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Sample records for mulberry wild silkworm

  1. Comparing the rheology of mulberry and "wild" silkworm spinning dopes.

    PubMed

    Holland, C; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

    2012-06-01

    Lepidoperan silks provide a superb opportunity for comparative studies of spinning and fiber characteristics. Comparing the four species, Bombyx mori (China), Actias selene (India), Antheraea yamamai (Japan), Gonometa postica (Africa), allows us to examine differences on the family, species, and race levels. Measured rheological properties were consistent with phylogenetic relationships and in the context of resource allocation and gland morphology. We propose that the thorough domestication of the mulberry silkworm B. mori for high silk yield has resulted in a compensatory optimization for spinning efficiency. This is in stark contrast to the wild silkworms, where Saturnids appear to minimize their energetic input toward silk output and G. postica seems to balance both. We conclude that comparative studies provide valuable baseline information for future biomimetic applications and modeling, as well as illuminating biologically important details of silk processing. PMID:22161905

  2. Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

  3. Correlation between yield and biochemical parameters in the mulberry silkworm,Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Rao, C G; Chatterjee, G K; Ashwath, S K; Patnaik, A K

    1993-11-01

    A detailed study was carried out on six biochemical parameters and four yield attributes using multiple regression analysis to investigate their relationship in the mulberry silkworm,Bombyx mori. The study generated new information on the importance of digestive amylase activity for the survival of the silkworm and revealed the inability of other enzymes to affect this relationship. Data also substantiate the observations made earlier on the genetic variability of amylase in the mulberry silkworm. Analyses extend the positive role of alkaline phosphatase and invertase in the expression of the other yield traits studied and indicate the definite possibility of using biochemical markers for silkworm breeding. PMID:24190267

  4. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:26169822

  5. Spermidine enhances the silk production by mulberry silkworm.

    PubMed

    Lattala, Gayatri Manogna; Kandukuru, Kasturaiah; Gangupantula, Shamitha; Mamillapalli, Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous low molecular weight polycationic aliphatic amines involved in diverse cellular processes. Spermidine (Spd), a polyamine, has been proved to be crucial for cell survival in various organisms. Our study reports the effect of Spd on the growth of Bombyx mori. Silkworms showed improved silk gland weight and economic parameters in the fifth instar larval stage when treated with different concentrations of Spd, in the range of 25-75 µM. The worms treated with Spd produced 31% more silk when compared with the control worms. Altogether, this study establishes that Spd-treated leaves can be fed into the larvae for better silk production. PMID:25502041

  6. Fibroin silk proteins from the nonmulberry silkworm Philosamia ricini are biochemically and immunochemically distinct from those of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Raies; Kamra, Anita; Hasnain, Seyed Ehtesham

    2004-03-01

    Silk proteins were isolated from the cocoons of the nonmulberry silkworm, Philosamia ricini. Three polypeptides of 97, 66, and 45 kDa were identified. The 66-kDa molecule represented sericin, whereas the 97-kDa and the 45-kDa polypeptides linked together through a disulfide bond constituted the fibroin protein. Antibodies raised against the 97-kDa P. ricini fibroin heavy chain reacted specifically with this molecule and did not recognize fibroin heavy chain from another nonmulberry silkworm, Antheraea assama or from the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, suggesting the presence of P. ricini species-specific determinants in this heavy chain. Antibodies generated against fibroin light chain of P. ricini also showed similar reactivity pattern. Immunoblot analysis with proteins isolated from the silk glands of P. ricini at different stages of larval development showed that the expression of fibroin heavy chain was developmentally and spatially regulated. The protein was most abundant in the 5th instar larva, and could be detected in the middle and the posterior but not the anterior silk glands. The amino acid composition of the 97-kDa fibroin protein showed abundance of glutamic acid and did not contain (Gly-Ala)(n) motifs, a characteristic feature of B. mori fibroin heavy chain. Our study reveals significant differences between the nonmulberry silkworm P. ricini and the mulberry silkworm B. mori in the biochemical composition and immunochemical characteristics of fibroin heavy chain. These differences might be responsible for the differences seen in the quality of silk produced by these two silkworms. PMID:15068584

