These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

2

[Emergy analysis of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China].  

PubMed

Mulberry-silkworm ecosystem is one of the important agro-ecosystems in China. Based on the principles and methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the interior structure of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem and its relationship with exterior environment and economy. Some emergy indices for this ecosystem were quantitatively calculated, and compared with those of the agro-ecosystem in China. The results showed that the emergy investment ratio, emergy yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and emergy sustainability index was 3.78, 4.68, 0.18 and 26.0, respectively, suggesting the low environmental pressure and good ecological benefit in mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China. Hi-technology was required to further decrease the labor force input and enhance the comprehensive utilization of sericultural resources. PMID:16706044

Chen, Mingang; Jin, Peihua; Huang, Lingxia; Lu, Xingmeng

2006-02-01

3

Larval Legs of Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori Are Prototypes for the Adult Legs  

E-print Network

LETTER Larval Legs of Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori Are Prototypes for the Adult Legs Amit Singh,1; silkworm; limb development; lepidoptera; imaginal disc; drosophila INTRODUCTION During evolution there has during pupal metamorphosis to give rise to adult derivatives (Cohen, 1993). The mulberry silkworm Bombyx

Singh, Amit

4

Silkworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworm moths lay eggs to reproduce. The eggs hatch into silkworm larvae. The larvae spin silk cocoons and use them as they change from larvae to silkworm moths. Silkworm larvae exclusively eat mulberry leaves and their cocoons are used by human to make silk products such as silk fabric.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

5

Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Thermotolerance  

PubMed Central

A tropical climate prevails in most of the sericultural areas in India, where temperature increases during the summer lead to adverse effects on temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and cause crop losses. Screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyxmori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant breeds/hybrids. In the current study, the aim was to identify potential bivoltine silkworm strains specific for tolerance to high temperature. The third day of fifth stage silkworm larvae of bivoltine strains were subjected to high temperature of 36 ± 1° C with RH of 50 ± 5 % for six hours (10:00–16:00) every day until spinning for three consecutive generations. Highly significant differences were found among all genetic traits of bivoltine silkworm strains in the treated groups. Three groups of silkworm resulted including susceptible, moderately tolerant, and tolerant by utilizing pupation rate or survival rate with thermal stress as the index for thermotolerance. Furthermore, based on the overall silkworm rearing performance of nine quantitative genetic traits such as larval weight, cocoon yield by number and weight, pupation, single cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and denier, three bivoltine silkworm strains, BD2-S, SOF-BR and BO2 were developed as having the potential for thermotolerance. The data from the present study enhance knowledge for the development of thermo tolerant silkworm breeds/ hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22225406

Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Subbarao, Sure Venkata; Misra, Sunil; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

2011-01-01

6

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22934597

Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

2012-01-01

7

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22938037

Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S.; Anuradha, Chebba M.; Kumar, Chitta S.

2012-01-01

8

Comparative methylomics between domesticated and wild silkworms implies possible epigenetic influences on silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to wild species, which have typically evolved phenotypes over long periods of natural selection, domesticates rapidly gained human-preferred agronomic traits in a relatively short-time frame via artificial selection. Under domesticated conditions, many traits can be observed that cannot only be due to environmental alteration. In the case of silkworms, aside from genetic divergence, whether epigenetic divergence played a role in domestication is an unanswered question. The silkworm is still an enigma in that it has two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT2) but their functionality is unknown. Even in particular the functionality of the widely distributed DNMT1 remains unknown in insects in general. Results By embryonic RNA interference, we reveal that knockdown of silkworm Dnmt1 caused decreased hatchability, providing the first direct experimental evidence of functional significance of insect Dnmt1. In the light of this fact and those that DNA methylation is correlated with gene expression in silkworms and some agronomic traits in domesticated organisms are not stable, we comprehensively compare silk gland methylomes of 3 domesticated (Bombyx mori) and 4 wild (Bombyx mandarina) silkworms to identify differentially methylated genes between the two. We observed 2-fold more differentiated methylated cytosinces (mCs) in domesticated silkworms as compared to their wild counterparts, suggesting a trend of increasing DNA methylation during domestication. Further study of more domesticated and wild silkworms narrowed down the domesticates’ epimutations, and we were able to identify a number of differential genes. One such gene showing demethyaltion in domesticates correspondently displays lower gene expression, and more interestingly, has experienced selective sweep. A methylation-increased gene seems to result in higher expression in domesticates and the function of its Drosophila homolog was previously found to be essential for cell volume regulation, indicating a possible correlation with the enlargement of silk glands in domesticated silkworms. Conclusions Our results imply epigenetic influences at work during domestication, which gives insight into long time historical controversies regarding acquired inheritance. PMID:24059350

2013-01-01

9

Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

2011-01-01

10

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

11

Silkworm life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworms lay eggs to reproduce. Silkworm larvae hatch from these eggs. The larvae constantly eat only one thing- mulberry leaves. The larvae will spin silk cocoons for metamorphosis. The adults mate after emerging from the cocoon and the female will lay many small eggs.

Hubert Ludwig (None;)

2004-11-27

12

Nested retrotransposons on the W chromosome of the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina.  

PubMed

The W chromosome of the silkworms Bombyx mori or B. mandarina is recombinationally isolated from the Z chromosome and the autosomes. We previously characterized a female-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), designated W-Yamato, derived from the W chromosome of the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina. To further analyse the W chromosome of B. mandarina, we obtained a lambda phage clone that contains the W-Yamato RAPD sequence and sequenced the 16.7 kb DNA insert. We found that this DNA comprises a nested structure of at least seven elements: six retrotransposons and one transposable element-like sequence. The transposable element-like sequence is inserted into a micropia-like retrotransposon (Karate). The Karate and the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon BMC1 are inserted into a 412-like retrotransposon (Judo). Furthermore, this Judo, and two non-LTR retrotransposons (Kurosawa and Kendo) are inserted into a Pao-like retrotransposon (Yamato). These results indicate that the retrotransposons inserted into the W chromosome are not efficiently removed but accumulate gradually as strata without recombination. PMID:12144695

Abe, H; Sugasaki, T; Terada, T; Kanehara, M; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Mita, K; Oshiki, T

2002-08-01

13

Keywords. Bombyx mori; Distal-less (Dll); nubbin (nub), silkworm; wing development; wingless (wg) Equal contributions from both authors.  

E-print Network

167 Keywords. Bombyx mori; Distal-less (Dll); nubbin (nub), silkworm; wing development; wingless organization of appendages which develop by various mechanisms. In the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori a pair

Kango-Singh, Madhuri

14

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

15

Directly obtaining pristine magnetic silk fibers from silkworm.  

PubMed

By feeding the silkworms with the nano Fe3O4 powder together with mulberry leaves, we directly obtained silkworm spun pristine magnetic silk fiber, MSF. To compare with the normal SF found that this MSF not only has expected magnetic properties, but also has enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties, e.g. stress and strain. PMID:24269584

Wang, Jun-Ting; Li, Lu-Lu; Feng, Lei; Li, Jin-Fan; Jiang, Lin-Hai; Shen, Qing

2014-02-01

16

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

17

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. MĂĽller (None;)

2002-05-18

18

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman NeumĂĽller (None;)

2006-07-05

19

Rheological properties of native silk fibroins from domestic and wild silkworms, and flow analysis in each spinneret by a finite element method.  

PubMed

Silkworms can produce strong and tough fibers at room temperature and from an aqueous solution. Therefore, it seems useful to study the mechanism of fiber formation by silkworms for development of synthetic polymers with excellent mechanical properties. The rheological behaviors of native silk dopes stored in the silk glands of Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini were clarified, and flow simulations of the dopes in each spinneret were performed with a Finite Element Method. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements revealed that silk fibroin stored in silk glands forms a transient network at room temperature, and that the molecular weight for the network node corresponds to the molecular weight of a heterodimer of H-chain and L-chain (B. mori) and a homodimer of H-chains (S. c. ricini), respectively. Also, each dope exhibited zero-shear viscosity and then shear thinning like polymer melts. In addition, shear thickening due to flow-induced crystallization was observed. The critical shear rate for crystallization of B. mori dopes was smaller than that of S. c. ricini dopes. From the flow simulation, it is suggested that domestic and wild silkworms are able to crystallize the dopes in the stiff plate region by controlling shear rate using the same magnitude of extrusion pressure despite differences in rheological properties. PMID:19317399

Moriya, Motoaki; Roschzttardtz, Frederico; Nakahara, Yusuke; Saito, Hitoshi; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Asakura, Tetsuo

2009-04-13

20

Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4?mg/100?g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30?min before and 1?h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1?h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30?min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvao; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

2013-01-01

21

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

2012-06-01

22

Silkworm larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None;)

2007-08-04

23

Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm.  

PubMed

Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2014-09-01

24

Breeding of a Silkworm Variety for Synnemata Production of Isaria tenuipes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted out to select a silkworm variety suitable for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes. Four kinds of the mulberry silkworm varieties, Bombyx mori, were hybridized using a Japanese parental line and a Chinese parental line, and used to test for synemata formation in I. tenuipes. The larval period of normal silkworms was 22 hr longer than the silkworms inoculated with this fungus. Among the silkworm varieties tested, Hachojam had the shortest larval period with 23.02 days. The non-cocooning silkworm had a shorter larval period than the cocoon producing silkworms. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 9% higher than that of silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Hachojam had the highest infection rate at 99.8%, but no significant difference was observed for the infection rate by silkworm variety. The production of synnemata was the best in JS171 × CS188 with an incidence rate of 99.3%, followed by Hachojam, and Chugangjam. The synnemata produced from Hachojam were the heaviest and showed white or milky-white in color. PMID:23956651

Kang, Pil-Don; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kim, Kee-Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2010-09-01

25

Cytological evidence for holocentric chromosomes of the silkworms, Bombyx mori and B. mandarina, (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the centromere and the orientation in meiosis of silkworm chromosomes were investigated using the trivalent of the F1 hybrid between the wild and domestic silkworm and X-ray-induced aberrant chromosomes as well as normal silkworm chromosomes. The results of the experiments were as follows: (1) Pro-metaphase chromosomes showed no distinct primary constriction even after treatment with hypotonic solution,

Akio Murakami; Hirotami T. Imai

1974-01-01

26

Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.  

PubMed

The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress. PMID:25231943

Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Ma, Bi; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-12-01

27

Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2011-01-01

28

Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2011-09-01

29

Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD  

PubMed Central

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry.

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

30

Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

31

Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

2014-01-01

32

Mechanical properties and structure of silkworm cocoons: a comparative study of Bombyx mori, Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

As a protective shell against environmental damage and attack by natural predators, the silkworm cocoon has outstanding mechanical properties. In particular, this multilayer non-woven composite structure can be exceptionally tough to enhance the chance of survival for silkworms while supporting their metabolic activity. Peel, out-of-plane compression and nano-indentation tests and micro-structure analysis were performed on four types of silkworm cocoon walls (domesticated Bombyx mori, semi-domesticated Antheraea assamensis and wild Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons) to understand the structure and mechanical property relationships. The wild silkworm cocoons were shown to be uniquely tough composite structures. The maximum work-of-fracture for the wild cocoons (A. pernyi and A. mylitta) was approximately 1000 J/m(2), which was almost 10 times the value for the domesticated cocoon (Bombyx mori) and 3~4 times the value for the semi-domesticated cocoon (A. assamensis). Calcium oxalate crystals were found to deposit on the outer surfaces of the semi-domesticated and wild cocoons. They did not show influence in enhancing the interlaminar adhesion between cocoon layers but exhibited much higher hardness than the cocoon pelades. PMID:23706202

Zhang, J; Kaur, J; Rajkhowa, R; Li, J L; Liu, X Y; Wang, X G

2013-08-01

33

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with

Zhengzhong Shao; Fritz Vollrath

2002-01-01

34

Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and ubiquitous in all living organisms, including animals, plants, insects, and microbes. It plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification, and pheromone degradation, neurogenesis and regulating development. Previous studies mainly used Dipteran Drosophila and mosquitoes as model organisms to investigate the roles of the insect COEs in insecticide resistance. However, genome-wide characterization of COEs in phytophagous insects and comparative analysis remain to be performed. Results Based on the newly assembled genome sequence, 76 putative COEs were identified in Bombyx mori. Relative to other Dipteran and Hymenopteran insects, alpha-esterases were significantly expanded in the silkworm. Genomics analysis suggested that BmCOEs showed chromosome preferable distribution and 55% of which were tandem arranged. Sixty-one BmCOEs were transcribed based on cDNA/ESTs and microarray data. Generally, most of the COEs showed tissue specific expressions and expression level between male and female did not display obvious differences. Three main patterns could be classified, i.e. midgut-, head and integument-, and silk gland-specific expressions. Midgut is the first barrier of xenobiotics peroral toxicity, in which COEs may be involved in eliminating secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves and contaminants of insecticides in diet. For head and integument-class, most of the members were homologous to odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE) and antennal esterase. RT-PCR verified that the ODE-like esterases were also highly expressed in larvae antenna and maxilla, and thus they may play important roles in degradation of plant volatiles or other xenobiotics. Conclusion B. mori has the largest number of insect COE genes characterized to date. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the gene expansion mainly occurred in silkworm alpha-esterases. Expression evidence indicated that the expanded genes were specifically expressed in midgut, integument and head, implying that these genes may have important roles in detoxifying secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves, contaminants in diet, and odorants. Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects. PMID:19930670

2009-01-01

35

Analysis of midgut gene expression profiles from different silkworm varieties after exposure to high temperature.  

PubMed

The silkworm is a poikilothermic animal, whose growth and development is significantly influenced by environmental temperature. To identify genes and metabolic pathways involved in the heat-stress response, digital gene expression analysis was performed on the midgut of the thermotolerant silkworm variety '932' and thermosensitive variety 'HY' after exposure to high temperature (932T and HYT). Deep sequencing yielded 6,211,484, 5,898,028, 5,870,395 and 6,088,303 reads for the 932, 932T, HY and HYT samples, respectively. The annotated genes associated with these tags numbered 4357, 4378, 4296 and 4658 for the 932, 932T, HY and HYT samples, respectively. In the HY-vs-932, 932-vs-932T, and HY-vs-HYT comparisons, 561, 316 and 281 differentially expressed genes were identified, which could be assigned to 179, 140 and 123 biological pathways, respectively. It was found that some of the biological pathways, which included oxidative phosphorylation, related to glucose and lipid metabolism, are greatly affected by high temperature and may lead to a decrease in the ingestion of fresh mulberry. When subjected to an early period of continuous heat stress, HSP genes, such as HSP19.9, HSP23.7, HSP40-3, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP70 binding protein, are up-regulated but then reduced after 24h and the thermotolerant '932' strain has higher levels of mRNA of some HSPs, except HSP70, than the thermosensitive variety during continuous high temperature treatment. It is suggested that HSPs and the levels of their expression may play important roles in the resistance to high temperature stress among silkworm varieties. This study has generated important reference tools that can be used to further analyze the mechanisms that underlie thermotolerance differences among silkworm varieties. PMID:25046138

Li, Qing Rong; Xiao, Yang; Wu, Fu Quan; Ye, Ming Qiang; Luo, Guo Qing; Xing, Dong Xu; Li, Li; Yang, Qiong

2014-10-01

36

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with spider silk by changing their spinning habits, rather than by having their silk genes altered.

Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

2002-08-01

37

Calcium Deposition in Idioblasts of Mulberry Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, rounded idioblasts were observed in adaxial leaves of mulberry plants; they were clearly distinguishable from epidermal, trichome and parenchyma cells. The size and density of idioblasts varied according to leaf age. Cytological features of idioblasts were as follows: the outermost region (‘cap’) of idioblasts was situated on the adaxial surface as a dome-like protrusion; a cylindrical protuberance extended from

YUKIO SUGIMURA; TOMOYO MORI; IKURO NITTA; EIJI KOTANI; TOSHIHARU FURUSAWA; MAKOTO TATSUMI; SHIN-ICHI KUSAKARI; MASAO WADA; YOHJI MORITA

1999-01-01

38

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N

Keeling, Patrick

39

Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

Liu, Xueming

2004-01-01

40

Ectopic expression of FaDREB2 enhances osmotic tolerance in paper mulberry.  

PubMed

Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are a subfamily of AP2/ERF transcription factors that have been shown to improve tolerance to osmotic stresses in plants. To improve the osmotic stress tolerance of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent), an economically important tree, we transformed it with a plasmid carrying tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) FaDREB2 under the control of CaMV 35S. The ectopic expression of FaDREB2 did not cause growth retardation, and the paper mulberry seedlings expressing FaDREB2 showed higher salt and drought tolerance than wild-type plants (WT). After 13 d of withholding water, or 15 d in the presence of 250 mM NaCl, all the WT plants died, while the plants expressing FaDREB2 survived. The FaDREB2 transgenic plants had higher leaf water and chlorophyll contents, accumulated more proline and soluble sugars, and had less membrane damage than the WT plants under high salt and water-deficient conditions. Taken together, the results indicate the feasibility of improving tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry seedlings via genetic engineering, by introducing FaDREB2, which promotes the increased accumulation of osmolytes (soluble sugars and proline), to counter osmotic stresses caused by abiotic factors. PMID:22067051

Li, Mei-Ru; Li, Yan; Li, Hong-Qing; Wu, Guo-Jiang

2011-12-01

41

Improvement of paper mulberry tolerance to abiotic stresses by ectopic expression of tall fescue FaDREB1.  

PubMed

Dehydration-responsive element binding/C-repeat-binding factors (DREB/CBF) control the activity of multiple stress response genes and therefore represent attractive targets for genetic improvement of abiotic stress tolerance. Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent) is well known for its bark fibers and high levels of chalcone and flavonoid derivatives. Transgenic paper mulberry plants expressing a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) FaDREB1 gene under the control of CaMV 35S were produced to examine the potential utility of FaDREB1 to increase the tolerance of paper mulberry plants to abiotic stress. The overexpressing FaDREB1 plants showed higher salt and drought tolerance than the wild-type plants (WT). After 13 days of withholding water, or 15 days in the presence of 250 mM NaCl, all the WT plants died, while the over-expressing FaDREB1 plants survived. The FaDREB1 plants had higher leaf water and leaf chlorophyll contents, accumulated more proline and soluble sugars, and had less ion leakage (which reflects membrane damage) than the WT plants had under high salt- and water-deficient conditions. The 35S promoter-driven expression of FaDREB1 did not cause growth retardation under normal growth conditions. Therefore, improved tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry might be achieved via genetic engineering through the ectopic expression of an FaDREB1 gene. PMID:22170439

Li, Meiru; Li, Yan; Li, Hongqing; Wu, Guojiang

2012-01-01

42

Consequences of microwave irradiation on the different breeds of mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous reports of microwave effects on biological objects are readily available. It is therefore indicated that one should study the nature of this process. The results of an investigation show that the mulberry in embryo is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Two breeds of the mulberry were subjected to low-intensity EMR-irradiation. The microwave EMR action during a period of 30

N. I. Ronkina; L. M. Chepel; V. G. Shakhbzsov; S. P. Sirenko

2001-01-01

43

Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2009-12-01

44

Silkworm protein: its possibility as an actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of silkworm (Bombyx mori) protein as a base material of biomimetic actuator was investigated in this paper. Silkworm films were prepared from high concentrations of regenerated fibroin in aqueous solution. Films with thickness of about 100 ?m were prepared for coating electrodes. The cast silk films were coated by very thin gold electrode on both sides of the film. Tensile test of cast film showed bi-modal trend, which is typical stress-strain relation of polymeric film. As the test of a possible biomimetic actuator, silkworm film actuator provides bending deformations according to the magnitude and frequency of the applied electric filed. Although the present bending deformation of silkworm film actuator is smaller than that of Electro-Active Paper actuator, it provides the possibility of biomimetic actuator.

Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Myung, Seung Jun; Kim, Heung Soo; Jung, Woochul; Kim, Jaehwan

2006-03-01

45

The Diapause Hormone of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1924, Watanabe1 postulated that silkworm eggs overwinter as a result of receiving an `inhibitory' substance from the mother moths, but the existence of the substance has not hitherto been substantiated experimentally. On the other hand, I have found2 that the suboesophageal ganglion of the silkworm is responsible for the hibernation of silkworm eggs; but the organ that furnishes the

Kinsaku Hasegawa

1957-01-01

46

20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

47

Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house  

SciTech Connect

The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

1980-01-01

48

SilkDB: a knowledgebase for silkworm biology and genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Silkworm Knowledgebase (SilkDB) is a web- based repository for the curation, integration and study of silkworm genetic and genomic data. With the recent accomplishment of a 6X draft genome sequence of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), SilkDB provides an integrated representation of the large-scale, genome-wide sequence assembly, cDNAs, clusters of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), mutants, single

Jing Wang; Qingyou Xia; Ximiao He; Mingtao Dai; Jue Ruan; Jie Chen; Guo Yu; Haifeng Yuan; Yafeng Hu; Ruiqiang Li; Tao Feng; Chen Ye; Cheng Lu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Gane Ka-shu Wong; Huanming Yang; Jian Wang; Zhonghuai Xiang; Zeyang Zhou; Jun Yu

2005-01-01

49

Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

2007-04-01

50

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

51

An Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Map of the Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is a lepidopteran insect with a long history of significant agricultural value. We have constructed the first amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map of the silkworm B. mori at a LOD score of 2.5. The mapping AFLP markers were genotyped in 47 progeny from a backcross population of the cross no. 782 3

Yuan-De Tan; Chunling Wan; Yufang Zhu; Chen Lu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Hong-Wen Deng

52

Silkworm nucleotide databases - Current trends and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori serves as an ideal representative of lepidopteran species for a variety of scientific studies. As a result, databases have been created to organize information pertaining to the silkworm genome that is subject to constant updating. Of these, four main databases are important for store nucleotide information in the form of genomic data, ESTs and microsatelites.

Nicole Koshy; Kangayam M. Ponnuvel; Randhir K. Sinha; S. M. H. Qadri

53

Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

54

Diversity in Copy Number and Structure of a Silkworm Morphogenetic Gene as a Result of Domestication  

PubMed Central

The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strains, ranging from 1 to 20. The copies of CBP are of several types, based on the presence of a retrotransposon or partial deletion of the coding sequence. In contrast to B. mori, B. mandarina was found to possess a single copy of CBP without the retrotransposon insertion, regardless of habitat. Several other lepidopterans were found to contain sequences homologous to CBP, revealing that this gene is evolutionarily conserved in the lepidopteran lineage. Thus, domestication can generate significant diversity of gene copy number and structure over a relatively short evolutionary time. PMID:21242537

Sakudoh, Takashi; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kuroki, Yoko; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Shimada, Toru; Nakagaki, Masao; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

2011-01-01

55

Changes in Mulberry Leaf Metabolism in Response to Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the water stress-induced changes in the activities of RuBP carboxylase (RuBPCO) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 activity, and contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch, sucrose, amino acids, free proline, proteins and nucleic acids in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. K-2) leaves. Water stress progressively reduced the activities of RuBPCO and SPS

P. Barathi; D. Sundar; A. Ramachandra Reddy

2001-01-01

56

Mulberry leaf phenolics ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Abstract To investigate the effect of phenolics in mulberry leaves (mulberry leaf phenolics; MLP) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in HepG2 cells; we treated HepG2 with glucose [5.5 (N-Glc) or 50?mmol/L (Hi-Glc)] with or without MLP at 10 or 100?µmol/L gallic acid equivalents and assessed level of reactive oxidant species (ROS), ??m, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activation. Hi-Glc-induced oxidative damage was demonstrated by a series of increase in superoxides (560%, 0.5?h), MDA (400%, 24?h), NF-?B activation (474%, 4?h) and a wild fluctuation of ??m relative to the control cells (p???0.05). MLP treatments ameliorate Hi-Glc-induced negative effects by a 40% reduction in ROS production, 34-44% reduction in MDA production, over 35% inhibition of NF-?B activation, as well as exert protective effect on HepG2 cells from change in ??m. Our data show that MLP in vitro can protect hepatoctyes from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damages. PMID:25026091

Zou, Yu-Xiao; Shen, Wei-Zhi; Liao, Sen-Tai; Liu, Fan; Zheng, Shan-Qing; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

2014-12-01

57

Cloning and expression analyses of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in mulberry plants.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are natural food colorants produced by plants that play important roles in their growth and development. Mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are the most important active components of mulberry and have many potentially beneficial effects on human health. The study of anthocyanin biosynthesis will bring benefits for quality improvement and industrial exploration of mulberry fruits. In the present study, nine putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants were identified and cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the mulberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were conserved and had counterparts in other plants. Spatial transcriptional analysis showed detectable expression of eight of these genes in different tissues. The results of expression and UPLC analyses in two mulberry cultivars with differently colored fruit indicated that anthocyanin concentrations correlated with the expression levels of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis including CHS1, CHI, F3H1, F3'H1, and ANS during the fruit ripening process. The present studies provide insight into anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants and may facilitate genetic engineering for improvement of the anthocyanin content in mulberry fruit. PMID:24748075

Qi, Xiwu; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Hu; Fan, Li; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

2014-10-01

58

In Vitro Modification of Sex Expression in Mulberry ( Morus Alba ) by Ethrel and Silver Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a dioecious plant. In vitro sex modification in mulberry by using two chemicals, viz., ethrel and silver nitrate, is described. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethrel) and silver nitrate were filter sterilized and added to Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 5 µM 6-benzyl amino purine (BA). Ethrel applied at different concentrations produced female, male and mixed

T. Dennis Thomas

2004-01-01

59

Detection of peptidoglycan and ?-glucan with silkworm larvae plasma test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to detect peptidoglycan and (1 ? 3)-?-d-glucan with silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) derived from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori was developed. SLP contains all of the factors of the pro-phenol oxidase cascade, an important self-defense mechanism of insects. Peptidoglycan or (1 ? 3)-?-d-glucan initiates the cascade, in which pro-phenol oxidase is finally activated to phenol oxidase.

Masakazu Tsuchiya; Nobuo Asahi; Fukiko Suzuoki; Masaaki Ashida; Shuji Matsuura

1996-01-01

60

Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.  

PubMed

Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

2014-09-01

61

Heritable Genome Editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with an associated protein (Cas9) system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and Cas9-mRNA into silkworm embryos. Mutation frequencies of 16.7–35.0% were observed in the injected generation, and DNA fragments deletions were also noted. Bm-ok mosaic mutants were used to test for mutant heritability due to the easily determined translucent epidermal phenotype of Bm-ok-disrupted cells. Two crossing strategies were used. In the first, injected Bm-ok moths were crossed with wild-type moths, and a 28.6% frequency of germline mutation transmission was observed. In the second strategy, two Bm-ok mosaic mutant moths were crossed with each other, and 93.6% of the offsprings appeared mutations in both alleles of Bm-ok gene (compound heterozygous). In summary, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can act as a highly specific and heritable gene-editing tool in Bombyx mori. PMID:25013902

Roy, Bhaskar; Dai, Junbiao; Miao, Yungen; Gao, Guanjun

2014-01-01

62

How Wild is Wild?  

E-print Network

There is no obvious line or boundary that separates wild animals from those that are not wild. Instead, there are expansive grey areas, of which the most conspicuous encompass the domesticated animals that have reverted ...

