hMTP) fused with EGFP in silkworm larvae and pupae. Moreover, hMTP and human protein disulfide isomerase (hPDI) genes were inserted into two LIC vectors harboring gcLINK sequences and were combined by using the LIC through gcLINK sequences. The constructed vector was incorporated into the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid, and injected into silkworm larvae. The expressed hMTP-hPDI complex was purified from the fat bodies of silkworm larvae. This LIC vector system was applied to express the E1, E2, and E3 subunits of human ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) in silkworm larvae. The expressed proteins were purified easily from fat bodies using three different affinity chromatography steps. The LIC vectors constructed as described in this report allow for the rapid expression and purification of recombinant proteins or their complexes by using the BmNPV bacmid system.

Kato, Tatsuya; Thompson, James R.; Park, Enoch Y.

2013-01-01

294

Experimental RNomics and genomic comparative analysis reveal a large group of species-specific small non-message RNAs in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidences show that small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. The silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of lepidopterous pests. Here, we have performed the first systematic identification and analysis of intermediate size ncRNAs (50–500?nt) in the silkworm. We identified 189 novel ncRNAs, including 141 snoRNAs, six snRNAs, three tRNAs, one SRP and 38 unclassified ncRNAs. Forty ncRNAs showed significantly altered expression during silkworm development or across specific stage transitions. Genomic comparisons revealed that 123 of these ncRNAs are potentially silkworm-specific. Analysis of the genomic organization of the ncRNA loci showed that 32.62% of the novel snoRNA loci are intergenic, and that all the intronic snoRNAs follow the pattern of one-snoRNA-per-intron. Target site analysis predicted a total of 95 2?-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of rRNAs, snRNAs and tRNAs. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNA during insect development and evolution.

Li, Dandan; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Zhujin; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Skogerboe, Geir; Guo, Xiangqian; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bi, Lijun; Huang, Yongping; Dong, Shuanglin; Chen, Runsheng; Kan, Yunchao

2011-01-01

295

Hormonal regulation of the death commitment in programmed cell death of the silkworm anterior silk glands.  

PubMed

During larval-pupal transformation, the anterior silk glands (ASGs) of the silkworm Bombyx mori undergo programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Under standard in vitro culture conditions (0.3 ml of medium with 1 ?M 20E), ASGs of the fourth-instar larvae do not undergo PCD in response to 20E. Similarly, larvae of the fifth instar do not respond to 20E through day 5 of the instar (V5). However, ASGs of V6 die when challenged by 20E, indicating that the glands might be destined to die before V6 but that a death commitment is not yet present. When we increased the volume of culture medium for one gland from 0.3 to 9 ml, V5 ASGs underwent PCD. We examined the response of ASGs to 20E every day by culturing them in 9 ml of medium and found that ASGs on and after V2 were fully responsive to 20E. Because pupal commitment is associated with juvenile hormone (JH), the corpora allata (a JH secretory organ) were removed on day 3 of the fourth larval instar (IV3), and their ASGs on V0 were cultured with 20E. Removal of the corpora allata allowed the V0 larval ASGs to respond to 20E with PCD. In contrast, topical application of a JH analogue inhibited the response to 20E when applied on or before V5. We conclude that the acquisition of responsiveness to 20E precedes the loss of JH sensitivity, and that the death commitment in ASGs occurs between V5 and 6. PMID:23063728

Matsui, Hiroto; Kakei, Motonori; Iwami, Masafumi; Sakurai, Sho

2012-10-11

296

Characterisation of a desmosterol reductase involved in phytosterol dealkylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C(29) and C(28)) yielding cholesterol (C(27)). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD-dependent reaction.Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250 kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation. PMID:21738635

Ciufo, Leonora F; Murray, Patricia A; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J; Rees, Huw H

2011-06-27

297

Characterisation of a Desmosterol Reductase Involved in Phytosterol Dealkylation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C29 and C28) yielding cholesterol (C27). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD- dependent reaction. Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation.

Ciufo, Leonora F.; Murray, Patricia A.; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J.; Rees, Huw H.

2011-01-01

298

Comparison of Lodging Safety Factor of Untreated and Succinic Acid 2,2-Dimethylhydrazide-Treated Shoots of Mulberry Tree 1  

PubMed Central

This study examined the lodging resistance of mulberry tree (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv Kenmochi) shoots treated or not treated with succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH). The lodging safety factor, an indicator of lodging resistance, was defined as the ratio of critical lodging load to the leaf fresh weight observed, provided that the distribution of the critical lodging load along the stem was similar to that of the leaf fresh weight observed. The critical lodging load was experimentally estimated by loading weights onto the stems. In the untreated trees, the lodging safety factor was maintained at about 3.2. In the SADH-treated trees, the stem elongation was inhibited to about 80% of that in the untreated trees, and the percentage of shoot dry matter partitioned into the leaves was always larger than that of the untreated trees. This dwarfing of the stem caused by SADH increased the critical lodging load supported by the unit stem dry weight, while this large investment of materials in leaves increased the leaf fresh weight supported by the unit stem dry weight. Since the increments canceled each other, the lodging safety factor of the SADH-treated shoots was similar to that of the untreated ones. These results suggest that the shoot formation of the mulberry tree is controlled to maintain the lodging safety factor at a constant level. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Tateno, Masaki; Bae, Kaesun

1990-01-01

299

In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry. PMID:22225542

Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-02-22

300

In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

2006-03-24

301

Impact of single and stacked insect-resistant bt-cotton on the honey bee and silkworm.  

PubMed

Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3(rd) day of 5(th) B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm(2)), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

2013-09-09

302

Translational enhancement of recombinant protein synthesis in transgenic silkworms by a 5'-untranslated region of polyhedrin gene of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

Previously, we established a method to produce recombinant proteins (r-proteins) in cocoons of germline transgenic silkworms, and showed that a step(s) in post-transcription processes was rate-limiting in obtaining a high yield of r-proteins. In this study, we examined whether the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the polyhedrin gene (pol) of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has a translational enhancer activity in the r-protein expression by middle silk gland (MSG) cells of silkworm Bombyx mori (Bm). Sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven transformation vectors were constructed in which pol5'-UTRs of NPVs isolated from four different species, Bm, Spodoptera frugiperda, Ectropis oblique, and Malacosoma neustria, were each placed upstream of a reporter gene. Transient expression assays in MSGs showed that these pol5'-UTRs all enhanced the protein expression of reporter genes, and the pol5'-UTR of Bm NPV (pol5'-UTR/Bm) was the most effective among them. Thus, transgenic silkworms were generated, which bore the ser1 promoter-driven His-tagged secretory EGFP (sEGFP-His) gene under the control of pol5'-UTR/Bm. The synthesis of sEGFP-His proteins in MSGs of the transgenic worms was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in those bearing null vectors. However, its mRNA expression levels were 67% of the control worms, indicating that the pol5'-UTR/Bm specifically enhanced the translational level. In conclusion, pol5'-UTR/Bm increased the yield of r-protein production in transgenic silkworms by enhancing the translational activity and this 5'-UTR could be useful for the mass production of r-proteins in germline transgenic silkworms. PMID:18640598

Iizuka, Masashi; Tomita, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

2008-06-01

303

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation of minerals and other...

2013-07-01

304

Non-bioengineered silk gland fibroin protein: characterization and evaluation of matrices for potential tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

The possibility of using wild non-mulberry silk protein as a biopolymer remains unexplored compared to domesticated mulberry silk protein. One of the main reasons for this was for not having any suitable method of extraction of silk protein fibroin from cocoons and silk glands. In this study non-bioengineered non-mulberry silk gland fibroin protein from tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta, is regenerated and characterized using 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The new technique is important and unique because it uses a mild surfactant for fibroin dissolution and is advantageous over other previous reported techniques using chaotropic salts. Fabricated fibroin films are smooth as confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectrometry along with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal random coil/alpha-helix conformations in regenerated fibroin which transform to beta-sheets, resulting in crystalline structure and protein insolubility through ethanol treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry shows an increase in glass transition (Tg) temperature and enhanced degradation temperature on alcohol treatment. Enhanced cell attachment and viability of AH927 feline fibroblasts were observed on fibroin matrices. Higher mechanical strength along with controllable water stability of regenerated gland fibroin films make non-mulberry Indian tropical tasar silk gland fibroin protein a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. PMID:18383269

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2008-08-15

305

'Wild Treasure' Thornless Trailing Blackberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild Treasure is a new trailing blackberry cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University. Wild Treasure is thornless and has high quality fruit that are very small and can be mech...

306

First wild XXY house mice.  