  7. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of silkwormBmovo-1 and wild type silkworm ovary

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Liyuan; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Song, Zuowei; Lu, Jiayu; Chen, Xueying; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    The detailed molecular mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovary size is unclear. To uncover the mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovarian development and oogenesis using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptomes of wild type (WT) and Bmovo-1-overexpressing silkworm (silkworm+Bmovo-1) ovaries. Using a pair-end Illumina Solexa sequencing strategy, 5,296,942 total reads were obtained from silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries and 6,306,078 from WT ovaries. The average read length was about 100 bp. Clean read ratios were 98.79% for silkworm+Bmovo-1 and 98.87% for WT silkworm ovaries. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed 123 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes in silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in the extracellular and extracellular spaces and involved in metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes and organismal systems. Bmovo-1 overexpression in silkworm ovaries might promote anabolism for ovarian development and oogenesis and oocyte proliferation and transport of nutrients to ovaries by altering nutrient partitioning, which would support ovary development. Excessive consumption of nutrients for ovary development alters nutrient partitioning and deters silk protein synthesis. PMID:26643037

  8. [Control effect and bacteriostasis of mulberry endophytic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 on silkworm septicemia].

    PubMed

    Dong, Fa-Bao; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Yu, Qi; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Yan-Wen; Gao, Hui-Ju

    2012-11-01

    A laboratory test was conducted to study the control effect and bacteriostasis of antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 isolated from mulberry on silkworm septicemia, aimed to develop a new microbial pesticide to control silkworm diseases. The supernatant of Lu10-1 zymotic fluid achieved 41.2% control efficiency and 24.0% prophylactic effect on silkworm septicemia. The antibacterial crude extract of Lu10-1 had stronger antagonistic activity against Bacillus bombyseptieus. The diameter of inhibition zone reached 18.20 mm, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the antibacterial crude extract were 1.56 and 3.13 mg x mL(-1), respectively. After treated with the antibacterial crude extract, B. bombyseptieus never appeared logarithmic growth phase, its cell membrane permeability changed, intracellular protein leaked out, intracellular macromolecular protein degraded, and at last, the thalli cracked, inner substances out-flowed, cavity formed, and cell ablated. It was considered that the antagonistic substances of Lu10-1 strain could be used for controlling silkworm septicemia, with preferable development foreground. PMID:23431798

  9. Eri silkworm (Samia ricini), a non-mulberry host system for AcMNPV mediated expression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Hosamani, Madhusudan; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; Sreenivasa, B P; Inumaru, Shigeki; Ballal, Chandish R; Venkataramanan, Ramamurthy

    2015-12-20

    The baculovirus expression system (BVES) based on Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is widely used for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. Several insect cells/larvae that are permissive to AcMNPV have been routinely used as hosts to express heterologous proteins. Domesticated Eri silkworm (Samia ricini), reared in many parts of India, Japan and China, is a non-mulberry silkworm. The present study shows that the Eri silkworm larvae are susceptible to intra-haemocoelical inoculation of AcMNPV. The virus replicates in the larva, as indicated by an increased viral loads in the haemolymph upon injection of a recombinant AcMNPV carrying green fluorescent protein gene. The virus showed localized replication in different tissues including the fat body, haemocytes, tracheal matrix and in the Malphigian tubules. The larval system was successfully used to express heterologous protein, by infecting with a recombinant AcMNPV carrying the 3ABC coding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The study shows that the Eri silkworm larva can be a potential alternative bioreactor, for scaling up of the recombinant proteins employing the baculovirus system. PMID:26467714

  10. Hierarchical clustering of 54 races and strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L: Significance of biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Datta, R K