Ritvo, Harriet

2014-01-01

63

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman Microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman mori and Samia cynthia ricini silkworms, and from the spider Nephila edulis. It is shown that.19 ( 0.02, respectively, even though the two types of silkworm fibroins strongly differ in their primary

Pezolet, Michel

64

Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection  

E-print Network

Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection Yoko insects. Yet many methods remain to be adapted to non- drosophilid species. The silkworm, B. mori, has established for silkworm, including stable transgenesis of the germline (Tamura et al., 2000) targeted gene

Â?urovec, Michal

65

A new mapping method for quantitative trait loci of silkworm  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm is the basis of sericultural industry and the model organism in insect genetics study. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying economically important traits of silkworm is of high significance for promoting the silkworm molecular breeding and advancing our knowledge on genetic architecture of the Lepidoptera. Yet, the currently used mapping methods are not well suitable for silkworm, because of ignoring the recombination difference in meiosis between two sexes. Results A mixed linear model including QTL main effects, epistatic effects, and QTL × sex interaction effects was proposed for mapping QTLs in an F2 population of silkworm. The number and positions of QTLs were determined by F-test and model selection. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was employed to estimate and test genetic effects of QTLs and QTL × sex interaction effects. The effectiveness of the model and statistical method was validated by a series of simulations. The results indicate that when markers are distributed sparsely on chromosomes, our method will substantially improve estimation accuracy as compared to the normal chiasmate F2 model. We also found that a sample size of hundreds was sufficiently large to unbiasedly estimate all the four types of epistases (i.e., additive-additive, additive-dominance, dominance-additive, and dominance-dominance) when the paired QTLs reside on different chromosomes in silkworm. Conclusion The proposed method could accurately estimate not only the additive, dominance and digenic epistatic effects but also their interaction effects with sex, correcting the potential bias and precision loss in the current QTL mapping practice of silkworm and thus representing an important addition to the arsenal of QTL mapping tools. PMID:21276233

2011-01-01

66

Morphology and oxidative physiology of boron-deficient mulberry plants.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to induce B deficiency symptoms and to relate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of B deficiency in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva-2 plants. Study was undertaken on antioxidant responses, malondialdehyde (MDA) content as an indicator of oxidative damage and ratio of dehydroascorbate (DHA) to ascorbic acid (AsA) as an index of cellular redox environment in B-deficient (0.0 microM) and B-supraoptimal (33 microM) mulberry plants. B deficiency symptoms appeared as upward cupping of the young emerging leaves. Later on, B-deficient plants developed lenticels like cracks on major vein, petiole and stem. B-deficient leaves had higher water potential (Psi) and relative water content (RWC), contained a lower concentration of B, less chloroplastic pigments and high tissue Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations compared to the controls. Hydrogen peroxide was accumulated in leaves of B-deficient and B-supraoptimal plants. B-supraoptimal plants also showed an increased DHA/AsA ratio. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) were increased in B-deficient leaves. The activities of SOD and POD were decreased in B-supraoptimal plants. The results suggest that B deficiency aggravates oxidative stress through enhanced generation of ROS in mulberry plants. PMID:19933494

Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Parma Nand

2010-01-01

67

Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves. PMID:23292544

Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2012-12-22

68

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Mulberry, Using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Mulberry is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines. Anthocyanins are the main bioactive components of mulberry, and possess important biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of anthocyanins from mulberry by using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction conditions associated with anthocyanin yield, including extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid rate, temperature and extraction time, are discussed. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from mulberry include 63.8% methanol contains 1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 43.2 °C temperature, 23.8 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 min time for the maximum yield (64.70 ± 0.45 mg/g). The results indicated that the UAE can be an effective method for the extraction of some active components from plant materials. PMID:21686165

Zou, Tang-Bin; Wang, Min; Gan, Ren-You; Ling, Wen-Hua

2011-01-01

69

The nutritive value of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) as a feed supplement for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg?1 on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral\\u000a detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in

K. Kandylis; I. Hadjigeorgiou; P. Harizanis

2009-01-01

70

Macro-micro structure, antibacterial activity, and physico-mechanical properties of the mulberry bast fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the mulberry fibers were successfully obtained by a new pretreatment named alkali-assisted microwave plus biological\\u000a enzymatic technique (AMBET). The morphology, microstructure, physico-mechanical and antibacterial properties of the mulberry\\u000a bast fibers were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR), differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), instron tensile tester and antibacterial

Caixin Qu; Shudong Wang

2011-01-01

71

Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis).  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinformatics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes. PMID:24304637

Ma, Bi; Luo, Yiwei; Jia, Ling; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-09-01

72

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

73

Conjunctival aspergilloma with multiple mulberry nodules: a case report.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old healthy female presented with a 1-year history of chronic mucous discharge, tearing, and irritation in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed severe papillary and follicular reaction surrounding a movable subconjunctival mass on the left upper tarsal conjunctiva. Incision and curettage were performed to establish the diagnosis. Multiple peculiar black mulberry nodules were obtained. The clumps of septate hyphae seen with periodic acid-Schiff stain were characteristic of fungus ball (aspergilloma). The patient's symptoms improved significantly after surgery without any antifungal therapy. Although rarely reported, aspergillus is a common fungus in the conjunctiva that may seed into the subconjunctiva. We present this case to remind ophthalmologists of such a rare cause of recalcitrant conjunctival inflammation in immunocompetent patients. PMID:16035573

Chen, Jiunn-Liang; Wang, Cheng-Chiang; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Yeh, Tzy-Ing

2005-06-01

74

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mulberry MAPK gene family.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in regulating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Although MAPKs have been identified and characterized in a few model plants, there is little information available for mulberry Morus sp. L., one of the most ecologically and economically important perennial trees. This study identified 47 mulberry Morus notabilis MAPK (MnMAPK) family genes: 32 MnMAPKKK, five MnMAPKK and ten MnMAPK genes, and cloned ten MnMAPK cDNA genes based on a genome-wide analysis of the morus genome database. Comparative analysis with MAPK gene families from other plants suggested that MnMAPKs could be divided into five subfamilies (groups A, B, C, D and E) and they could have similar functions in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. MnMAPK gene expression analysis of different stresses (high/low temperature, salt and drought) and signal molecules (ABA, SA, H2O2 and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)) revealed that all ten MnMAPK genes responded to high/low temperature, salt and drought stresses, and that nine of the ten MnMAPKs (MnMAPK7 excepted) could be induced by ABA, SA, H2O2 and MeJA, which suggested that MnMAPKs may play pivotal roles in signal transduction pathways. Our results indicated that almost all of the MnMAPKs may be involved in environmental stress and defense responses, which provides the basis for further characterization of the physiological functions of MnMAPKs. PMID:24583344

Wei, Congjin; Liu, Xueqin; Long, Dingpei; Guo, Qing; Fang, Yuan; Bian, Chenkai; Zhang, Dayan; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

2014-04-01

75

Construction of transformed, cultured silkworm cells and transgenic silkworm using the site-specific integrase system from phage ?C31.  

PubMed

The Streptomyces bacteriophage, ?C31, uses a site-specific integrase enzyme to perform efficient recombination. The recombination system uses specific sequences to integrate exogenous DNA from the phage into a host. The sequences are known as the attP site in the phage and the attB site in the host. The system can be used as a genetic manipulation tool. In this study it has been applied to the transformation of cultured BmN cells and the construction of transgenic Bombyx mori individuals. A plasmid, pSK-attB/Pie1-EGFP/Zeo-PASV40, containing a cassette designed to express a egfp-zeocin fusion gene, was co-transfected into cultured BmN cells with a helper plasmid, pSK-Pie1/NLS-Int/NSL. Expression of the egfp-zeocin fusion gene was driven by an ie-1 promoter, downstream of a ?C31 attB site. The helper plasmid encoded the ?C31 integrase enzyme, which was flanked by two nuclear localization signals. Expression of the egfp-zeocin fusion gene could be observed in transformed cells. The two plasmids were also transferred into silkworm eggs to obtain transgenic silkworms. Successful integration of the fusion gene was indicated by the detection of green fluorescence, which was emitted by the silkworms. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the attB site had been cut, to allow recombination between the attB and endogenous pseudo attP sites in the cultured silkworm cells and silkworm individuals. PMID:24990696

Yin, Yajuan; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

2014-10-01

76

Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

2010-09-01

77

Use of silkworms to evaluate the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen.  

PubMed

Injection of a Japanese cedar pollen suspension into silkworm hemolymph kills the silkworms. A certain species of bacteria proliferated in the hemolymph of the dead silkworms. A 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that the proliferating bacteria were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Among them, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis exhibited hemolysis against sheep red blood cells and were lethal to mice. A culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens showed enzyme activity toward the pectic membrane of cedar pollen. These results suggest that silkworms as an animal model are useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen. PMID:24071577

Hu, Yuan; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2013-08-01

78

Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Leaves Depend on Cultivar and Harvest Month in Southern China  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the effects of cultivar and harvest month on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves, four major phenolics, including chlorogenic acid (ChA), benzoic acid (BeA), rutin (Rut) and astragalin (Ast), were quantified using an HPLC-UV method. Leaves from six mulberry cultivars, collected from April to October, were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HSA) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SSA) assays. The results showed that the total values of the four phenolic compounds ranged from 2.3 dry weight (DW) to 4.2 mg/g DW, with ChA being the major compound. The mean total phenol (TP) content of the six cultivars ranged from 30.4 equivalents (GAE) mg/g DW to 44.7 GAE mg/g DW. Mulberry leaves harvested in May had the highest TP content. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves harvested from April to October differed noticeably. In general, Kq 10 and May were considered to be a better cultivar and harvest month concerning phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. PMID:23443117

Zou, Yuxiao; Liao, Shentai; Shen, Weizhi; Liu, Fan; Tang, Cuiming; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Sun, Yuanming

2012-01-01

79

Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenisation processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200 MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1 min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the anthocyanins, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, and a unknown hydroxycinnamic acid) and quercetin aglycone contents, as well as ORAC value were observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, whereas all reductions above during UHPH processing could be inhibited by adding ascorbic acid to mulberry juice. Besides, no significant change (p>0.05) in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, but showed a 14% reduction in mulberry juice processed by thermal pasteurisation. PMID:24491708

Yu, Yuanshan; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Fu, Mangqin; Zhang, Yousheng

2014-06-15

80

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt, and Clyde F. Martin  

E-print Network

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt to predict observed, biological behaviors. In particular, we study the silkworm moth, the Bombyx Mori, and we by the female moths, as is the case in actual silkworm moths as well. I. INTRODUCTION The research on multi

Egerstedt, Magnus

81

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

2009-01-01

82

Molecular spring: from spider silk to silkworm silk  

E-print Network

In this letter, we adopt a new approach combining theoretical modeling with silk stretching measurements to explore the mystery of the structures between silkworm and spider silks, leading to the differences in mechanical response against stretching. Hereby the typical stress-strain profiles are reproduced by implementing the newly discovered and verified "$\\beta$-sheet splitting" mechanism, which primarily varies the secondary structure of protein macromolecules; our modeling and simulation results show good accordance with the experimental measurements. Hence, it can be concluded that the post-yielding mechanical behaviors of both kinds of silks are resulted from the splitting of crystallines while the high extensibility of spider dragline is attributed to the tiny $\\beta$-sheets solely existed in spider silk fibrils. This research reveals for the first time the structural factors leading to the significant difference between spider and silkworm silks in mechanical response to the stretching force. Addition...

Wu, Xiang; Du, Ning; Xu, Gang-Qin; Li, Bao-Wen

2009-01-01

83

Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac

Masahiro Tomita; Hiroto Munetsuna; Tsutomu Sato; Takahiro Adachi; Rika Hino; Masahiro Hayashi; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Namiko Nakamura; Toshiki Tamura; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2002-01-01

84

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

85

A Draft Sequence for the Genome of the Domesticated Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.

Qingyou Xia; Zeyang Zhou; Cheng Lu; Daojun Cheng; Fangyin Dai; Bin Li; Ping Zhao; Xingfu Zha; Tingcai Cheng; Chunli Chai; Guoqing Pan; Jinshan Xu; Chun Liu; Ying Lin; Jifeng Qian; Yong Hou; Zhengli Wu; Guanrong Li; Minhui Pan; Chunfeng Li; Yihong Shen; Xiqian Lan; Lianwei Yuan; Tian Li; Hanfu Xu; Guangwei Yang; Yongji Wan; Yong Zhu; Maode Yu; Weide Shen; Dayang Wu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Jun Yu; Jun Wang; Ruiqiang Li; Jianping Shi; Heng Li; Guangyuan Li; Jianning Su; Xiaoling Wang; Guoqing Li; Zengjin Zhang; Qingfa Wu; Jun Li; Qingpeng Zhang; Ning Wei; Jianzhe Xu; Haibo Sun; Le Dong; Dongyuan Liu; Shengli Zhao; Xiaolan Zhao; Qingshun Meng; Fengdi Lan; Xiangang Huang; Yuanzhe Li; Lin Fang; Changfeng Li; Dawei Li; Yongqiao Sun; Zhenpeng Zhang; Zheng Yang; Yanqing Huang; Yan Xi; Qiuhui Qi; Dandan He; Haiyan Huang; Xiaowei Zhang; Zhiqiang Wang; Wenjie Li; Yuzhu Cao; Yingpu Yu; Hong Yu; Jinhong Li; Jiehua Ye; Huan Chen; Yan Zhou; Bin Liu; Jing Wang; Jia Ye; Hai Ji; Shengting Li; Peixiang Ni; Jianguo Zhang; Yong Zhang; Hongkun Zheng; Bingyu Mao; Wen Wang; Chen Ye; Songgang Li; Jian Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Huanming Yang

2004-01-01

86

Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

2008-03-01

87

Microsatellites in the silkworm, Bomby× mori : Abundance, polymorphism, and strain characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized microsatellites (simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci) from the silkworm genome. The screening of a partial genomic library by the conventional hybridization method led to the isolation of 28 microsatellites harbouring clones. The abundance of (CA)n repeats in the silkworm genome was akin to those reported in the other organisms such as honey bee, pig, and

K. Damodar Reddy; E. G. Abraham; J. Nagaraju

1999-01-01

88

Silkworm hemolymph as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of silkworm hemolymph was investigated as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in insect cell culture. Cells were adapted to grow in reduced FBS medium supplemented with silkworm hemolymph through a gradual adaptation process. FBS concentration in the medium could be reduced to 1% without decrease in cell growth rate and maximum cell concentration by adding 5%

Sung Ho Ha; Tai Hyun Park; Sam-Eun Kim

1996-01-01

89

Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

90

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism.  

PubMed

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

91

Factors Influencing the Success of One Tambon One Product Mulberry Paper Enterprises in Chiang Mai Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purposes of this study are to 1) identify the factors that influence the success of OTOP mulberry paper enterprises in Chiang Mai province ; and 2) compare the factors that influence the success in terms of groups of stars, number of sales amounts, number of products and export amounts. This study was exploratory research. The instrument used in

Kanchana Sura

2008-01-01

92

The role of marginal agricultural land-based mulberry planting in biomass energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass energy is the main energy source in rural China. The low per capita cropland in China makes it impractical to convert cropland to energy crop cultivation as in other countries; development of energy crops must not compete with food and other cash crops for prime cropland. Mulberry planted on marginal lands like land risers, land boundaries and waste slopelands

Li Lu; Ya Tang; Jia-sui Xie; Yuan-liang Yuan

2009-01-01

93

Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism  

PubMed Central

DNJ, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf.

Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

2014-01-01

94

Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidoglycans Induce Excessive Activation of the Innate Immune System in Silkworm Larvae*  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen that causes inflammation in human periodontal tissue, killed silkworm (Bombyx mori, Lepidoptera) larvae when injected into the blood (hemolymph). Silkworm lethality was not rescued by antibiotic treatment, and heat-killed bacteria were also lethal. Heat-killed bacteria of mutant P. gingivalis strains lacking virulence factors also killed silkworms. Silkworms died after injection of peptidoglycans purified from P. gingivalis (pPG), and pPG toxicity was blocked by treatment with mutanolysin, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme. pPG induced silkworm hemolymph melanization at the same dose as that required to kill the animal. pPG injection increased caspase activity in silkworm tissues. pPG-induced silkworm death was delayed by injecting melanization-inhibiting reagents (a serine protease inhibitor and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea), antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, glutathione, and catalase), and a caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Thus, pPG induces excessive activation of the innate immune response, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death in the host tissue. PMID:20702417

Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2010-01-01

95

BmTEdb: a collective database of transposable elements in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the major insect model organisms, and its draft and fine genome sequences became available in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute ?40% of the silkworm genome. To better understand the roles of TEs in organization, structure and evolution of the silkworm genome, we used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches for identification of the silkworm TEs and identified 1308 silkworm TE families. These TE families and their classification information were organized into a comprehensive and easy-to-use web-based database, BmTEdb. Users are entitled to browse, search and download the sequences in the database. Sequence analyses such as BLAST, HMMER and EMBOSS GetORF were also provided in BmTEdb. This database will facilitate studies for the silkworm genomics, the TE functions in the silkworm and the comparative analysis of the insect TEs. Database URL: http://gene.cqu.edu.cn/BmTEdb/. PMID:23886610

Xu, Hong-En; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Xia, Tian; Han, Min-Jin; Shen, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ze

2013-01-01

96

Biological Effects of Low Energy Ar+ Ion Bombardment on Silkworm Eggs: a Novel Animal Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we found for the first time that silkworm eggs were able to survive in vacuum for a long period of time. Subsequently, low energy Ar+ ions with different energies and fluences were used to bombard silkworm eggs so as to explore the resulting biological effects. Results showed that (i) the exposure of silkworm eggs to vacuum within 10 min did not cause significant impact on the hatching rates, while the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 25 keV or 30 keV with fluences ranging from 2.6×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 to 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 caused a significant impact on the hatching rates, and the hatching rates decreased with the increase in the fluence and energy level; (ii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 or 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 resulted in a noticeable etching on the egg shell surface which could be observed by a scanning electron microscope; and (iii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 generated several mutant phenotypes which were observed in the 5th instar silkworms and a moth.

Xu, Jiaping; Wu, Yuejin; Liu, Xuelan; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

2009-06-01

97

Primed immune responses to gram-negative peptidoglycans confer infection resistance in silkworms.  

PubMed

A heightened immune response, in which immune responses are primed by repeated exposure to a pathogen, is an important characteristic of vertebrate adaptive immunity. In the present study, we examined whether invertebrate animals also exhibit a primed immune response. The LD50 of Gram-negative enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai in silkworms was increased 100-fold by pre-injection of heat-killed Sakai cells. Silkworms pre-injected with heat-killed cells of a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, did not have resistance to Sakai. Silkworms preinjected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli peptidoglycans, cell surface components of bacteria, were resistant to Sakai infection. Silkworms preinjected with S. aureus peptidoglycans, however, were not resistant to Sakai. Silkworms preinjected with heat-killed Sakai cells showed persistent resistance to Sakai infection even after pupation. Repeated injection of heat-killed Sakai cells into the silkworms induced earlier and greater production of antimicrobial peptides than a single injection of heat-killed Sakai cells. These findings suggest that silkworm recognition of Gram-negative peptidoglycans leads to a primed immune reaction and increased resistance to a second round of bacterial infection. PMID:24706746

Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2014-05-16

98

An amplified fragment length polymorphism map of the silkworm.  

PubMed Central

The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is a lepidopteran insect with a long history of significant agricultural value. We have constructed the first amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map of the silkworm B. mori at a LOD score of 2.5. The mapping AFLP markers were genotyped in 47 progeny from a backcross population of the cross no. 782 x od100. A total of 1248 (60.7%) polymorphic AFLP markers were detected with 35 PstI/TaqI primer combinations. Each of the primer combinations generated an average of 35.7 polymorphic AFLP markers. A total of 545 (44%) polymorphic markers are consistent with the expected segregation ratio of 1:1 at the significance level of P = 0.05. Of the 545 polymorphic markers, 356 were assigned to 30 linkage groups. The number of markers on linkage groups ranged from 4 to 36. There were 21 major linkage groups with 7-36 markers and 9 relatively small linkage groups with 4-6 markers. The 30 linkage groups varied in length from 37.4 to 691.0 cM. The total length of this AFLP linkage map was 6512 cM. Genetic distances between two neighboring markers on the same linkage group ranged from 0.2 to 47 cM with an average of 18.2 cM. The sex-linked gene od was located between the markers P1T3B40 and P3T3B27 at the end of group 3, indicating that AFLP linkage group 3 was the Z (sex) chromosome. This work provides an essential basic map for constructing a denser linkage map and for mapping genes underlying agronomically important traits in the silkworm B. mori L. PMID:11238411

Tan, Y D; Wan, C; Zhu, Y; Lu, C; Xiang, Z; Deng, H W

2001-01-01

99

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

100

SPEED OF TOXIC ACTION OF ARSENIC IN THE SILKWORM  

PubMed Central

A micro burette, micro pipette, and methods for their use in quantitative toxicological investigations on mandibulate insects are described. It is suggested that the form of curves relating speed of toxic action to dosage may be explained by postulating suitable changes in rate of distribution, excretion, and cell penetration of poison as dosage varies. The speed of toxic action of pentavalent arsenic in the silkworm is proportional to an integral power of the dosage at lower concentrations, and to a fractional power of the dosage at higher concentrations. PMID:19872265

Campbell, F. L.

1926-01-01

101

Changes in chemical composition of a red wine aged in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak wood barrels.  

PubMed

Aging in wooden barrels is a process used to stabilize the color and enrich the sensorial characteristics of wine. Many compounds are released from wood into the wine; oxygen permeation through the wood favors formation of new anthocyanin and tannin derivatives. Recently, polyphenols and volatile compounds released from acacia, chestnut, cherry, mulberry, and oak wood used in making barrels for spirits and wine aging were studied. Here, changes in volatile and polyphenolic compositions of a red wine aged for 9 months in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak barrels are studied. Mulberry showed significant decreases of fruity-note ethyl esters and ethylguaiacol and a great cession of ethylphenol (horsey-odor defect). Cherry promoted the highest polyphenol oxidation, making it less suitable for long aging. LC/ESI-MS(n) showed the relevant presence of cis- and trans-piceatannol in mulberry-aged wine, a phytoalexin with antileukemia and antimelanoma activities. PMID:19196157

De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Stella, Laura; Flamini, Riccardo

2009-03-11

102

Abundance and Morphology of Japanese Mulberry Trees in Response to the Distribution of Japanese Macaques in Snowy Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the rare documented cases of an antagonistic primate–plant interaction is selective foraging by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on the bark or buds of Japanese mulberry trees (Morus bombycis) in cool-temperate forests. We examined how this selective foraging behavior influences the growth and development of mulberry\\u000a trees in a large geographic space with different environmental conditions by selecting study

Hiroto Enari; Haruka Sakamaki

2010-01-01

103

[Effects of mulberry/soybean intercropping on the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbial number and enzyme activities].  

PubMed

A root separation experiment was conducted to investigate the plant growth and rhizosphere soil microbes and enzyme activities in a mulberry/soybean intercropping system. As compared with those in plastic barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments, the plant height, leaf number, root length, root nodule number, and root/shoot ratio of mulberry and soybean in non-barrier treatment were significantly higher, and the soybean's effective nodule number was larger. The available phosphorous content in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean in no barrier and nylon mesh barrier treatments was increased by 10.3% and 11.1%, and 5.1% and 4.6%, respectively, as compared with that in plastic barrier treatment. The microbial number, microbial diversity, and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soils of mulberry and soybean were higher in the treatments of no barrier and nylon mesh barrier than in the treatment of plastic barrier. All the results indicated that there was an obvious interspecific synergistic effect between mulberry and soybean in the mulberry/soybean intercropping system. PMID:24015565

Hu, Ju-Wei; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Li, Xin; Yue, Bing-Bing; Sun, Guang-yu

2013-05-01

104

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing.  

PubMed

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-12-01

105

Wild BC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild BC began as a provincial sponsor and distributor of the very popular environmental education program Project WILD, and has evolved to serve an important role in the management of a family of environmental education programs and resource materials for a number of provincial and federal government agencies and other organizations in British Columbia. Wild BC provides high quality environmental education resources, workshops, and special events to educators in the province. The site includes free lessons and activity downloads for teachers.

106

Microarray-based gene expression profiles of silkworm brains  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. Results We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains at four stages including V7, P1, P3 and P5. A total of 4,550 genes were transcribed in at least one selected stage. Of these, clustering algorithms separated the expressed genes into stably expressed genes and variably expressed genes. The results of the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis of stably expressed genes showed that the ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were principal pathways. Secondly, four clusters of genes with significantly different expression patterns were observed in the 1,175 variably expressed genes. Thirdly, thirty-two neuropeptide genes, six neuropeptide-like precursor genes, and 117 cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected developmental stages. Conclusion Major characteristics of the transcriptional profiles in the brains of Bombyx mori at specific development stages were present in this study. Our data provided useful information for future research. PMID:21247463

2011-01-01

107

Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

2014-01-01

108

A comparative analysis of serpin genes in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of proteins, most of which control protease-mediated processes by inhibiting their cognate enzymes. Sequencing of the silkworm genome provides an opportunity to investigate serpin structure, function, and evolution at the genome level. There are thirty-four serpin genes in Bombyx mori. Six are highly similar to their Manduca sexta orthologs that regulate innate immunity. Three alternative exons in serpin1 gene and four in serpin28 encode a variable region including the reactive site loop. Splicing of serpin2 pre-mRNA yields variations in serpin2A, 2A? and 2B. Sequence similarity and intron positions reveal the evolutionary pathway of seven serpin genes in group C. RT-PCR indicates an increase in the mRNA levels of serpin1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 25, 27, 32 and 34 in fat body and hemocytes of larvae injected with bacteria. These results suggest that the silkworm serpins play regulatory roles in defense responses. PMID:19150649

Zou, Zhen; Picheng, Zhao; Weng, Hua; Mita, Kazuei; Jiang, Haobo

2009-01-01

109

Genetic Analysis of the Electrophysiological Response to Salicin, a Bitter Substance, in a Polyphagous Strain of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+pph) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose–response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F1 generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF1 progeny between F1 females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF1 progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus. PMID:22649537

Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2012-01-01

110

Altered expression of testis-specific genes, piRNAs, and transposons in the silkworm ovary masculinized by a W chromosome mutation  

PubMed Central

Background In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, femaleness is strongly controlled by the female-specific W chromosome. Originally, it was presumed that the W chromosome encodes female-determining gene(s), accordingly called Fem. However, to date, neither Fem nor any protein-coding gene has been identified from the W chromosome. Instead, the W chromosome is occupied with numerous transposon-related sequences. Interestingly, the silkworm W chromosome is a source of female-enriched PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNAs are small RNAs of 23-30 nucleotides in length, which are required for controlling transposon activity in animal gonads. A recent study has identified a novel mutant silkworm line called KG, whose mutation in the W chromosome causes severe female masculinization. However, the molecular nature of KG line has not been well characterized yet. Results Here we molecularly characterize the KG line. Genomic PCR analyses using currently available W chromosome-specific PCR markers indicated that no large deletion existed in the KG W chromosome. Genetic analyses demonstrated that sib-crosses within the KG line suppressed masculinization. Masculinization reactivated when crossing KG females with wild type males. Importantly, the KG ovaries exhibited a significantly abnormal transcriptome. First, the KG ovaries misexpressed testis-specific genes. Second, a set of female-enriched piRNAs was downregulated in the KG ovaries. Third, several transposons were overexpressed in the KG ovaries. Conclusions Collectively, the mutation in the KG W chromosome causes broadly altered expression of testis-specific genes, piRNAs, and transposons. To our knowledge, this is the first study that describes a W chromosome mutant with such an intriguing phenotype. PMID:22452797

2012-01-01

111

The adverse effects of phoxim exposure in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm is an important economic insect. Poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. In this study, Solexa sequencing technology was performed to profile the gene expression changes in the midgut of silkworms in response to 24h of phoxim exposure and the impact on detoxification, apoptosis and immune defense were addressed. The results showed that 254 genes displayed at least 2.0-fold changes in expression levels, with 148 genes up-regulated and 106 genes down-regulated. Cytochrome P450 played an important role in detoxification. Histopathology examination and transmission electron microscope revealed swollen mitochondria and disappearance of the cristae of mitochondria, which are the important features in insect apoptotic cells. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was confirmed. In addition, the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways were all inhibited using qRT-PCR. Our results could help better understand the impact of phoxim exposure on silkworm. PMID:23899924

Gu, ZhiYa; Zhou, YiJun; Xie, Yi; Li, FanChi; Ma, Lie; Sun, ShanShan; Wu, Yu; Wang, BinBin; Wang, JuMei; Hong, Fashui; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

2014-02-01

112

Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. PMID:23137391

2012-01-01

113

Targeted Gene Expression Using the GAL4\\/UAS System in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the most well-studied insects in terms of both genetics and physiology and is recognized as the model lepidopteran insect. To develop an efficient system for analyzing gene function in the silkworm, we investigated the feasibility of using the GAL4\\/UAS system in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ-line transformation for targeted gene expression. To drive

Morikazu Imamura; Junichi Nakai; Satoshi Inoue; Guo Xing Quan; Toshio Kanda; Toshiki Tamura

114

Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.  

PubMed

Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ? 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ? 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ? 0.149), and chemical composition (P ? 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

2014-01-01

115

Improvement of light penetration based silkworm gender identification with confined regions of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on our previous work on light penetration-based silkworm gender identification, we find that unwanted optical noises scattering from the surrounding area near the silkworm pupa and the transparent support are sometimes analyzed and misinterpreted leading to incorrect silkworm gender identification. To alleviate this issue, we place a small rectangular hole on a transparent support so that it not only helps the user precisely place the silkworm pupa but also functions as a region of interest (ROI) for blocking unwanted optical noises and for roughly locating the abdomen region in the image for ease of image processing. Apart from the external ROI, we also assign a smaller ROI inside the image in order to remove strong scattering light from all edges of the external ROI and at the same time speed up our image processing operations. With only the external ROI in function, our experiment shows a measured 86% total accuracy in identifying gender of 120 silkworm pupae with a measured average processing time of 38 ms. Combining the external ROI and the image ROI together revamps the total accuracy in identifying the silkworm gender to 95% with a measured faster 18 ms processing time.

Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Sa-ngiamsak, Chiranut

2013-06-01

116

An Adaptive Transposable Element Insertion in the Regulatory Region of the EO Gene in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Although there are many studies to show a key role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution of higher organisms, little is known about the molecular mechanisms. In this study, we found that a partial TE (Taguchi) inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the silkworm ecdysone oxidase (EO) gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme to reduce the titer of molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E). The TE insertion occurred during domestication of silkworm and the frequency of the TE insertion in the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) is high, 54.24%. The linkage disequilibrium in the TE inserted strains of the domesticated silkworm was elevated. Molecular population genetics analyses suggest that this TE insertion is adaptive for the domesticated silkworm. Luminescent reporter assay shows that the TE inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene functions as a 20E-induced enhancer of the gene expression. Further, phenotypic bioassay indicates that the silkworm with the TE insertion exhibited more stable developmental phenotype than the silkworm without the TE insertion when suffering from food shortage. Thus, the inserted TE in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene increased developmental uniformity of silkworm individuals through regulating 20E metabolism, partially explaining transformation of a domestication developmental trait in the domesticated silkworm. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of gene expression regulation in developmental transition of domesticated animals. PMID:25213334

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Han, Min-Jin; Cao, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Ze

2014-12-01

117

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

118

Anti-hyperglycemic effect of bilberry, blackberry and mulberry ultrasonic extracts on diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Small fruits like bilberry, blackberry and mulberry are rich sources of anthocyanins and other phenols, compounds with a certified antioxidant activity and spectacular effects in some chronic diseases. Romanian bilberry, blackberry and mulberry extracts were tested as anti-hyperglycemic agents on diabetic rats. Anthocyanins extraction was carried out with 80 % acidified ethanol in ultrasonically conditions at 23?±?2 °C and 40 kHz. Monomeric anthocyanins content was determined by pH differential method and varied between 1200 and 2800 mg/L. The analyses of anthocyanins were achieved using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Phenolics content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and values varied between 2320 and 4250 mg/L gallic acid. Antioxidant activities of extracts were estimated by DPPH scavenging method and the values varied between 8 and 16 miliequivalents Trolox. In order to evaluate the toxicology of the extracts, the heavy metals concentration and pesticides content were analyzed. The extracts were administrated to diabetic rats in drinking water for five weeks. The administration of bilberry extract offered no satisfactory results. Treatment with blackberry extract determined a significant decrease of glucose level from 360 to about 270 mg/dL (p?mulberry extract administration determined a significant decrease of glucose level from 252 mg/dL at the start day to 155 mg/dL at the final of experiment (p?

Stef?nu?, Mariana N; C?ta, Adina; Pop, Raluca; T?nasie, Cristian; Boc, Daniel; Iena?cu, Ioana; Ordodi, Valentin

2013-12-01

119

Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.  

PubMed

Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550?molmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy. PMID:24938741

Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

2014-08-01

120

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

2006-11-01

121

Wild yam  

MedlinePLUS

... for estrogen replacement therapy, vaginal dryness in older women, PMS (premenstrual syndrome), menstrual cramps, weak bones (osteoporosis), increasing energy and sexual drive in men and women, and breast enlargement. Wild yam does seem to ...

122

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

123

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone-Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

124

Mulberry leaf polyphenols delay aging and regulate fat metabolism via the germline signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaves are an important ingredient in some traditional Chinese medicinal formulas and has been developed for use in functional food products. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaf extract has been reported to have beneficial effects on diseases in vitro; however, it is not clear which components in mulberry leaf extracts have these functions. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of these ingredients have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we extracted total mulberry leaf polyphenols (MLP) and identified its 13 phenolic monomers. Our results, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, indicated that MLPs delayed aging, improved oxidative stress resistance, and reduced fatty acid storage in vivo. Subsequent genetic screens and gene expression analyses demonstrated that the functions of MLP mainly depended on the germline signaling pathway, thus influencing the activities of downstream transcription factors (DAF-12, DAF-16, PHA-4, and NHR-80) as well as the expression levels of their target genes (fat-6, lipl-4, sod-3, unc-51, and fard-1). Our study determined that diverse modes of action on longevity were promoted by MLP exposure. These observations provide the first insight into MLP's multifaceted functions on aging, fat accumulation, and reproduction in vivo and indicate a specific model for the mechanism of action of MLP. This is a significant finding that lends support to the hypotheses that mulberry leaf extracts can have an impact on human health. PMID:25323576

Zheng, Shanqing; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao; Qu, Zhi; Shen, Weizhi; Shi, Ying

2014-12-01

125

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

126

Forever Wild?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forever Wild? is a recently aired episode of Scientific American Frontiers on PBS. This companion Web site provides loads of online features relating to the program, which explores how scientists are scrambling "to understand the intricate natural systems on which all life depends -- before it's too late." The Teaching Guide includes two downloadable lessons and a quiz intended for grades 5-8. In the first lesson, students study the effects of biological processes on a closed system while germinating pumpkin seedlings. The second activity is a lesson in geometry that borrows from the geodesic domes of Biosphere 2, which is featured in the program. The quiz contains question based directly on the program, such that Forever Wild? could serve as a classroom lesson in itself. Users may watch the entire episode online or read a detailed synopsis of the broadcast. Each major segment of Forever Wild? has a corresponding Web feature offering in-depth information and the occasional multimedia activity.

2002-01-01

127

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ąłC/ą˛C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

128

Repression of tyrosine hydroxylase is responsible for the sex-linked chocolate mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation patterning has long interested biologists, integrating topics in ecology, development, genetics, and physiology. Wild-type neonatal larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are completely black. By contrast, the epidermis and head of larvae of the homozygous recessive sex-linked chocolate (sch) mutant are reddish brown. When incubated at 30 °C, mutants with the sch allele fail to hatch; moreover, homozygous mutants carrying the allele sch lethal (schl) do not hatch even at room temperature (25 °C). By positional cloning, we narrowed a region containing sch to 239,622 bp on chromosome 1 using 4,501 backcross (BC1) individuals. Based on expression analyses, the best sch candidate gene was shown to be tyrosine hydroxylase (BmTh). BmTh coding sequences were identical among sch, schl, and wild-type. However, in sch the ?70-kb sequence was replaced with ?4.6 kb of a Tc1-mariner type transposon located ?6 kb upstream of BmTh, and in schl, a large fragment of an L1Bm retrotransposon was inserted just in front of the transcription start site of BmTh. In both cases, we observed a drastic reduction of BmTh expression. Use of RNAi with BmTh prevented pigmentation and hatching, and feeding of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor also suppressed larval pigmentation in the wild-type strain, pnd+ and in a pS (black-striped) heterozygote. Feeding L-dopa to sch neonate larvae rescued the mutant phenotype from chocolate to black. Our results indicate the BmTh gene is responsible for the sch mutation, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis producing neonatal larval color. PMID:20615980

Liu, Chun; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Narukawa, Junko; Liu, Shi-Ping; Han, Yu; Futahashi, Ryo; Kidokoro, Kurako; Noda, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Tamura, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Akio; Banno, Yutaka; Dai, Fang-Ying; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

2010-01-01

129

Hog Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wild hogs number in the hundreds of thousands and reside in all but two of California's 58 counties. In this video from QUEST produced by KQED, learn how hunters are stepping up to be part of the solution to this problem.

Kqed

2012-08-08

130

Wild Marshmallows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

Kallas, John N.

1984-01-01

131

Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

2009-04-01

132

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated female-specific sterility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Engineering sex-specific sterility is critical for developing transgene-based sterile insect technology. Targeted genome engineering achieved by customized zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) or clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems has been exploited extensively in a variety of model organisms; however, screening mutated individuals without a detectable phenotype is still challenging. In addition, genetically recessive mutations only detectable in homozygotes make the experiments time-consuming. In the present study, we model a novel genetic system in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, that results in female-specific sterility by combining transgenesis with TALEN technologies. This system induces sex-specific sterility at a high efficiency by targeting the female-specific exon of the B.?mori doublesex (Bmdsx) gene, which has sex-specific splicing isoforms regulating somatic sexual development. Transgenic animals co-expressing TALEN left and right arms targeting the female-specific Bmdsx exon resulted in somatic mutations and female mutants lost fecundity because of lack of egg storage and abnormal external genitalia. The wild-type sexual dimorphism of abdominal segment was not evident in mutant females. In contrast, there were no deleterious effects in mutant male moths. The current somatic TALEN technologies provide a promising approach for future insect functional genetics, thus providing the basis for the development of attractive genetic alternatives for insect population management. PMID:25125145

Xu, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; James, A A; Tan, A; Huang, Y

2014-12-01

133

Yellow-e Determines the Color Pattern of Larval Head and Tail Spots of the Silkworm Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

Yellow proteins form a large family in insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are 14 yellow genes in the genome. Previous studies have shown that the yellow gene is necessary for normal pigmentation; however, the roles of other yellow genes in body coloration are not known. Here, we provide the first evidence that yellow-e is required for normal body color pattern in insect larvae. In two mutant strains, bts and its allele bts2, of the silkworm Bombyx mori, the larval head cuticle and anal plates are reddish brown instead of the white color found in the wild type. Positional cloning revealed that deletions in the Bombyx homolog of the Drosophila yellow-e gene (Bmyellow-e) were responsible for the bts/bts2 phenotype. Bmyellow-e mRNA was strongly expressed in the trachea, testis, and integument, and expression markedly increased at the molting stages. This profile is quite similar to that of Bmyellow, a regulator of neonatal body color and body markings in Bombyx. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that Bmyellow-e mRNA was heavily expressed in the integument of the head and tail in which the bts phenotype is observed. The present results suggest that Yellow-e plays a crucial role in the pigmentation process of lepidopteran larvae. PMID:19996320

Ito, Katsuhiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2010-01-01

134

Insect cytokine paralytic peptide activates innate immunity via nitric oxide production in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect cytokine paralytic peptide (PP) upregulates the expression of immune-related genes and contributes to host defense in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The present findings demonstrated that PP promotes nitric oxide (NO) production and induces the expression of NO synthase. A pharmacologic NO synthase inhibitor suppressed the PP-dependent (i) induction of immune-related genes, (ii) activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and (iii) killing delay of silkworm larvae by Staphylococcus aureus. The upstream mechanism of NO synthesis in insect immunity has been unknown, and the present results suggest for the first time that an insect cytokine induces NO and contributes to self-defense. PMID:23178406

Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oonishi, Tadahiro; Kamimura, Manabu; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2013-03-01

135

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing. PMID:23226833

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-01-01

136

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

137

[Effects of mulberry-soybean intercropping on carbon-metabolic microbial diversity in saline-alkaline soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the characteristics that mulberry-soybean intercropping could alleviate the damage of saline-alkaline soil, Biolog technique was adopted to study the effects of this intercropping on the diversity of carbon-metabolic microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Under mulberry-soybean intercropping, the average well color development (AWCD) symbolizing the metabolic activity of soil microbes was obviously higher, as compared with that under mulberry or soybean monocropping, being the lowest under mulberry monocropping. The McIntosh index was also higher under intercropping than under monocropping, but the Shannon index and Simpson index had less difference between intercropping and monocropping, indicating that intercropping changed the composition and enhanced the diversity of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of saline-alkaline soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the carbon source utilization mode of the soil microbial community differed between intercropping and monocropping, and the main carbon sources were carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and polymers. Soil pH and salinity were the main factors limiting the diversity of the microbial community in saline-alkaline soil, and intercropping could effectively decrease the soil pH and salinity and promote the improvement of soil microbial community diversity. PMID:23173455

Li, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Yue, Bing-Bing; Jin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

138

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

2011-06-01

139

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

140

Intravital imaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin binding sites in the midgut of silkworm.  

PubMed

Identification of the resistance mechanism of insects against Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin is becoming an increasingly challenging task. This fact highlights the need for establishing new methods to further explore the molecular interactions of Cry1A toxin with insects and the receptor-binding region of Cry1A toxins for their wider application as biopesticides and a gene source for gene-modified crops. In this contribution, a quantum dot-based near-infrared fluorescence imaging method has been applied for direct dynamic tracking of the specific binding of Cry1A toxins, CrylAa and CrylAc, to the midgut tissue of silkworm. The in vitro fluorescence imaging displayed the higher binding specificity of CrylAa-QD probes compared to CrylAc-QD to the brush border membrane vesicles of midgut from silkworm. The in vivo imaging demonstrated that more CrylAa-QDs binding to silkworm midgut could be effectively and distinctly monitored in living silkworms. Furthermore, frozen section analysis clearly indicated the broader receptor-binding region of Cry1Aa compared to that of Cry1Ac in the midgut part. These observations suggest that the insecticidal activity of Cry toxins may depend on the receptor-binding sites, and this scatheless and visual near-infrared fluorescence imaging could provide a new avenue to study the resistance mechanism to maintain the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:24252542

Li, Na; Wang, Jing; Han, Heyou; Huang, Liang; Shao, Feng; Li, Xuepu

2014-02-15

141

Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus-induced differential gene expression in two silkworm strains of different susceptibility.  

PubMed

Digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the gene expression profiles of 4008 and p50 silkworm strains at 48 h after oral infection with BmCPV. 3,668,437 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected p50 silkworms and 3,540,790 clean tags in the control p50. By contrast, 4,498,263 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected 4008 silkworms and 4,164,250 clean tags in the control 4008. A total of 691 differentially expressed genes were detected in the infected 4008 DGE library and 185 were detected in the infected p50 DGE library, respectively. The expression profiles identified some important differentially expressed genes involved in signal transduction, enzyme activity and apoptotic changes, some of which were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results provide important clues on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion and resistance mechanism of silkworms against BmCPV infection. PMID:24525400

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

2014-04-15

142

Amino-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence of the Silkworm Prothoracicotropic Hormone: Homology with Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular forms of prothoracicotropic hormone were isolated from the head of the adult silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the amino acid sequence of 19 amino acid residues in the amino terminus of these prothoracicotropic hormones was determined. These residues exhibit significant homology with insulin and insulin-like growth factors.

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Hironori Ishizaki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki

1984-01-01

143

Amino Acid Sequence of a Prothoracicotropic Hormone of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of 4K-PTTH-II, one of three forms of the Mr 4400 prothoracicotropic hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori, active to brainless pupae of Samia cynthia ricini. Like vertebrate insulin, it consists of two nonidentical peptide chains (A and B chains). The A chain consists of 20 amino acid residues. The B chain is

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki; Susumu Y. Takahashi; Hironori Ishizaki

1986-01-01

144

Glucose Stimulates the Release of Bombyxin, an Insulin-Related Peptide of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of starvation and feeding on the release of bombyxin, a peptide of insulin superfamily in insects, from the larval brain of the silkworm Bombyx mori were investigated. Following starvation, the bombyxin titer in the hemolymph of larvae decreased, whereas its content in the brain increased. On the other hand, refeeding of the starved larvae resulted in an increase

Makoto Masumura; Shin'Ichiro Satake; Hironao Saegusa; Akira Mizoguchi

2000-01-01

145

The DNA content of sperm and hemocyte nuclei of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the size of the haploid genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), amounts of Feulgen-DNA staining in individual nuclei of primary spermatocytes, spermatids, maturing sperm, and larval or pupal hemocytes were determined with an integrating microdensitometer and compared with the Feulgen-DNA levels found for chicken erythrocyte nuclei, or the sperm and erythrocyte nuclei of Xenopus laevis that were

Ellen M. Rasch

1974-01-01

146

Diapause hormone of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Structure, gene expression and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diapause hormone (DH) is a neuropeptide hormone which is secreted from the suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and is responsible for induction of embryonic diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DH is isolated from SGs and determined to be a 24 amino acid peptide amide. The cDNA encodes the polyprotein precursor from which DH, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and three other

Okitsugu Yamashita

1996-01-01

147

Synthesis of Blood Protein by the Fat Body in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE concentration of protein in the blood of insects changes remarkably in the course of metamorphosis1. I have shown that the concentration of blood protein increases after the middle period of the last larval instar2 in the silkworm. It is not yet clear, however, what organ is concerned in the synthesis of blood protein in larval stage, although there are

Hajime Shigematsu

1958-01-01

148

Conversion of Glycogen to Sorbitol and Glycerol in the Diapause Egg of the Bombyx Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of biochemical studies1 on the embryonic diapause of the Bombyx silkworm, it has been shown that the glycogen content of the egg decreases markedly at the onset of diapause and reaches the lowest level at about thirty days after oviposition. When diapause is broken by cold treatment, glycogen increases progressively even at low temperature and regains the

Haruo Chino

1957-01-01

149

Eicosanoids mediate induction of immune genes in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of cecropin and lysozyme genes is induced in response to bacterial peptidoglycan in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Specific inhibitors of either phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase significantly inhibit the induction of the immune genes both in vivo and in cultured fat body as detected by means of Northern hybridization. Arachidonic acid injected into the

Isao Morishima; Yoshiaki Yamano; Kenji Inoue; Noriyuki Matsuo

1997-01-01

150

Catalase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Gene sequence, distribution, and overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms require mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Catalase is one of the regulatory enzymes and facilitates the degradation of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Biochemical information on an insect catalase is, however, insufficient. Using mRNA from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a cDNA encoding a putative catalase was

Kohji Yamamoto; Yutaka Banno; Hiroshi Fujii; Fumio Miake; Nobuhiro Kashige; Yoichi Aso

2005-01-01

151

Large-Scale Intersubspecific Recombination in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Is Associated with the Host Shift to Mulberry  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

Schuenzel, Erin L.; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E.; Stouthamer, Richard

2014-01-01

152

Protective enzyme activity and physiological properties of four mulberry varieties affected by drought stress in the Panxi Region of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the effects of drought stress on protective enzyme activity and physiological properties, four mulberry\\u000a varieties, i.e.,‘Nanye-1’, ‘Yunsang-1’, ‘Xinyizhilai’ and ‘Husang-32’ in the Panxi Region of Sichuan Province, China, were\\u000a selected. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in four mulberry varieties was determined.\\u000a Soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, net photosynthetic rate and

Ying-hong Ren

2009-01-01

153

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) attenuate atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) (Q3MG), on the development of atherosclerotic lesions, in relation to the susceptibility of plasma LDL to oxidative modification, was studied in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. Male mice aged 8 wk were randomly assigned to 4 groups (control, quercetin, Q3MG, and mulberry). The control group was fed an atherogenic-diet containing 3 g cholesterol and 15 g cocoa butter/100 g. The other experimental groups were fed the same atherogenic diet supplemented with 0.05 g quercetin/100 g for the quercetin group, 0.05 g Q3MG/100 g for the Q3MG group, and 3 g dried mulberry-leaf powder/100 g for the mulberry group. The mice were fed their respective diets for 8 wk. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification was significantly decreased in the Q3MG- and mulberry-treated mice, as evidenced by the 44.3 and 42.2% prolongation of the lag phase for conjugated diene formation compared with that of the control mice. The atherosclerotic lesion area in both the Q3MG- and mulberry-treated mice was significantly reduced by 52% compared with that of the controls. However, in the quercetin group, no protective effects were observed against LDL oxidation or atherosclerotic lesion formation. In conclusion, mulberry leaves attenuated the atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLR-/- mice through enhancement of LDL resistance to oxidative modification, and these antioxidative and antiatherogenic protective effects were attributed mainly to Q3MG, the quantitatively major flavonol glycoside in mulberry leaves. PMID:15795425

Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Katsube, Takuya; Kitajima, Keiko; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Yamane, Yosuke

2005-04-01

154

Transcriptional Profiling of Midgut Immunity Response and Degeneration in the Wandering Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Lepidoptera insects have a novel development process comprising several metamorphic stages during their life cycle compared with vertebrate animals. Unlike most Lepidoptera insects that live on nectar during the adult stage, the Bombyx mori silkworm adults do not eat anything and die after egg-laying. In addition, the midguts of Lepidoptera insects produce antimicrobial proteins during the wandering stage when the larval tissues undergo numerous changes. The exact mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear. Principal Findings We used the silkworm as a model and performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the midgut between the feeding stage and the wandering stage. Many genes concerned with metabolism, digestion, and ion and small molecule transportation were down-regulated during the wandering stage, indicating that the wandering stage midgut loses its normal functions. Microarray profiling, qRT-PCR and western blot proved the production of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) in the midgut during the wandering stage. Different genes of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway were up-regulated during the wandering stage. However, some key genes belonging to the Toll pathway showed no change in their transcription levels. Unlike butterfly (Pachliopta aristolochiae), the midgut of silkworm moth has a layer of cells, indicating that the development of midgut since the wandering stage is not usual. Cell division in the midgut was observed only for a short time during the wandering stage. However, there was extensive cell apoptosis before pupation. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis probably drives the continuous degeneration of the midgut in the silkworm since the wandering stage. Conclusions This study provided an insight into the mechanism of the degeneration of the silkworm midgut and the production of innate immunity-related proteins during the wandering stage. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis induces irreversible degeneration of the midgut. The Imd pathway probably regulates the production of antimicrobial peptides in the midgut during the wandering stage. PMID:22937093

Xiao, Guohua; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xuquan; Guan, Jingmin; Shao, Qimiao; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengshu; Ling, Erjun

2012-01-01

155

Cloning and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein in silkworm related to virus infection.  

PubMed

In this study, the full-length cDNA of a peptidoglycan recognition protein named BmPGRP-S3 was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It is 807bp and comprises the following: a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) with a length of 112bp, a 3'-UTR with a length of 92bp including a poly-adenylation signal sequence (AATAAA) and a poly(A) tail. The longest open reading frame (ORF) of BmPGRP-S3 is 603bp and encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 22.3kDa including a PGRP domain. Sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis results indicated that BmPGRP-S3 belongs to the group of insect PGRPs and is closer to BmPGRP-S4 with the highest identity of 68%. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the mRNA transcripts of BmPGRP-S3 were presented in all of the tissues, but were highest in the midgut. In the silkworm larvae infected with B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), the relative expression level of BmPGRP-S3 was upregulated. The DNA segment of a mature BmPGRP-S3 peptide was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. Western blot results revealed that mature BmPGRP-S3 could be detected in the hemolymph and midgut which were the most important immune tissues in silkworm. All the results suggested that BmPGRP-S3 may play an important role in the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection and provided helpful information for further studying the function of BmPGRP-S3 in silkworm. PMID:25218236

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

2014-11-15

156

In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

157

Simple, selective, and rapid quantification of 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaf products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) occurs in mulberry and other plants and is a highly potent glycosidase inhibitor reported to suppress blood glucose levels, thus preventing diabetes. Derivatization is required for quantification of DNJ upon use of spectral detection methods. Because of this difficulty, the DNJ contents of mulberry-based food products are rarely stated, even if DNJ is their active component. A simple, selective, and rapid method of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify DNJ in mulberry-based food products was developed. Stability testing of DNJ under heat treatment was also performed. A water extract of mulberry tea sample was subjected to HPAEC-PAD in a CarboPac MA1 column with a sodium hydroxide gradient. DNJ was clearly separated at a retention time of 7.26 min without interference and was selectively detected in the water extract. The detection limit was 5 ng. Heat stability studies suggested that DNJ was heat stable. HPAEC-PAD was not subject to interference, was highly selective for DNJ, and was superior to other high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques in terms of sample preparation, resolution, and sensitivity. The method allowed simple, selective, and rapid analysis of DNJ in food matrices and might be useful for development of mulberry-based food products. Heat treatment could be an option for sterilizing mulberry-based products. PMID:20492274

Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Do, Huong Thi Thu; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Boonbumrung, Sumitra; Yamaki, Kohji

2010-04-01

158

In vivo hypoglycaemic effect and inhibitory mechanism of the branch bark extract of the mulberry on STZ-induced diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

159

Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in the midgut of silkworm infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain an overall view on silkworm response to Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) infection, a microarray system comprising 22,987 oligonucluotide 70-mer probes was\\u000a employed to compare differentially expressed genes in the midguts of BmCPV-infected and normal silkworm larvae. At 72 h post-inoculation,\\u000a 258 genes exhibited at least 2.0-fold differences in expression level. Out of these, 135 genes

Ping Wu; Xiu Wang; Guang-xing Qin; Ting Liu; Yun-Feng Jiang; Mu-Wang Li; Xi-Jie Guo

2011-01-01

160

Purification and Molecular Cloning of an Inducible Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-kDa hemolymph protein, having strong affinity to the cell wall of Gram(-) bacteria, was purified from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding this Gram(-) bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) was isolated from an immunized silkworm fat body cDNA library and sequenced. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with known sequences revealed that GNBP contained a region

Won-Jae Lee; Jiing-Dwan Lee; Vladimir V. Kravchenko; Richard J. Ulevitch; Paul T. Brey

1996-01-01

161

Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori

Tomoko Motohashi; Tsukasa Shimojima; Tatsuo Fukagawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2005-01-01

162

Suitability of Dyes from Mulberry and Coffee Leaves on Silk Fabrics using Eco-Friendly Mordants  

E-print Network

Abstract- Natural dyes from leaves of mulberry and coffee was extracted by aqueous method and used for dyeing silk using different mordants. The selected eco-friendly mordants used include; iron water, ash water, cow dung and lemon juice. Silk yarn which was not bleached was knitter into small fabrics (8 x 10 cm). The knitted fabric pieces were degummed and bleached by soaking in ash water for 24 hours and heating in a solution containing hydrogen peroxide respectively. Sodium bi-carbonate was used as a catalyst, powder detergent and sodium silicate were used as stabilizing agents. Post-mordanting method was used during the dyeing of the pretreated silk fabrics. It is evident that natural dyes from the leaves of coffee and mulberry can effectively be used for dyeing silk fabrics. This is because good color shades were recorded which varied with the mordant used. More importantly the dyes registered suitable color fastness to washing, heat and light in the range of grades (3) to (4/5) for wash and heat fastness and grade of (4) and (5) for light fastness. The mordant that exhibited the best fastness characteristic is iron water with fastness grades of (4) to (4/5) for wash and heat fastness and grades of (4) and (5) for light fastness. The fastness property of ash water follows that of iron water in the range of (3/4) to (4) for wash and heat with light fastness in range of (4) to (5). Cow dung and lemon juice had inferior fastness property in the range of (3/4) and (3) however the light fastness recorded is between (4) and (5). Iron water and ash water also registered visibly more intense colors on silk fabrics therefore most mordants for dyeing of silk fabrics using these dyes. Index Terms- color fastness, eco-friendly, mordants, , postmordanting,. N

Loum Janani; Drajoru Winifred

163

Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination  

PubMed Central

In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4%) were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2%) were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4%) were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151) was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination. PMID:19564928

Li, Yu-Ping; Xia, Run-Xi; Wang, Huan; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2009-01-01

164

Purification of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) polyphenol oxidase by affinity chromatography and investigation of its kinetic and electrophoretic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit using a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on native and SDS–poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa. Optimum PPO activity as a function of pH and temperature was determined using

Oktay Arslan; Mahmut Erzengin; Selma Sinan; Ozen Ozensoy

2004-01-01

165

Prediction of the Physicochemical Properties of Spray-Dried Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra ) Juice using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict quality changes of spray-dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) powder. In this study, the effects of inlet-air temperature (110, 130, and 150 °C), compressed air flow rate (400, 600,\\u000a and 800 L\\/h), and concentration of different carrier types such as 6, 9, and 20 dextrose equivalent maltodextrins, and Arabic\\u000a gum (8, 12, and 16%),

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Zahra Emam-Djomeh; Mahmoud Omid; Ahmad Kalbasi-Ashtari

166

Worms and Trees: An Exciting Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines procedures for using silkworms in elementary science, mathematics, history, ecology, social studies, language arts, art, and physical education. Also focuses on the silkworm's use of the mulberry tree. (DDR)

El Harim, Jean Love

1997-01-01

167

Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs) on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT) in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-?-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR ? DNA binding in 50??g/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation. PMID:24371453

Chao, P.-Y.; Lin, K.-H.; Chiu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Huang, M.-Y.; Yang, C.-M.

2013-01-01

168

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lü, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-07-01

169

Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease.  

PubMed

The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants. PMID:24946736

Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

2014-01-01

170

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lu, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

171

Prothoracicotropic activity of SBRPs, the insulin-like peptides of the saturniid silkworm Samia cynthia ricini.  

PubMed

Synthesis and secretion of the insect molting hormone ecdysteroid in the prothoracic glands (PGs) are stimulated by the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted by the brain. Bombyxins, insulin-like peptides of the silkworm Bombyx mori, show prothoracicotropic activity when administered to the saturniid silkworm Samia cynthia ricini, but they are inactive to B. mori itself. Recently, the genes for the bombyxin homologs of S. cynthia ricini (referred to as Samia bombyxin-related peptides, SBRPs) were cloned. To examine the prothoracicotropic activity of SBRPs on S. cynthia ricini, we synthesized two representative molecules, SBRP-A1 and -B1. They promoted pupa-to-adult development with ED(50) of 50 and 10 ng/pupa (EC(50) of 5 and 1 nM), respectively. PMID:10600544

Nagata, K; Maruyama, K; Kojima, K; Yamamoto, M; Tanaka, M; Kataoka, H; Nagasawa, H; Isogai, A; Ishizaki, H; Suzuki, A

1999-12-20

172

Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

173

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

PubMed Central

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin families, were upregulated at 24 hours post the infection. PMID:19956592

Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

2009-01-01

174

Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: silkworm inheritance experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912.  