PubMed

Laboratory house mice (Mus musculus) with the XXY condition can be generated with ease and have been used as a biomedical model. However, although the XXY constitution has been described in humans and many domestic and wild mammal species, and a very large number of wild house mice have been karyotyped previously, no wild individuals of M. musculus with an XXY karyotype have ever been reported. Therefore, it is rather extraordinary that two wild XXY house mice were caught by us on two different farms in northern Italy in 2008. Except for the extra X chromosome, one male had a standard karyotype (2n = 40) and the other, the karyotype of the Cremona metacentric population (2n = 22). In this paper, the phenotype of these two individuals is described. Observations for both of these wild males agree with those of laboratory XXY mice, i.e., they had a normal body mass and appearance, but significantly smaller testes than normal, and no visible germ cells. The incidence of the XXY chromosome anomaly in wild mice (two among 5,123 wild mice surveyed by us and our colleagues, i.e., approximately 0.08% among wild-caught males) is intermediate between that found in male laboratory mice (approximately 0.04%) and that found in male humans (0.2%). PMID:20521165

Hauffe, Heidi C; Giménez, Mabel D; Garagna, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B

2010-06-03

307

Expression and localization of silkworm adaptor protein complex-1 subunits, which were down-regulated post baculovirus infection.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complexes (APs) function as vesicle coat components in different membrane traffic pathways. In this study the subunits of adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) of silkworm Bombyx mori were molecularly characterized. All coding genes for the four subunits were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenic tree for each adaptin was constructed and all subunits were found to be conserved in respective group among organisms. The mRNA expression pattern for each adaptin was similar among tissues. Alternative splicing event was observed in genes encoding both the heavy chain gamma and beta adaptin and the light chain subunit, which could generate other possible adaptin forms. GFP-tagged fusion proteins indicated that AP-1 located in the peripheral plasma area. Furthermore, the BmNPV infection in B. mori cells had differentiated effect on the expression level of AP-1 subunits. PMID:23053975

Niu, Yan-Shan; Wang, Mei-Xian; Liang, Shuang; Zhou, Fang; Miao, Yun-Gen

2012-10-07

308

Identification of cDNAs encoding allatotropin and allatotropin-like peptides from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The cDNAs encoding allatotropin (AT) and allatotropin-like peptides (ATLPs) were isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Similar to those of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, four peptides (AT, ATLP1, ATLP2, and ATLP3) are present in three different variants generated by alternative splicing. RT-PCR analyses showed that these splice variants are expressed in the central nervous system with differing expression patterns in each ganglion. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-AT antibody confirmed that AT-expressing cells were located in these central nervous ganglia as well as in two large anterior cells of the frontal ganglia. Injection of synthetic AT and ATLP-1 into B. mori larvae increased the latency to feed, indicating that AT and ATLP might function in the regulation of feeding behavior in B. mori. PMID:22265806

Nagata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Sumihiro; Mizoguchi, Akira; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

2012-01-13

309

Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography. In SDS-PAGE, a single band of approximately 200kDa was detected both in non-reducing and reducing conditions. Amino acid analysis showed that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine. There is a slight difference observed in amino acid composition between the sericin from cocoon peduncle and cocoon of A. mylitta. Secondary structure estimation by circular dichroism spectrometry showed 36.7% beta-sheets, 52.7% random coils, 10.6% turns and no helices. PMID:16620954

Dash, Rupesh; Mukherjee, Soumen; Kundu, S C

2006-03-07

310

The ecdysteroidogenic P450 Cyp302a1/disembodied from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is transcriptionally regulated by prothoracicotropic hormone.  

PubMed

During larval and pupal development of insects, ecdysone is synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG). Although several Drosophila genes, including Halloween P450 genes, are known to be important for ecdysteroidogenesis in PG, little is known of the ecdysteroidogenic genes in other insects. Here we report on Cyp302a1/disembodied (dib-Bm), one of the Halloween P450s in the silkworm Bombyx mori that is a carbon-22 hydroxylase. dib-Bm is predominantly expressed in PG and its developmental expression profile is correlated with a change in the ecdysteroid titre in the haemolymph. Furthermore, dib-Bm expression in cultured PGs is significantly induced by treatment with prothoracicotropic hormone. This is the first report on the transcriptional induction of a steroidogenic gene by the tropic hormone in insects. PMID:16164612

Niwa, R; Sakudoh, T; Namiki, T; Saida, K; Fujimoto, Y; Kataoka, H

2005-10-01

311

Genome-Wide Identification and Immune Response Analysis of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein.

Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

312

Genome-wide identification and immune response analysis of serine protease inhibitor genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein. PMID:22348050

Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-02-13

313

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract.

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

314

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1  

PubMed Central

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees.

Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

1999-01-01

315

L-thyroxine (T4) elevates the free amino acid pool of haemolymph plasma of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

Concentration of free amino acids (FAA) in the haemolymph plasma of male and female tasar silkworm, A. mylitta, during fifth larval instar were determined by amino acid analyzer after administration of vertebrate thyroxine (T4). Twenty FAA have been identified in haemolymph plasma in both sexes, out of which ten were found to be predominating. Treatment with anabolic doses of thyroxine (0.5 and 1.0 micrograms/g) were able to enhance the titre of all the individual FAA which has been also reflected in the total concentrations. A specific pattern of variations in plasma FAA recorded during 5th larval instar, was not altered by the administered thyroxine. Our results thus indicate that T4 has a controlling influence on the FAA profiles of silkworm as observed in other biochemical parameters of the insect. PMID:7705760

Reddy, K D; Chaudhuri, A; Thangavelu, K

1994-12-01

316

Distinct effects of different low temperatures on the induction of NAD-sorbitol dehydrogenase activity in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, exposed to 5°C and 0.5°C from 2 or 30 days after oviposition, were examined for changes in contents of glycogen, sorbitol and glycerol. Cold acclimation did not alter the profile of accumulation of sorbitol from that in eggs kept continuously at 25°C. However, acclimation at 5°C resulted in conversion of sorbitol to glycogen,

Toshinobu Yaginuma; Michihiro Kobayashi; Okitsugu Yamashita

1990-01-01

317

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were

Tatsuya Kato; Enoch Y.. Park

2007-01-01

318

The generation of germline transgenic silkworms for the production of biologically active recombinant fusion proteins of fibroin and human basic fibroblast growth factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated germline transgenic silkworms bearing a fibroin light chain (FL) promoter-driven FL gene whose 3?-end was flanked with human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene, FL\\/bFGF gene. The cocoons from transgenic worms were trypsinized to remove sericin layers, and treated with solution containing CaCl2, ethanol, and water at a molar ratio of 1:2:8 (CaCl2\\/ethanol\\/water) to solubilize fibroin layers. Western

Rika Hino; Masahiro Tomita; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2006-01-01

319

Structural analysis on the single-stranded genomic DNAs of the virus newly isolated from silkworm: the DNA molecules share a common terminal sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recently, a parvo-like virus was newly isolated from silkworm larvae and the two viral DNAs (VD1 and VD2) with different electro-mobilities were identified. We cloned the viral DNAs in a plasmid pUC119 and demonstrated that these two DNAs were not a bimorphic molecules though they shared a common terminal sequence of 53 nucleotides. In addition, the sequence at the

H. Bando; H. Choi; Y. Ito; M. Nakagaki; S. Kawase

1992-01-01

320

Characterization of the guanosine 3??5?-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from silkworm eggs and analysis of the endogenous protein substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, two types of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases, namely cGMP dependent “G-kinase” and cAMP dependent “A-kinase”, in silkworm eggs has been reported (Takahashi et al. 1975; Takahashi 1976). One of these, G-kinase, has now been purified 2400-fold by means of ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on hydroxylapatite, DEAE cellulose, and gel filtration.

Susumu Y. Takahashi

1985-01-01

321

The formation of myeloid bodies in retinular cells of the pupal compound eyes of silkworm moths ( Bombyx mori ) exposed to a constant bright light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous well-developed myeloid bodies are formed in the retinular cells of the compound eyes of pupae (cocoons were removed) of silkworm (Bombyx mori) irradiated with a constant bright light (10 000 lux). Such well-developed myeloid bodies are not usually observed in arthropod compound eyes, and they have been observed only in the retinular cells of lepidopterans reared with carotenoid-deficient diet.

Eisuke Eguchi; Shihoko Maeda; Isamu Shimizu

1991-01-01

322

Wild Turkey Populations and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study Objective: Determine the perceived and actual magnitude of crop damage by wild turkeys and the consequences of expanded hunting opportunity for turkeys in the primary range. Performance: Technology Transfer and Reports. Conduct technology transfer, ...

J. F. Kubisiak

1996-01-01

323

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity  

PubMed Central

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

2009-01-01

324

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.  

PubMed

Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment. PMID:21686920

Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

2009-04-28

325

Expression of EGFP-spider dragline silk fusion protein in BmN cells and larvae of silkworm showed the solubility is primary limit for dragline proteins yield.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amount of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this paper, we used a newly established Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV Baculovirus expression system to express the recombinant spider (Nephila clavata) dragline silk protein (MaSp1) fused EGFP in BmN cells and larvae of silkworm. A 70 kDa fusion protein was visualized after rBacmid/BmNPV/drag infection by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis. Fusion protein expressed in the BmN cells probably occupied five percent of the cell total protein; In a silkworm larva, approximately 6 mg fusion proteins were expressed. Solubility analysis of the expressed spider dragline silk protein indicated that 60% fusion protein is insoluble. EGFP fluorescence showed that fusion protein is tend to form aggregate by self assemblage. The results indicated the solubility is the primary limit for spider dragline proteins yield. It also suggested that directly produce fibrous spider silk in the secreting-silk organs of the transgenic silkworm larvae might be a better method. PMID:17525867

Zhang, Yuansong; Hu, Junhua; Miao, Yungen; Zhao, Aichun; Zhao, Tianfu; Wu, Dayang; Liang, Liefeng; Miikura, Ayumi; Shiomi, Kunihiro; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

2007-05-25

326

Resistance to BmNPV via Overexpression of an Exogenous Gene Controlled by an Inducible Promoter and Enhancer in Transgenic Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP), Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P), hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG). After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 105 occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity.

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Zhao, Ping; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Genhong; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

327

Word Spotting in the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a method for spotting words in the wild, i.e., in real images taken in unconstrained environments. Text found in the wild has a surprising range of difficulty. At\\u000a one end of the spectrum, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) applied to scanned pages of well formatted printed text is one\\u000a of the most successful applications of computer vision to date.