    1992-12-01

    A detailed analysis was undertaken to test the efficacy of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (UPGMA method) in grouping the races and strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx moti L., and to ascertain the importance of biochemical parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from two rearing seasons with 54 selected races/strains of different geographic origin and varying yield potentials. The results indicate that seven clusters can be realised with yield parameters alone, whereas the inclusion of biochemical parameters in clustering resulted into two broad groups: one having all the breeds with high cocoon weight and shell weight, the other having all the low-yielding silkworm strains both from India and from other countries. Further sub-grouping under these two groups highlights genetical differences associated with the differentiation of various groups of races in temperate and tropical areas as well as their significance for silkworm breeding. Estimates of all ten variables were further subjected to 'quick clustering' and the results showed that cluster 5, constituted by 38 lowyielding strains of India, China and Europe, had the highest values of the final cluster centre for amylase and the effective rate of rearing (ERR), while clusters 1 and 4 had the highest values for invertase and alkaline phosphatase. The evolutionary aspect of the genetic channelisation of silkworm races from various countries is discussed against the background of differences in the biochemical parameters and yield variables. PMID:24197452

  11. Directional moisture transfer through a wild silkworm cocoon wall.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Du, Shan; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

    2016-01-01

    A silkworm cocoon is a porous biological structure with multiple protective functions. In the current work, the authors have used both experimental and numerical methods to reveal the unique moisture transfer characteristics through a wild Antheraea pernyi silkworm cocoon wall, in comparison with the long-domesticated Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon walls. The water vapor transmission and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties show that the A. pernyi cocoons exhibit directional moisture transfer behavior, with easier moisture transfer from inside out than outside in [e.g., the average WVP is 0.057 g/(h m bar) from inside out and is 0.034 g/(h m bar) from outside in]. Numerical analysis shows that the cubic mineral crystals in the outer section of the A. pernyi cocoon wall create a rough surface that facilitates air turbulence and promotes disturbance amplitude of the flow field, leading to lengthened water vapor transfer path and increased tortuosity of the moist air. It also indicates the vortex of water vapor can be generated in the outer section of cocoon wall, which increases the diffusion distance of water vapor and enhances the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence eddy dissipation, signifying higher moisture resistance in the outer section. The difference in moisture resistance of the multiple A. pernyi cocoon layers is largely responsible for the unique directional moisture transfer behavior of this wild silkworm cocoon. These findings may inspire a biomimicry approach to develop novel lightweight moisture management materials and structures. PMID:27226205

  12. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

  13. A novel TATA-box-binding factor from the silk glands of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Gopinathan, Karumathil P

    2002-01-01

    The presence of one or more TATATAA motifs in the flanking sequences of individual members of a multi-gene tRNA(Gly)(1) family from the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, negatively modulated the transcription of the gene copies. Characterization of proteins from posterior silk gland nuclear extracts, binding to the TATATAA motif, identified a novel 43 kD protein, designated here as P43 TATA-box-binding factor (TBF). The protein was purified to homogeneity. P43 TBF binding was highly sequence-specific and showed a 100-fold-higher affinity for binding than the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP). The protein also showed binding to the TATAAA sequence of the actin5C promoter. P43 TBF inhibited transcription of all the tRNA genes examined, as well as RNA polymerase II transcription from the actin5C promoter. The amino acid sequence of eleven peptides generated from P43 TBF did not share homology with proteins that bind the TATA box, such as TBP, TRF (TBP-related factor) or TLFs (TBP-like factors) reported from other sources. Inhibition of transcription of tRNA genes by P43 TBF could not be reversed by TBP. The inhibitory effect appeared to be exerted through sequestration of the associated transcription factors. PMID:11964150

  14. Effect of metallic ions on silk formation in the Mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Chen, Xin; Shao, Zhengzhong; Huang, Yufang; Knight, David P

    2005-09-01

    A protein conformation transition from random coil and/or helical conformation to beta-sheet is known to be central to the process used by silk-spinning spiders and insects to convert concentrated protein solutions to tough insoluble threads. Several factors including pH, metallic ions, shear force, and/or elongational flow can initiate this transition in both spiders and silkworms. Here, we report the use of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) to investigate the concentrations of six metal elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, and Zn) at different stages in the silk secretory pathway in the Bombyx mori silkworm. We also report the use of Raman spectra to monitor the effects of these six metallic ions on the conformation transition of natural silk fibroin dope and concentrated regenerated silk fibroin solution at concentrations similar to the natural dope. The results showed that the metal element contents increased from the posterior part to the anterior part of silk gland with the exception of Ca which decreased significantly in the anterior part. We show that these changes in composition can be correlated with (i) the ability of Mg2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ to induce the conformation transition of silk fibroin to beta-sheet, (ii) the effect of Ca2+ in forming a stable protein network (gel), and (iii) the ability of Na+ and K+ to break down the protein network. PMID:16853155

  15. MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant–insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm–mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

  16. [Range of the hosts of the causative agent of pébrine (Nosema bombycis) in the mulberry silkworm].