PubMed

Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia attracted the attention of Kellogg, who was concerned with how experimental biology would be used to study the causes of natural selection. He challenged Toyama's conclusions that Mendelism alone could explain the inheritance patterns of silkworm characters such as cocoon color because they had been subject to hundreds of years of artificial selection, or breeding. This examination of the intersection of Japanese sericulture and American entomology probes how practical differences in scientific interests, societal responsibilities, and silkworm materiality were negotiated throughout the processes of legitimating Mendelian genetics on opposite sides of the Pacific. The ways in which Toyama and Kellogg assigned importance to certain silkworm properties show how conflicting intellectual orientations arose in studies of the same organism. Contestation about Mendelism took place not just on a theoretical level, but the debate was fashioned through each scientist's rationale about the categorization of silkworm breeds and races and what counted as "natural". This further mediated the acceptability of the silkworm not as an experimental organism, but as an appropriately "natural" insect with which to demonstrate laws of inheritance. All these shed light on the challenges that came along with the use of agricultural animals to convincingly articulate new biological principles. PMID:20665229

Onaga, Lisa

2010-01-01

175

Temperature dependent sorbitol utilization in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether the interconversion of glycogen and sorbitol at the initiation and termination of diapause in eggs of the silkworm,Bombyx mori was influenced by low temperatures (5°C and 1°C). The conversion of glycogen to sorbitol and glycerol at the initiation of diapause was not affected by exposure to 5°C and 1°C. Chilling diapause

Toshiharu Furusawa; Masayoshi Shikata; Okitsugu Yamashita

1982-01-01

176

The Effect of Heterosis and Inheritance of Quantitative Traits in Silkworm Exposed to Electromagnetic Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heterosis was studied in several quantitative traits of clone breed and interbreed silkworm hybrids exposed to electromagnetic irradiation (? = 1.6 cm, power density 700 µW\\/cm2) during postdiapause embryonic development. The influence of the type of reproduction on the manifestation of irradiation effects in the next generation was also examined. In hybrids, the resistance to low-intensity high-frequency

Ye. A. Boyko; S. V. Sukhanov; V. G. Shakhbazov

2004-01-01

177

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-01-01

178

MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA

Shiping Liu; Liang Zhang; Qibin Li; Ping Zhao; Jun Duan; Daojun Cheng; Zhonghuai Xiang; Qingyou Xia

2009-01-01

179

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The major royal jelly proteins\\/yellow (MRJP\\/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP\\/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. RESULTS: Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database,

Ai-Hua Xia; Qing-Xiang Zhou; Lin-Lin Yu; Wei-Guo Li; Yong-Zhu Yi; Yao-Zhou Zhang; Zhi-Fang Zhang

2006-01-01

180

Silvernanotherapy on the viral borne disease of silkworm Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiviral assays of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were made against BmNPV (Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus). Reduction of silver ions by sodium citrate and Spirulina platensis led to the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles of 40–60 and 7–16 nm size. Single cell protein (Spirulina platensis)-synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the strongest antiviral activity. Immunological studies made on the silkworm Bombyx

K. Govindaraju; S. Tamilselvan; V. Kiruthiga; G. Singaravelu

181

Genetic characterization of the silkworm Bombyx mori by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen diverse strains of the silkworm Bombyx mori were analysed using the simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-anchored PCR) or Inter-SSR-PCR (ISSR-PCR). A set of four 5˘-anchored and two 3˘-anchored repeat primers amplified a total of 239 bands out of which 184 (77%) were polymorphic. The 5˘-anchored primers revealed more distinct polymorphic markers than the 3˘-anchored primers and

K. DAMODAR REDDY; J. NAGARAJU; E. G. ABRAHAM

1999-01-01

182

Detection of Peptidoglycan and Endotoxin in Dialysate, Using Silkworm Larvae Plasma and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) reagent is activated by peptidoglycan (PG), a fragment of both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell wall, as well as ?-glucan (BG), a component of fungi. It is possible to measure contamination of gram-positive bacteria quantitatively by combining the conventional limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and PG measurement methods. Therefore, a more highly accurate analysis of dialysate

K. Tsuchida; Y. Takemoto; S. Yamagami; H. Edney; M. Niwa; M. Tsuchiya; T. Kishimoto; S. Shaldon

1997-01-01

183

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

184

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) to Infection by the Microsporidian Nosema bombycis  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia have attracted much attention because they infect a variety of species ranging from protists to mammals, including immunocompromised patients with AIDS or cancer. Aside from the study on Nosema ceranae, few works have focused on elucidating the mechanism in host response to microsporidia infection. Nosema bombycis is a pathogen of silkworm pébrine that causes great economic losses to the silkworm industry. Detailed understanding of the host (Bombyx mori) response to infection by N. bombycis is helpful for prevention of this disease. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by N. bombycis was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, B. mori genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, N. bombycis can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. N. bombycis also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of N. bombycis-specific response factors suggested their important roles in anti-microsporidia defense. Overall, this study primarily provides insight into the potential molecular mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction between B. mori and N. bombycis and may provide a foundation for further work on host-parasite interaction between insects and microsporidia. PMID:24386341

Pan, Guoqing; Li, Zhihong; Han, Bing; Xu, Jinshan; Lan, Xiqian; Chen, Jie; Yang, Donglin; Chen, Quanmei; Sang, Qi; Ji, Xiaocun; Li, Tian; Long, Mengxian; Zhou, Zeyang

2013-01-01

185

Establishment of transgenic silkworms expressing GAL4 specifically in the haemocyte oenocytoid cells.  

PubMed

Insect haemocytes play significant roles in innate immunity. The silkworm, a lepidopteran species, is often selected as the model for studies into the functions of haemocytes in immunity; however, our understanding of the role of haemocytes remains limited because the lack of haemocyte promoters for transgene expression makes genetic manipulations difficult. In the present study, we aimed to establish transgenic silkworm strains expressing GAL4 in their haemocytes. First, we identified three genes with strong expression in haemocytes, namely, lp44, Haemocyte Protease 1 (HP1) and hemocytin. Transgenic silkworms expressing GAL4 under the control of the putative promoters of these genes were then established and expression was examined. Although GAL4 expression was not detected in haemocytes of HP1-GAL4 or hemocytin-GAL4 strains, lp44-GAL4 exhibited a high level of GAL4 expression, particularly in oenocytoids. GAL4 expression was also detected in the midgut but in no other tissues, indicating that GAL4 expression in this strain is mostly oenocytoid-specific. Thus, we have identified a promoter that enables oenocytoid expression of genes of interest. Additionally, the lp44-GAL4 strain could also be used for other types of research, such as the functional analysis of genes in oenocytoids, which would facilitate advances in our understanding of insect immunity. PMID:24237591

Tsubota, T; Uchino, K; Kamimura, M; Ishikawa, M; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K; Sezutsu, H

2014-04-01

186

Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

2008-04-01

187

Efficient silkworm expression of human GPCR (nociceptin receptor) by a Bombyx mori bacmid DNA system  

SciTech Connect

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (G{sub i}{alpha}) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [{sup 35}S]GTP{gamma}S-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.

Kajikawa, Mizuho; Sasaki, Kaori [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Wakimoto, Yoshitaro; Toyooka, Masaru [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Motohashi, Tomoko; Shimojima, Tsukasa [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan)] [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Takeda, Shigeki [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Maenaka, Katsumi, E-mail: kmaenaka-umin@umin.net [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

2009-07-31

188

Shotgun strategy-based proteome profiling analysis on the head of silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect head is comprised of important sensory systems to communicate with internal and external environment and endocrine organs such as brain and corpus allatum to regulate insect growth and development. To comprehensively understand how all these components act and interact within the head, it is necessary to investigate their molecular basis at protein level. Here, the spectra of peptides digested from silkworm larval heads were obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Totally, 539 proteins with a low false discovery rate (FDR) were identified by searching against an in-house database with SEQUEST and X!Tandem algorithms followed by trans-proteomic pipeline (TPP) validation. Forty-three proteins had the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) greater than 10 which were too difficult to separate by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Four chemosensory proteins, one odorant-binding protein, two diapause-related proteins, and a lot of cuticle proteins, interestingly including pupal cuticle proteins were identified. The proteins involved in nervous system development, stress response, apoptosis and so forth were related to the physiological status of head. Pathway analysis revealed that many proteins were highly homologous with the human proteins which involved in human neurodegenerative disease pathways, probably implying a symptom of the forthcoming metamorphosis of silkworm. These data and the analysis methods were expected to be of benefit to the proteomics research of silkworm and other insects. PMID:20198493

Li, Jianying; Hosseini Moghaddam, S Hossein; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Boxiong

2010-08-01

189

A single-base deletion in an ABC transporter gene causes white eyes, white eggs, and translucent larval skin in the silkworm w-3 oe mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The w-3oe silkworm mutant has white eyes and eggs due to the absence of ommochrome pigments in the eye pigment cells and serosa cells. The mutant is also characterized by translucent larval skin resulting from a deficiency in the transportation of uric acid, which acts as a white pigment in larval epidermal cells. A silkworm homolog of the fruitfly white

Natuo Kômoto; Guo-Xing Quan; Hideki Sezutsu; Toshiki Tamura

2009-01-01

190

Silkworm eggs: An ideal model for studying the biological effects of low energy Ar + ion interaction in animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of the current work was to study low energy Ar + ion beam interactions with silkworm eggs and thus provide further understanding of the mechanisms involved in ion bombardment-induced direct gene transfer into silkworm eggs. In this paper, using low-energy Ar + ion beam bombardment combined with piggyBac transposon, we developed a novel method to induce gene transfer in silkworm. Using bombardment conditions optimized for egg-incubation (25 keV with ion fluences of 800 × 2.6 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 in dry state under vacuum), vector pBac{3 × P3-EGFPaf} and helper plasmid pHA3pig were successfully transferred into the silkworm eggs. Our results obtained from by PCR assay and genomic Southern blotting analysis of the G1 generations provide evidence that low-energy ion beam can generate some craters that play a role in acting as pathways of exogenous DNA molecules into silkworm eggs.

Ling, Lin; Liu, Xuelan; Xu, Jiaping; You, Zhengying; Zhou, Jingbo

2011-09-01

191

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: Process Optimization and Composition Determination  

PubMed Central

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO2. Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and ?-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively. PMID:22408458

Pan, Wen-Juan; Liao, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Zeng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2012-01-01

192

Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.  

PubMed

Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 ?g g(-1)) than any other MT chars. PMID:23567680

Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

2013-05-01

193

Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45?M ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

Nati?, Maja M; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Papetti, Adele; Fotiri? Akši?, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojevi?, Mirjana; Teši?, Zivoslav Lj

2015-03-15

194

Two chitinase-like proteins abundantly accumulated in latex of mulberry show insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant latex is the cytoplasm of highly specialized cells known as laticifers, and is thought to have a critical role in defense against herbivorous insects. Proteins abundantly accumulated in latex might therefore be involved in the defense system. Results We purified latex abundant protein a and b (LA-a and LA-b) from mulberry (Morus sp.) and analyzed their properties. LA-a and LA-b have molecular masses of approximately 50 and 46 kDa, respectively, and are abundant in the soluble fraction of latex. Western blotting analysis suggested that they share sequence similarity with each other. The sequences of LA-a and LA-b, as determined by Edman degradation, showed chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases at the N termini. These proteins showed small but significant chitinase and chitosanase activities. Lectin RCA120 indicated that, unlike common plant chitinases, LA-a and LA-b are glycosylated. LA-a and LA-b showed insecticidal activities when fed to larvae of the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two LA proteins have a crucial role in defense against herbivorous insects, possibly by hydrolyzing their chitin. PMID:20109180

2010-01-01

195

Antioxidant responses to enhanced generation of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in the copper-stressed mulberry plants.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of Cu-deficiency or Cu-excess in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva 2 plants. A study of antioxidative responses, indicators of oxidative damage and cellular redox environment in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess mulberry plants was undertaken. While the young leaves of plants supplied with nil Cu showed chlorosis and necrotic scorching of laminae, the older and middle leaves of plants supplied with nil or 0.1 microM Cu showed purplish-brown pigmented interveinal areas that later turned necrotic along the apices and margins of leaves. The Cu-excess plants showed accelerated senescence of the older leaves. The Cu-deficient plants showed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was strikingly intense in the middle portion of trichomes on Cu-deficient leaves. Though the concentration of total ascorbate increased with the increasing supply of Cu, the ratio of the redox couple (DHA/ascorbic acid) increased in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) increased in both Cu-deficient and Cu-excess plants. The results suggest that deficiency of Cu aggravates oxidative stress through enhanced generation of ROS and disturbed redox couple. Excess of Cu damaged roots, accelerated the rate of senescence in the older leaves, induced antioxidant responses and disturbed the cellular redox environment in the young leaves of mulberry plants. PMID:16292566

Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Parma Nand

2006-05-01

196

Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity. PMID:24000381

Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

2013-10-01

197

The expression profile and promoter analysis of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) is a key enzyme in the chitin decomposition process. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profile of GlcNAcases and the regulation mechanism for one of these genes, BmGlcNAcase1, in the silkworm. We performed sequence analysis of GlcNAcase. Using dual-spike-in qPCR method, we examined the expression of Bombyx ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases (BmGlcNAcases) in various tissues of silkworm as well as expression changes after stimulation with ecdysone. Using Bac-to-Bac system and luciferase reporter vectors, we further analyzed the promoter sequence of BmGlcNAcase1. The results showed that these proteins have a highly conserved catalytic domain. The expression levels of the BmGlcNAcase genes varied in different tissues, and were increased 48 h after exposure to ecdysone. BmGlcNAcase1 gene promoter with 5'-end serial deletions showed different levels of activity in various tissues, higher in the blood, skin and fat body. Deletion of the region from -347 to -223 upstream of BmGlcNAcase-1 gene abolished its promoter activity. This region contains the binding sites for key transcription factors including Hb, BR-C Z, the HSF and the typical TATA-box element. These results indicate that BmGlcNAcases are expressed at different levels in different tissues of the silkworm, but all are subjected to the regulation by ecdysone. BmGlcNAcase1 promoter analysis has paved a foundation for further study of the gene expression patterns. PMID:25001591

Zhai, Yuan-Fen; Huang, Ming-Xia; Wu, Yu; Zhao, Guo-Dong; Du, Jie; Li, Bing; Shen, Wei-de; Wei, Zheng-Guo

2014-10-01

198

Identification and Partial Characterization of Midgut Proteases in the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

Proteolytic activities in digestive system extracts from the larval midgut of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were analyzed using different specific peptide substrates and proteinase inhibitors. High proteolytic activities were found at pH 10.0 and a temperature of 50° C using azocasein as substrate. The trypsin was active in the pH range of 9.5– 12.0, with its maximum activity at pH 11.5. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid had the most inhibitory effect, and 44% inhibition was detected in the presence of this inhibitor. Phenyl methane sulfonyl floride and N-tosyl-L-phe chloromethyl ketone also showed considerable inhibition of larval azocaseinolytic activity, with 40.2 and 35.1% inhibition respectively. These data suggest that the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases and serine proteases, mainly chymotrypsin. The effect of several metal ions on the activity of proteases showed that NaCl, CaCl2, CoCl2 (5 and 10 mM), and MnCl2 (5mM) reduced the protease activity. The kinetic parameters of trypsin-like proteases using N-benzoyl-L-arg-p-nitroanilide as substrate indicated that the Km and Vmax values of trypsin in the alimentary canal were 50.5 ± 2.0 µM and 116.06 ± 1.96 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. Inhibition assays showed only small amounts of cysteine proteases were present in the G. pyloalis digestive system. The midgut digestive protease system of G. pyloalis is as diverse as that of any of the other polyphagous lepidopteran insect species, and the midgut of larvae contains mainly metalloproteases. Moreover, serine proteases and chymotrypsin also play main roles in protein digestion. Characterization of the proteolytic properties of the digestive enzymes of G. pyloalis offers an opportunity for developing appropriate and effective pest management strategies via metalloproteases and chymotrypsin inhibitors. PMID:24228902

Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H.; Sharifi, Mahbobeh; Kouchaki, Behrooz

2013-01-01

199

Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.  

PubMed

Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P < 0.05) but also yielded the highest amount (1.4 m3 ton-1 pile) of wastewater elimination during the first 2 months of composting. It was found that the constant rates of degradation were 0.006 day- 1 (Pile A) and 0.003 day-1 (Pile B), and no pronounced statistically significant difference in N losses was found (P > 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market. PMID:24956805

Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

2014-08-01

200

HPLC-MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.  

PubMed

Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC-MS(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450-568 mgkg(-1) FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mgkg(-1) FW of total: chokeberry (267mgkg(-1)), eastern shadbush (261 mgkg(-1)), wild grown blackberry (260 mgkg(-1)), rowanberry (232 mgkg(-1)), american cranberry (213 mgkg(-1)) and blackcurrants (204 mgkg(-1)). Strawberry (10.5 mgkg(-1)) and white currants (4.5 mgkg(-1)) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46-100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50-62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49-66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and Vaccinium genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one. PMID:22980782

Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

2012-12-15

201

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

202

Morphological and physiological properties of pheromone-triggered flipflopping descending interneurons of the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The morphology of descending interneurons (DNs) which have arborizations in the lateral accessory lobe (LAL) of the protocerebrum, the higher order olfactory center, and have an axon in the ventral nerve cord (VNC), were characterized in the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori.2.Two clusters (group I, group II) of DNs which have arborizations mainly in the LALs were morphologically characterized. The

R. Kanzaki; A. Ikeda; T. Shibuya

1994-01-01

203

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “ż?brain hormone”

CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

204

Genetic variants of protease inhibitors against fungal protease and ?-chymotrypsin from hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many electrophoretic variants of hemolymph inhibitors of proteases from Aspergillus mellus and pancreatic ?-chymotrypsin were found using 126 silkworm strains. Six inhibitors of the fungal protease were detected and eight of chymotryspin; the distribution of inhibitors among Japanese, Chinese, and European races was investigated. Comparison of electrophoretic patterns from F1 hybrids and parents showed that the offspring produce inhibitors of

M. Eguchi; K. Ueda; M. Yamashita

1984-01-01

205

Separation and identification of anthocyanin extracted from mulberry fruit and the pigment binding properties toward human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Purple pigments were isolated from mulberry extracts using preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and identified by ESI-MS/MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The solvent system containing methyl tert-butyl ether, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, water, and trifluoroacetic acid (10:30:10:50:0.05; %, v/v) was developed in order to separate anthocyanins with different polarities. Cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-galactopyranoside) (also known as keracyanin) is the major component present in mulberry (41.3%). Other isolated pigments are cyanidin 3-O-(6?-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) and petunidin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside. The binding characteristics of keracyanin with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that HSA fluorescence quenched by keracyanin follows a static mode. Binding of keracyanin to HSA mainly depends on van der Waals force or H-bonds with average binding distance of 2.82 nm. The results from synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD spectra show that adaptive structure rearrangement and decrease of ?-helical structure occur in the presence of keracyanin. PMID:24930424

Sheng, Feng; Wang, Yuning; Zhao, Xingchen; Tian, Na; Hu, Huali; Li, Pengxia

2014-07-16

206

Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) for control of broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in mulberry.  

PubMed

A study on 12 entomopathogenic fungi for controlling broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)) in mulberry found that Metarhizium anisopliae CKM-048 was the most virulent strain in controlling both larvae and adult broad mites at the concentration of 2 x 10(8) conidia/ml. There was no ovicidal effect when tested with broad mite eggs. Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of M. anisopliae in killing larvae and adults were 8.7 x 10(6) and 1.3 x 10(7 )conidia/ml, respectively. Median lethal times (LT(50)) of larvae and adults were 2.4 and 3.8 days, respectively, at the concentration of 2 x 10(8) conidia/ml. The fungus was found to produce protease and chitinase. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies were done to monitor the infection steps of the fungus on broad mites. A greenhouse test on mulberry trees revealed that M. anisopliae could reduce the broad mite population within 4 days after treatment. However, after 7 days, its efficacy was decreased significantly. PMID:18483792

Maketon, Monchan; Orosz-Coghlan, Patricia; Sinprasert, Jittranon

2008-12-01

207

Resistance of transgenic silkworm to BmNPV could be improved by silencing ie-1 and lef-1 genes.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated viral inhibition has been used in several organisms for improving viral resistance. In the present study, we reported the use of transgenic RNAi in preventing Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) multiplication in the transgenic silkworm B. mori. We targeted the BmNPV immediate-early-1 (ie-1) and late expression factor-1 (lef-1) genes in the transiently transfected BmN cells, in the stable transformed BmN cell line and in the transgenic silkworms. We generated four piggyBac-based vectors containing short double-stranded ie-1 RNA (sdsie-1), short double-stranded lef-1 RNA (sdslef-1), long double-stranded ie-1 RNA (ldsie-1) and both sdsie-1 and sdslef-1 (sds-ie1-lef1) expression cassettes. Strong viral repression was observed in the transiently transfected cells and in the stable transformed BmN cells transfected with sds-ie-1, sdslef-1, ldsie-1 or sds-ie-lef. The decrease of ie-1 mRNA level in the sds-ie1-lef1 transiently transfected cells was most obvious among the cells transfected with different vectors. The inhibitory effect of viral multiplication was decreased in a viral dose-dependent manner; the infection ratio of transfected cells for sds-ie-1, sdslef-1, ldsie-1 and sds-ie-lef decreased by 18.83%, 13.73%, 6.93% and 30.63%, respectively, compared with control cells 5 days after infection. We generated transgenic silkworms using transgenic vector piggyantiIE-lef1-neo with sds-ie1-lef1 expression cassette; the fourth instar larvae of transgenic silkworms of generation G5 exhibited stronger resistance to BmNPV, the mortalities for the transgenic silkworms and control silkworms were 60% and 100%, respectively, at 11 days after inoculation with BmNPV (10(6) occlusion bodies per ml). These results suggest that double-stranded RNA expression of essential genes of BmNPV is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity. PMID:24173242

Zhang, P; Wang, J; Lu, Y; Hu, Y; Xue, R; Cao, G; Gong, C

2014-01-01

208

Characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin family genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori in response to phoxim and chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

The organophosphorus pesticide poisoning of the silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the major events causing serious damage to sericulture. Some antioxidant enzymes play roles in regulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pesticides including phoxim and chlorpyrifos, but relatively little is known about their effects on the silkworm peroxiredoxin family genes. Here, five peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes have been identified in silkworm genome, and Prx genes of silkworm and mammalian homologs have apparent ortholog relationship. Based on the genomic DNA sequence, putative 5'-flanking region of five BmPrxs were obtained and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Their expression profiles exposed to different concentrations of phoxim and chlorpyrifos for 24h, 48h and 72h in midgut of silkworm were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that five BmPrxs and dual oxidase (BmDUOX) gene were all expressed in midgut of silkworm. After feeding with 0.375mg/L and 0.75mg/L phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h). However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72h). Similar to expose to phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h) under chlorpyrifos stress. However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72h) under chlorpyrifos stress. These results revealed that BmPrxs that can be located in mitochondria were able to protect cells even more efficiently than cytosolic from an oxidative stress caused by OP. In addition, BmDUOX was also induced by phomix and chlorpyrifos. Overall, our results indicate that a complex expression regulation of Prxs that play important roles in maintaining redox equilibrium state of silkworm to reduce oxidative damage caused by pesticide. PMID:25175646

Shi, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Ze; Jia, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Kun; An, Dong-Xu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Bao-Long; Yin, He-Nan

2014-09-01

209

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development. PMID:16884544

Xia, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Qing-Xiang; Yu, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Guo; Yi, Yong-Zhu; Zhang, Yao-Zhou; Zhang, Zhi-Fang

2006-01-01

210

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

211

Existence of Prophenoloxidase in Wing Discs: A Source of Plasma Prophenoloxidase in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In insects, hemocytes are considered as the only source of plasma prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO also exists in the hemocytes of the hematopoietic organ that is connected to the wing disc of Bombyx mori. It is unknown whether there are other cells or tissues that can produce PPO and release it into the hemolymph besides circulating hemocytes. In this study, we use the silkworm as a model to explore this possibility. Through tissue staining and biochemical assays, we found that wing discs contain PPO that can be released into the culture medium in vitro. An in situ assay showed that some cells in the cavity of wing discs have PPO1 and PPO2 mRNA. We conclude that the hematopoietic organ may wrongly release hemocytes into wing discs since they are connected through many tubes as repost in previous paper. In wing discs, the infiltrating hemocytes produce and release PPO probably through cell lysis and the PPO is later transported into hemolymph. Therefore, this might be another source of plasma PPO in the silkworm: some infiltrated hemocytes sourced from the hematopoietic organ release PPO via wing discs. PMID:22848488

Diao, Yupu; Lu, Anrui; Yang, Bing; Hu, Wenli; Peng, Qing; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Soderhall, Kenneth; Ling, Erjun

2012-01-01

212

Estimation of amino acids, urea and uric acid in tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury.  

PubMed

The tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury, Andhra local ecorace is an exclusive race of Andhra Pradesh. It is on the verge of extinction due to difficulty of acclimatisation at breeding and rearing stages. As an attempt to protect this race, a method of total indoor rearing has been done. In this context, the estimation of free amino acids, excretory products- urea and uric acid were compared during the fourth and fifth instars of tasar silkworm, reared under outdoor and indoor conditions. The study has revealed that amino acids decreased in the fat body in outdoor and indoor reared larvae in contrast to that in the haemolymph where it has gradually increased from first to third crops. This is an important finding as it reveals that indoor worms seem to adopt proteolytic activity in the haemolymph. Secondly, in the fifth instar the excretory products are more compared to fourth instar in the indoor reared worms. During fifth instar, formation of nitrogenous products lessens as silk synthesis enhances. The present study reveals that decrease in uric acid in fifth instar implies increase in growth rate and silk synthesis in both outdoor and indoor worms. The findings of the present investigation is helpful in the conservation and protection of the A. mylitta, Andhra local ecorace. PMID:19297987

Shamitha, G; Rao, A Purushotham

2008-11-01

213

Digital gene expression analysis in the midgut of 4008 silkworm strain infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.  

PubMed

Digital Gene Expression was performed to investigate the midgut transcriptome profile of 4008 silkworm strain orally infected with BmCPV. A total of 4,498,263 and 4,258,240 clean tags were obtained from the control and BmCPV-infected larvae. A total of 752 differentially expressed genes were detected, of which 649 were upregulated and 103 were downregulated. Analysis results of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway showed that 334 genes were involved in the ribosome and RNA transport pathways. Moreover, 408 of the 752 differentially expressed genes have a GO category and can be categorized into 41 functional groups according to molecular function, cellular component and biological process. Differentially expressed genes involved in signaling, gene expression, metabolic process, cell death, binding, and catalytic activity changes were detected in the expression profiles. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression of these genes. The upregulated expression levels of Calreticulin, FK506-binding protein, and protein kinase c inhibitor gene probably led to a calcium-dependent apoptosis in the BmCPV-infected cells. The results of this study may serve as a basis for future research not only on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion but also on the anti-BmCPV mechanism of silkworm. PMID:24211674

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Qian, He-ying; Qin, Guangxing; Guo, Xi-jie

2014-01-01

214

A novel peptide inhibitor of platelet aggregation from stiff silkworm, Bombyx batryticatus.  

PubMed

A novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide, named BB octapeptide, was isolated from stiff silkworm (Bombyx batryticatus) by gel filtration, anion-exchange, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was determined to be 885 Da using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the sequence was identified as Asp-Pro-Asp-Ala-Asp-IIe-Leu-Gln using the Edman degradation method. To test its biological activity, the peptide was chemically synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase synthesis method. BB octapeptide inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation that was induced by collagen and epinephrine, with the IC50 values of 91.14 ?M and 104.50 ?M, respectively. After intravenous administrated in mice (30 mg/kg, 4 days), BB octapeptide showed similar ex vivo efficacy of inhibiting platelet aggregation as aspirin (10 mg/kg). In addition, this peptide prevented paralysis and death in pulmonary thromboembolism model and significantly reduced ferric chloride-induced thrombus formation in rats. Moreover, it exhibited low cytotoxicity in a cellular model. In conclusion, this is the first report that a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide was isolated from stiff silkworm (B. batryticatus). Due to the excellent efficacy in reducing platelet aggregation and low toxicity, it can be a valuable lead compound for new drug design and development. PMID:24361453

Kong, Yi; Xu, Cheng; He, Zhi-Long; Zhou, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Ming, Xin

2014-03-01

215

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

216

Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84% of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms. PMID:24719047

Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

2014-08-01

217

Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis. PMID:24508345

Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2014-04-01

218

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes. PMID:22476473

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

219

Partial biochemical characterization of alpha- and beta-glucosidases of lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lep.: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis, is an important pest of mulberry. This pest feeds on mulberry leaves, and causes some problems for the silk industries in the north of Iran. The study of digestive enzymes is highly imperative to identify and apply new pest management technologies. Glucosidases have an important role in the final stages of carbohydrate digestion. Some enzymatic properties of alpha- and beta-glucosidases from midgut and salivary glands of G. pyloalis larvae were determined. The activities of alpha- and beta-glucosidase in the midgut and salivary glands of 5th instar larvae were obtained as 0.195, 1.07, 0.194 and 0.072 micromol(-1) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. Activity of alpha- and beta-glucosidase from whole body of larval stages was also determined. Data showed that the highest activity of alpha- and beta-glucosidase was observed in the 5th larval stage, 0.168 and 0.645 micromol(-1) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively and the lowest activity in the 2nd larval stage, 0.042 and 0.164 micromol(-1) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. Results showed that the optimal pH for alpha- and beta-glucosidase activity in midgut and salivary glands were 7.5, 5.5, 8-9 and 8-9 respectively. Also, the optimal temperature for alpha- and beta-glucosidase activity in the midgut was obtained as 45 degrees C. The addition of CaCl(2) (40 mM) decreased midgut beta-glucosidase activity whereas alpha-glucosidase activity was significantly increased at this concentration. The alpha-glucosidase activity, in contrast to beta-glucosidase, was enhanced with increasing in concentration of EDTA. Urea (4 mM) and SDS (8 mM) significantly decreased digestive beta-glucosidase activity. Characterization studies of insect glucosidases are not only of interest for comparative investigations, but also understanding of their function is essential when developing methods of insect control such as the use of enzyme inhibitors and transgenic plants to control insect pest. PMID:20338537

Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Sharifi, Mahbobe

2010-03-01

220

Study of protein conformation and orientation in silkworm and spider silk fibers using Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

Raman microspectroscopy has been used for the first time to determine quantitatively the orientation of the beta-sheets in silk monofilaments from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini silkworms, and from the spider Nephila edulis. It is shown that, for systems with uniaxial symmetry such as silk, it is possible to determine the order parameters P2 and P4 of the orientation distribution function from intensity ratios of polarized Raman spectra. The equations allowing the calculation of P2 and P4 using polarized Raman microspectroscopy for a vibration with a cylindrical Raman tensor were first derived and then applied to the amide I band that is mostly due to the C=O stretching vibration of the peptide groups. The shape of the Raman tensor for the amide I vibration of the beta-sheets was determined from an isotropic film of Bombyx mori silk treated with methanol. For both the Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini fibroin fibers, the values of P2 and P4 obtained are equal to -0.36 +/- 0.03 and 0.19 +/- 0.02, respectively, even though the two types of silkworm fibroins strongly differ in their primary sequences. For the Nephila edulis dragline silk, values of P2 and P4 of -0.32 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.02 were obtained, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the carbonyl groups are highly oriented perpendicular to the fiber axis and that the beta-sheets are oriented parallel to the fiber axis, in agreement with previous X-ray and NMR results. The most probable distribution of orientation was also calculated from the values of P2 and P4 using the information entropy theory. For the three types of silk, the beta-sheets are highly oriented parallel to the fiber axis. The orientation distributions of the beta-sheets are nearly Gaussian functions with a width of 32 degrees and 40 degrees for the silkworm fibroins and the spider dragline silk, respectively. In addition to these results, the comparison of the Raman spectra recorded for the different silk samples and the polarization dependence of several bands has allowed to clarify some important band assignments. PMID:15530039

Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Lefčvre, Thierry; Beaulieu, Lilyane; Asakura, Tetsuo; Pézolet, Michel

2004-01-01

221

Whales In The Wild  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recurring topic in the media is declining whale populations, now thought to be increasingly caused by increased contamination of the oceans. This resource addresses declines in wild whale populations. From the World Wildlife Fund this is a report on the status of wild whales with emphasis on threats from whaling, fisheries (by-catch), and chemical pollution (DDT and PCBs).