Kai Wang; Serge Belongie

2010-01-01

328

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

SciTech Connect

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

Kato, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan) and Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

2007-08-03

329

Antiobesity Effects of Isaria sinclairii by Repeated Oral Treatment in Obese Zucker Rats Over a 4Month Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the antiobesity effects of Isaria sinclairii (I. sinclairii, a fungus cultured on silkworms) powder were investigated in obese (fa\\/fa) Zucker rats over 4 mo. Rats were given 5 or 10% (w\\/w) I. sinclairii powder (I. S.), 10% mulberry leaf powder, or 10% silkworm powder mixed with standard diet; a fifth (control) group was given standard diet

Mi Young Ahn; Sang Deok Jee; Byung Mu Lee

2007-01-01

330

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF WILD BOAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, wild boar numbers have increased worldwide. Wild boar can adapt to a wide range of habitats and foods and have the highest reproductive rate among ungulates. Therefore, wild boar can have a very substantial environmental impact and affect many ecosystem components. This paper summarises studies of the environmental impact of wild boar. Very few studies have quantified

GIOVANNA MASSEI; PETER V. GENOV

2004-01-01

331

Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

Showstack, Randy

332

Alliance for the Wild Rockies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to their mission statement, the goal of Alliance for the Wild Rockies (AWR) is to secure the ecological integrity of the Wild Rockies Bioregion through citizen empowerment and the application of conservation biology, sustainable economic models, and environmental law. The Rockies Bioregion includes wildlands in parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, Alberta, and British Columbia. At any given time, the group is working on several key issues in the Northern Rocky Mountains. These issues include protection of the bull trout and the grizzly bear, and bioregion-wide topics including wildfire and logging, and The Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act (NREPA).

333

Wild meat: the bigger picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive overhunting of wildlife for meat across the humid tropics is now causing local extinctions of numerous species. Rural people often rely heavily on wild meat, but, in many areas, this important source of food and income is either already lost or is being rapidly depleted. The problem can only be tackled by looking at the wider economic and institutional

E. J. Milner-Gulland; Elizabeth L. Bennett

2003-01-01

334

STARDUST WILD 2 DUST MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its passage through the coma of comet 81P\\/Wild 2 in January 2004 to collect dust particles for return to the Earth, instruments on Stardust made extensive measurements of the dust coma environment. The inner coma was characterized by many narrow jets, imaged by the Navigation Camera. Dust fluxes measured by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) revealed a highly

B. C. Clark; Z. Sekanina; P. Tsou; D. E. Brownlee

2007-01-01

335

Seed Size Variation and Predation of Seeds Produced by Wild and Crop-Wild Sunflowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds

Helen M. Alexander; Charity L. Cummings; Lisa Kahn; Allison A. Snow

2001-01-01

336

Analyzing the promoters of two CYP9A genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori by dual-luciferase reporter assay.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are widespread proteins that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. CYP9A subfamily genes are important in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We previously reported transcriptional levels of two CYP9A genes in different tissues and their responses to sodium fluoride (NaF). In this study, promoter truncation analysis using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in B. mori ovary cells (BmN) showed that the regions -1,496 to -1,102 bp for CYP9A19, and -1,630 to -1,210 bp for CYP9A22 were essential for basal transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis of these regions revealed several transcriptional regulatory elements but no typical promoter elements. Promoter activities were regulated after NaF induction and with an obvious dose effect. Although the dual-luciferase assay has been widely used to determine the activity of a given promoter in cell lines, problems with it still exist. Our results indicate that both plasmid size and construct protocols affect the experimental results. PMID:23090481

Zhao, Si-Si; Zhao, Guo-Dong; Di, Tian-Yuan; Ding, Hua; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ya-Xiang; Shen, Wei-De; Wei, Zheng-Guo

2012-10-23

337

Characterization of a germination-accelerating factor from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  

PubMed

The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of a host insect-derived extract. This extract therefore appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi, although the substance (germination-accelerating factor, GAF) responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Our previous study was extended to the isolation of GAF from pupae of the silkworm, a host insect of N. rileyi. This present work subjects GAF to a structural analysis. The chemical structure of GAF is characterized as 2S-amino-tetradeca-4-ene-1,3R-diol (D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine) based on spectroscopic data. An examination of the structure-activity relationship shows that the activity of D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine was superior to that of sphingosines with shorter and longer carbon chains. It is suggested that the molecular species with a 14-carbon chain of a sphingosine is important for host recognition. PMID:20530914

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro

2010-06-07

338

Functional divergence among silkworm antimicrobial peptide paralogs by the activities of recombinant proteins and the induced expression profiles.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection. PMID:21479226

Yang, Wanying; Cheng, Tingcai; Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2011-03-29

339

Development of a method for long-term preservation of Bombyx mori silkworm strains using frozen ovaries.  

PubMed

Development of long-term preservation is essential for conservation of stocks of silkworm genetic resources. Thus far, a few methods have been reported, but more improvement is required for practical use. We have developed two effective modifications of a method for long-term preservation using frozen ovaries. One was slow cooling (1 °C per min) until -80 °C of the donor ovaries made possible by use of a BICELL freezing vessel. Using donor ovaries of 4th instar larvae, the average number of eggs laid per moth increased significantly from 110.7 ± 53.4 eggs per moth by slow cooling with the BICELL vessel vs 12.3 ± 10.3 eggs per moth by direct cooling in liquid nitrogen. A second improvement was connecting the thread bodies of the donor ovaries with those of the host in the transplantation step. Females operated on with the new method yielded a significantly higher percentage of moths that laid fertilized eggs than those transplanted with the standard procedure (70.4 ± 21.6% vs 22.9 ± 9.3%). PMID:23500076

Banno, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Kiyomi; Tsukada, Marino; Minohara, Yuko; Banno, Junko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Tamura, Kei; Fujii, Tsuguru

2013-03-13

340

Amplified fragment length polymorphism mapping of quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F(2) progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

341

Molecular cloning, expression pattern and phylogenetic analysis of the will die slowly gene from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

The will die slowly (wds) gene coding for a WD-repeat protein with seven repeats has been characterized in Drosophila melanogaster. In this paper, the wds gene was isolated and characterized from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The obtained 1733 bp cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 1041 bp encoding a polypeptide of 346 amino acids, with 85% sequence identity to that from D. melanogaster. RT-PCR analysis showed that the wds gene was transcribed during four developmental stages and in all the tissues tested, consistent with the result observed in Bombyx mori based on EST resources and genome-wide microarray information. The mRNA expression level of the A. pernyi wds gene was not significantly down- or up- regulated under temperature stress compared to the control, indicating that it may be not involved in temperature stress tolerance. In search of database, the wds protein homologues were found in various kinds of eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, with 50-93% amino acid sequence identities between them, suggesting that they are highly conserved during the evolution of eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the wds protein homologue sequences clearly separated the known fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, consistent with the topology tree on the classical systematics, suggesting the potential value of wds protein in eukaryotic phylogenetic inference. In vertebrates, two apparent types of the wds proteins were also defined by sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21104437

Li, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Xia, Runxi; Wu, Song; Shi, Shenglin; Su, Junfang; Liu, Yanqun; Qin, Li; Wang, ZhenDong

2010-11-23

342

Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations  

PubMed Central

Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei’s genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R2 = 0.71) and geographic distance (R2 = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R2 = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D’2IS exceeded D’2ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool.

Pradeep, Appukuttannair R.; Jingade, Anuradha H.; Singh, Choba K.; Awasthi, Aravind K.; Kumar, Vikas; Rao, Guruprasad C.; Prakash, N.B. Vijaya

2011-01-01

343

A study on effects of glutathione s-transferase from silkworm on CCL4-induced mouse liver injury.  

PubMed

To assess the hepatoprotective activity of Glutathione S-transferase(GSTsw), extracted and purified from silkworm, in experimental acute mice liver injury and explore mechanisms. Mice were divided into five groups: control group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and GSTsw at doses of 0.083 mg•g(-1), 0.0415 mg•g(-1) and 0.0207 mg•g(-1) for 3 days. ALT in serum, GST, SOD and T-AOC in liver tissue homogenate, and changes in liver pathology in the five groups were studied. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to untreated controls. GSTsw administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced changes in liver pathology. It was also associatedwith significantly lower serum ALT levels, higher GST-SOD and T-AOC level in live tissue homogenate. Thus, GSTsw showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. PMID:21190910

Yan, Hui; Gui, Zhongzheng; Wang, Bochu

2011-01-01

344

Functional Divergence among Silkworm Antimicrobial Peptide Paralogs by the Activities of Recombinant Proteins and the Induced Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection.

Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2011-01-01

345

Nucleotide sequence variation in mitochondrial COI gene among 147 silkworm (Bombyx mori) strains from Japanese, Chinese, European and moltinism classes.  

PubMed

We characterized the nucleotide sequences of PCR-amplified mitochondrial COI fragments of 147 silkworm (Bombyx mori) strains that have been maintained in the National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences. Coding sequences (714 bp) of the 147 COI fragments were classified into eight haplotypes based on nucleotide differences at eight segregating sites. No length variation was identified in this region. The 5'-noncoding region showed different features, wherein changes in the number of Ts in the T-stretch, together with two base substitutions, were observed. As a result, the 147 COI noncoding sequences were classified into six haplotypes. Combining the coding and noncoding regions, we identified 14 haplotypes. One of the 14 haplotypes, Hap1A was exclusively abundant in the Japanese native strain class, while this haplotype was less frequent in the other three native strain classes. This finding suggests that the Japanese strain class underwent significant genetic differentiation from the Chinese, European, and moltinism classes, when the each class is regarded as a population. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences to those of B. mandarina (which inhabits Japan) revealed changes that are significantly larger than those within either B. mori or B. mandarina. Furthermore, we detected no common haplotypes between them, which suggests the concept of suppressed gene flow between the two species. PMID:22362030

Yukuhiro, Kenji; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Kiuchi, Makoto

2011-01-01

346

Identification, characterization, and crystal structure of an aldo-keto reductase (AKR2E4) from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily with 3-dehydroecdysone reductase activity was found in the silkworm Bombyx mori upon induction by the insecticide diazinon. The amino acid sequence showed that this enzyme belongs to the AKR2 family, and the protein was assigned the systematic name AKR2E4. In this study, recombinant AKR2E4 was expressed, purified to near homogeneity, and kinetically characterized. Additionally, its ternary structure in complex with NADP(+) and citrate was refined at 1.3Ĺ resolution to elucidate substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme is a 33-kDa monomer and reduces dicarbonyl compounds such as isatin and 17?-hydroxy progesterone using NADPH as a cosubstrate. No NADH-dependent activity was detected. Robust activity toward the substrate inhibitor 3-dehydroecdysone was observed, which suggests that this enzyme plays a role in regulation of the important molting hormone ecdysone. This structure constitutes the first insect AKR structure determined. Bound NADPH is located at the center of the TIM- or (?/?)8-barrel, and residues involved in catalysis are conserved. PMID:24012638

Yamamoto, Kohji; Wilson, David K

2013-09-06

347

Identification of a pentanucleotide telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)n, in the silkworm Bombyx mori and in other insects.  