    PubMed

    Kashkarova, L F; Khakhanov, A I

    1980-01-01

    Biological interrelations between the agent of microsporidiosis of the silkworm and local species of insects were studied. 7 species of Lepidoptera (Agrotis segetum, Chloridea obsoleta, Laphygma exigua, Plusia gamma, Pieris brassicae, P. rapae, Lymantria dispar) were infected with the suspension of Nosema bombycis spores. Results have shown that 6 species of insects are susceptible to Nosema bombycis excluding only the gipsy moth. So, N. bombycis can be considered to be a parasite with a wide range of hosts. PMID:6769083

  17. Supercooling Capacity and Cold Tolerance of the Wild Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zheng, Xi-Xi; Ma, Hong-Fang; Xia, Run-Xi; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Rui

    2016-08-01

    While wild silkworms have served humans for several thousand years, little attention on cold hardiness has been paid to these economically important species. In the present study, supercooling capacity and low temperature tolerance of Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), an economic insect reared both for silk production as well as human food, were examined under laboratory conditions. The supercooling points (SCPs) of pupae dropped significantly from a mean of -15.6°C in prediapause to -20.1°C in diapause, and then increased to -17.5°C during postdiapause development. Sex and voltinism influenced body mass but had no significant effect on the SCP. Our data demonstrated that cold tolerance of A. pernyi is tightly linked to life stage. Exposure of eggs to -5°C for up to 8 h had no effect on the hatching rate, whereas silkworm larvae failed to break through the chorion and hatch following a 4-8-h exposure to -10°C. Mean SCPs of intact eggs and naked larvae one day before hatching were similar, -23.3°C and -22.3°C, respectively, indicating that chorion does not significantly affect SCP. Comparison of lower lethal temperature (LLT50) and SCP means suggested that both pupae and eggs of A. pernyi are chill intolerant. These data will improve our understanding of low temperature tolerance in this commercially important species. PMID:27371710

  18. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cen; Fu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Sun, Yu; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2015-08-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni-NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1:12,800 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT-qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR-related genes (Vg, egg-specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly. PMID:25808998

  20. Comparative analysis of the integument transcriptomes of the black dilute mutant and the wild-type silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Songyuan; Tong, Xiaoling; Peng, Chenxing; Xiong, Gao; Lu, Kunpeng; hu, Hai; Tan, Duan; Li, Chunlin; Han, Minjin; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fangyin

    2016-01-01

    The insect cuticle is a critical protective shell that is composed predominantly of chitin and various cuticular proteins and pigments. Indeed, insects often change their surface pigment patterns in response to selective pressures, such as threats from predators, sexual selection and environmental changes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the construction of the epidermis and its pigmentation patterns are not fully understood. Among Lepidoptera, the silkworm is a favorable model for color pattern research. The black dilute (bd) mutant of silkworm is the result of a spontaneous mutation; the larval body color is notably melanized. We performed integument transcriptome sequencing of the wild-type strain Dazao and the mutant strains +/bd and bd/bd. In these experiments, during an early stage of the fourth molt, a stage at which approximately 51% of genes were expressed genome wide (RPKM ≥1) in each strain. A total of 254 novel transcripts were characterized using Cuffcompare and BLAST analyses. Comparison of the transcriptome data revealed 28 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that may contribute to bd larval melanism, including 15 cuticular protein genes that were remarkably highly expressed in the bd/bd mutant. We suggest that these significantly up-regulated cuticular proteins may promote melanism in silkworm larvae. PMID:27193628

  1. Comparative analysis of the integument transcriptomes of the black dilute mutant and the wild-type silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songyuan; Tong, Xiaoling; Peng, Chenxing; Xiong, Gao; Lu, Kunpeng; Hu, Hai; Tan, Duan; Li, Chunlin; Han, Minjin; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fangyin