Kemf, Elizabeth.; Phillips, Cassandra.

222

Project Wild (Project Tame).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project Wild may…

Siegenthaler, David

223

Pestiviruses in wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species,

Š. Vil?ek; P. F. Nettleton

2006-01-01

224

Catalytic function of an ?-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is involved in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. A silkworm GST, belonging to a previously reported Epsilon-class GST family, was identified, named bmGSTE, cloned, and produced in Escherichia coli. Investigation of this enzyme's properties showed that it was able to catalyse glutathione (GSH) with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ethacrynic acid, and also that it possessed GSH-dependent peroxidase activity. The enzyme's highly conserved amino acid residues, including Ser11, His53, Val55, Ser68 and Arg112, were of interest regarding their possible involvement in its catalytic activity. These residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent kinetic analysis of bmGSTE mutants indicated that His53, Val55, and Ser68 were important for enzyme function. PMID:23803169

Yamamoto, K; Aso, Y; Yamada, N

2013-10-01

225

Starvation-responsive glycine-rich protein gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Four glycine-rich protein (GRP) genes were identified from expressed sequence tags of the maxillary galea of the silkworm. All four genes were expressed in the maxillary pulp, antenna, labrum, and labium, but none of the genes were expressed in most internal organs. Expression of one of the genes, termed bmSIGRP, was further increased approximately fivefold in the mouth region (including the maxilla, antenna, labrum, labium, and mandible) after 24 h of starvation. bmSIGRP expression peaked at 24 h and gradually declined during the subsequent 2 days. When a synthetic diet not containing proteins was fed, bmSIGRP expression increased significantly in the mouth region to levels similar to that observed in starved larvae. Synthetic diets that lacked vitamins or salts but contained amino acids did not significantly affect bmSIGRP expression. These results suggest that amino acid depletion increases bmSIGRP expression. PMID:25095972

Taniai, Kiyoko; Hirayama, Chikara; Mita, Kazuei; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2014-10-01

226

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Yu, Qi; Li, Xiao-Tong; Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

227

Embryonic thermosensitive TRPA1 determines transgenerational diapause phenotype of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the bivoltine strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic diapause is induced transgenerationally as a maternal effect. Progeny diapause is determined by the environmental temperature during embryonic development of the mother; however, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Bombyx TRPA1 ortholog (BmTrpA1) acts as a thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that is activated at temperatures above ? 21 °C and affects the induction of diapause in progeny. In addition, we show that embryonic RNAi of BmTrpA1 affects diapause hormone release during pupal-adult development. This study identifying a thermosensitive TRP channel that acts as a molecular switch for a relatively long-term predictive adaptive response by inducing an alternative phenotype to seasonal polyphenism is unique. PMID:24639527

Sato, Azusa; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kashio, Makiko; Yasukochi, Yuji; Tominaga, Makoto; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2014-04-01

228

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

229

Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from pakistan.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

230

Transcription of a silkworm tRNA(cAla) gene is directed by two AT-rich upstream sequence elements.  

PubMed Central

A region within 35 nucleotides upstream of the transcription initiation site of a variety of silkworm Class III templates is absolutely required for transcription in vitro. To determine whether the activity of this region can be attributed to a particular sequence element, we systematically replaced 4-5 bp segments of the region upstream of a silkworm tRNA(cAla) gene. We show that replacement of either of two AT-rich blocks markedly impairs promoter function, whereas replacement of other sequences has little or no effect. Additional mutants were constructed to test whether base composition or sequence is important for function of the AT blocks. We find that some sequences are more effective than others, but that various AT-rich sequences can direct transcription at a high level. Possible mechanisms by which such elements could act are discussed. Images PMID:8290347

Palida, F A; Hale, C; Sprague, K U

1993-01-01

231

ARTICLES: Synthesis of Biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2 Nanostructures by Silkworm Silk Template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and green technique has been developed to prepare hierarchical biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2, using silkworm silk as the template. Different from traditional immersion technics, the whole synthesis process depends more on the restriction or direction functions of the silkworm silk template. The analytic results showed that ZrO2-CeO2 exhibited a well-crystallized hierarchically interwoven hollow fiber structure with 16-28 ?m in diameter. The grain size of the sample calcined at 800 °C was about 14 nm. Consequently, the interwoven meshwork at three dimensions is formed due to the direction of biotemplate. The action mechanism is summarily discussed here. It may bring the biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2 nanomaterials with hierarchical interwoven structures to more applications, such as catalysts.

Zhang, Zong-jian; Li, Jia; Sun, Fu-sheng; Dickon, H. L. Ng; Luen Kwong, Fung

2010-06-01

232

Developmental time and fecundity of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), on potato, kiwi and mulberry hosts in Iran.  

PubMed

The white peach scale (WPS), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is a world wide polyphagous scale insect. It is widely distributed in north of Iran, near the Caspian Sea areas, where it is the main pest of mulberry and kiwi trees. The development and fecundity of P. pentagona were examined at different temperatures and on different hosts in the laboratory. The longevity of WPS decreased with a rise in temperature. At 25 degrees C the largest number of crawlers (76.1 crawlers/female) was observed. The development time of WPS was generally longer on kiwi than mulberry or potato; fecundity was higher on potato than on other hosts, potato tubers and kiwi trees. PMID:19090130

Abbasipour, Habib

2007-09-15

233

Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics. PMID:20102198

Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

2010-02-24

234

Effect of RH2485 on development, metamorphosis and synthesis of major proteins in female silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological data on silkworm Bombyx mori are quite comparable to those of other lepidopteran pest insects, therefore, it is considered as a suitable model for exploring\\u000a effects of any new synthetic formulations. In this study, female V instar larvae of silk moth B. mori were chosen to evaluate the lethal and sublethal toxicity effects of RH-2485 (methoxyfenozide), a non-steroidal ecdysteroid

Ayyamperumal Rajathi; Jeyaraj Pandiarajan; Muthukalingan Krishnan

2010-01-01

235

Molecular Characterization, Tissue Distribution, Subcellular Localization and Actin-Sequestering Function of a Thymosin Protein from Silkworm  

PubMed Central

We identified a novel gene encoding a Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY) protein from a cDNA library of silkworm pupae, which has an open reading frame (ORF) of 399 bp encoding 132 amino acids. It was found by bioinformatics that BmTHY gene consisted of three exons and two introns and BmTHY was highly homologous to thymosin betas (T?). BmTHY has a conserved motif LKHTET with only one amino acid difference from LKKTET, which is involved in T? binding to actin. A His-tagged BmTHY fusion protein (rBmTHY) with a molecular weight of approximately 18.4 kDa was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The purified fusion protein was used to produce anti-rBmTHY polyclonal antibodies in a New Zealand rabbit. Subcellular localization revealed that BmTHY can be found in both Bm5 cell (a silkworm ovary cell line) nucleus and cytoplasm but is primarily located in the nucleus. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR showed that during silkworm developmental stages, BmTHY expression levels are highest in moth, followed by instar larvae, and are lowest in pupa and egg. BmTHY mRNA was universally distributed in most of fifth-instar larvae tissues (except testis). However, BmTHY was expressed in the head, ovary and epidermis during the larvae stage. BmTHY formed complexes with actin monomer, inhibited actin polymerization and cross-linked to actin. All the results indicated BmTHY might be an actin-sequestering protein and participate in silkworm development. PMID:22383992

Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Changrong; Lv, Zhengbing; Fang, Dailing; Wang, Dan; Nie, Zuoming; Yu, Wei; Lan, Hanglian; Jiang, Caiying; Zhang, Yaozhou

2012-01-01

236

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac

Toshiki Tamura; Chantal Thibert; Corinne Royer; Toshio Kanda; Abraham Eappen; Mari Kamba; Natuo Kômoto; Jean-Luc Thomas; Bernard Mauchamp; Gérard Chavancy; Paul Shirk; Malcolm Fraser; Jean-Claude Prudhomme; Pierre Couble

2000-01-01

237

Bmmarl: a basal lineage of the mariner family of transposable elements in the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a transposable element, called Bmmarl, from the genome of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori. This element has features of the Tcl-mariner superfamily of transposable elements. Bmmarl was first detected as a fragment in the 5? region of the larval serum protein (BmLSP) gene. Six genomic clones characterized each differed from a consensus sequence by 3–5 insertions and deletions,

Hugh M. Robertson; Michele L. Asplund

1996-01-01

238

A Dense Genetic Map of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Covering All Chromosomes Based on 1018 Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori, containing 1018 genetic markers on all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Most of the markers, covering z2000 cM, were randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs amplified with primer-pairs in combinations of 140 commercially available decanucleotides. In addition, eight known genes and five visible mutations were mapped. Bombyx homo- logues of

Yuji Yasukochi

239

Pheromone-triggered flip-flopping interneurons in the ventral nerve cord of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A group of extracellularly recorded descending interneurons in the ventral nerve cord of the male silkworm mothBombyx mori share a common flip-flopping input. In response to repeated stimuli these flip-flopping interneurons switch back and forth between long lasting high and low firing rates (Figs. 1, 2).2.Changes in the level of the female pheromone bombykol in an airstream directed at the

Robert M. Olberg

1983-01-01

240

Bombyxin, an Insulin-Related Peptide of Insects, Reduces the Major Storage Carbohydrates in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an insect insulin-related peptide, bombyxin, on carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Bombyxin lowered the concentration of the major hemolymph sugar, trehalose, in a dose-dependent manner when injected into neck-ligated larvae. Bombyxin also caused elevated trehalase activity in the midgut and muscle, suggesting that bombyxin induces hypotrehalosemia by promoting the hydrolysis of hemolymph trehalose

Shin'Ichiro Satake; Makoto Masumura; Hironori Ishizaki; Koji Nagata; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi

1997-01-01

241

VOLUME 49 2009 Scientific papers  

E-print Network

of PCR anchored ISSR markers with yield traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. MALIK FAROOQ, H.P. PUTTARAJU & S.N. CHATERJEE Development of polyvoltine breeds of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L proteins from the silkworm, Bombyx mori KOHJI YAMAMOTO, PINGBO ZHANG, YUTAKA BANNO & H. FUJII The mouthpart

Singh, Amit

242

Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori exhibits posttranslational biotinylation and phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Biotin-dependent human acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are integral in homeostatic lipid metabolism. By securing posttranslational biotinylation, ACCs perform coordinated catalytic functions allosterically regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and citrate. The production of authentic recombinant ACCs is heeded to provide a reliable tool for molecular studies and drug discovery. Here, we examined whether the human ACC2 (hACC2), an isoform of ACC produced using the silkworm BmNPV bacmid system, is equipped with proper posttranslational modifications to carry out catalytic functions as the silkworm harbors an inherent posttranslational modification machinery. Purified hACC2 possessed genuine biotinylation capacity probed by biotin-specific streptavidin and biotin antibodies. In addition, phosphorylated hACC2 displayed limited catalytic activity whereas dephosphorylated hACC2 revealed an enhanced enzymatic activity. Moreover, hACC2 polymerization, analyzed by native page gel analysis and atomic force microscopy imaging, was allosterically regulated by citrate and the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation modulated citrate-induced hACC2 polymerization process. Thus, the silkworm BmNPV bacmid system provides a reliable eukaryotic protein production platform for structural and functional analysis and therapeutic drug discovery applications implementing suitable posttranslational biotinylation and phosphorylation. PMID:24740690

Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Park, Enoch Y

2014-10-01

243

Expression and purification of cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) using silkworm larvae targeting for an antimicrobial therapeutic agent.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), both synthetic and from natural sources, have raised interest recently as potential alternatives to antibiotics. Cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) is a 69-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide isolated from the venom of the central Asian spider Lachesana tarabaevi. The synthetic gene Cit1a fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was expressed as the EGFP-Cit1a fusion protein using a cysteine protease-deleted Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP(-)) bacmid in silkworm larva and pupa. The antimicrobial effect of the purified protein was assayed using disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EGFP-Cit1a was also measured against several bacterial strains and showed similar antimicrobial activity to that of the synthetic Cit1a reported earlier. The EGFP-Cit1a fusion protein showed antibiotic activity toward gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at the micromolar concentration level. These results show that active Cit1a can be produced and purified in silkworm, although this peptide is insecticidal. This study demonstrates the potential of active Cit1a purified from silkworms to use as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:24728600

Ali, M P; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2014-08-01

244

Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively. PMID:23403062

Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

2013-03-01

245

Involvement of MicroRNAs in Infection of Silkworm with Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (BmCPV)  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the most important pathogens of silkworm. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in regulating host-pathogen interaction. However, there are limited reports on the miRNAs expression profiles during insect pathogen challenges. In this study, four small RNA libraries from BmCPV-infected midgut of silkworm at 72 h post-inoculation and 96 h post-inoculation and their corresponding control midguts were constructed and deep sequenced. A total of 316 known miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 90 novel miRNAs were identified. Fifty-eight miRNAs displayed significant differential expression between the infected and normal midgut (P value ?=?2.0 or silkworm. PMID:23844171

Wu, Ping; Han, Shaohua; Chen, Tao; Qin, Guangxing; Li, Long; Guo, Xijie

2013-01-01

246

Silkworm HP1a transcriptionally enhances highly expressed euchromatic genes via association with their transcription start sites.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein across different eukaryotic species and is crucial for heterochromatin establishment and maintenance. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, encodes two HP1 proteins, BmHP1a and BmHP1b. In order to investigate the role of BmHP1a in transcriptional regulation, we performed genome-wide analyses of the transcriptome, transcription start sites (TSSs), chromatin modification states and BmHP1a-binding sites of the silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We identified a number of BmHP1a-binding loci throughout the silkworm genome and found that these loci included TSSs and frequently co-occurred with neighboring euchromatic histone modifications. In addition, we observed that genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs were relatively highly expressed in BmN4 cells. RNA interference-mediated BmHP1a depletion resulted in the transcriptional repression of highly expressed genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs, whereas genes not coupled with BmHP1a-binding regions were less affected by the treatment. These results demonstrate that BmHP1a binds near TSSs of highly expressed euchromatic genes and positively regulates their expression. Our study revealed a novel mode of transcriptional regulation mediated by HP1 proteins. PMID:25237056

Shoji, Keisuke; Hara, Kahori; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu

2015-02-01

247

Identification of a microspordium isolated from Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and characterization of its pathogenicity in silkworms.  

PubMed

A new microsporidium isolated from Megacopta cribraria was characterized by both biological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, its pathogenicity to silkworms was also studied. The spores are oval in shape and measured 3.64 ± 0.2 × 2.20 ± 0.2 ?m in size. Its ultrastructure is characteristic of the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 13-14 polar filament coils and posterior vacuole. Its life cycle includes meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts and mature spores, with a typical diplokaryon in each stage and propagation in a binary fission. A phylogenetic tree based on SSU rRNA and rRNA ITS gene sequence analysis further indicated that the parasite is closely related to Nosema bombycis and should be placed in the genus Nosema and sub-group 'true' Nosema. Furthermore, the microsporidium heavily infects lepidopteran silkworm insect and can be transmitted per os (horizontally) and transovarially (vertically). Our findings showed that the microsporidium belongs to the 'true' Nosema group within the genus Nosema and heavily infects silkworms. Based on the information obtained during this study, we named this new microsporidium isolated from M. cribraria as Nosema sp. MC. PMID:25173855

Xing, Dongxu; Li, Li; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; Li, Qingrong; Xiao, Yang; Dai, Fanwei; Yang, Qiong

2014-11-01

248

Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of molecular mechanisms associated with low silk production in silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the low fibroin production of the ZB silkworm strain, we used both SDS-PAGE-based and gel-free-based proteomic techniques and transcriptomic sequencing technique. Combining the data from two different proteomic techniques was preferable in the characterization of the differences between the ZB silkworm strain and the original Lan10 silkworm strain. The correlation analysis showed that the individual protein and transcript were not corresponded well, however, the differentially changed proteins and transcripts showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. In the ZB strain, numerous ribosomal proteins and transcripts were down-regulated, along with the transcripts of translational related elongation factors and genes of important components of fibroin. The proteasome pathway was significantly enhanced in the ZB strain, indicating that protein degradation began on the third day of fifth instar when fibroin would have been produced in the Lan10 strain normally and plentifully. From proteome and transcriptome levels of the ZB strain, the energy-metabolism-related pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and citrate cycle were enhanced, suggesting that the energy metabolism was vigorous in the ZB strain, while the silk production was low. This may due to the inefficient energy employment in fibroin synthesis in the ZB strain. These results suggest that the reason for the decreasing of the silk production might be related to the decreased ability of fibroin synthesis, the degradation of proteins, and the inefficiency of the energy exploiting. PMID:24428189

Wang, Shao-Hua; You, Zheng-Ying; Ye, Lu-Peng; Che, Jiaqian; Qian, Qiujie; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhong, Bo-Xiong

2014-02-01

249

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

250

Identification and expression profiling of drought-regulated genes in mulberry ( Morus sp.) by suppression subtractive hybridization of susceptible and tolerant cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry, the backbone of sericulture industry, is a rainfed crop, and its biomass production is affected adversely under\\u000a drought conditions. In this study, genes expressed differentially during drought stress response have been examined by PCR-Select\\u000a subtractive hybridization. The sensitive and tolerant genotypes were identified based on physiological evaluation by determination\\u000a of proline content, electrolyte leakage, and measurement of relative water

Vibha Gulyani; Paramjit Khurana

2011-01-01

251

Effect of combined mulberry leaf and fruit extract on liver and skin cholesterol transporters in high fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications. PMID:24611101

Valacchi, Giuseppe; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Eo, Hyeyoon; Lim, Yunsook

2014-02-01

252

In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chem- ically treated rice straw (RS) and of RS and grass hay or mulberry leaves (ML). The RS was treated with NaOH, urea, or (NH4)HCO3. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96 h of incubation,

J. X. Liu; A. Susenbeth; K.-H. Sudekum

253

The Wild Bunch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of wild horses in North America and explains the social structure of horses. Discusses issues related to wildlife management. Presents activities for classroom use and includes a list of references and resources. (YDS)

Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary; Wooster, Elizabeth

2001-01-01

254

Pestiviruses in wild animals.  

PubMed

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

2006-08-25

255

Ecotoxicology of wild mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

2000-01-01

256

Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the ? phase in U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in ? phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the ?-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized ? alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1), not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the ? fiber (1 1 1) with intermediate intensity. The microstructure of the U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy obtained by induction melting method is composed of dendrites, supersatured in the alloys elements, in the as-cast state being necessary to implement homogenization heat treatment. Heat treatment at 1000 °C for 5 h followed by quenching in water was effective to homogenize the alloy (elimination the dendritic structure) and to retain the cubic structure at room temperature. Induction melting followed by casting and homogenization heat treatment with quenching in water, produced a moderate texture with the components (0 2 3)<1 0 0> and (0 3 2)<1 0 0>. The cold rolled U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy leads to the emergence of a fiber (0 0 1), with higher intensity, unusual in BCC metals and ? (1 1 1) with moderate intensity. These textures confer isotropic mechanical properties which is very important for a nuclear fuel.

Lopes, Denise Adorno; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Padilha, Angelo Fernando

2014-06-01

257

Molecular Chaperone-Assisted Production of Human ?-1,4- N -Acetylglucosaminyltransferase in Silkworm Larvae Using Recombinant BmNPV Bacmids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, human ?-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT) fused with GFPuv (GFPuv-?4GnT) was expressed using both a transformed cell system and silkworm larvae. A Tn-pXgp-GFPuv-?4GnT cell line, isolated after expression vector transfection, produced 106 mU\\/ml of ?4GnT activity in suspension culture.\\u000a When Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus containing a GFPuv-?4GnT fusion gene (BmNPV-CP\\u000a ?\\/GFPuv-?4GnT) bacmid was injected into silkworm larvae, ?4GnT activity in larval hemolymph

Makoto Nakajima; Tatsuya Kato; Shin Kanamasa; Enoch Y. Park

2009-01-01

258

Induction of dauer pupae by fenoxycarb in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Topical application of fenoxycarb (1 &mgr;g per animal) at 129 or 132 h of the fifth instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, did not induce morphological abnormalities in the pupal stage, but these animals became dauer (permanent) pupae. This condition of B. mori and the endocrine events leading to permanent pupae are discussed in this work. Application of fenoxycarb at 132 h of the fifth instar elicited a high ecdysteroid titre in the pharate pupal stage and a steadily high ecdysteroid titre in the pupal stage. The fenoxycarb-induced permanent pupae had non-degenerating prothoracic glands that secreted low amounts of ecdysteroid and did not respond to recombinant prothoracicotropic hormone (rPTTH) late in the pupal stage. The Bombyx PTTH titre in the haemolymph, determined by a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, was lower than that of controls at the time of pupal ecdysis, but higher than controls later in the pupal stage in fenoxycarb-treated animals. After application of fenoxycarb, its haemolymph level, measured by ELISA, reached a peak at pupal ecdysis, then remained low. These results suggest that the fenoxycarb-mediated induction of permanent pupae is only partially a brain-centred phenomenon. It also involves alterations in the hormonal interplay that govern both the initiation of pupal-adult differentiation and changes in the steroidogenic pathway of the prothoracic glands of B. mori. PMID:12770048

Dedos, S G.; Szurdoki, F; Székács, A; Mizoguchi, A; Fugo, H

2002-09-01

259

Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.  

PubMed

Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

2014-04-01

260

A new continuous cell line from larval ovaries of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new continuous cell line from ovarian tissue of commercial variety "Kolar Gold" of silkworm, Bombyx mori, was established and designated as DZNU-Bm-12. The tissue was grown in MGM-448 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 3% heat-inactivated B. mori hemolymph at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. The migration of partially attached small round refractive cells from the fragments of ovarioles began from the beginning of explantation. The cells multiplied partially attached in the primary culture initially, and some of them become freely suspended after 20 passages. The cells were adapted to MGM-448 and TNM-FH media each with 10% FBS and the population doubling time of cell line was about 36 and 24 hr, respectively. The chromosome number was near diploid at initial passages and slightly increased at 176th passage, but a few tetraploids and hexaploids were also observed. DNA profiles using simple sequence repeat loci established the differences between DZNU-Bm-12 and DZNU-Bm-1 and most widely used Bm-5 and BmN cell lines. The cell line was found susceptible to B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) with 85-90% of the cells harboring BmNPV and having an average of 3-17 OBs/infected cell. We suggest the usefulness of this cell line in BmNPV-based baculoviral expression system and also for studying in vitro virus replication. PMID:19357932

Khurad, Arun M; Zhang, Min-Juan; Deshmukh, Chanchal G; Bahekar, Ravindra S; Tiple, Ashish D; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2009-09-01

261

Molecular Expression of the Scribble Complex Genes, Dlg, Scrib and Lgl, in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Scribble protein complex genes, consisting of lethal giant larvae (Lgl), discs large (Dlg) and scribble (Scrib) genes, are components of an evolutionarily conserved genetic pathway that links the cell polarity in cells of humans and Drosophila. The tissue expression and developmental changes of the Scribble protein complex genes were documented using qRT-RCR method. The Lgl and Scrib genes could be detected in all the experimental tissues, including fat body, midgut, testis/ovary, wingdisc, trachea, malpighian tubule, hemolymph, prothoracic gland and silk gland. The Dlg gene, mainly expressed only in testis/ovary, could not be detected in prothoracic gland and hemolymph. In fat body, there were two higher expression stages of the three genes. The highest peak of the expression of the Lgl and Scrib genes in wingdisc lay at the 1st day of the 5th instar, but the Dlg gene was at 3rd day of 5th instar. The above results indicate that Scribble complex genes are involved in the process of molting and development of the wingdisc in the silkworm. This will be useful in the future for the elucidation of the detailed biological function of the three genes Scrib, Dlg and Lgl in B. mori. PMID:24705163

Qi, Hai-Sheng; Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2013-01-01

262

Functional characterization of the vitellogenin promoter in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Genetic transformation and genome editing technologies have been successfully established in the lepidopteran insect model, the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, providing great potential for functional genomics and practical applications. However, the current lack of cis-regulatory elements in B.?mori gene manipulation research limits further exploitation in functional gene analysis. In the present study, we characterized a B.?mori endogenous promoter, Bmvgp, which is a 798-bp DNA sequence adjacent to the 5'-end of the vitellogenin gene (Bmvg). PiggyBac-based transgenic analysis shows that Bmvgp precisely directs expression of a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), in a sex-, tissue- and stage-specific manner. In transgenic animals, EGFP expression can be detected in the female fat body from larval-pupal ecdysis to the following pupal and adult stage. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that EGFP expression can be activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is consistent with endogenous Bmvg expression. These data indicate that Bmvgp is an effective endogenous cis-regulatory element in B.?mori. PMID:24828437

Xu, J; Wang, Y Q; Li, Z Q; Ling, L; Zeng, B S; You, L; Chen, Y Z; Aslam, A F M; Huang, Y P; Tan, A J

2014-10-01

263

Marc Chagall: "Wild Poppies."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a full-color reproduction of Marc Chagall's painting, "Wild Poppies," the goals of this lesson plan are to introduce students to artist's use of dreams and memories in making art, to communicate the idea that artists include their visual memories of people and things they love in their artwork, and to introduce the concepts of line and…

White, Carolyn

1987-01-01

264

Cannibalism among Wild Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANNIBALISM has been observed twice in East African chimpanzee populations. This behaviour is rarely seen among wild mammals and is hitherto unrecorded in non-human primates. It provides some basis for speculation concerning the relationship between the predatory and aggressive behaviour of chimpanzees.

J. D. Bygott

1972-01-01

265

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

266

Effect of increasing levels of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba) on ruminal dry matter degradability in lambs.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to estimate dry matter (DM) degradability in the rumen of lambs offered a basal soybean meal and sorghum grain diet with three levels of white mulberry (WM) leaves (Morus alba). Diets consisted of 90% concentrate and 10% sorghum straw, which was incrementally replaced by WM leaves at 0% (control diet, T1), 2.5% (T2), and 5% (T3) of the total ration. Crude protein (CP) in WM was 21.8% (DM basis). Diets had equal CP (14% DM basis) and metabolizable energy (10.8 MJ/kg DM) content. Three non-castrated Pelibuey male lambs fitted with permanent rumen cannula were utilized in a 3?×?3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 10 days of adaptation followed by sampling. DM degradability was determined using the nylon bag technique. Bags contained the experimental diets offered in each period and were incubated in rumen in pairs for 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The potential degradation was higher (P?

Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Castillo-Martínez, Omar; Ramirez-Bribiesca, J Efren; Mellado, Miguel

2011-06-01

267

Determination of Albendazole and Metabolites in Silkworm Bombyx mori Hemolymph by Ultrafast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905–0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%–103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%–108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%–105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%–106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321

Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong

2014-01-01

268

Structure-function relationship of SW-AT-1, a serpin-type protease inhibitor in silkworm.  