PubMed Central

A pentanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGG)n, has been isolated from a silkworm genomic library, using cross-hybridization with a (TTNGGG)5 sequence, which is conserved among most eukaryotic telomeres. Both fluorescent in situ hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease experiments revealed major clusters of (TTAGG)n at the telomeres of all Bombyx chromosomes. To determine the evolutionary origin of this sequence, two types of telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)5 and a hexanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGGG)4, which is conserved mainly among vertebrate and several invertebrate telomeres so far examined, were hybridized to DNAs from a wide variety of eukaryotic species under highly stringent hybridization conditions. The (TTAGGG)5 oligonucleotide hybridized to genomic DNAs from vertebrates and several nonvertebrate species, as has been reported so far, but not to any DNAs from insects. On the other hand, the Bombyx type of telomere sequence, (TTAGG)n, hybridized to DNAs from 8 of 11 orders of insect species tested but not to vertebrate DNAs, suggesting that this TTAGG repetitive sequence is conserved widely among insects. Images

Okazaki, S; Tsuchida, K; Maekawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H

1993-01-01

348

Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of an alpha-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding an octopamine (OA) receptor (BmOAR1) was isolated from the nerve tissue of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that BmOAR1 is highly identical to OA receptors isolated from Periplaneta americana (Pa oa(1)), Apis mellifera (AmOA1), and Drosophila melanogaster (OAMB or DmOA1A). BmOAR1 was stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. OA above 1 microM led to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration ([cAMP](i)). The synthetic OA-receptor agonist demethylchlordimeform also elevated [cAMP](i) to the same maximal level (approximately 5-fold over the basal level) as that induced by OA. However, other biogenic amines, tyramine and dopamine, and chlordimeform were without effects. The [cAMP](i) level raised by OA was lowered by antagonists; the rank order of antagonist activity was chlorpromazine > mianserin = yohimbine. Cyproheptadine and metoclopramide had little effect. OA above 100 nM induced a transient or sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), depending on the concentration of OA. Sequence homology and functional analysis data indicate that BmOAR1 is an alpha-adrenergic-like OA receptor of B. mori. PMID:17201769

Ohtani, A; Arai, Y; Ozoe, F; Ohta, H; Narusuye, K; Huang, J; Enomoto, K; Kataoka, H; Hirota, A; Ozoe, Y

2006-12-01

349

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance.

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

350

Characterization of fibroin and PEG-blended fibroin matrices for in vitro adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin protein, isolated from cocoons of the domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, finds extensive application in biomaterial design. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 4000 has been used for blending fibroin from both B. mori and Antheraea mylitta, the wild tropical non-mulberry silkworm. PEG-blended films have shown marked changes from the pure fibroin films with respect to thermal properties and mechanical properties. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed incorporation of new functional groups like quinone oximes. Pure fibroin and PEG-blended fibroin films showed biocompatibility with the HOS osteosarcoma cell line. Von Kossa staining confirmed nodule formation due to mineralization and differentiation of osteoblasts on pure and blended matrices. On account of increased surface roughness, higher elongation percentage, higher thermostability and better activity of osteoblasts in terms of intracellular alkaline phosphatase production, PEG-blended A. mylitta fibroin film shows better potential than PEG-blended B. mori fibroin film for use as potential biomaterial. PMID:19323875

Acharya, Chitrangada; Kumary, T V; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2009-01-01

351

A novel method for dissolution and stabilization of non-mulberry silk gland protein fibroin using anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

The importance of silk protein has increased because of its potential use as a natural biopolymer for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. In this report we show a novel and ecofriendly method for dissolution of gland silk protein fibroin. Non-mulberry silk fibroin from mature fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta was found to be optimally soluble in 1% (w/v) anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Regenerated fibroin showed distinct bands of approximately 395 and 197 kDa on electrophoresis in non-reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Enhanced fibroin dissolution via internalization of hydrophobic amino groups inside a hydrophilic amino acid core in the form of micelles was observed. Prolonged storage stability without gelation of SDS-extracted fibroin was seen. Atomic force microscopy showed micellar aggregation with mean micellar aggregation size of 8 nm. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed predominantly helical conformation due to surfactant addition with internal protein conformational changes as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopic studies. PMID:17969177

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

2008-04-15

352

Two Distinct Jacalin-Related Lectins with a Different Specificity and Subcellular Location Are Major Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Bark of the Black Mulberry Tree1  

PubMed Central

Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research.

Van Damme, Els J.M.; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rouge, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J.

2002-01-01

353

Antioxidant potential of silk protein sericin against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of silk protein sericin from the non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta cocoon has been assessed and compared with that of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. Skin fibroblast cell line (AH927) challenged with hydrogen peroxide served as the positive control for the experiment. Our results showed that the sericin obtained from tasar cocoons offers protection against oxidative stress and cell viability is restored to that of control on pre-incubation with the sericin. Fibroblasts pre-incubated with non-mulberry sericin had significantly lower levels of catalase; lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde activity when compared to untreated ones. This report indicates that the silk protein sericin from the non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm, A. mylitta can serve as a valuable antioxidant. PMID:18377728

Dash, Rupesh; Acharya, Chitrangada; Bindu, P C; Kundu, S C

2008-03-31

354

Changes in protein metabolism in hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in response to organophosphorus insecticides toxicity.  

PubMed

Changes in protein metabolism were studied in hemolymph and fat body of 5th instar silkworm Bombyx mori exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion. The total protein content indicated a depletion followed by a concomitant increase in accumulation of free amino acids. Concurrently, the activity of protease in both of the tissues was also increased. A sharp enhancement in the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase paralleled the elevation of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in the tissues studied. All these changes clearly documented the induction of severe proteolysis and transamination of amino acids. PMID:9126434

Nath, B S; Suresh, A; Varma, B M; Kumar, R P

1997-03-01

355

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animalâs characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

356

Micropropagation of Indian wild strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of micropropagation based on an increased percentage survival of explants and reduced phenol-induced browning\\u000a in wild strawberry has been developed. Serial transfer of nodal explants was carried out at 24-, 48- and 96-h intervals. Nodal\\u000a segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (4.0 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (0.1\\u000a ?M) gave the best (94.4%)

Indra D. Bhatt; Uppeandra Dhar

2000-01-01

357

The Fate of Wild Tigers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the fate of Wild tigers. Wild tigers are in a precarious state. Habitat loss and intense poaching of tigers and their prey, coupled with inadequate government efforts to maintain tiger populations, have resulted in a dramatic range contraction in tiger populations. Tigers now occupy 7 percent of their historical range, and in the past decade, the area occupied by tigers has decreased by as much as 41 percent, according to some estimates. If tigers are to survive into the next century, all of the governments throughout the species' range must demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources. Where national governments, supported in part by NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), make a consistent and substantial commitment to tiger conservation, tigers do recover. We urge leaders of tiger-range countries to support and help stage a regional tiger summit for establishing collaborative conservation efforts to ensure that tigers and their habitats are protected in perpetuity.

ERIC DINERSTEIN, COLBY LOUCKS, ERIC WIKRAMANAYAKE, JOSHUA GINSBERG, ERIC SANDERSON, JOHN SEIDENSTICKER, JESSICA FORREST, GOSIA BRYJA, ANDREA HEYDLAUFF, SYBILLE KLENZENDORF, PETER LEIMGRUBER, JUDY MILLS, TIMOTHY G. O'BRIEN, MAHENDRA SHRESTHA, ROSS SIMONS, (;)

2007-06-01

358

Management Plan for Wild Turkeys in Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America. Of six subspecies, the eastern wild turkey (M. g. silvestris) is the only one to have occurred in Pennsylvania. Wild turkeys are our largest gallinaceous game bird. The males, or gobblers, ...

W. E. Drake

1999-01-01

359

How to Support Wildlife and Wild Places  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guardians of the Wild® Guardians of the Wild is a prestigious group of NWF supporters who value America's wildlife and are ready to make a personal commitment to support NWF's conservation-through-education mission. With a gift of $100, $250 or $500, you can become a Guardian of the Wild. In return, you will receive a variety of special benefits including a

W. L. Doyle

2004-01-01

360

Identification of Key Uric Acid Synthesis Pathway in a Unique Mutant Silkworm Bombyx mori Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Plasma uric acid (UA) levels decrease following clinical progression and stage development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying decreases in plasma UA levels remain unclear, and the potential to apply mutagenesis to a PD model has not previously been discovered. We identified a unique mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori (B.mori) op. Initially, we investigated the causality of the phenotypic “op” by microarray analysis using our constructed KAIKO functional annotation pipeline. Consequently, we found a novel UA synthesis-modulating pathway, from DJ-1 to xanthine oxidase, and established methods for large-scale analysis of gene expression in B. mori. We found that the mRNA levels of genes in this pathway were significantly lower in B. mori op mutants, indicating that downstream events in the signal transduction cascade might be prevented. Additionally, levels of B.mori tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DJ-1 mRNA were significantly lower in the brain of B. mori op mutants. UA content was significantly lower in the B. mori op mutant tissues and hemolymph. The possibility that the B. mori op mutant might be due to loss of DJ-1 function was supported by the observed vulnerability to oxidative stress. These results suggest that UA synthesis, transport, elimination and accumulation are decreased by environmental oxidative stress in the B. mori op mutant. In the case of B. mori op mutants, the relatively low availability of UA appears to be due both to the oxidation of DJ-1 and to its expenditure to mitigate the effects of environmental oxidative stress. Our findings are expected to provide information needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of decreased plasma UA levels in the clinical stage progression of PD.