    2016-01-01

    The insect cuticle is a critical protective shell that is composed predominantly of chitin and various cuticular proteins and pigments. Indeed, insects often change their surface pigment patterns in response to selective pressures, such as threats from predators, sexual selection and environmental changes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the construction of the epidermis and its pigmentation patterns are not fully understood. Among Lepidoptera, the silkworm is a favorable model for color pattern research. The black dilute (bd) mutant of silkworm is the result of a spontaneous mutation; the larval body color is notably melanized. We performed integument transcriptome sequencing of the wild-type strain Dazao and the mutant strains +/bd and bd/bd. In these experiments, during an early stage of the fourth molt, a stage at which approximately 51% of genes were expressed genome wide (RPKM ≥1) in each strain. A total of 254 novel transcripts were characterized using Cuffcompare and BLAST analyses. Comparison of the transcriptome data revealed 28 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that may contribute to bd larval melanism, including 15 cuticular protein genes that were remarkably highly expressed in the bd/bd mutant. We suggest that these significantly up-regulated cuticular proteins may promote melanism in silkworm larvae. PMID:27193628

  2. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis

    PubMed Central

    He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2013-01-01

    Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

  3. Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

    A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

  4. Overexpression of host plant urease in transgenic silkworms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xing, Dongxu; Xu, Guowen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori and mulberry constitute a model of insect-host plant interactions. Urease hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and is important for the nitrogen metabolism of silkworms because ammonia is assimilated into silk protein. Silkworms do not synthesize urease and acquire it from mulberry leaves. We synthesized the artificial DNA sequence ureas using the codon bias of B. mori to encode the signal peptide and mulberry urease protein. A transgenic vector that overexpresses ure-as under control of the silkworm midgut-specific P2 promoter was constructed. Transgenic silkworms were created via embryo microinjection. RT-PCR results showed that urease was expressed during the larval stage and qPCR revealed the expression only in the midgut of transgenic lines. Urea concentration in the midgut and hemolymph of transgenic silkworms was significantly lower than in a nontransgenic line when silkworms were fed an artificial diet. Analysis of the daily body weight and food conversion efficiency of the fourth and fifth instar larvae and economic characteristics indicated no differences between transgenic silkworms and the nontransgenic line. These results suggested that overexpression of host plant urease promoted nitrogen metabolism in silkworms. PMID:25549597

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the wild eri silkworm, Samia canningi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Victor, Th; Luikham, Reeta; Arunkumar, K P; Sharma, H Debaraj; Lokeshwari, R K; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The saturniid silkworm species of the genus Samia are potential silk producing insects. Thus, Samia canningi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a potential candidate to introduce for silk production. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. canningi was 15,384 bp long that contained 37 genes along with a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs was same as the majority of Lepidoptera, presenting the order, trnM/trnI/trnQ between nad2 and control region. Twelve of 13 PCGs started with ATN codons, but cox2 with GTG, which is often found in insects. Genes overlapped in a total of 29 bp, 221 bp of intergenic spacer sequences was found in seventeen regions and the longest 54 bp one was found between trnQ and nad2 as typical in Lepidoptera. In lrRNA, the 21-bp long, tandemly duplicated repeat was characteristically found (TAAAATTATTTATAATATAAA) between 13,663 and 13,706. AT rich region has the motif "ATAGA" and 18 bp poly T stretch, typically conserved in Lepidoptera. PMID:24893878

  6. Rheological properties of native silk fibroins from domestic and wild silkworms, and flow analysis in each spinneret by a finite element method.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Motoaki; Roschzttardtz, Frederico; Nakahara, Yusuke; Saito, Hitoshi; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2009-04-13