PubMed

Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10-5 M-1s-1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10-6 M-1s-1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4-10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed. PMID:24901510

Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

269

Structure-Function Relationship of SW-AT-1, a Serpin-Type Protease Inhibitor in Silkworm  

PubMed Central

Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10?5 M?1s?1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10?6 M?1s?1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4–10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed. PMID:24901510

Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

270

The Oscar Wilde Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Added after its initial publication, the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray allowed Oscar Wilde to directly address some of the initial criticism of his rather controversial novel. Perhaps one of the most well-known epigrams offered in that statement is "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all." Visitors to this site can read this preface (and the complete novel), along with many other works by Wilde. These works include "The Happy Prince and Other Stories", "A House of Pomegranates", and plays like "An Ideal Husband" and "The Importance of Being Earnest". Of course, visitors should not overlook his masterful poem, "The Ballad of Reading Gaol".

271

Sensitivity to wild vegetation.  

PubMed

74 patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis to wild vegetation were patch tested with either extracts of 13 plants of the family Compositae and 7 other weeds or trees. Anthemis cotula (dog fennel) and Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur) gave the most frequent positive results, demonstrating a change of frequency in sensitivity compared to the 1950s, when Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) was recognized as the most frequently sensitizing weed. The reasons for these changes of incidence and clinical patterns are examined. PMID:3581826

Menz, J; Winkelmann, R K

1987-03-01

272

Wild and Scenic Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. government website that outlines the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act offers a good explanation of the Act, including details on how far the Act can go in protecting designated scenic, wild, and recreational rivers. Definitions of those terms are provided in the middle of the homepage. One of the unique features of the Act is that it relies on voluntary stewardship by landowners and communities to assist in maintaining the Act's goals where the federal government has no jurisdiction. The "Rivers and Trails" link leads to the arm of the National Parks Service called the Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) that "provides technical assistance to communities so they can conserve rivers, preserve open space, and develop trails and greenways." The "Publications" section of the website offers a multitude of writings for government river managers, lawmakers, attorneys and real estate professionals. The "Compendium of Questions and Answers Relating to Wild and Scenic Rivers" not only gives an overview of the Act that is more technical than the introduction on the homepage, but also provides valuable answers for the aforementioned professionals.

273

Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis. Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues.

2001-01-01

274

Effects of added CeCl3 on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.  

PubMed

One of the most important agents causing lethal disease in the silkworm is the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), while low-dose rare earths are demonstrated to increase immune capacity in animals. However, very little is known about the effects of added CeCl(3) on decreasing BmNPV infection of silkworm. The present study investigated the effects of added CeCl(3) to an artificial diet on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to BmNPV infection. Our findings indicated that added CeCl(3) significantly decreased inhibition of growth and mortality of fifth-instar larvae caused by BmNPV infection. Furthermore, the added CeCl(3) obviously decreased lipid peroxidation level and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), (·)OH, and NO and increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione contents in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. In addition, the added CeCl(3) could significantly promote acetylcholine esterase activity and attenuate the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. These findings suggested that added CeCl(3) may relieve oxidative damage and neurotoxicity of silkworm caused by BmNPV infection via increasing antioxidant capacity and acetylcholine esterase activity. PMID:22076733

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Cui, Yaling; Gong, Xiaolan; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-01

275

Electron transport and bulk-like behavior of Wiedemann-Franz law for sub-7 nm-thin iridium films on silkworm silk.  

PubMed

For ultrathin metallic films, either supported or free-standing, the inside nanocrystalline nature significantly reduces the electron and thermal transport. Quantum mechanical reflection of electrons at the grain boundary reduces the electrical conductivity further than the thermal conductivity, leading to a Lorenz number in the order of 7.0 × 10(-8) W ? K(-2), much higher than that of the bulk counterpart. We report on a finding that for ultrathin (0.6-6.3 nm) iridium films coated on degummed silkworm silk fibroin, the electron transport is around 100-200% higher than that of the same film on glass fiber, even though the grain size of Ir film on silkworm silk is smaller than that on glass fiber. At the same time, the thermal conductivity of the Ir film is smaller or close to that of the film on glass fiber. Its Lorenz number is found close to that of bulk crystalline Ir despite the nanocrystalline structure in the Ir films. This is similar to the behavior of metallic glasses. Our study of gold films on silkworm silk reveals the same trend of change as compared to that on glass fiber. Electron hopping and tunneling in silkworm silk is speculated to be responsible for the observed electron transport. The finding points out that silk could provide a better substrate for flexible electronics with significantly faster electron transport. PMID:24988039

Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

2014-07-23

276

Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

2012-02-01

277

Protective Effect of the Silkworm Protein 30Kc6 on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Damaged by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)  

PubMed Central

Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti-apoptotic mechanism of the 30K family proteins, but also provide important information on prevention and treatment of human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23840859

Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-01-01

278

Antibiotic resistance in wild birds  

PubMed Central

Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

Bonnedahl, Jonas

2014-01-01

279

BmICE-2 is a novel pro-apoptotic caspase involved in apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In this study we identified a potential pro-apoptotic caspase gene, Bombyx mori(B. mori)ICE-2 (BmICE-2) which encoded a polypeptide of 284 amino acid residues, including a (169)QACRG(173) sequence which surrounded the catalytic site and contained a p20 and a p10 domain. BmICE-2 expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibited high proteolytic activity for the synthetic human initiator caspase-9 substrates Ac-LEHD-pNA, but little activity towards the effector caspase-3 substrates Ac-DEVD-pNA. When BmICE-2 was transiently expressed in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells, we found that the high proteolytic activity for Ac-LEHD-pNA triggered caspase-3-like protease activity resulting in spontaneous cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. This effect was not replicated in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. In addition, spontaneous cleavage of endogenous BmICE-2 in BmN-SWU1 cells could be induced by actinomycin D. These results suggest that BmICE-2 may be a novel pro-apoptotic gene with caspase-9 activity which is involved apoptotic processes in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells. PMID:24491540

Yi, Hua-Shan; Pan, Cai-Xia; Pan, Chun; Song, Juan; Hu, Yan-Fen; Wang, La; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

2014-02-28

280

Monoubiquitination-dependent chromatin loading of FancD2 in silkworms, a species lacking the FA core complex.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is required for activation and operation of the DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair pathway, although the precise mechanism of the FA pathway remains largely unknown. A critical step in the FA pathway is the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 catalyzed by a FA core complex. This modification appears to allow FANCD2 to coordinate ICL repair with other DNA repair proteins on chromatin. Silkworm, Bombyx mori, lacks apparent homologues of the FA core complex. However, BmFancD2 and BmFancI, the putative substrates of the complex, and BmFancL, the putative catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase, are conserved. Here, we report that the silkworm FancD2 is monoubiquitinated depending on FancI and FancL, and stabilized on chromatin, following MMC treatment. A substitution of BmFancD2 at lysine 519 to arginine abolishes the monoubiquitination, but not the interaction between the FancD2 and FancI. In addition, we demonstrated that depletion of BmFancD2, BmFancI or BmFancL had effects on cell proliferation in the presence of MMC. These results suggest that the FA pathway in B. mori works in the same manner as that in vertebrates. PMID:22513077

Sugahara, Ryohei; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2012-06-15

281

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector.  

PubMed

We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac transposase. The reporter gene construct was coinjected into preblastoderm eggs of two strains of B. mori. Approximately 2% of the individuals in the G1 broods expressed GFP. DNA analyses of GFP-positive G1 silkworms revealed that multiple independent insertions occurred frequently. The transgene was stably transferred to the next generation through normal Mendelian inheritance. The presence of the inverted terminal repeats of piggyBac and the characteristic TTAA sequence at the borders of all the analyzed inserts confirmed that transformation resulted from precise transposition events. This efficient method of stable gene transfer in a lepidopteran insect opens the way for promising basic research and biotechnological applications. PMID:10625397

Tamura, T; Thibert, C; Royer, C; Kanda, T; Abraham, E; Kamba, M; Komoto, N; Thomas, J L; Mauchamp, B; Chavancy, G; Shirk, P; Fraser, M; Prudhomme, J C; Couble, P; Toshiki, T; Chantal, T; Corinne, R; Toshio, K; Eappen, A; Mari, K; Natuo, K; Jean-Luc, T; Bernard, M; Gérard, C; Paul, S; Malcolm, F; Jean-Claude, P; Pierre, C

2000-01-01

282

In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

2006-03-24

283

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, a Dual Functional Protein Involved in the Immune Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

284

Activation of BmGSTd1 promoter and regulation by transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large family of multifunctional enzymes, many of which play an important role in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. In this research, firstly, we measured the rutin-induced transcriptional level of BmGSTd1 gene by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and dual spike-in strategy. The activities of the BmGSTd1 promoter in various tissues of silkworm were measured by firefly luciferase activity and normalized by the Renilla luciferase activity. Results showed that the activity of the BmGSTd1 promoter were highest in Malpighian tubule, followed by fat body, silk gland, hemocyte, epidermis, and midgut. The essential region for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity was -1573 to -931bp in Malpighian tubule and fat body of silkworm. Promoter truncation analysis using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in BmN cells showed that the region -1288 to -1202bp for BmGSTd1 gene was essential for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis of this region revealed several potential transcriptional regulatory elements such as Bcd and Kr. The mutation of core base of Kr site demonstrated that Kr functioned positively in rutin-mediated BmGSTd1 transcription. PMID:25172212

Zhao, Guodong; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Yunlei; Du, Jie; Li, Bing; Chen, Yuhua; Xu, Yaxiang; Shen, Weide; Xia, Qingyou; Wei, Zhengguo

2014-11-10

285

Silk: Caterpillars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you listen closely, you can hear the sounds of a critical element in the production of silk--silkworm caterpillars dining on mulberry leaves. This episode of the two-minute radio show Pulse of the Planet focuses on how silkworms are raised. In the episode, available here in MP3 audio and text formats, a guest biochemist describes the silk farming process, noting the silkworms' dependence on large quantities of human-supplied mulberry leaves. The host points out how much silkworms grow in length and mass as evidence for why so many leaves are needed. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2005-11-23

286

The Wild Ones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Children's Education Program of Wildlife Trust has much to offer students and teachers. Available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, students can find information about animals, their habitats, and the scientists who study them. The Wild Ones network provides an opportunity for members to communicate with each other, contribute curriculum activities, and share ideas and resources. The Curriculum Library in the teachers section is one of the most beneficial parts of the Web site, with its numerous lesson plans mainly directed towards K-6th grades.

2001-01-01

287

In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry. PMID:22225542

Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-03-01

288

Enzymatic properties of alpha-amylase in the midgut and the salivary glands of mulberry moth, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The pyralid moth, Glyphode pyloalis Walker, is an important pest of the mulberry. Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the alpha-D-(1,4)-glucan linkage in glycogen and other related carbohydrates. Laboratory-reared fifth stadium larvae were randomly selected; the midgut (MG) and the salivary glands (SG) were removed by dissection under a dissecting microscope and alpha-amylase activity was assayed using the dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The activity of alpha-amylase in the MG and the SG were 0.011 and 0.0018 micromol/min, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase were 9 for MG at 37-40 degrees C and 10 for SG at 37 degrees C respectively. Various concentrations of compounds (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), Urea, EDTA, SDS and CaCl(2)) had differential effects on the enzyme activity. Plant amylase inhibitors may play an important role against insect pests. Hence, the characterization of digestive enzymes and the examination of their inhibitors may be a useful tool in future management of this important mulberry pest. PMID:20176331

Yezdani, Elham; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Zibaee, Arash; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

2010-01-01

289

Detection of peptidoglycan and endotoxin in dialysate, using silkworm larvae plasma and limulus amebocyte lysate methods.  

PubMed

Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) reagent is activated by peptidoglycan (PG), a fragment of both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell wall, as well as beta-glucan (BG), a component of fungi. It is possible to measure contamination of gram-positive bacteria quantitatively by combining the conventional limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and PG measurement methods. Therefore, a more highly accurate analysis of dialysate can be made using both SLP and LAL methods to detect endotoxin (ET) and/or PG contamination. We studied the effects of contaminated dialysate on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by producing various cytokines in vitro. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) was used as the biologically active minimum constituent of PG. A total of 54 dialysate samples were obtained under sterile conditions from 4 sites: (1) reverse osmosis water unit; (2) proportioning unit; (3) multiple dialysate preparation console, and (4) personal dialysate preparation console, at 9 dialysis facilities. To detect bacterial contamination, the samples were measured with LAL(C), LAL(G) and SLP methods. PBMC were collected from 10 healthy controls and from 10 hemodialysis patients and cultured for 24 h with ET, MDP, ET + MDP and contaminated dialysate. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in the culture medium supernatants were measured using the ELISA method. PG was not detected in dialysate from sites 1 or 2. However, dialysate from the inlet of the dialyzer at the bedside monitor of the central supply and personal console showed 4.1 +/- 6.1 ng/ml for site 3 (in 7 of 18 samples) and 3.3 +/- 4.6 ng/ml for site 4 (in 3 of 18 samples). Contamination by PG alone and complex contamination by PG and ET were also detected. Furthermore, IL-1Ra, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production by PBMC increased in accordance with the concentrations of MDP. Cytokine production was enhanced 5-10 times more where MDP and ET coexisted than where either MDP or ET existed alone, showing the synergic effects of MDP and ET. Based on these results, there is a high possibility that PG may also be a pyrogen in the dialysate prior to this study. ET had been considered the only pyrogen in dialysate. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the existence of both ET and PG in investigating dialysate contamination. PMID:9127331

Tsuchida, K; Takemoto, Y; Yamagami, S; Edney, H; Niwa, M; Tsuchiya, M; Kishimoto, T; Shaldon, S

1997-01-01

290

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

Latch, Emily K.

291

MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range, displaying, foraging, habitat, Kansas, loafing, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, riparian restoration, roosts

292

In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves.  

PubMed

In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chemically treated rice straw (RS) and of RS and grass hay or mulberry leaves (ML). The RS was treated with NaOH, urea, or (NH4)HCO3. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96 h of incubation, and the Gompertz function was used to describe the kinetics of gas production. Treatment with NaOH, urea, and NH4HCO3 increased (P < 0.05) gas production at 48 h by 55, 52, and 37% and the maximum rate of gas production of RS from 0.64 to 1.51, 1.27, and 1.13 mL/h, respectively. The inclusion of treated straws, hay, and ML in a mixture with RS at increasing proportions (25, 50, 75, 100%) elevated cumulative gas production and its rate. Maximum gas production was not different between the RS and its mixtures with the treated straws, but inclusion of hay into RS or NH4HCO3-treated RS increased the maximum gas production. Associative effects were defined as the difference between the observed gas production for the mixtures and the sum of the individual component feeds. The NaOH-treated RS, included at higher proportions, had positive associative effects at all times of incubation < 96 h; effects were negative or absent at 96 h. No effects were observed with mixtures of RS with urea-treated RS. The NH4HCO3-treated RS mixture tended to have negative associative effects at all three levels. Positive associative effects (P < 0.05) were observed for both RS and NH4HCO3-treated RS at almost all inclusion levels of hay or ML after 12 to 96 h of incubation. The response was more pronounced with ML than with hay. Associative effects generally declined with duration of incubation. We conclude that positive associative effects on in vitro gas production occurred more consistently when RS was incubated in mixtures with hay or ML than when incubated in mixtures with chemically treated RS. PMID:11881936

Liu, J X; Susenbeth, A; Südekum, K H

2002-02-01

293

Juvenile Hormone Analogues, methoprene and fenoxycarb dose-dependently enhance certain enzyme activities in the silkworm Bombyx mori (L).  

PubMed

Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 microg and 3.0 fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues. PMID:18678927

Mamatha, Devi M; Kanji, Vijaya K; Cohly, Hari H P; Rao, M Rajeswara

2008-06-01

294

Juvenile Hormone Analogues, Methoprene and Fenoxycarb Dose-Dependently Enhance Certain Enzyme Activities in the Silkworm Bombyx Mori (L)  

PubMed Central

Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 ?g and 3.0fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues. PMID:18678927

Mamatha, Devi M.; Kanji, Vijaya K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Rao, M. Rajeswara

2008-01-01

295

Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm.  

PubMed

When the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb was topically applied to the silkworm Bombyx mori at the beginning of the 3rd or 4th (penultimate) instar, an extra larval molt was induced. The 5th instar period was shortened to about 5 days and the extra 6th instar ranged from 8 to more than 20 days, depending on the dose applied. Starvation before fenoxycarb treatment strongly enhanced the incidence of extra molting up to 100%. When 1 ng was applied in the 4th instar after a 2-day starvation, most larvae underwent an extra molt, metamorphosed to pupae, then to fertile adults. Combining starvation and fenoxycarb application thus induces a perfect extra molt efficiently. In perfect extra molting larvae, profiles of total ecdysteroid titer during the 4th and 5th instars were similar to that during the 4th instar in the control, and the ecdysteroid profile during the extra 6th instar was similar to that during the control 5th (last) instar. At ecdysteroid peaks, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and ecdysone (E), generally regarded as the active molting hormone and its precursor, had similar titers in the 6th instar, whereas E was much less than 20E in the 4th and 5th instars in the extra molting larvae. E was also abundant only in the last larval instar in the control. These results suggest that both 20E and E contents are important for regulation of larval molt and metamorphosis in silkworms and that fenoxycarb triggers the extra molt by inducing an additional larval molt type of ecdysteroid surge before the last larval instar. PMID:12392697

Kamimura, Manabu; Kiuchi, Makoto

2002-10-01

296

Genome-Wide Identification and Immune Response Analysis of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein. PMID:22348050

Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

297

Middle region of FancM interacts with Mhf and Rmi1 in silkworms, a species lacking the Fanconi anaemia (FA) core complex.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway is responsible for interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair. Among the FA core complex components, FANCM is believed to act as a damage sensor for the ICL-blocked replication fork and also as a molecular platform for FA core complex assembly and interaction with Bloom's syndrome (BS) complex that is thought to play an important role in the processing of DNA structures such as stalled replication forks. In the present study, we found that in silkworms, Bombyx mori, a species lacking the major FA core complex components (FANCA, B, C, E, F, and G), FancM is required for FancD2 monoubiquitination and cell proliferation in the presence of mitomycin C (MMC). Silkworm FancM (BmFancM) was phosphorylated in the middle regions, and the modification was associated with its subcellular localization. In addition, BmFancM interacted with Mhf1, a histone-fold protein, and Rmi1, a subunit of the BS complex, in the different regions. The interaction region containing at least these two protein-binding domains played an essential role in FancM-dependent resistance to MMC. Our results suggest that BmFancM also acts as a platform for recruitment of both the FA protein and the BS protein, although the silkworm genome seems to lose FAAP24, a FancM-binding partner protein in mammals. PMID:24286570

Sugahara, R; Mon, H; Lee, J M; Kusakabe, T

2014-04-01

298

Enhanced gene expression in insect cells and silkworm larva by modified polyhedrin promoter using repeated Burst sequence and very late transcriptional factor-1.  

PubMed

The Burst of expression from polyhedrin (polh) promoter during very late phase of baculovirus infection requires a sequence located between TAAG and the translation initiation site, typically referred to as burst sequence (BS). The expression of polh promoter is stimulated by specifically binding of very late transcriptional factor 1 (VLF-1) to BS. In order to enhance the production of recombinant proteins the polh promoter was modified via a multiple BS bacmid system in which the number of BSs was increased. Compared to an expression from a normal polh promoter, ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in High Five insect cells was three times higher with a modified polh promoter containing two BSs. Using a modified polh promoter that contains nine BSs in silkworm expression system, ?1-3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (?3GnT2) activity per larva was 6.8-fold higher than control. Furthermore, the co-expression of modified promoters along with VLF-1-enhanced ?3GnT activity. Thus, an increased optimal number of BS and its co-expression with VLF-1 leads to the production of higher level of gene expression in insect cells and silkworm larvae. This new modified promoter engineered in the current study is the strongest promoter for overexpressing foreign proteins in an eukaryotic cell and system, thus leading a progress in baculovirus-insect cell and silkworm biotechnology. PMID:20717974

Manohar, Suganthi Lavender; Kanamasa, Shin; Nishina, Takuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2010-12-15

299

An Efficient Preparation of Mulberroside A from the Branch Bark of Mulberry and Its Effect on the Inhibition of Tyrosinase Activity  

PubMed Central

A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 µmol/L and 0.12 µmol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 µmol/L and 0.926 µmol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 µmol/L and 0.662 µmol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 µmol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 µmol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics. PMID:25299075

Wang, Shu; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

300

Effect of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis.  

PubMed

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC?? and LC?? values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC?? treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC?? treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC?? dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC?? was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post-treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

301

Effect of Sweet Wormwood Artemisia annua Crude Leaf Extracts on Some Biological and Physiological Characteristics of the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis  

PubMed Central

The lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study, the crude methanol extract of sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L. (Asterales: Asteracaea) was investigated on toxicity, biological and physiological characteristics of this pest under controlled conditions (24 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The effect of acute toxicity and sublethal doses on physiological characteristics was performed by topical application. The LC50 and LC20 values on fourth instar larvae were calculated as 0.33 and 0.22 gram leaf equivalent/ mL, respectively. The larval duration of fifth instar larvae in LC50 treatment was prolonged (5.8 ± 0.52 days) compared with the control group (4.26 ± 0.29 days). However larval duration was reduced in the LC20 treatment. The female adult longevity in the LC50 dose was the least (4.53 ± 0.3 days), while longevity among controls was the highest (9.2 ± 0.29 days). The mean fecundity of adults after larval treatment with LC50 was recorded as 105.6 ± 16.84 eggs/female, while the control was 392.74 ± 22.52 eggs/female. The percent hatchability was reduced in all treatments compared with the control. The effect of extract in 0.107, 0.053, 0.026 and 0.013 gle/mL on biochemical characteristics of this pest was also studied. The activity of ?-amylase and protease 48 hours post—treatment was significantly reduced compared with the control. Similarly lipase, esterase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly affected by A. annua extract. PMID:22239100

Khosravi, Roya; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Yezdani, Elham

2011-01-01

302

Accumulation of Small Heat-Shock Protein Homologs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cortical Parenchyma Cells in Mulberry in Association with Seasonal Cold Acclimation1  

PubMed Central

Cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.) trees acquire extremely high freezing tolerance in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation. The amount of total proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fractions isolated from these cells increased in parallel with the process of cold acclimation. Protein compositions in the ER-enriched fraction also changed seasonally, with a prominent accumulation of 20-kD (WAP20) and 27-kD (WAP27) proteins in winter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WAP20 exhibited homology to ER-localized small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs), whereas that of WAP27 did not exhibit homology to any known proteins. Like other smHSPs, WAP20 formed a complex of high molecular mass in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, not only WAP20 but also 21-kD proteins reacted with antibodies against WAP20. Fractionation of the crude microsomes by isopycnic sucrose-gradient centrifugation revealed that both WAP27 and WAP20 were distributed on a density corresponding to the fractions with higher activity of ER marker enzyme, suggesting localization of these proteins in the ER. When ER-enriched fractions were treated with trypsin in the absence of detergent, WAP20 and WAP27 were undigested, suggesting localization of these proteins inside the ER vesicle. The accumulation of a large quantity of smHSPs in the ER in winter as a result of seasonal cold acclimation indicates that these proteins may play a significant role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry trees. PMID:10364399

Ukaji, Norifumi; Kuwabara, Chikako; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Yoshida, Shizuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

1999-01-01

303

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals...commodities.” However, the fact that plants or other commodities actually cultivated...Transplanted branches which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or...

2011-07-01

304

29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild animals, or the appropriation...production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of...which ordinarily grows wild without being cultivated...which were cut from plants growing wild in the field or...

2010-07-01

305

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

SciTech Connect

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

Kato, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan) and Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

2007-08-03

306

Distribution of circadian clock-related proteins in the cephalic nervous system of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the circadian timing systems, input pathways transmit information on the diurnal environmental changes to a core oscillator that generates signals relayed to the body periphery by output pathways. Cryptochrome (CRY) protein participates in the light perception; period (PER), Cycle (CYC), and Doubletime (DBT) proteins drive the core oscillator; and arylalkylamines are crucial for the clock output in vertebrates. Using antibodies to CRY, PER, CYC, DBT, and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT), the authors examined neuronal architecture of the circadian system in the cephalic ganglia of adult silkworms. The antibodies reacted in the cytoplasm, never in the nuclei, of specific neurons. A cluster of 4 large Ia(1) neurons in each dorsolateral protocerebrum, a pair of cells in the frontal ganglion, and nerve fibers in the corpora cardiaca and corpora allata were stained with all antibodies. The intensity of PER staining in the Ia(1) cells and in 2 to 4 adjacent small cells oscillated, being maximal late in subjective day and minimal in early night. No other oscillations were detected in any cell and with any antibody. Six small cells in close vicinity to the Ia(1) neurons coexpressed CYC-like and DBT-like, and 4 to 5 of them also coexpressed aaNATlike immunoreactivity; the PER- and CRY-like antigens were each present in separate groups of 4 cells. The CYC- and aaNAT-like antigens were further colocalized in small groups of neurons in the pars intercerebralis, at the venter of the optic tract, and in the subesophageal ganglion. Remaining antibodies reacted with similarly positioned cells in the pars intercerebralis, and the DBT antibody also reacted with the cells in the subesophageal ganglion, but antigen colocalizations were not proven. The results imply that key components of the silkworm circadian system reside in the Ia(1) neurons and that additional, hierarchically arranged oscillators contribute to overt pacemaking. The retrocerebral neurohemal organs seem to serve as outlets transmitting central neural oscillations to the hemolymph. The frontal ganglion may play an autonomous function in circadian regulations. The colocalization of aaNAT- and CYC-like antigens suggests that the enzyme is functionally linked to CYC as in vertebrates and that arylalkylamines are involved in the insect output pathway. PMID:15523109

Sehadová, Hana; Markova, Elitza P; Sehnal, Frantisek; Takeda, Makio

2004-12-01

307

Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

Showstack, Randy

308

yellow and ebony Are the Responsible Genes for the Larval Color Mutants of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Many larval color mutants have been obtained in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Mapping of melanin-synthesis genes on the Bombyx linkage map revealed that yellow and ebony genes were located near the chocolate (ch) and sooty (so) loci, respectively. In the ch mutants, body color of neonate larvae and the body markings of elder instar larvae are reddish brown instead of normal black. Mutations at the so locus produce smoky larvae and black pupae. F2 linkage analyses showed that sequence polymorphisms of yellow and ebony genes perfectly cosegregated with the ch and so mutant phenotypes, respectively. Both yellow and ebony were expressed in the epidermis during the molting period when cuticular pigmentation occurred. The spatial expression pattern of yellow transcripts coincided with the larval black markings. In the ch mutants, nonsense mutations of the yellow gene were detected, whereas large deletions of the ebony ORF were detected in the so mutants. These results indicate that yellow and ebony are the responsible genes for the ch and so loci, respectively. Our findings suggest that Yellow promotes melanization, whereas Ebony inhibits melanization in Lepidoptera and that melanin-synthesis enzymes play a critical role in the lepidopteran larval color pattern. PMID:18854583

Futahashi, Ryo; Sato, Jotaro; Meng, Yan; Okamoto, Shun; Daimon, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

2008-01-01

309

Identification of a pentanucleotide telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)n, in the silkworm Bombyx mori and in other insects.  

PubMed Central

A pentanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGG)n, has been isolated from a silkworm genomic library, using cross-hybridization with a (TTNGGG)5 sequence, which is conserved among most eukaryotic telomeres. Both fluorescent in situ hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease experiments revealed major clusters of (TTAGG)n at the telomeres of all Bombyx chromosomes. To determine the evolutionary origin of this sequence, two types of telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)5 and a hexanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGGG)4, which is conserved mainly among vertebrate and several invertebrate telomeres so far examined, were hybridized to DNAs from a wide variety of eukaryotic species under highly stringent hybridization conditions. The (TTAGGG)5 oligonucleotide hybridized to genomic DNAs from vertebrates and several nonvertebrate species, as has been reported so far, but not to any DNAs from insects. On the other hand, the Bombyx type of telomere sequence, (TTAGG)n, hybridized to DNAs from 8 of 11 orders of insect species tested but not to vertebrate DNAs, suggesting that this TTAGG repetitive sequence is conserved widely among insects. Images PMID:8441388

Okazaki, S; Tsuchida, K; Maekawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H

1993-01-01

310

Casein kinase 2 during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: cDNA sequence, gene expression, and enzyme activity.  