Tabunoki, Hiroko; Ono, Hiromasa; Ode, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawana, Natsuki; Banno, Yutaka; Shimada, Toru; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Satoh, Jun-ichi; Bono, Hidemasa

2013-01-01

361

Genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, revealed by ISSR markers  

PubMed Central

Samia cynthia ricini (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae), the Indian eri silkworm, contributes significantly to the production of commercial silk and is widely distributed in the Brahmaputra river valley in North-Eastern India. Due to over exploitation coupled with rapid deforestation, most of the natural populations of S. cynthia ricini are dwindling rapidly and its preservation has become an important goal. Assessment of the genetic structure of each population is a prerequisite for a sustainable conservation program. DNA fingerprinting to detect genetic variation has been used in different insect species not only between populations, but also between individuals within a population. Since, information on the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and genetic diversity within the S. cynthia ricini populations is scanty, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) system was used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation among six commercially exploited S. cynthia ricini populations. Twenty ISSR primers produced 87% of inter population variability among the six populations. Genetic distance was lowest between the populations Khanapara (E5) and Mendipathar (E6) (0.0654) and highest between Dhanubhanga (E4) and Titabar (E3) (0.3811). Within population, heterozygosity was higher in Borduar (E2) (0.1093) and lowest in Titabar (E3) (0.0510). Highest gene flow (0.9035) was between E5 and E6 and the lowest (0.2172) was between E3 and E5. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance among the populations. The high GST value (0.657) among the populations combined with low gene flow contributes significantly to the genetic differentiation among the S. cynthia ricini populations. Based on genetic diversity, these populations can be considered as different ecotypes and in situ conservation of them is recommended.

Vijayan, K.; Anuradha, H. J.; Nair, C. V.; Pradeep, A. R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Saratchandra, B.; Rahman, S. A S.; Singh, K. C.; Chakraborti, R.; Urs, S. Raje

2006-01-01

362

Recombinant human chymase produced by silkworm-baculovirus expression system: its application for a chymase detection kit.  

PubMed

Human chymase is a mast cell-derived serine proteinase, which is a non-angiotensin converting enzyme angiotensin II-generating enzyme. It appears to participate in various diseases, but it is unclear whether chymase plays major roles in physiological and pathophysiological functions in vivo. To obtain information on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of chymase and to search for diseases in which chymase participates, in the present study, we aimed at producing recombinant human chymase in large quantities and at developing an ELISA system using anti-human chymase antibodies. A recombinant human chymase was produced by a silkworm-baculovirus expression system. The recombinant chymase in active form was efficiently purified from larval hemolymph using cation-exchange and heparin column chromatography. This recombinant enzyme was enzymatically identical with native human chymase. On the other hand, the stability of the recombinant enzyme in cultured medium for mammalian cells at 37 degrees C was very high as compared with the stability of the native enzyme; 20% of the activity was maintained 120 h after addition of medium. These results indicated that the recombinant enzyme could also utilize in vitro and in vivo assay systems. We obtained several anti-chymase monoclonal antibodies by using the recombinant human chymase as antigen. These antibodies were used to construct an ELISA system for measuring the chymase concentration in blood. As a result of preliminary examination using this ELISA system, it was shown that the chymase concentration in each serum from hypertensive patients is significantly higher than in normal serum. The ELISA system will be applicable for clinical diagnosis and in vivo evaluation systems for chymase-targeting drugs. PMID:12499573

Suzuki, Takeo; Kaki, Hiroki; Naya, Shinichi; Murayama, Soji; Tatsui, Akira; Nagai, Akihiko; Takai, Shinji; Miyazaki, Mizuo

2002-11-01

363

Linkage and mapping analyses of the densonucleosis non-susceptible gene nsd-Z in the silkworm Bombyx mori using SSR markers.  

PubMed

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, non-susceptibility to the Zhenjiang (China) strain of the densonucleosis virus (DNV-Z) is controlled by the recessive gene nsd-Z (non-susceptible to DNV-Z), which is located on chromosome 15. Owing to a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progeny were used for linkage analysis and mapping of the nsd-Z gene using silkworm strains Js and L10, which are classified as being highly susceptible and non-susceptible to DNV-Z, respectively. BC1 larvae were inoculated with the DNV-Z virus at the first instar, and DNA was extracted from the individual surviving pupae and analyzed for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The nsd-Z gene was found to be linked to 7 SSR markers, as all the surviving larvae in the BC1female (F1female x L10male) showed the homozygous profile of strain L10, and the sick larvae in the BC1female (F1female x L10male) showed the heterozygous profile of Js x L10 F1 hybrids. Using a reciprocal BC1male (L101female x F1male) cross, we constructed a linkage map of 80.6 cM, with nsd-Z mapped at 30 cM and the closest SSR marker at a distance of 4.4 cM. PMID:16699560

Li, Muwang; Guo, Qiuhong; Hou, Chengxiang; Miao, Xuexia; Xu, Anying; Guo, Xijie; Huang, Yongping

2006-04-01

364

Vitamin E and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.  

PubMed

Mulberry heart disease (MHD) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin E and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from MHD-affected and MHD-unaffected pigs and the vitamin E and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with MHD. Based on the pathological examination, 114 pigs were separated into MHD lesion-negative (L-NEG) (n?=?57) and MHD lesion-positive (L-POS) (n?=?57) groups. Seventy-three samples (40?L-NEG and 33?L-POS) were subjected to chemical analysis, and 66 (32?L-NEG and 34?L-POS) were subjected to PCR detection for viral pathogens. Lower (P?

Shen, H; Thomas, P R; Ensley, S M; Kim, W-I; Loynachan, A T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

2011-04-25

365

Echolocation in wild toothed whales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

2001-05-01

366

A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1?:?1?:?1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6?g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75?g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

2012-01-01

367

Bagheera In the Wild: Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part a larger Bagheera website created by long-time journalist and conservationist Craig Kasnoff to educate people about, and support activism for, endangered species issues. The Classroom site features an Activities section which provides many short activity ideas under headings like Use Your Imagination, and Inquire, Analyze and Compare. In addition to general activities for endangered species issues, Kasnoff provides a section on Activities Directed at Particular Species in the Case Studies. This site also includes a bibliography, glossary of related terms, and information about "problems facing endangered animals and what can be done to improve their chances of survival." Links are provided to other great sections of the In the Wild site as well, including information about extinct animals, animals facing extinction, and a Spotlight on important issues regarding endangered animals.

Kasnoff, Craig

368

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J. S.; Bentler, K. T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S. A.; Minnis, R. B.; Campbell, T. A.; Barras, S. C.; Root, J. J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R. G.

2008-01-01

369

[Study on the interaction mechanism of antimicrobial peptide Cecropin-XJ in Xinjiang silkworm and Staphylococcus aureus DNA by spectra].  

PubMed

Nowadays many of antimicrobial peptides have been extensively studied in order to elucidate their antimicrobial mode of action. Much of the research focused on mechanisms of cytoplasmic membrane disruption has been proposed for antimicrobial peptides, but it is not known whether their antimicrobial mode of action is due to their effects on bacterial chromosome. To obtain more information about the possible mechanisms, Cecropin-XJ, a kind of antimicrobial peptide from Xinjiang silkworm, was used as subject and prepared by purification of Pichia yeast fermentation containing cecropin-XJ gene expression product. Subsequently, ultraviolet absorption spectra were employed to investigate whether this antibacterial function is due to Cecropin-XJ works on S. aureus DNA in vitro. The increase in absorbance of DNA samples at 260nm due to the addition of Cecropin-XJ was measured. It is called hyperchromicity of DNA, which can provide a direct measure of the degree of base-pair unstacking. The unstacking results in the loss of duplex helix, and then leads to the duplex helix becoming relaxing. At the same time, the interaction mode was studied by using ethidium bromide (EB) as an extrinsic fluorescence probe. With the addition of Cecropin-XJ, the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence absorbance of DNA at 307 nm increases greatly. It is suggested that the addition of Cecropin-XJ may unstack base-paire of DNA exposing the fluorescent amino acide, leading to the enhancing of DNA fluorescence intensity. Subsequently the competition between Cecropin-XJ and EB to combine with DNA was found. It is suggested that the style was groove binding and intercalation in the interaction of Cecropin-XJ and double helix DNA. Furthermore, in this study, the binding constant and binding number of Cecropin-XJ complex with DNA were determined. There were different binding constant and number of EB complex with DNA because of the the addition of Cecropin-XJ. It is showed that the interaction of Cecropin-XJ and DNA was based on intercalation or non-intercalation. Meanwhile, these results help explain the molecule mechanism of antimicrobial peptide from the interaction style and structure characteristic of Cecropin-XJ and S. aureus DNA. These findings could contribute to further investigation on the mechanism of action of Cecropin-XJ. PMID:18536425

Liu, Zhong-Yuan; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu-Tao; Zhang, Lan-Ting; Zhang, Fu-Chun

2008-03-01

370

Wild Ungulate Farming Systems and Product Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

FARMING SYSTEMS Wild ungulate farming—that of red deer, fallow deer, roe deer, moufflon, and wild boar—in Italy is carried out with two main purposes: animal restocking and meat production. The first generally includes game for the restocking of shooting preserves (faunistico-venatorie and agri-turistico-venatorie private lands), since captive-reared ungulates should not be extensively used for reintroduction into the wild or restocking

E. Piasentier; S. Bovolenta; M. Viliani

2005-01-01

371

Stardust Dfmi Wild 2 Encounter Edr Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This data set contains raw data collected by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) flown on board the STARDUST spacecraft during the Wild 2 comet encounter on January 2, 2004. The data in this archive are organized into one table in standard PDS format. This table records dust events which resulted from the encounter with the particles surrounding comet Wild 2. The data in the table spans a 33 minute period surrounding the encounter with Wild 2.