    Silkworms can produce strong and tough fibers at room temperature and from an aqueous solution. Therefore, it seems useful to study the mechanism of fiber formation by silkworms for development of synthetic polymers with excellent mechanical properties. The rheological behaviors of native silk dopes stored in the silk glands of Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini were clarified, and flow simulations of the dopes in each spinneret were performed with a Finite Element Method. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements revealed that silk fibroin stored in silk glands forms a transient network at room temperature, and that the molecular weight for the network node corresponds to the molecular weight of a heterodimer of H-chain and L-chain (B. mori) and a homodimer of H-chains (S. c. ricini), respectively. Also, each dope exhibited zero-shear viscosity and then shear thinning like polymer melts. In addition, shear thickening due to flow-induced crystallization was observed. The critical shear rate for crystallization of B. mori dopes was smaller than that of S. c. ricini dopes. From the flow simulation, it is suggested that domestic and wild silkworms are able to crystallize the dopes in the stiff plate region by controlling shear rate using the same magnitude of extrusion pressure despite differences in rheological properties. PMID:19317399

  7. Powdered Wound Dressing Materials Made from wild Silkworm Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin on Full-skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Keun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Jo, You-Young; Kweon, Hae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated powdered burn wound dressing materials from wild silkworm fibroin in an animal model. Methods: Fifteen rats were used in this experiment. Full-thickness 2×2 cm burn wounds were created on the back of rats under anesthesia. In the two experimental groups, the wounds were treated with two different dressing materials made from silkworm fibroin. In the Control Group, natural healing without any dressing material was set as control. The wound surface area was measured at five days, seven days and 14 days. Wound healing was evaluated by histologic analysis. Results: By gross observation, there were no infections or severe inflammations through 14 days post-injury. The differences among groups were statistically significant at seven days and 14 days, postoperatively (P <0.037 and 0.001, respectively). By post hoc test, the defect size was significantly smaller in experimental Group 1 compared with the Control Group and experimental Group 2 at seven days postoperatively (P =0.022 and 0.029, respectively). The difference between Group 1 and Group 2 was statistically significant at 14 days postoperatively (P <0.001). Group 1 and control also differed significantly (P =0.002). Group 1 showed a smaller residual scar than the Control Group and Group 2 at 14 days post-injury. Histologic analysis showed more re-epithelization in Groups 1 and 2 than in the Control Groups. Conclusion: Burn wound healing was accelerated with silk fibroin spun by wild silkworm Antheraea pernyi. There was no atypical inflammation with silk dressing materials. In conclusion, silk dressing materials can be used for treatment of burn wound. PMID:27489820

  8. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

  9. The expression analysis of cysteine proteinase-like protein in wild-type and nm2 mutant silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Kang, Lequn; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling

    2016-07-15

    The mutant of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is a recently discovered mutant of Bombyx mori. The mutant cannot molt and exuviate and died successively in premolting of 2nd instar. In this study, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed to screen the differential expression of epidermis proteins in pre-molting larvae of 2nd instar between the wild-type and nm2 mutant. Interestingly, a cysteine proteinase-like (BmCP-like) protein in nm2 was significantly higher than that of the wild-type. The transcription profiles of BmCP-like gene were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the result revealed that BmCP-like mRNA was remarkably higher in nm2 than that of the wild-type. The transcription level of BmCP-like was high in the epidermis while low in the midgut and hemocytes, and fluctuate with development, while the highest in the newly molted larvae of 3rd and lowest in the pre-molting of the 1st and 2nd instar. The body of injected BmCP-like RNAi of 2nd larvae formed a dark spots around the injection place. These results suggested the BmCP-like gene play a key role in the degradation of the cuticle and epidermis layer during molting of 1st and 2nd instar silkworm. Furthermore, the ORF of BmCP-like gene in nm2 was the same to the wild-type. These studies give us a hint that BmCP-like gene maybe not the major gene responsible for nm2, but BmCP-like gene might participate in the immune systems of silkworm, and the upregulation of BmCP-like transcription in the nm2 mutant might be induced by the disadvantages that limit the growth and development of silkworm in order to survive. PMID:27080953

  10. Free-radical scavenging properties of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from S1 cultivar of mulberry leaves and their impact on Bombyx mori (L.) (Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mulberry leaves have been considered as a sole food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.). In present work an attempt was made to investigate the role of low molecular weight peptide(s) isolated from mulberry leaves on silkworm rearing. Also we have tried to find out the role of free-radical scavenging activities of isolated peptide(s) on silkworm growth. Larval growth rate was found effective under the influence of peptide(s). Consumption rate of larvae after peptide(s) treatment on mulberry leaves was significantly enhanced over control. High antioxidant activity was found in Low molecular weight peptide(s) which have an effect on silkworm. PMID:24612781