PubMed

To clarify the property of casein kinase 2 (CK2) during early embryonic development in the silkworm, we compared the phosphorylation activities of CK2 in non-diapause and diapause eggs until 60 h after oviposition. In nondiapause eggs, the phosphorylated signals were found at each stage and became progressively stronger through each stage. On the other hand, in diapause eggs, the strongest phosphorylated signals were found at approximately 12 to 24 h after oviposition and became progressively weaker through each stage. To clarify the control mechanism of these enzyme activities, we tried to clone cDNAs encoding alpha- and beta-subunit of CK2 and analyze the gene expressions. The deduced amino acid sequence of the isolated cDNAs comprised 342 and 220 residues, and these sequences showed 85-90% identities to the alpha- and beta-subunit of CK2 in Spodoptera frugiperda. RT-PCR indicated that these genes were expressed in nondiapause and diapause eggs. However, these genes expressions were not parallel with the changes in CK2 activity. These results suggest that the changes in CK2 activity are regulated mainly at the level of post-transcription during embryonic development in Bombyx mori. PMID:16287624

Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Nakagoshi, Motoko; Kato, Tomomi; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

2005-12-01

311

Effects of RH-5992 on ecdysteroidogenesis of the prothoracic glands during the fourth larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Stage-dependent effects of RH-5992 on ecdysteroidogenesis of the prothoracic glands during the fourth larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were studied in the present report. When larvae were treated with RH-5992 during the early stages of the fourth larval instar (between day 0 and day 1), initially ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph were inhibited. However, 24 h after RH-5992 application, ecdysteroid levels were greatly increased as compared with those treated with acetone. The examination of the in vitro prothoracic gland activity upon RH-5992 application during the early stages of the fourth larval instar confirmed a short-term inhibitory effect. When RH-5992 was applied to the later stages of the fourth larval instar, no effects on both hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and prothoracic gland activity were observed. Addition of RH-5992 to incubation medium strongly inhibited ecdysteroid secretion by the prothoracic glands from the early fourth instar, indicating direct action of RH-5992 on ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands. Four hours after application with RH-5992 on day 1.5, prothoracic glands still showed an activated response to PTTH in both PTTH-cAMP signaling and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Moreover, addition of RH-5992 to incubation medium did not interfere with the stimulatory effect of the glands to PTTH in ecdysteroidogenesis. These results indicated that both PTTH-cAMP signaling and PTTH-ERK signaling may not be involved in short-term inhibitory regulation by RH-5992. PMID:18618762

Gu, Shi-Hong; Lin, Ju-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ling; Kou, Rong; Smagghe, Guy

2008-08-01

312

Identification, characterization, and crystal structure of an aldo-keto reductase (AKR2E4) from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily with 3-dehydroecdysone reductase activity was found in the silkworm Bombyx mori upon induction by the insecticide diazinon. The amino acid sequence showed that this enzyme belongs to the AKR2 family, and the protein was assigned the systematic name AKR2E4. In this study, recombinant AKR2E4 was expressed, purified to near homogeneity, and kinetically characterized. Additionally, its ternary structure in complex with NADP(+) and citrate was refined at 1.3Ĺ resolution to elucidate substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme is a 33-kDa monomer and reduces dicarbonyl compounds such as isatin and 17?-hydroxy progesterone using NADPH as a cosubstrate. No NADH-dependent activity was detected. Robust activity toward the substrate inhibitor 3-dehydroecdysone was observed, which suggests that this enzyme plays a role in regulation of the important molting hormone ecdysone. This structure constitutes the first insect AKR structure determined. Bound NADPH is located at the center of the TIM- or (?/?)8-barrel, and residues involved in catalysis are conserved. PMID:24012638

Yamamoto, Kohji; Wilson, David K

2013-10-15

313

Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Hemolysin Gene Expression of Staphylococcus aureus via Binding to Cell Surface Lipoteichoic Acids*  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that a silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin (ApoLp), binds to the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-component system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ApoLp on S. aureus hemolysin gene expression. ApoLp bound to lipoteichoic acids (LTA), an S. aureus cell surface component. The addition of purified LTA to liquid medium abolished the inhibitory effect of ApoLp against S. aureus hemolysin production. In an S. aureus knockdown mutant of ltaS encoding LTA synthetase, the inhibitory effects of ApoLp on saeQ expression and hemolysin production were attenuated. Furthermore, the addition of anti-LTA monoclonal antibody to liquid medium decreased the expression of S. aureus saeQ and hemolysin genes. In S. aureus strains expressing SaeS mutant proteins with a shortened extracellular domain, ApoLp did not decrease saeQ expression. These findings suggest that ApoLp binds to LTA on the S. aureus cell surface and inhibits S. aureus hemolysin gene expression via a two-component regulatory system, SaeRS. PMID:23873929

Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2013-01-01

314

Vitellogenin Receptor Mutation Leads to the Oogenesis Mutant Phenotype "scanty vitellin" of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

In insects, the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) mediates the uptake of vitellogenin (Vg) from the hemolymph by developing oocytes. The oogenesis mutant scanty vitellin (vit) of Bombyx mori (Bm) lacks vitellin and 30-kDa proteins, but B. mori egg-specific protein and BmVg are normal. The vit eggs are white and smaller compared with the pale yellow eggs of the wild type and are embryonic lethal. This study found that a mutation in the B. mori VgR gene (BmVgR) is responsible for the vit phenotype. We cloned the cDNA sequences encoding WT and vit BmVgR. The functional domains of BmVgR are similar to those of other low-density lipoprotein receptors. When compared with the wild type, a 235-bp genomic sequence in vit BmVgR is substituted for a 7-bp sequence. This mutation has resulted in a 50-amino acid deletion in the third Class B region of the first epidermal growth factor (EGF1) domain. BmVgR is expressed specifically in oocytes, and the transcriptional level is changed dramatically and consistently with maturation of oocytes during the previtellogenic periods. Linkage analysis confirmed that BmVgR is mutated in the vit mutant. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed that mutated BmVgR is able to bind BmVg but that BmVg cannot be dissociated under acidic conditions. The WT phenotype determined by RNA interference was similar to that of the vit phenotype for nutritional deficiency, such as BmVg and 30-kDa proteins. These results showed that BmVgR has an important role in transporting proteins for egg formation and embryonic development in B. mori. PMID:23515308

Lin, Ying; Meng, Yan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Luo, Juan; Katsuma, Susumu; Yang, Cong-Wen; Banno, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Shimada, Toru; Xia, Qing-You

2013-01-01

315

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone

W. W. L. Au

2004-01-01

316

Female African wild dogs emigrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMONG mammals, the common mechanism of individual transfer between social groups is male emigration. While studying the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus Temminck) over a period of 2 yr, we have recorded four positive cases of female group emigration, three possible cases of single female emigration, and only one possible case of male group emigration. From this we conclude that

Lory Herbison Frame; George W. Frame

1976-01-01

317

Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extracts from strawberry and mulberry fruits on cytokine secretion profiles using mouse primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.  

PubMed

This study isolated phenolic-rich extracts from strawberry (ES) and mulberry (EM) fruit juice using 70% ethanol, analyzed the individual phenolics including four flavonoid components using HPLC and assessed their cytokine secretion regulatory activities using murine primary splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that EM was rich in p-coumaric acid (20798±719?g/g dry weight), rutin (1992±26?g/g dry weight) and quercetin (81±5?g/g dry weight), but ES was relatively rich in p-coumaric acid (7475±1219?g/g dry weight), morin (101±68?g/g dry weight) and quercetin (72±42?g/g dry weight). ES and EM administration significantly decreased splenocytes' (IFN-?+IL-2+IL-12)/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) cytokine secretion ratios in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-?/IL-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios in the presence of LPS in dose-dependent manners. Our results suggest that ES and EM that are rich in p-coumaric acid, rutin, morin or quercetin, may have strong immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, via decreasing Th1/Th2 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios. PMID:23590821

Liu, Chieh-Jung; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

2013-06-01

318

Hemolymph ecdysteroid titer and ecdysteroid-dependent developmental events in the last-larval stadium of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: role of low ecdysteroid titer in larval–pupal metamorphosis and a reappraisal of the head critical period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine regulation of larval–pupal metamorphosis was studied in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by measuring the following changes: hemolymph ecdysteroid titer, the secretory activity of prothoracic glands and the responsiveness of larvae to ecdysteroids and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), with regard to developmental events such as the occurrence of spinneret pigmentation, initiation of cocoon spinning and onset of wandering stage as

Sho Sakurai; Masae Kaya; Shin'Ichirol Satake

1998-01-01

319

Rethinking the Wild Coast, South Africa  

E-print Network

Rethinking the Wild Coast, South Africa Eco-frontiers vs livelihoods in Pondoland Sylvain Guyot. Introduction to the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.................... 35 3. TRALSO's involvement in Pondoland, South Africa.................................................... 101 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Effects of the biosynthesis and signaling pathway of ecdysterone on silkworm (Bombyx mori) following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model Lepidoptera insect, is economically important. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. During the process of transition from larvae to pupae, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays an important role. The recent surge in consumer products and applications using metallic nanoparticles has increased the possibility of human or ecosystem exposure due to their unintentional release into the environment. We investigated the effects of exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the action of 20E in B. mori. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle treatment shortened the molting duration by 8 hr and prolonged the molting peak period by 10 %. Solexa sequencing profiled the changes in gene expression in the brain of fifth-instar B. mori in response to TiO2NPS exposure for 72 hr, to address the effects on hormone metabolism and regulation. Thirty one genes were differentially expressed. The transcriptional levels of pi3k and P70S6K, which are involved in the target of the rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway, were up-regulated. Transcriptional levels of four cytochrome P450 genes, which are involved in 20E biosynthesis, at different developmental stages (48, 96, 144, and 192 hr) at 5th instars of all displayed trends of increasing expression. Simultaneously, the ecdysterone receptors, also displayed increasing trends. The 20E titers at four developmental stages during the 5th instar were 1.26, 1.23, 1.72, and 2.16 fold higher, respectively, than the control group. These results indicate that feeding B. mori with TiO2 NPs stimulates 20E biosynthesis, shortens the developmental progression, and reduces the duration of molting. Thus, application of TiO2 NPs is of high significance for saving the labor force in sericulture, and our research provides a reference for the ecological problems in the field of Lepidoptera exposured to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. PMID:25139758

Li, Fanchi; Gu, Zhiya; Wang, Binbin; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lie; Xu, Kaizun; Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

2014-08-01

321

Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, ?(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=-?(d?/dt) - q/??, where ? is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ?, the dielectric constant and ?, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time ?, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and -q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[??/(?-??)](e-1/?-e-1/??) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D? and the stress drop, ?? give ?=D/D?=(??/? 0)(?/?). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/? and J=F/?? using ?? of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

Ikeya, Motoji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Huang, Qing-Hua

1998-05-01

322

Changes in the activity and the expression of detoxification enzymes in silkworms (Bombyx mori) after phoxim feeding.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect. However, non-cocoon caused by chemical insecticide poisoning has largely hindered the development of sericulture. To explore the roles of detoxification enzymes in B. mori after insecticide poisoning, we monitored the activity changes of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, glutathione-S-transferase, and carboxylesterase in B. mori midgut and fatbody after phoxim feeding. At the same time, the expression levels of detoxification enzyme-related genes were also determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Compare to the control levels, the activity of P450 in the midgut and fatbody was increased to 1.72 and 6.72 folds; the activity of GST was no change in midgut, and in fatbody increased to 1.11 folds; the activity of carboxylesterase in the midgut was decreased to 0.69 folds, and in fatbody increased to 1.13 folds. Correspondingly, the expression levels of detoxifying enzyme genes CYP6ae22, CYP9a21, GSTo1 and Bmcce were increased to 15.99, 3.32, 1.86 and 2.30 folds in the midgut and to 3.58, 1.84, 2.14 and 4.21 folds in the fatbody after phoxim treatment. These results demonstrated the important roles of detoxification enzymes in phoxim metabolism. In addition, the detected activities of such enzymes were generally lower than those in cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera), which may contribute to the high susceptibility of B. mori to insecticides. Our findings laid the foundation for further investigations of the molecular mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticide metabolism in B. mori. PMID:24238284

Wang, Y H; Gu, Z Y; Wang, J M; Sun, S S; Wang, B B; Jin, Y Q; Shen, W D; Li, B

2013-01-01

323

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation\\u000a tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of\\u000a these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the\\u000a field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone

W. W. L. Au

2004-01-01

324

Wild or Domestic Animal Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will play a game using their observation and listening skills, interpreting clues from each other to deduce their secret animal identity. Once they figure out which animal they are, they need to find their wild counterpart, regroup and discuss their animalâs characteristics. Younger learners can play a variation of this game by matching adult and baby animals. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Farm Animals.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

325

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

326

Authorship attribution in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous work on authorship attribution has focused on the case in which we need to attribute an anonymous document to\\u000a one of a small set of candidate authors. In this paper, we consider authorship attribution as found in the wild: the set of\\u000a known candidates is extremely large (possibly many thousands) and might not even include the actual author.

Moshe Koppel; Jonathan Schler; Shlomo Argamon

2011-01-01

327

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

328

Wheel running in the wild  

PubMed Central

The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise. PMID:24850923

Meijer, Johanna H.; Robbers, Yuri

2014-01-01

329

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Wild Adventure Space Citation for published version: Ward Thompson, C, Travlou, P, Roe, J & Orme, A 2010, Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives. Natural England Thompson, C., Travlou, P., Roe, J., & Orme, A. (2010). Wild Adventure Space: its role in teenagers' lives

Edinburgh, University of

330

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF WILD TOMATOES  

E-print Network

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF WILD TOMATOES (SOLANUM L. SECT. LYCOPERSICON) Iris E. Peralta and David M. Spooner ABSTRACT. Wild tomatoes (Solanum L. sect. Lycopersicon (Mill of morphological data to examine distinctness and relationships of all 10 wild tomato species (including the newly

Spooner, David

331

INTRODUCTION All wild tomato species (Solanum section  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION All wild tomato species (Solanum section Lycopersicon) (see Table 1 for species list informally treat wild tomatoes (Table 1) in subsection Lycopersicon to provide a coordinate name., 2003). Wild S. lycopersicum is supported as the ancestor of cultivated tomatoes, and the species occurs

Spooner, David

332

Project WILD: Aquatic Education Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD is an interdisciplinary, supplementary environmental and conservation education program which emphasizes wildlife. This document is one guide developed by Project WILD with the specific purpose of focusing on aquatic wildlife, or any wild animals that depend upon aquatic environments for survival. The book contains instructional…

Memphis State Univ., TN. Tennessee Administrative Software Clearinghouse.

333

Satellite remote sensing of wild rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) is a primary staple for Native Americans in the northern United States and there is a strong need to timely map and monitor its production on American Indian Reservations. This paper describes a methodology for the detection and classification of wild rice using satellite remote sensing. Landsat-7 data were used to map and estimate wild rice

R. C. Frohn

2001-01-01

334

Expression of human papillomavirus 6b L1 protein in silkworm larvae and enhanced green fluorescent protein displaying on its virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 6b L1 capsid protein was expressed using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system in silkworm larvae. Two constructs, full-length L1 (500 a.a) and C-terminal-deleted short L1 (479 a.a), and three PCR-manipulated antigenic loops at amino acids 55-56, 174-175, and 348-349 regions were incorporated with whole enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Expressed in full, short L1 proteins and variants were purified in heparin affinity column chromatography and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. The presence of self-assembled virus-like particles (VLPs) and EGFP incorporation on the surface of VLPs were confirmed by the observation of transmission electron and immunoelectron microscopies, respectively. HPV 6b L1 major capsid protein was successfully expressed in silkworm, and effective manipulation on the antigenic regions showed the path to versatile vaccine development based on HPV L1-VLPs. PMID:23961359

Palaniyandi, Muthukutty; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2012-01-01

335

Single amino acid mutation in an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene causes resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ab in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Bt toxins derived from the arthropod bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis are widely used for insect control as insecticides or in transgenic crops. Bt resistance has been found in field populations of several lepidopteran pests and in laboratory strains selected with Bt toxin. Widespread planting of crops expressing Bt toxins has raised concerns about the potential increase of resistance mutations in targeted insects. By using Bombyx mori as a model, we identified a candidate gene for a recessive form of resistance to Cry1Ab toxin on chromosome 15 by positional cloning. BGIBMGA007792-93, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter similar to human multidrug resistance protein 4 and orthologous to genes associated with recessive resistance to Cry1Ac in Heliothis virescens and two other lepidopteran species, was expressed in the midgut. Sequences of 10 susceptible and seven resistant silkworm strains revealed a common tyrosine insertion in an outer loop of the predicted transmembrane structure of resistant alleles. We confirmed the role of this ATP-binding cassette transporter gene in Bt resistance by converting a resistant silkworm strain into a susceptible one by using germline transformation. This study represents a direct demonstration of Bt resistance gene function in insects with the use of transgenesis. PMID:22635270

Atsumi, Shogo; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Narukawa, Junko; Kawai, Sawako; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Wada, Sanae; Kanda, Kohzo; Goldsmith, Marian R; Noda, Hiroaki

2012-06-19

336

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However, due to limitations in data availability, this approach of environmental accounting is not fully implemented yet. Keywords: fire vulnerability, damage assessment, land cover restoration, long-term fire risk, European scale

Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

2012-04-01

337

cDNA cloning, expression, and characterization of an arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein, AgeHex2, from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari.  

PubMed

An arylphorin-like hexameric storage protein, AgeHex2, cDNA was cloned from the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), larval cDNA library. The complete cDNA sequence of AgeHex2 is comprised of 2,088 bp encoding 696 amino acid residues. The AgeHex2 had four potential N-glycosylation sites. The AgeHex2 contained the highly conserved two larval storage protein signature motifs. The deduced protein sequence of AgeHex2 showed high homology with A. germari hexamerin1 (51% amino acid identity), Tenebrio molitor hexamerin2 (49% amino acid identity), T. molitor early-staged encapsulation inducing protein (43% amino acid identity), and Leptinotarsa decemlineata diapause protein1 (43% amino acid identity). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the AgeHex2 is more closely related to coleopteran hexamerins than to the other insect storage proteins. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the AgeHex2 showed fat body-specific expression. The cDNA encoding AgeHex2 was expressed as a 75-kDa protein in the baculovirus-infected insect cells. Furthermore, N-glycosylation of the recombinant AgeHex2 was revealed by tunicamycin to the recombinant virus-infected Sf9 cells, demonstrating that the AgeHex2 is N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal antiserum against recombinant AgeHex2 indicated that the AgeHex2 corresponds to a 75-kDa storage protein present in the A. germari larval hemolymph. PMID:15146541

Kim, Seong Ryul; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Park, Nam Sook; Lee, Sang Mong; Je, Yeon Ho; Jin, Byung Rae; Sohn, Hung Dae

2004-06-01

338

Echolocation signals of wild dolphins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of our understanding of dolphin echolocation has come from studies of captive dolphins performing various echolocation tasks. Recently, measurements of echolocation signals in the wild have expanded our understanding of the characteristics of these signals in a natural setting. Measuring undistorted dolphin echolocation signals with free swimming dolphins in the field can be a challenging task. A four hydrophone array arranged in a symmetrical star pattern was used to measure the echolocation signals of four species of dolphins in the wild. Echolocation signals of the following dolphins have been measured with the symmetrical star array: white-beaked dolphins in Iceland, Atlantic spotted dolphins in the Bahamas, killer whales in British Columbia, and dusky dolphins in New Zealand. There are many common features in the echolocation signals of the different species. Most of the signals had spectra that were bimodal: two peaks, one at low frequencies and another about an octave higher in frequency. The source level of the sonar transmission varies as a function of 20log R, suggesting a form of time-varying gain but on the transmitting end of the sonar process rather than the receiving end. The results of the field work call into question the issue of whether the signals used by captive dolphins may be shaped by the task they are required to perform rather than what they would do more naturally.

Au, W. W. L.

2004-07-01

339

Echolocation in wild toothed whales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Don Griffin showed more than 50 years ago that bats echolocate for orientation and to capture prey. Experiments also demonstrated that captive dolphins can echolocate; more recent work parallels Griffin's work with bats in the wild. Digital acoustic recording tags were attached to sperm and beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris and Mesoplodon densirostris, to record outgoing clicks and incoming echoes. The sperm whale data show echoes from the sea surface and seafloor, which are probably used for orientation and obstacle avoidance. When diving, sperm whales adjust their interclick interval as they change their pitch angle, consistent with the hypothesis that they are echolocating on a horizontal layer at the depth at which they will feed. This suggests that they may be listening for volume reverberation to select a prey patch. The beam pattern of sperm whales includes a narrow, forward-directed high-frequency beam probably used for prey detection, and a broader, backward-directed lower-frequency beam probably used for orientation. Beaked whales produce directional clicks with peak frequencies in the 25-40-kHz region. Echoes from individual prey items have been detected from clicks of beaked whales. This opens a new window into the study of how animals use echolocation to forage in the wild.

Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Zimmer, Walter M. X.

2001-05-01

340

A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1?:?1?:?1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6?g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75?g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P = 0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P = 0.014) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P = 0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D. PMID:22474520

Kim, H.-J.; Yoon, K.-H.; Kang, M.-J.; Yim, H.-W.; Lee, K.-S.; Vuksan, V.; Sung, M.-K.

2012-01-01

341

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/? bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5?- and 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found similar to the deduced amino acid sequence (without the transit peptide sequence) of the full length cDNA from M. alba. PMID:23284650

Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

2012-01-01

342

RIP-seq of BmAgo2-associated small RNAs reveal various types of small non-coding RNAs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. Previously, only microRNAs (miRNAs) and piRNAs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Furthermore, only ncRNAs (50-500nt) of intermediate size have been systematically identified in the silkworm. Results Here, we performed a systematic identification and analysis of small RNAs (18-50nt) associated with the Bombyx mori argonaute2 (BmAgo2) protein. Using RIP-seq, we identified various types of small ncRNAs associated with BmAGO2. These ncRNAs showed a multimodal length distribution, with three peaks at ~20nt, ~27nt and ~33nt, which included tRNA-, transposable element (TE)-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. The tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) were found at an extremely high abundance and accounted for 69.90% of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs. Northern blotting confirmed that many tRFs were expressed or up-regulated only in the BmNPV-infected cells, implying that the tRFs play a prominent role by binding to BmAgo2 during BmNPV infection. Additional evidence suggested that there are potential cleavage sites on the D, anti-codon and T?C loops of the tRNAs. TE-derived small RNAs and piRNAs also accounted for a significant proportion of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs, suggesting that BmAgo2 could be involved in the maintenance of genome stability by suppressing the activities of transposons guided by these small RNAs. Finally, Northern blotting was also used to confirm the Bombyx 5.8 s rRNA-derived small RNAs, demonstrating that various novel small RNAs exist in the silkworm. Conclusions Using an RIP-seq method in combination with Northern blotting, we identified various types of small RNAs associated with the BmAgo2 protein, including tRNA-, TE-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. Our findings provide new clues for future functional studies of the role of small RNAs in insect development and evolution. PMID:24074203

2013-01-01

343

Wild Ungulate Farming Systems and Product Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

FARMING SYSTEMS Wild ungulate farming—that of red deer, fallow deer, roe deer, moufflon, and wild boar—in Italy is carried out with two main purposes: animal restocking and meat production. The first generally includes game for the restocking of shooting preserves (faunistico-venatorie and agri-turistico-venatorie private lands), since captive-reared ungulates should not be extensively used for reintroduction into the wild or restocking

E. Piasentier; S. Bovolenta; M. Viliani

2005-01-01

344

Influenza infection in wild raccoons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in seroprevalence. Experimental infection studies showed that raccoons become infected with avian and human influenza A viruses, shed and transmit virus to virus-free animals, and seroconvert. Analyses of cellular receptors showed that raccoons have avian and human type receptors with a similar distribution as found in human respiratory tracts. The potential exists for co-infection of multiple subtypes of influenza virus with genetic reassortment and creation of novel strains of influenza virus. Experimental and field data indicate that raccoons may play an important role in influenza disease ecology and pose risks to agriculture and human health.

Hall, J.S.; Bentler, K.T.; Landolt, G.; Elmore, S.A.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.C.; Root, J.J.; Pilon, J.; Pabilonia, K.; Driscoll, C.; Slate, D.; Sullivan, H.; McLean, R.G.

2008-01-01

345

Radiosurgery using heavy ion microbeams for biological study: Fate mapping of the cellular blastoderm-stage egg of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of heavy ions on embryogenesis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori using a collimated heavy ion microbeam from the vertical beam line of an AVF-cyclotron. Eggs were exposed to carbon ions at the cellular blastoderm stage. Microbeams were found to be extremely useful for radio-microsurgical inactivation of nuclei or cells in the target site. Spot irradiation caused abnormal embryos, which showed localized defects such as deletion, duplication and fusion, depending on dose, beam size and site of irradiation. The location and frequency of defects on the resultant embryos were closely correlated to the irradiation site. Based on this correlation, a fate map was established for the Bombyx egg at the cellular blastoderm stage.

Kiguchi, Kenji; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tu, Zhen-Li; Funayama, Tomoo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

346

BmToll9, an Arthropod conservative Toll, is likely involved in the local gut immune response in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Toll family of transmembrane proteins mediates signaling during the innate immune response in most animals. Toll9 is widespread in insects and has a unique signature, QHR, in its Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The introns in the TIR region are highly conserved among insects, suggesting the antiquity of Toll9 genes. Toll9 of Bombyx mori (BmToll9) was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. BmToll9 is constitutively expressed in egg, larval and adult stages prior to microbial challenge. BmToll9 is strongly expressed in the different parts of the gut, but weakly expressed in haemocytes, trachea, fat body, malpighian tubule and epidermis, and scarcely expressed in the silk glands. The injection of sterilized 0.85% NaCl solution inhibited BmToll9 expression in most tissues especially during the early responses. Staphylococcus aureus had no or limited effect on the expression of BmToll9 in the silkworm gut and fat body. But in epidermis, trachea, malpighian tubules and haemocytes, the expression of BmToll9 was significantly increased after S. aureus challenge. Infection of Escherichia coli significantly increased the BmToll9 expression in different parts of the gut as well as in epidermis, malpighian tubule and haemocytes. At 48h after feeding of the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, BmToll9 expression was significantly increased. Tissues responses to the injected and ingested bacteria showed that BmToll9 is probably involved in the local gut immune response in the silkworm. PMID:19723534

Wu, Shan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaomei; Cao, Pingsheng; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Ling, Erjun

2010-02-01

347

Environmental Assessment Wild Horse Gathering for the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Worland Field Office (WFO), proposes to gather excess wild horses in the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA), during the fall of 2000. This action would be implemented under the authority of the Wild Free...

2000-01-01

348

Leptospirosis in Urban Wild Boars, Berlin, Germany  

PubMed Central

We found antibodies to leptospires in 25 (18%) of 141 wild boars from Berlin (95% confidence interval 12–25). Seropositivity was associated with chronic interstitial nephritis (odds ratio 10.5; p = 0.01), and leptospires were detected in kidney tissues. Wild boars represent a potential source for human leptospirosis in urban environments. PMID:17553254

Luge, Enno; Guerra, Beatriz; Wittschen, Petra; Gruber, Achim D.; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Lierz, Michael; Ehlert, Derk; Appel, Bernd; Stark, Klaus; Nockler, Karsten

2007-01-01

349

The Wild Blueberry Industry—Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, presented as part of a symposium at the 9th North American Blueberry Research and Extension Workers Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, August 18-21, 2002, traces the early history of the wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, Aiton, and Vaccinium myrtilloides, Michaux) in eastern North America. Wild blueberry production is traced from consumption of native blueberries by animals and native North

George W. Wood

2004-01-01

350

Precursor Polyprotein for Multiple Neuropeptides Secreted from the Suboesophageal Ganglion of the Silkworm Bombyx mori: Characterization of the cDNA Encoding the Diapause Hormone Precursor and Identification of Additional Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidergic neurons, which serve as source of various endocrine neuropeptides, were identified in the suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and brain of insects. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, SG is known to secrete two neuropeptides, diapause hormone (DH) responsible for induction of embryonic diapause and pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide, which share a pentapeptide amide, Phe-Xaa-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH_2 (Xaa = Gly or Ser), at the C

Yukihiro Sato; Masaaki Oguchi; Nobuo Menjo; Kunio Imai; Hiroyuki Saito; Motoko Ikeda; Minoru Isobe; Okitsugu Yamashita

1993-01-01

351

Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

2009-01-01

352

January 2006 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains -2006  

E-print Network

- University of Minnesota Good wild oat control with any herbicide requires proper timing of applications. Postemergence wild oat herbicides require application to wild oats and crops at precise leaf stages. Leaf number for the advantages any one wild oat herbicide might offer. Early wild oat control can result in better yields because

Minnesota, University of

353

January 2002 Wild Oat Control In Small Grains -2002  

E-print Network

of Minnesota Good wild oat control with any herbicide requires proper timing of applications. Postemergence wild oat herbicides require application to wild oats and crops at precise leaf stages. Leaf number for the advantages any one wild oat herbicide might offer. Early wild oat control can result in better yields because

Minnesota, University of

354

Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

Holubetz, Terry B.

1995-11-01

355

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2014-01-01

356

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2011-01-01

357

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2012-01-01

358

7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and...

2013-01-01

359

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters species but its application for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We populations (Thompson et al. 1998; Bibby et al. 2000). However, many wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survey

Butler, Matthew J.

360

Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

Nature Study, 1984

1984-01-01

361

THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

362

York's Wild Kingdom : a development proposal  

E-print Network

York's Wild Kingdom is a privately held zoo and amusement park in York, a Massachusetts based shopping center developer and investment compa Kingdom and the 150 acres that surround it. The community is culturaIl ( and York ...

Rae, Kimberley Whiting

2008-01-01

363

Abstract The fitness of crop-wild hybrids can influence gene flow between crop and wild populations. Seed pre-  

E-print Network

predation, seeds were collect- ed from wild sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) and wild�crop F1 hybrids Crop-wild hybridization · Seed predation · Sunflower · Helianthus annuus Introduction Gene flow between

Snow, Allison A.