Semenov, B. V.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Taylor, H. W.; Acton, C. H.

2010-01-01

372

Ethnobotany of the wild Mexican Cucurbitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey on the ethnobotany of the wild Mexican Cucurbitaceae. The sources of information\\u000a were fieldwork in different regions of Mexico, as well as herbarium specimens and bibliographic references. A total of 34\\u000a wild species (26.5% of the 128 wild mexican species) of Cucurbitaceae are reported as used in 24 of the 32 states

Rafael Lira; Javier Caballero

2002-01-01

373

High-titer preparation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) displaying recombinant protein in silkworm larvae by size exclusion chromatography and its characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Budded baculoviruses are utilized for vaccine, the production of antibody and functional analysis of transmembrane proteins. In this study, we tried to produce and purify the recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (rBmNPV-hPRR) that displayed human (pro)renin receptor (hPRR) connected with FLAG peptide sequence on its own surface. These particles were used for further binding analysis of hPRR to human prorenin. The rBmNPV-hPRR was produced in silkworm larvae and purified from its hemolymph using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Results A rapid method of BmNPV titer determination in hemolymph was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). A correlation coefficient of BmNPV determination between end-point dilution and Q-PCR methods was found to be 0.99. rBmNPV-hPRR bacmid-injected silkworm larvae produced recombinant baculovirus of 1.31 × 108 plaque forming unit (pfu) in hemolymph, which was 2.8 × 104 times higher than transfection solution in Bm5 cells. Its purification yield by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography was 264 fold from larval hemolymph at 4 days post-injection (p.i.), but 35 or 39 fold at 4.5 or 5 days p.i., respectively. Protein patterns of rBmNPV-hPRR purified at 4 and 5 days were the same and ratio of envelope proteins (76, 45 and 35 kDa) to VP39, one of nucleocapsid proteins, increased at 5 days p.i. hPRR was detected in only purified rBmNPV-hPRR at 5 days p.i.. Conclusion The successful purification of rBmNPV-hPRR indicates that baculovirus production using silkworm larvae and its purification from hemolymph by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography can provide an economical approach in obtaining the purified BmNPV stocks with high titer for large-scale production of hPRR. Also, it can be utilized for further binding analysis and screening of inhibitors of hPRR.

Kato, Tatsuya; Manoha, Suganthi Lavender; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Park, Enoch Y

2009-01-01

374

Synthesis of sialoglycopolypeptide for potentially blocking influenza virus infection using a rat ?2,6-sialyltransferase expressed in BmNPV bacmid-injected silkworm larvae  

PubMed Central

Background Sialic acid is a deoxy uronic acid with a skeleton of nine carbons which is mostly found on cell surface in animals. This sialic acid on cell surface performs various biological functions by acting as a receptor for microorganisms, viruses, toxins, and hormones; by masking receptors; and by regulating the immune system. In order to synthesize an artificial sialoglycoprotein, we developed a large-scale production of rat ?2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1). The ST6Gal1 was expressed in fifth instar silkworm larval hemolymph using recombinant both cysteine protease- and chitinase-deficient Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP--Chi-) bacmid. The expressed ST6Gal1 was purified, characterized and used for sialylation of asialoglycopolypeptide. We tested the inhibitory effect of the synthesized ?2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide on hemagglutination by Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin. Results FLAG-tagged recombinant ST6Gal1 was expressed efficiently and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate followed by affinity chromatography on an anti-FLAG M2 column, generating 2.2 mg purified fusion protein from only 11 silkworm larvae, with a recovery yield of 64%. The purified ST6Gal1 was characterized and its N-glycan patterns were found to be approximately paucimannosidic type by HPLC mapping method. Fluorescently-labelled N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) glycoside containing dansyl group was synthesized chemo-enzymatically as high-sensitivity acceptor substrate for ST6Gal1. The acceptor substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to that of rat liver ST6Gal1. The fluorescent glycoside is useful as a substrate for a highly sensitive picomole assay of ST6Gal1. Asialoglycopolypeptide was regioselectively and quantitatively sialylated by catalytic reaction at the terminal Gal residue to obtain ?2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide using ST6Gal1. The ?2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide selectively inhibited hemagglutination induced by Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin, showing about 780-fold higher affinity than the control fetuin. Asialoglycopolypeptide and ?-polyglutamic acid did not affect SNA lectin-mediated hemagglutination. Conclusion The recombinant ST6Gal1 from a silkworm expression system is useful for the sialylation of asialoglycopeptide. The sialylated glycoprotein is a valuable tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of biological and physiological events, such as cell-cell recognition and viral entry during infection.

2009-01-01

375

Purification of a beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein in the prophenoloxidase activating system from hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The plasma fraction (referred to as plasma-CPB) of silkworm hemolymph, from which a protein with affinity to beta-1,3-glucan was specifically removed according to Yoshida et al. (Yoshida, H., Ochiai, M., and Ashida, M. (1986), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141, 1177-1184), was used to develop a method for quantitating the beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein of the prophenoloxidase activating system. In principle, a sample was judged to contain beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein when that sample could restore the ability of the system in plasma-CPB to be triggered by beta-1,3-glucan. Purification procedures for the recognition protein from silkworm hemolymph consisted of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl, Affi-Gel-heparin, and Mono Q and Superose 12 on the fast protein liquid chromatography system of Pharmacia LKB Biotechnology Inc. About 2.03 mg of beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein was obtained from 300 ml of hemolymph. The purified beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. beta-1,3-Glucan recognition protein had a molecular mass of 62 kDa composed of a single polypeptide and an isoelectric point of pH 4.3. It bound to curdlan beads (composed of beta-1,3-glucan with average particle size of 80 micron) in the absence of divalent cation, whereas its binding to glucans with beta(1----4)- or alpha(1----6)-glycosidic linkages was not detected under the experimental conditions. Elution of the beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein bound to curdlan beads could be achieved under strongly denaturing conditions (after incubation of the beads with sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethanol in boiling water for 5 min), but elution at room temperature was poor. Since beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein is the only protein in silkworm plasma with strong affinity to beta-1,3-glucan and endows the prophenoloxidase activating system in plasma-CPB with the ability to be triggered by beta-1,3-glucan, it was concluded that binding of the purified beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein with beta-1,3-glucan causes the triggering of the prophenol-oxidase activating system in silkworm plasma. However, the nature of the activity that is generated as the result of binding is not yet known. The purified beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein bound to beta-1,3-glucan did not hydrolyze appreciably any of the 26 commercially available peptidyl-7-amino-4-methylcoumarins, substrates for various proteases. PMID:3136171

Ochiai, M; Ashida, M

1988-08-25

376

Radiosurgery using heavy ion microbeams for biological study: Fate mapping of the cellular blastoderm-stage egg of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of heavy ions on embryogenesis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori using a collimated heavy ion microbeam from the vertical beam line of an AVF-cyclotron. Eggs were exposed to carbon ions at the cellular blastoderm stage. Microbeams were found to be extremely useful for radio-microsurgical inactivation of nuclei or cells in the target site. Spot irradiation caused abnormal embryos, which showed localized defects such as deletion, duplication and fusion, depending on dose, beam size and site of irradiation. The location and frequency of defects on the resultant embryos were closely correlated to the irradiation site. Based on this correlation, a fate map was established for the Bombyx egg at the cellular blastoderm stage.

Kiguchi, Kenji; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tu, Zhen-Li; Funayama, Tomoo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

377

Identification and molecular characterization of a sex chromosome rearrangement causing a soft and pliable (spli) larval body phenotype in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

We carried out genetic and cytogenetic analyses of X-ray-induced deleterious Z chromosomes that result in a soft and pliable (spli) phenotype in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. In a B. mori strain with a spli phenotype, we found the Z chromosome broken between the sch (1-21.5) and od (1-49.6) loci. We also found a chromosomal fragment bearing a fifth-chromosome locus for egg and eye pigmentation fused to a Z chromosome fragment. By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome clones as probes, we confirmed that the fused chromosome is composed of a fragment of chromosome 5 and a fragment of the Z chromosome. Moreover, a predicted gene, GA002017, the Bombyx ortholog of the Drosophila gene acj6 (Bmacj6), was completely deleted by the Z chromosome breakage event. The relationship between Bmacj6 and the spli phenotype is discussed. PMID:20130748

Fujii, Tsuguru; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Abe, Hiroaki; Ohnuma, Akio; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2010-01-01

378

Isolation of a bioactive substance from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) that accelerates the germination of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  

PubMed

The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of host insect-derived extracts. Thus the extract appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi. However, the substance responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Hence we attempted to purify this substance. One thousand g of dried silkworm pupae was subjected to methanol extraction, followed by methanolysis, two different solvent partitions, and three different column chromatographies. A total of 12.4 mg of substance was obtained in the active fraction. The substance obtained exhibited an activity more than 46,000 times higher than that of the methanol extract. The substance was detected as a single peak on Sephadex LH20 column chromatography and as a single band on high-performance thin-layer chromatography. These data indicate that the concentrated fraction contained a high-purity substance. PMID:20208348