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  12. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  13. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  14. The Origin and Dispersal of the Domesticated Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: A Reconstruction Based on Ancient Texts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm. PMID:21062145

  15. Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

  16. MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/ PMID:25725060

  17. MnTEdb, a collective resource for mulberry transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bi; Li, Tian; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry has been used as an economically important food crop for the domesticated silkworm for thousands of years, resulting in one of the oldest and well-known plant-herbivore interactions. The genome of Morus notabilis has now been sequenced and there is an opportunity to mine the transposable element (TE) data. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the mulberry genome, a specific, comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, MnTEdb, was constructed. It was built based on a detailed and accurate identification of all TEs in mulberry. A total of 5925 TEs belonging to 13 superfamilies and 1062 families were deposited in this database. MnTEdb enables users to search, browse and download the mulberry TE sequences. Meanwhile, data mining tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Sequence Extractor and JBrowse were also integrated into MnTEdb. MnTEdb will assist researchers to efficiently take advantage of our newly annotated TEs, which facilitate their studies in the origin, amplification and evolution of TEs, as well as the comparative analysis among the different species. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/mntedb/ PMID:25725060

  18. Identification and methods for prevention of Enterococcus mundtii infection in silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori, reared on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Nwibo, Don Daniel; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Previously, it was reported that Enterococcus mundtii (E. mundtii) was associated with flacherie disease of silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet. In this study, we report that E. mundtii was isolated from diseased silkworm larvae, and validated as a pathogenic bacterium of the animal. When silkworm larva was infected with 1.04 × 10⁶ colony-forming units of E. mundtii via oral administration of diet, half population died within six days, indicating that the bacterium is pathogenic to silkworm. Less severe infection was found to cause anorexia and hamper the development of larvae. This pathogen was found to proliferate in both time- and dose-dependent manner in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal. The bacterium was isolated from powder of artificial diet made from mulberry leaves, and from mulberry leaves growing at a field. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination revealed that this bacterium was susceptible to tested antibiotics. Vancomycin treatment of diet significantly decreased the number of E. mundtii in intestine of silkworm larvae infected with the bacteria, compared to control. Furthermore, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of diet was also effective for exclusion of E. mundtii from the diet without the loss of its nutrient capacities. These results suggest that mulberry leaves used in making artificial diet for silkworm larvae is one of the sources of E. mundtii infection; and that antibiotic treatment, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of artificial diet can exclude the bacteria. PMID:26193940

  19. β-Fructofuranosidase Genes of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Taguchi, Tomohiro; Meng, Yan; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Mulberry latex contains extremely high concentrations of alkaloidal sugar mimic glycosidase inhibitors, such as 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Although these compounds do not harm the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist, they are highly toxic to insects that do not normally feed on mulberry leaves. d-AB1 and DNJ are strong inhibitors of α-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20); however, they do not affect the activity ofβ-fructofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.26). Althoughα-glucosidase genes are found in a wide range of organisms, β-fructofuranosidase genes have not been identified in any animals so far. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of β-fructofuranosidase genes (BmSuc1 and BmSuc2) from B. mori. The BmSuc1 gene was highly expressed in the midgut and silk gland, whereas the expression of BmSuc2 gene was not detected. BmSuc1 encodes a functional β-fructofuranosidase, whose enzymatic activity was not inhibited by DNJ or d-AB1. We also showed that BmSUC1 protein localized within the midgut goblet cell cavities. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrated that BmSuc1 serves as a sugar-digesting enzyme in the silkworm physiology. This anomalous presence of the β-fructofuranosidase gene in the B. mori genome may partly explain why the silkworm can circumvent the mulberry's defense system. PMID:18397891