364

Wild and Weed Azuki Beans in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild azuki bean, a progenitor of an Asiatic food legume (Vigna angularis var.nipponensis: Fabaceae), and its weed form are distributed widely in the Japanese Archipelago. The straggling or climbing wildform occurs\\u000a in sleeve or mantle plant communities, and the weakly climbing or bushy weed form is found in relatively open human-disturbed\\u000a habitats. The wild form has small seeds with a

Hirofumi Yamaguchi

1992-01-01

365

Experimental challenges of wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams.  

PubMed

Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, are widely harvested in the coastal waters in Japan. However, there have been significant decreases in the populations of Manila clams since the 1980s. It is thought that infection with the protozoan Perkinsus species has contributed to these decreases. A previous study demonstrated that high infection levels of a pure strain of Perkinsus olseni (ATCC PRA-181) were lethal to hatchery-raised small Manila clams, however, the pathogenicity of wild strain Perkinsus species to wild Manila clam is unclear. To address this, we challenged large (30-40 mm in shell length) and small (3-15 mm in shell length) wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams. We report high mortalities among the small clams, but not among the large ones. This is the first report to confirm the pathogenicity of wild isolate of Perkinsus species to wild Manila clams. PMID:22687350

Waki, Tsukasa; Shimokawa, Jun; Watanabe, Shinji; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-15

366

Commercially Farmed and Wild-Caught Salmon  

E-print Network

Salmon is the second most popular type of fish eaten in America. It tastes savory and earthy, yet slightly sweet and is among the richest sources of long-chain omega-3 fats. It is also full of high quality protein, vitamins, and minerals. Research shows that eating fish like salmon promotes healthy hearts and brain development. All types of commercial salmon are healthful to eat. The most readily available kinds in the U.S. are wild Pacific and farmed Atlantic salmon. Farmed and wild salmon are similar in many ways. Frequently asked questions about salmon How do farm-raised and wild-caught salmon differ? Farm-raised and wild-caught salmon are usually different species of fish. Most farm-raised salmon are Atlantic salmon. Wild populations of Atlantic salmon are generally at very low levels and their commercial harvest is limited. Farm-raised fish are hatched, raised, and harvested under controlled conditions similar to other farmed animals except they are raised in water. Farmed Atlantic salmon are readily available year-round in fresh or frozen forms. Most wild-caught salmon are one of five species of Pacific salmon. They are harvested by fishing with a variety of gear types mostly in the north Pacific from about June through

unknown authors

367

Rio Grande Wild Turkey in Texas: Biology and Management  

E-print Network

plantago wild onion juniper rescuegrass walnut ground-cherry pigeonberry filaree wild mercury silverleaf nightshade ephedra honey mesquite gaura pecan agarita sand dropseed green matter lotebrush catnip noseburn bladderpod tobosa panicgrass evening... plantago wild onion juniper rescuegrass walnut ground-cherry pigeonberry filaree wild mercury silverleaf nightshade ephedra honey mesquite gaura pecan agarita sand dropseed green matter lotebrush catnip noseburn bladderpod tobosa panicgrass evening...

Cathey, James; Melton, Kyle; Dreibelbis, Justin; Cavney, Bob; Locke, Shawn; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

2007-09-11

368

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We surveyed Rio Grande wild turkey (M et al. 1998; Bibby et al. 2000). However, many wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survey efforts have

Wallace, Mark C.

369

Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been added using four measurement methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chemiluminescence, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR). High antioxidative properties of sericin proteins were indicated by all four methods. A comparison of the two types of sericin proteins revealed that yellow-green sericin protein exhibited high antioxidative properties as indicated by the DPPH, chemiluminescence and ORAC methods. By contrast, a higher antioxidative property was determined in white sericin protein by the ESR method. Consequently, our findings confirmed that sericin proteins have antioxidative properties against multiple radicals. In addition, the antioxidative property of bread was enhanced by the addition of sericin powder to the bread. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that sericin proteins may be efficiently used as beneficial food for human health. PMID:24748975

TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

2014-01-01

370

Comparative Study of Total Hydroperoxides and Antioxidant Defense System in the Indian Tropical Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, in Diapausing and Non-Diapausing Generations  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the total hydroperoxides, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, and ascorbic acid contents were determined in different developmental stages of the non-diapause and the diapause generation of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The results showed stage-specific significantly higher levels of total hydroperoxides, catalase, and ascorbic acid contents in the non-diapause as compared to the diapause generation (p < 0.05). However, a significantly enhanced level of glutathione-S-transferase activity was observed in mature 5th instar larvae of the diapause generation (p < 0.05). In the case of pupae, significantly higher levels of total hydroperoxides, catalase, and glutathione-s-transferase activity were observed in the non-diapause generation (p < 0.05). These results could be the effect of intensive metabolic transformation that takes place in tissues of the non-diapause generation and causes increased production of reactive oxygen species, such as hydroperoxides. The results suggest that antioxidants play an important role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species. PMID:24786341

Jena, Karmabeer; Kar, Prasanta K.; Babu, Chittithoti S.; Giri, Shantakar; Singh, Shyam S.; Prasad, Bhagwan C.

2013-01-01

371

Genome-wide comparison of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of juvenile hormone between silkworm and other insects  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) contributes to the regulation of larval molting and metamorphosis in insects. Herein, we comprehensively identified 55 genes involved in JH biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) as well as 35 in Drosophila melanogaster, 35 in Anopheles gambiae, 36 in Apis mellifera, 47 in Tribolium castaneum, and 44 in Danaus plexippus. Comparative analysis showed that each gene involved in the early steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, in the neuropeptide regulation of JH biosynthesis, or in JH signaling is a single copy in B. mori and other surveyed insects, indicating that these JH-related pathways or steps are likely conserved in all surveyed insects. However, each gene participating in the isoprenoid branch of JH biosynthesis and JH metabolism, together with the FPPS genes for catalyzing the final step of the MVA pathway of JH biosynthesis, exhibited an obvious duplication in Lepidoptera, including B. mori and D. plexippus. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that different copies of several JH-related genes presented expression changes that correlated with the dynamics of JH titer during larval growth and metamorphosis. Taken together, the findings suggest that duplication-derived copy variation of JH-related genes might be evolutionarily associated with the variation of JH types between Lepidoptera and other insect orders. In conclusion, our results provide useful clues for further functional analysis of JH-related genes in B. mori and other insects. PMID:25071411

Cheng, Daojun; Meng, Meng; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Kang, Lixia; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

372

Silkworm exuviae--a new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

In this paper, silkworm exuviae (SE) waste, an agricultural waste available in large quantity in China, was utilized as low-cost adsorbent to remove basic dye (methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution by adsorption. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that MB adsorption onto SE for different initial dye concentrations all followed pseudo-second order kinetics and were mainly controlled by the film diffusion mechanism. Batch equilibrium results at different temperatures suggest that MB adsorption onto SE can be described perfectly with Freundlich isotherm model compared with Langmuir and D-R isotherm models, and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were also determined. Thermodynamic parameters calculated show the adsorption process has been found to be endothermic in nature. The analysis for the values of the mean free energies of adsorption (E(a)), the Gibbs free energy (?G(0)) and the effect of ionic strength all demonstrate that the whole adsorption process is mainly dominated by ion-exchange mechanism, which has also been verified by variations in FT-IR spectra and pH value before and after adsorption and desorption studies. The results reveal that SE can be employed as a low-cost alternative to other adsorbents for MB adsorption. PMID:21185648

Chen, Hao; Zhao, Jie; Dai, Guoliang

2011-02-28

373

Lipid transfer particle from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a novel member of the apoB/large lipid transfer protein family[S  

PubMed Central

Lipid transfer particle (LTP) is a high-molecular-weight, very high-density lipoprotein known to catalyze the transfer of lipids between a variety of lipoproteins, including both insects and vertebrates. Studying the biosynthesis and regulation pathways of LTP in detail has not been possible due to a lack of information regarding the apoproteins. Here, we sequenced the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences for three apoproteins of LTP from the silkworm (Bombyx mori). The three subunit proteins of the LTP are coded by two genes, apoLTP-II/I and apoLTP-III. ApoLTP-I and apoLTP-II are predicted to be generated by posttranslational cleavage of the precursor protein, apoLTP-II/I. Clusters of amphipathic secondary structure within apoLTP-II/I are similar to Homo sapiens apolipoprotein B (apoB) and insect lipophorins. The apoLTP-II/I gene is a novel member of the apoB/large lipid transfer protein gene family. ApoLTP-III has a putative conserved juvenile hormone-binding protein superfamily domain. Expression of apoLTP-II/I and apoLTP-III genes was synchronized and both genes were primarily expressed in the fat body at the stage corresponding to increased lipid transport needs. We are now in a position to study in detail the physiological role of LTP and its biosynthesis and assembly. PMID:23812557

Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takeru; Yuasa, Masashi; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Sakudoh, Takashi; Honda, Naoko; Fugo, Hajime; Tsuchida, Kozo

2013-01-01

374

Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.  

PubMed

Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixăo, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

2014-06-16

375

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve  

E-print Network

The Wild, Wild World of Education: Teacher Workshop in Yukon ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve ­ Charley Rivers National Preserve. This hands-on course will include a four day stay in historic Coal Creek Camp, a restored mining camp off the Yukon River in the heart of the preserve. Along with park staff

Sikes, Derek S.

376

Analysis of genetic information of an insect picorna-like virus, infectious flacherie virus of silkworm: evidence for evolutionary relationships among insect, mammalian and plant picorna(-like) viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?We synthesized the cDNAs of an insect picornavirus, infectious flacherie virus of silkworm (IFV), genomic RNA and inserted\\u000a it into a bacterial plasmid (pUC119). The 9?650 nucleotides (nts) sequence except for the poly(A) tail was obtained from the\\u000a cloned cDNAs, and the sequence integrity was confirmed by primer extension and direct RNA sequencing. The sequence has a large\\u000a open reading

H. Isawa; S. Asano; K. Sahara; T. Iizuka; H. Bando

1998-01-01

377

Project WILD--From Awareness to Action!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses goals of Project WILD, an environmental and conservation program emphasizing wildlife. Includes instructions for using and sample of "dilemma cards" which allow students to read, discuss, make judgments, and write about hypothetical dilemmas concerning wildlife and/or natural resources. (BC)

Charles, Cheryl; Schafer, Rudy

1984-01-01

378

Subtle sabotage: endocrine disruption in wild populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

How important is endocrine disruption as a threat to wildlife populations? This review applies causal criteria to existing studies of wild populations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals to answer three questions: (1) Have endocrine-mediated effects of contaminant exposure been documented? (2) Have individual adverse effects that could lead to population effects been documented? (3) Have population level effects

Ann Oliver Cheek

2006-01-01

379

Rabies and African Wild Dogs in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a

P. W. Kat; K. A. Alexander; J. S. Smith; L. Munson

1995-01-01

380

Predicting the Wild Salmon Production Using Bayesian  

E-print Network

what can be learned from the existing real-world data for two Gulf of Bothnia rivers, Simo and Tornio by environmental factors such as the M74 syndrome. 2. The parr stage. This is the period lasting from one up, and develop models for the prediction of wild smolt production, using real- world data from two Gulf

Myllymäki, Petri

381

Mineral elements determination in wild edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral element composition is given for the leaves of 7 species of edible wild plants used by the first European farmers which are still consumed today. This is the first comprehensive nutrient report on most of these species of leafy green vegetables. Moisture, ash, organic nitrogen, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese were determined. Plants harvested

J. L. Guil Guerrero; M. E. Torua Isasa

1999-01-01

382

Nutritional evaluation of some Nigerian wild seeds.  

PubMed

Some wild seeds, namely Parkia biglobosa, Tetracarpidum conophorum, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Irvingia gabonensis, Afzelia africana, Prosporis africana and Monodora myristica, were randomly collected from various parts of Nigeria and analyzed with regard to their proximate, mineral, antinutrient composition and zinc bioavailability. The results revealed that the seeds had high protein (6.5-24.2%), fat (19.0-58.5%), mineral (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P) and phytate (1043.6-2905.2 mg/100 g) contents, while the cyanide content was low (3.7-6.4 mg/kg). However, Co, Pb and Ni were not detected in all the samples. The calculated [Ca] [phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios (which is the best index for predicting Zn bioavailability) for all the seeds revealed that Parkia biglobosa, Irvingia gabonensis and Prosporis africana had a calculated molar ratio above 0.50 mol/kg (critical level), thus indicating reduced bioavailability of Zn to a critical level. In view of the high fat, protein, mineral and low cyanide contents, the high phytate content would not be expected to reduce bioavailability of Zn in some of the wild seeds (Afzelia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Monodora myristica). These wild seeds could be good nutrient sources if integrated fully into human and animal nutrition. However, further studies will be carried out on the protein quality and toxicological potentials of these wild seeds. PMID:15146961

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ekperigin, M Mofoluso

2004-04-01

383

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

384

Who Speaks for Wolf? Not Project WILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project WILD, a Canadian elementary school curriculum supplement about wildlife and the environment, is seriously flawed in that it presents a human-centered view of the world while purporting to be unbiased. This anthropocentric perspective, in which humans are alienated from the environment and in control of nature by technological means, is in…

Horwood, Bert

385

IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY OF CAPTIVE AND WILD BIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have the potential to alter the immune response of laboratory or free-ranging animals. s a consequence, wild animals may become more susceptible to microbial or parasitic diseases; there is ample evidence that free-ranging wildlife f...

386

Heritage from the Wild Boy of Aveyron.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts efforts made between 1801 and 1806 by French physician Itard to educate Victor, a boy found living in the wild in Aveyron. Explains how Itard's work with Victor, which met with limited success, led to the establishment of a school for educating clinical idiots. Describes procedures developed by Itard that are basic to the current…

Hunter, Ian M. L.

1993-01-01

387

The End of the Wild Stephen Meyer  

E-print Network

Meyer died. As he said a few days before his death, "This will undoubtedly be the last article I ever), the end of poverty (Sachs) and the end of civilisation (Lovelock). We do truly seem to be living to eventual distinction, or at least loss from the wild. His account then takes us through the five categories

Hulme, Mike

388

?-amylase Variation in Wild Barley Accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of ?-amylase among 19 species (27 taxa, 337 accessions) of wild barley, including Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (174 accessions), H. bulbosum (33), H. murinum (81), H. marinum (28), H. brachyantherum (4), H. jubatum (2), H. chilense (2) and H. roshevitzii (2) were studied using both isoelectric focusing (IEF) and thermostability analysis. Wide genetic variations were found. In general, the

Wensheng Zhang; Takafumi Kaneko; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2004-01-01

389

Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amŕlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

2014-08-01

390

Canine Parvovirus VP2 Protein Expressed in Silkworm Pupae Self-Assembles into Virus-Like Particles with High Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs) by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease. PMID:24465364

Wang, Hua-lei; Liang, Meng; Liang, Hongru; Guo, He; Zhao, Pingsen; Yang, Yu-jiao; Zheng, Xue-xing; Zhang, Zhi-fang; Zhao, Yong-kun; Gao, Yu-wei; Yang, Song-tao; Xia, Xian-zhu

2014-01-01

391

Immunological studies of insect metamorphosis. II. The role of a sex-limited blood protein in egg formation by the Cecropia silkworm.  

PubMed

1. In the pupal stage of the cecropia silkworm, antigen 7, a protein with the solubility characteristics of an albumin, is present in female blood in approximately a thousand times higher concentration than in the blood of males. Antigen 7 is undetectable in the blood of larvae of either sex. It first appears in the blood after the larva has spun its cocoon, and is present throughout all subsequent stages of metamorphosis. Late in the pupal-adult transformation, when the eggs are produced, the concentration of antigen 7 in female blood decreases significantly. 2. An antigen which could not be distinguished from antigen 7 immunologically is present in solution in the yolk of unfertilized eggs. 3. In females which, by ovariectomy, were prevented from forming eggs, the concentration of antigen 7 in the blood increased during the usual period of egg formation rather than undergoing the normal decrease. Ovaries transferred to the hemocoel of males produced eggs but were unable to incorporate antigen 7 in the yolk unless a detectable amount of the protein was present in the blood. The ovaries of polyphemus females which had been transfused with cecropia blood incorporated cecropia antigen 7 into the eggs they produced. These lines of evidence indicate that antigen 7 is secreted into the blood by some tissue other than the ovaries, and that it is subsequently drawn from the blood and deposited in the yolk. 4. The concentration of antigen 7 in the clear, liquid fraction of the yolk is four times higher than the maximum concentration attained in the blood during metamorphosis, and twenty times higher than that of the blood at the conclusion of egg formation. The protein thus appears to be transferred from blood to yolk against a concentration gradient. PMID:13143187

TELFER, W H

1954-03-01

392

Exon 3 Splicing and Mutagenesis Identify Residues Influencing Cell Surface Density of Heterologously Expressed Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channels.  

PubMed

Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in invertebrate nervous systems. Insect GluCls show alternative splicing, and, to determine its impact on channel function and pharmacology, we isolated GluCl cDNAs from larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mori). We show that six B. mori glutamate-gated chloride channel variants are generated by splicing in exons 3 and 9 and that exons 3b and 3c are common in the brain and third thoracic ganglion. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the three functional exon 3 variants (3a, b, c) all had similar EC50 values for l-glutamate and ivermectin (IVM); however, Imax (the maximum l-glutamate- and IVM-induced response of the channels at saturating concentrations) differed strikingly between variants, with the 3c variant showing the largest l-glutamate- and IVM-induced responses. By contrast, a partial deletion detected in exon 9 had a much smaller impact on l-glutamate and IVM actions. Binding assays using [(3)H]IVM indicate that diversity in IVM responses among the GluCl variants is mainly due to the impact on channel assembly, altering receptor cell surface numbers. GluCl variants expressed in HEK293 cells show that structural differences influenced Bmax but not Kd values of [(3)H]IVM. Domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis identified four amino acids in exon 3c as hot spots determining the highest amplitude of the l-glutamate and IVM responses. Modeling the GluCl 3a and 3c variants suggested that three of the four amino acids contribute to intersubunit contacts, whereas the other interacts with the TM2-TM3 linker, influencing the receptor response. PMID:25261427

Furutani, Shogo; Ihara, Makoto; Nishino, Yuri; Akamatsu, Miki; Jones, Andrew K; Sattelle, David B; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

2014-12-01

393

OMEGA-GROUPS Group Theory For Wild Topology  

E-print Network

OMEGA-GROUPS Group Theory For Wild Topology Allan J. Sieradski The algebraic topology of locally. But for wild spaces, by which we mean metric spaces with arbitrarily small essential fea- tures, new group

394

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011  

E-print Network

CIIE Symposium on Wild Immunology 30th June 2011 Lecture Theatre 3, Ashworth Labs, Edinburgh All (University of Edinburgh): An introduction to Wild Immunology 10:15 Jan Bradley (University of Nottingham

Maizels, Rick

395

Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the  

E-print Network

, USA ABSTRACT We recorded telemetry locations from 1,129 radiotagged turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo cattle grazing, habitat use, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, nesting ecology, Rio Grande wild turkey. Interactions between cattle and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) varied depending on local habitat

396

Wild, Free-Roaming Horses - An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a comprehensive annotated list of articles, books, manuscripts, etc. on Wild Horses. Because of the limited information available specifically on Wild Horses, much of the information included in the bibliogra...

M. Zarn, T. Heller, K. Collins

1977-01-01

397

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats  

E-print Network

Original article Competitive ability of wheat cultivars with wild oats depending on nitrogen ­ In a field experiment, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grew with the infesting weed wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis.  

PubMed

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to > 80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds. PMID:8722273

Samuel, M D; Goldberg, D R; Thomas, C B; Sharp, P; Robb, J R; Krapu, G L; Nersessian, B N; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Chipley, W H; Conroy, M J

1996-04-01

399

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

400

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize the ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.

1996-01-01

401

Exposure of wild waterfowl to Mycoplasma anatis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an ELISA procedure to assess the presence of M. Anatis-specific serum antibody in ducks. Sera from exposed and unexposed Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to standardize tile ELISA and to establish reference ranges to classify ELISA results as exposed or not exposed. We conducted serological surveys of female waterfowl in the central and eastern United States between 1988 and 1992 to assess the frequency of exposure in wild waterfowl. Adult breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering mallards, and black ducks (Anas rubripes) had high prevalences of exposure to M. Anatis (25% to >80%). In comparison, none of the breeding adult canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) had serum antibody levels indicating exposure. Approximately 50% of the juvenile mallards and black ducks were exposed to M. Anatis by 8 months of age, indicating high transmission rates among wild birds.

Samuel, M. D.; Goldberg, D. R.; Thomas, C. B.; Sharp, P.; Robb, J. R.; Krapu, G. L.; Nersessian, B. N.; Kenow, K. P.; Korschgen, C. E.; Chipley, W. H.; Conroy, M. J.

1996-01-01

402

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

403

Wild Bird Influenza Survey, Canada, 2005  

PubMed Central

Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted for 80% of the sample. PMID:18258085

Bastien, Nathalie; Booth, Timothy F.; Bowes, Victoria; Buck, Peter A.; Breault, Andre; Caswell, Dale; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Davies, J. Chris; Elahi, Seyyed Mehdy; Fortin, Madeleine; Kibenge, Fred; King, Robin; Li, Yan; North, Norman; Ojkic, Davor; Pasick, John; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Robinson, John; Rodrigue, Jean; Whitney, Hugh; Zimmer, Patrick; Leighton, Frederick A.

2008-01-01

404

Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chick survival rates is required to develop species-specific habitat-survival relationships. We determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from hatching to time of tree roost at four sites in southwestern Kansas and the Texas Rolling Plains, May-August, 2000 and 2001. One-hundred twenty-three chicks from 39 broods were equipped with cyanoacrylate-attached transmitters. The

Brian L. Spears; Warren B. Ballard; Mark C. Wallace; Richard S. Phillips; Derrick P. Holdstock; John H. Brunjes; Roger D. Applegate; Michael S. Miller; Philip S. Gipson

405

Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

406

Sarcocystis in wild ungulates in Alberta.  

PubMed

Muscle samples from 557 wild ungulates in Alberta, comprising seven species, were examined grossly and/or histologically for cysts of Sarcocystis. Sarcocystis was found in 100, 96, 94, 75, 75, 73, and 49% of the wapiti (Cervus canadensis), moose (Alces alces), bison (Bison bison), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), respectively. PMID:6780701

Mahrt, J L; Colwell, D D

1980-10-01

407

Habitat Appraisal Guide for Rio Grande Wild Turkey  

E-print Network

Squirreltail grass Catnip noseburn Littleleaf sumac Tasajillo Croton Lotebush Texas cup grass Ephedra Milk vetch Tobosa grass Evening primrose Panic grass Walnut Filaree Pecan White tridens Gaura Pigeonberry Wild mercury Grama grasses Plantago Wild onion... Squirreltail grass Catnip noseburn Littleleaf sumac Tasajillo Croton Lotebush Texas cup grass Ephedra Milk vetch Tobosa grass Evening primrose Panic grass Walnut Filaree Pecan White tridens Gaura Pigeonberry Wild mercury Grama grasses Plantago Wild onion...

Cathey, James; Locke, Shawn; Ransom, Dean; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

2007-09-04

408

CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS  

SciTech Connect

Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

2007-05-23

409

Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

2012-01-01

410

A diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.  

PubMed

Nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. Although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. Voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) consuming a high-energy, high-protein pelleted supplement were compared. Voluntary intake of dry matter, energy, and nitrogen were similar (P > 0.34) between mountain goats and mountain sheep and consistently lower (P < 0.03) for these species than for pronghorn, mule deer, and wapiti. Differences in digestive efficiency among species were inversely related to dry matter intake rates. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral-detergent fiber was 10-20% higher for mountain goats and mountain sheep than for the other species (P < 0.04). Although these findings suggest a superior digestive efficiency for mountain goats and mountain sheep, species comparisons are inconclusive because of the confounding effects of season and ambient temperature on voluntary intake and digestion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the diet tested was safe, nutritious, and highly palatable. Protein and energy concentrations appear to be sufficient to meet or exceed known nutritional requirements of captive wild ruminants. PMID:9732028

Baker, D L; Stout, G W; Miller, M W

1998-06-01

411

Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

412

Surveillance of avian coronaviruses in wild bird populations of Korea.  

PubMed

Abstract We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses. PMID:24949927

Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oem, Jae-Ku

2014-10-01

413

Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN  

E-print Network

OPINION Wild immunology AMY B. PEDERSEN and SIMON A. BABAYAN Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institutes of Immunology & Infection Research and Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of `wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host

Maizels, Rick

414

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

415

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)  

E-print Network

The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) M.A.J. Frantzen, J.W.H. Ferguson the long-term survival of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). To aid this, a studbook was assembled the largest existing regional population of captive African wild dogs. These populations were investigated

Altwegg, Res

416

Distribution and conservation of African wild dogs in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has de- clined dramatically during the last century and has experienced a significant reduction in its range throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Very little is known about wild dogs in Central Af- rica, especially the population in northern Cameroon. Human and ecological factors lim- iting wild dogs in and around Faro National Park were investigated in

Thomas Breuer

417

Wild dogs, Lycaon pictus, are a social species, obligated  

E-print Network

conditions apply for the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, and data on this species in Zimbabwe support ourWild dogs, Lycaon pictus, are a social species, obligated to breed in a group, in which only one extinctions?: The case of wild dogs Angulo et al. Angulo et al. Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 10:11 http

Courchamp, Franck

418

76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-09-06

419

78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

2013-08-01

420

27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

2010-04-01

421

75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will...meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day...

2010-05-13

422

76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-02-09

423

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

424

Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

Council for Environmental Education, 2011

2011-01-01

425

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

(Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censis; BrennanORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo

Wallace, Mark C.

426

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censisORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia; RGWT) were randomly distributed around roads to identify

Butler, Matthew J.

427

Meat from wild boar (Sus scrofa L.): a review.  

PubMed

Wild boar is a species that is utilised for food and sport hunting throughout the world. Recent increases in natural populations and the potential of farming wild boars have stimulated interest in this species as a meat producer. Compared to domestic pigs, wild boars present a higher degree of carcass fatness and larger loin areas, more slow-twitch oxidative (I) and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (IIA) and less fast-twitch glycolytic (IIB) muscle fibres, and darker, less tender and leaner meat. Differences in diets might contribute to differences in cooked meat flavour and fatty acid composition between wild boars and domestic pigs. Higher ?-tocopherol concentrations in wild boar might extend its meat shelf-life. Mechanical massaging of muscles, vacuum package ageing and addition of marinates have been attempted to tenderise wild boar meat. Further research on hunting protocols for wild boar, and value-added products from its meat, are needed. PMID:23501250

Sales, James; Kotrba, Radim

2013-06-01

428

Monitoring wild bird populations for lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d), an enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway is extremely sensitive to inhibition by lead (Pb). I evaluated the erythrocyte ALA-d activity ratio (the ratio between the fully restored enzyme activity and that measured without removing any inhibitory influence that might be present) as an indicator of Pb exposure in free-living birds. In the absence of elevated Pb exposure, birds, had comparable ALA-d activity ratios regardless of species, geographical location, or time of year sampled. The normal range of ratios for free-living species was similar to that for aviary-raised birds (1.0-1.3). Individuals with enzyme inhibition were readily identified. In blood collected from free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ALA-d activity ratios were better correlated with blood-Pb than were blood-protoporphyrin (PP) concentrations. At least 9.5% of mallards with blood-Pb>80 {mu}g/dL did not have elevated PP levels. Underestimation of Pb exposure did not occur using the ALA-d activity ratio method. The ALA-d activity ratio was as accurate as blood-Pb measurements for monitoring the relative degree of recent Pb exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require exposure in the wild bird populations studied. Unlike blood-Pb analyses, ALA-d determinations do not require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and assays can be performed efficiently with minimal training.

Scheuhammer, A.M. (Environment Canada, Ottawa (Canada))

1989-07-01

429

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents  

PubMed Central

The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

2011-01-01

430

Zingiberene and curcumene in wild tomato.  

PubMed

Composition of ginger oil prepared from fresh ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometric techniques. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified were alpha-zingiberene (27-30%), alpha-curcumene (8-9%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (4.8%). and bisabolene (3.2%). The function of zingiberene and curcumene as insecticides, repellents, and insect feeding deterrents has been previously reported. Other plant species having similar constituents might be found. Leaves of six wild tomato accessions of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull); three accessions of L. hirsutum f. typicum (Humb & Bonpl.); two accessions of L. pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy); one accession of L. pimpinellifolium; and one commercial tomato L. esculentumm cv. Fabulous were analyzed. Analysis of L. hirsutum f. typicum (Solanaceae) accessions indicated the presence of zingiberene, curcumene, and other lipophilic secondary metabolites in the leaves of two accessions (PI-127826 and PI-127827). An average three month old wild tomato plant of accessions PI-127826 and PI-127827 provided 1.93 and 1.30 kg fresh leaves (averaging about 38,307 and 28,130 cm2 exposed leaf surface area, respectively) and produced 19.3 and 10.1 g of zingiberene and curcumene (PI-127826) and 17.2 and 1.8 g of zingiberene and curcumene (PI-127827), respectively. Leaf extracts of the wild tomato L. hirsutum f. typicum (accessions PI-127826 and PI-127827) can be used as a biorational source of zingiberene and curcumene. PMID:12856930

Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S

2003-07-01