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro

2010-03-07

379

Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population

Christine Künzl; Sylvia Kaiser; Edda Meier; Norbert Sachser

2003-01-01

380

BmToll9, an Arthropod conservative Toll, is likely involved in the local gut immune response in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Toll family of transmembrane proteins mediates signaling during the innate immune response in most animals. Toll9 is widespread in insects and has a unique signature, QHR, in its Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The introns in the TIR region are highly conserved among insects, suggesting the antiquity of Toll9 genes. Toll9 of Bombyx mori (BmToll9) was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. BmToll9 is constitutively expressed in egg, larval and adult stages prior to microbial challenge. BmToll9 is strongly expressed in the different parts of the gut, but weakly expressed in haemocytes, trachea, fat body, malpighian tubule and epidermis, and scarcely expressed in the silk glands. The injection of sterilized 0.85% NaCl solution inhibited BmToll9 expression in most tissues especially during the early responses. Staphylococcus aureus had no or limited effect on the expression of BmToll9 in the silkworm gut and fat body. But in epidermis, trachea, malpighian tubules and haemocytes, the expression of BmToll9 was significantly increased after S. aureus challenge. Infection of Escherichia coli significantly increased the BmToll9 expression in different parts of the gut as well as in epidermis, malpighian tubule and haemocytes. At 48h after feeding of the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, BmToll9 expression was significantly increased. Tissues responses to the injected and ingested bacteria showed that BmToll9 is probably involved in the local gut immune response in the silkworm. PMID:19723534

Wu, Shan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaomei; Cao, Pingsheng; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Ling, Erjun

2009-09-06

381

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD PYRUS COMMUNIS L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible European pears (Pyrus communis ssp. communis L.) are thought to be derived from wild relatives native to the Caucasus Mountain region and eastern Europe. We collected genotype, phenotype and geographic origin data for 145 P. communis individuals derived from seeds collected from wild relativ...

382

Characterization of Wild Pig-Vehicle Collisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-v...

J. J. Mayer P. E. Johns

2006-01-01

383

Synthesis of prolyl 4-hydroxylase ? subunit and type IV collagen in hemocytic granular cells of silkworm, Bombyx mori: Involvement of type IV collagen in self-defense reaction and metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study shows that hemocytic granular cells synthesize and secrete type IV collagen (ColIV) in the silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori) and suggests that these cells play roles in the formation of basement membrane, the encapsulation of foreign bodies, and the metamorphic remodeling of the gut. The full- and partial-length cDNA of B. mori prolyl 4-hydroxylase ? subunit (BmP4H?)

Takahiro Adachi; Masahiro Tomita; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2005-01-01

384

Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

Holubetz, Terry B.

1995-11-01

385

Little gene flow between domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild relative Bombyx mandarina in Japan, and possible artificial selection on the CAD gene of B. mori.  

PubMed

We analyzed PCR-amplified carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) gene fragments from 146 Bombyx mori native strains and found extremely low levels of DNA polymorphism. Two haplotypes were identified, one of which was predominant. CAD haplotype analysis of 42 samples of Japanese B. mandarina revealed four haplotypes. No common haplotype was shared between the two species and at least five base substitutions were detected. This result was suggestive of low levels of gene flow between the two species. The nucleotide diversity (?) scores of the two samples differed markedly: lower ? values were estimated for B. mori native strains than Japanese B. mandarina. We further analyzed 12 Chinese B. mandarina derived from seven areas of China, including Taiwan. The results clearly indicated that the ? score was ~80-fold greater in Chinese B. mandarina than in B. mori. The extremely low level of DNA polymorphism in B. mori compared to its wild relatives suggested that the CAD gene itself or its tightly linked regions are possible targets for silkworm domestication. PMID:23412635

Yukuhiro, Kenji; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Iwata, Kazuya; Ajimura, Masahiro; Gu, Shi-Hong; Wang, Min; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei; Kiuchi, Makoto

2012-01-01

386

Immunotoxicology of Captive and Wild Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. As a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence th...

A. Fairbrother

1990-01-01

387

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

388

The Secret Lives of Wild Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists are collecting new information about the secret lives of wild animals using modern technologies like global tracking systems and ultra-miniaturized sensors. Learn about research into some rarely seen behaviors of deer, ocelots, agouti, zebras, dragonflies, and seals.

389

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)|

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

390

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field...

R. L. Schroeder

1985-01-01

391

Earliest wild-man sculptures in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depictions of the wild man in manuscript illuminations date back to A.D. 1000 or even earlier, but the oldest known sculputure is from the mid-thirteenth-century Notre-Dame de Semur-en-Auxois (Côte d'Or). An analysis of this wild man in the context of two adjacent figures and the sculpted tympanum behind them identifies him as the Old Testament character, Esau, and suggests that

John Tchalenko

1990-01-01

392

Stereotypic behavior in wild marine carnivores?  

PubMed

Stereotypic behavior is observed in many species within zoological institutions. Attempts to reduce such behavior typically involve some form of environmental enrichment that provides opportunities for species appropriate behavior or some degree of control within the environment. However, environmental enrichment has never been completely successful in eliminating stereotypic behavior for an entire group of animals within a zoological facility. In the wild, stereotypic behavior is rarely observed. Documenting the occurrence of stereotypic behavior in the wild, and circumstances in which it occurs, could help provide insight into the causes of such behavior within zoological institutions. The following commentary details the observations of wild lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) engaging in a stereotyped swimming pattern behind a research vessel north of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas. We consider a possible explanation for the sharks' behavior and hope to stimulate conversation as well as increase examination of animal management routines in zoological facilities. PMID:20872877

Miller, L J; Kuczaj, S; Herzing, D

2010-09-24

393

Nucleotide Variation in Wild and Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The house mouse is a well-established model organism, particularly for studying the genetics of complex traits. However, most studies of mice use classical inbred strains, whose genomes derive from multiple species. Relatively little is known about the distribution of genetic variation among these species or how variation among strains relates to variation in the wild. We sequenced intronic regions of five X-linked loci in large samples of wild Mus domesticus and M. musculus, and we found low levels of nucleotide diversity in both species. We compared these data to published data from short portions of six X-linked and 18 autosomal loci in wild mice. We estimate that M. domesticus and M. musculus diverged <500,000 years ago. Consistent with this recent divergence, some gene genealogies were reciprocally monophyletic between these species, while others were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. In general, the X chromosome was more differentiated than the autosomes. We resequenced classical inbred strains for all 29 loci and found that inbred strains contain only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in wild mice. Notably, the X chromosome contains proportionately less variation among inbred strains than do the autosomes. Moreover, variation among inbred strains derives from differences between species as well as from differences within species, and these proportions differ in different genomic regions. Wild mice thus provide a reservoir of additional genetic variation that may be useful for mapping studies. Together these results suggest that wild mice will be a valuable complement to laboratory strains for studying the genetics of complex traits.

Salcedo, Tovah; Geraldes, Armando; Nachman, Michael W.

2007-01-01

394

The Space Place: Wild Weather Adventure!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the Wild Weather Adventure game by NASA. Your weather research blimp will explore Earth and its weather. With luck, skill, and strategy, you will race other weather research blimps to be first to travel all the way around the world and win the game. You can play with your friends or by yourself with a computer opponent. For every playerâs turn in the Wild Weather Adventure Game, the player must answer either a multiple choice or true or false question. Each question is rated as easy, medium, or hard. Players choose which level to answer.

Fisher, Diane

2006-10-13

395

Comparison of the lipid properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild Nile crocodiles ( Crocodylus niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results presented describe and compare the fatty acid composition and melting properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Differences in fatty acid composition between intramuscular and adipose fat is noted in captive crocodiles, and the latter differs from wild crocodiles as a result of different diets. Adipose fat of healthy wild crocodiles differs minimally from

Gernot Osthoff; Arno Hugo; Henk Bouwman; Peter Buss; Danny Govender; Chris C. Joubert; Jannie C. Swarts

2010-01-01

396

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

397

Characteristics of wild blueberry–soy beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild or lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) and soybeans (Glycine max L.) contain a variety of health-protective phytochemicals. The flavor of blueberries could mask beany flavors in soy beverages and thus broaden the appeal of soy. Four formulations were tested in a 2×2 design. Two sources of soy protein (isolate and soymilk powder) and two sweeteners (brown rice syrup and

R. M. Potter; M. P. Dougherty; W. A. Halteman; M. E. Camire

2007-01-01

398

Calicivirus Antibodies in Wild Fox Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three populations of wild foxes were sampled for serum neutralizing antibody to calicivirus (San Miguel sea lion virus) types 1-5. Neutralizing activity was detected in serum from gray foxes resident on Santa Cruz Island, California, but not in Arctic fox...

C. M. Prato T. G. Akers A. W. Smith

1977-01-01

399

Theorizing Scientific Literacy in the Wild  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper is to contribute to the effort of rethinking scientific literacy in a form that is appropriate for describing and theorizing its occurrence "in the wild," that is, in the everyday world that we share with others (as opposed to testing situations in classrooms and laboratories). Consistent with our commitment to…

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2010-01-01

400

Bioactive Properties of Wild Blueberry Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Bioactive extracts from wild blueberries were isolated, fractionated, and analyzed. Antioxidant activity, cardioprotective capacity, and ability to inhibit the initiation stage of chemically-induced carcinogenesis were evaluated. Many fractions had antioxidant activity, especially those rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. The ease of isolation of bioactive compounds and the ability to obtain accurate bioassays depended strongly on the source material used.

M. A. L. Smith; K. A. Marley; D. Seigler; K. W. Singletary; B. Meline

2000-01-01

401

"Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

Thompson, Virginia P.

2012-01-01

402

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. Anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize tile ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. Anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. Anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.; Krapu, G. L.; Nersessian, B. N.; Kenow, K. P.; Korschgen, C. E.; Chipley, W. H.; Conroy, M. J.

1996-01-01

403

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.

1996-01-01

404

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

405

Wild Bird Influenza Survey, Canada, 2005  

PubMed Central

Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted for 80% of the sample.

Bastien, Nathalie; Booth, Timothy F.; Bowes, Victoria; Buck, Peter A.; Breault, Andre; Caswell, Dale; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Davies, J. Chris; Elahi, Seyyed Mehdy; Fortin, Madeleine; Kibenge, Fred; King, Robin; Li, Yan; North, Norman; Ojkic, Davor; Pasick, John; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Robinson, John; Rodrigue, Jean; Whitney, Hugh; Zimmer, Patrick; Leighton, Frederick A.

2008-01-01

406

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

407

Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.  

PubMed

The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour. PMID:20719777

Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

2010-08-18

408

Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat  

PubMed Central

The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

2013-01-01

409

Reconstructing sibling relationships in wild populations.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of sibling relationships from genetic data is an important component of many biological applications. In particular, the growing application of molecular markers (microsatellites) to study wild populations of plant and animals has created the need for new computational methods of establishing pedigree relationships, such as sibgroups, among individuals in these populations. Most current methods for sibship reconstruction from microsatellite data use statistical and heuristic techniques that rely on a priori knowledge about various parameter distributions. Moreover, these methods are designed for data with large number of sampled loci and small family groups, both of which typically do not hold for wild populations. We present a deterministic technique that parsimoniously reconstructs sibling groups using only Mendelian laws of inheritance. We validate our approach using both simulated and real biological data and compare it to other methods. Our method is highly accurate on real data and compares favorably with other methods on simulated data with few loci and large family groups. It is the only method that does not rely on a priori knowledge about the population under study. Thus, our method is particularly appropriate for reconstructing sibling groups in wild populations. PMID:17646334

Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Sheikh, Saad I; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Ashley, Mary V; Caballero, Isabel C; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; Putrevu, S Lahari

2007-07-01

410

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.  

PubMed

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

2012-09-12

411

Purification of functional baculovirus particles from silkworm larval hemolymph and their use as nanoparticles for the detection of human prorenin receptor (PRR) binding  

PubMed Central

Background Baculovirus, which has a width of 40 nm and a length of 250-300 nm, can display functional peptides, receptors and antigens on its surface by their fusion with a baculovirus envelop protein, GP64. In addition, some transmembrane proteins can be displayed without GP64 fusion, using the native transmembrane domains of the baculovirus. We used this functionality to display human prorenin receptor fused with GFPuv (GFPuv-hPRR) on the surface of silkworm Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and then tested whether these baculovirus particles could be used to detect protein-protein interactions. Results BmNPV displaying GFPuv-hPRR (BmNPV-GFPuv-hPRR) was purified from hemolymph by using Sephacryl S-1000 column chromatography in the presence of 0.01% Triton X-100. Its recovery was 86% and the final baculovirus particles number was 4.98 × 108 pfu. Based on the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 3.1% of the total proteins in BmNPV-GFPuv-hPRR were GFPuv-hPRR. This value was similar to that calculated from the result of western blot by a densitometry (2.7%). To determine whether BmNPV-GFPuv-hPRR particles were bound to human prorenin, ELISA results were compared with those from ELISAs using protease negative BmNPV displaying ?1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fused with the gene encoding GFPuv (GGT2) (BmNPV-CP--GGT2) particles, which do not display hPRR on their surfaces. Conclusion The display of on the surface of the BmNPV particles will be useful for the detection of protein-protein interactions and the screening of inhibitors and drugs in their roles as nanobioparticles.

2011-01-01

412

Involvement of phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated inhibition of the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We found that treatment with PTTH in vitro inhibited AMPK phosphorylation in time- and dose-dependent manners, as seen on Western blots of glandular lysates probed with antibody directed against AMPK? phosphorylated at Thr172. Moreover, in vitro inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by PTTH was also verified by in vivo experiments: injection of PTTH into day 7 last instar larvae greatly inhibited glandular AMPK phosphorylation. PTTH-inhibited AMPK phosphorylation appeared to be partially reversed by treatment with LY294002, indicating involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. A chemical activator of AMPK (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside, AICAR) increased both basal and PTTH-inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Treatment with AICAR also inhibited PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis of prothoracic glands. The mechanism underlying inhibition of PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by AICAR was further investigated by determining the phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), two known downstream signaling targets of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Upon treatment with AICAR, decreases in PTTH-stimulated phosphorylation of 4E-BP and S6K were detected. In addition, treatment with AICAR did not affect PTTH-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK phosphorylation is not upstream signaling for ERK phosphorylation. Examination of gene expression levels of AMPK?, ?, and ? by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that PTTH did not affect AMPK transcription. From these results, it is assumed that inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation, which lies upstream of PTTH-stimulated TOR signaling, may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:23671658

Gu, Shi-Hong; Hsieh, Yun-Chin; Young, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Ling

2013-05-09

413

Effect of octopamine on the activity of juvenile-hormone esterase in the silkworm Bombyx mori and the red flour beetle Tribolium freemani.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the effect of octopamine (OA) on metamorphosis of the silkworm Bombyx mori and the red flour beetle Tribolium freemani Hinton. Titers of OA and juvenile-hormone esterase (JHE) were measured at various larval and pupal stadia of both insects. Effects of OA, OA agonists, and antagonists on metamorphosis and JHE activity were also examined. At day 2, peaks of OA and JHE activity were observed in third instars, and at day 3, a sharp peak of OA was observed, followed by a large peak of JHE activity at day 4 in last instars of B. mori. However, no peaks of OA and JHE activity were observed in fourth instars. A high titer of OA appeared at days 2-4, followed by a peak of JHE activity at day 7 and the second OA peak at day 9 after the start of assay of T. freemani. At pupation, a small peak of OA and the highest activity of JHE were observed. The effects of OA on JHE activity were examined in vitro, because the relationship could be responsible for triggering pupation in B. mori and T. freemani larvae. Exogeneous OA (0.1-10 mM) stimulated the JHE activity of final instars (day 2) of B. mori in vitro. Similarly, the presence of OA (10 mM) activated the JHE activity of newly ecdysed T. freemani pupae in vitro. OA antagonists chlorpromazine and gramine delayed the start of spinning and reduced the JHE activity of B. mori, when applied in diet at 10-100 ppm. Some OA agonists stimulated the pupation and JHE activity of T. freemani larvae reared under crowded conditions, when topically applied. Thus, OA may contribute to activation of the events preparatory to a pupal molt, i.e., the secretion of OA increases JHE activity followed by stimulation of pupation. PMID:10603275

Hirashima, A; Suetsugu, E; Hirokado, S; Kuwano, E; Taniguchi, E; Eto, M

1999-12-01

414

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions...other species of live wild mammals may be imported, transported, and possessed in captivity, without a permit, for...but no such live wild mammals or any progeny...

2010-10-01

415

50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and possession of such mammals under the terms and conditions...other species of live wild mammals may be imported, transported, and possessed in captivity, without a permit, for...but no such live wild mammals or any progeny...

2009-10-01

416

Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska  

Treesearch

Title: Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska ... fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. ... million estimated direct economic impact associated with wild salmon ecosystem services.

417

In Situ Conservation of Wild Chiles and Their Biotic Associates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild congeners of domesticated crops increasingly serve as sources of genes for improving crop cul- tivars. Although wild congeners have been included in seed collections for ex situ storage, there has been little work to protect populations of these wild species in their natural habitats for in situ conservation. We as- sessed the distribution of chile plants ( Capsicum annuum

Joshua Jordan Tewksbury; Gary Paul Nabhan; Donald Norman; Humberto Suzan; John Tuxill; Jim Donovan

1999-01-01

418

Worldwide Occurrence of Feline Hemoplasma Infections in Wild Felid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from

Barbara Willi; Claudia Filoni; J. L. Catao-Dias; V. Cattori; M. L. Meli; A. Vargas; F. Martinez; M. E. Roelke; M.-P. Ryser-Degiorgis; C. M. Leutenegger; H. Lutz; R. Hofmann-Lehmann

2007-01-01

419

The Cost Efficiency of Wild Dog Conservation in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aside from Kruger National Park, no other suitable reserves of sufficient size exist in South Africa that will hold a viable population of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Consequently, conservation efforts have been focused on creating a metapopulation through a series of wild dog reintroductions into isolated fenced reserves. Additional potential exists for conserving wild dogs on private ranch land. Establishing

P. A. LINDSEY; R. ALEXANDER; J. T. DU TOIT; M. G. L. MILLS

2005-01-01

420

Wild Parsnip (Pastinaca Sativa): A Troublesome Species of Increasing Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of us fondly associate parsnips with a rustic, home-cooked meal, there is also a wild variety that is increasingly causing problems as a weed in North America. The cultivated variety is a subspecies of Pastinaca sativa (Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa) and contains lower amounts of the problematic furanocoumarins than the wild version. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. PAVSA)

Kristine M. Averill; Antonio DiTommaso

2007-01-01

421

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

422

Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

423

Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

424

Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: II. Energy flows through an agroecosystem in Jiaxing region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy flows in a seventeenth century agroecosystem in Jiaxing region of eastern China were analyzed on the basis of historical data. The agroecosystem included cropping, mulberry-silkworm, livestock, and fishing systems. In terms of energy, the agroecosystem was sustainable. Human labor provided all the power with inputs of about 3700 hr per hectare of farmland. Most or 70% of the

Wen Dazhong; David Pimentel

1986-01-01

425

Silk Batik using Cochineal Dye  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The history of silk, including sericulture (the production of raw silk, which requires the raising of silkworms on their natural diet, mulberry leaves) and silk manufacturing, is rich and extensive. It encompasses several famous “silk roads” (trade routes), various cultures and technologies, ideas,...

426

Drought tolerance in modern and wild wheat.  

PubMed

The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of m