  20. Analysis of silkworm gut microflora in the Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xue; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori L) has advantages in the nutritional composition, growth characteristics and other factors, it is regarded as animal protein source for astronauts in the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS).Due to the features of BLSS, silkworm breeding way is different from the conventional one (mulberry leaves throughout five instars): they were fed with mulberry and lettuce leaves during the 1st-3rd instars and 4th -5th instars, respectively. As the lettuce stem can be eaten by astronauts, the leaves not favored by humans can be insect's foodstuff. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the gut microbial composition, the type of dominant bacteria of silkworm raised with this way and the differences from the conventional breeding method, so as to reduce the mortality rate caused by the foodstuff change and to provide more animal protein for astronauts. In this study, 16srDNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method were used to analyze the silkworm gut microbial flora under two breeding manners. The results show that conventional and BLSS breeding way have six dominant bacteria in common: Clostridium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides, Paenibacillus. We also found Escherichia, Janthinobacterium, Sedimentibacter, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Arcobacter, Rothia, Polaribacter and Acinetobacter, Anaerofilum, Rummeliibacillus, Anaeroplasma, Serratia in the ground conventional and BLSS special breeding way, respectively. Changing the foodstuff of silkworm leads to the dynamic alteration of gut microbial. Dominant bacteria of the two breeding ways have diversities from each other. The ground conventional breeding way has more abundant bacteria than the BLSS one. Due to the lettuce leaves have replaced mulberry leaves at the beginning of the silkworm 4th instar, some silkworms can not survive without the bacteria that digest and absorb lettuce leaves. We suggest those dominant bacteria

  1. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing bacteria in the intestine of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on different forage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Guang-Ying; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2011-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, is susceptible to entomopathogen infection when reared with tricuspid cudrania leaves. A total of 56 dominant bacterial strains, classified into 12 phylotypes based on bacteriological properties and analysis of 16S rRNA genes, were isolated from the intestine of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Ten and seven phylotypes exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae reared with mulberry leaves and tricuspid cudrania leaves, respectively. Four of them are common in the intestine of the two treatment groups. By screening their lipolytic ability on a Rhodamine B agar plate, nine lipase-producing bacterial strains were obtained and classified into six genera, including Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas. Except for Stenotrophomonas, which is common in both, the other genera only exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae fed with mulberry leaves. In addition, by culture and fermentation in vitro, the maximum cell density and lipase activity of lipase-producing bacteria were examined at about 48 hours. The results indicate that diet has a significant impact on the gut bacterial community, especially lipase-producing bacteria. We suggest that the difference of lipase-producing bacterial diversity might be related to disease resistance of the silkworm. PMID:22243438

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the mulberry Na(+)/H(+) exchanger gene family.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boning; Long, Dingpei; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Changying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2016-02-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHXs) have important roles in cellular pH, and Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in plants. Mulberry is not only an important traditional economic woody plant known for its leaves, which are the exclusive food source of the silkworm Bombyx mori, but it can also adapt to many different adverse conditions, including saline environments. However, little is known about the NHXs in this important perennial tree. In this study, we identified and cloned seven putative NHX gene family members from Morus atropurpurea based on a genome-wide analysis of the Morus genome database. A phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization of mulberry NHXs suggested that the mulberry NHX family forms three distinct subgroups. Transcriptome data and real-time PCR of different mulberry varieties under normal culture conditions revealed that the mulberry NHX family has a different tissue-specific pattern in the two mulberry species. The MaNHX genes' expression analyses under different stresses (salt and drought) and signal molecules (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and methyl jasmonate) revealed that MaNHXs not only could be induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid as describe in the literature, but were also induced by other signal molecules, which indicated that MaNHX members exhibited diverse and complicated expression patterns in different mulberry tissues under various abiotic stresses, phytohormones and plant signaling molecules. Our results provide some insights into new and emerging cellular and physiological functions of this group of H(+)-coupled cation exchangers, beyond their function in salt tolerance, and also provide the basis for further characterizations of MaNHXs' physiological functions. PMID:26730882

  3. Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ling; Yu, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong

    As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce leaves in the latter two developing stages. Therefore, it is nec-essary to investigate the biochemical components and respiration characteristics of silkworms raised with this method to supply data bases for the inclusion of silkworms in the system to conduct system experiments. The nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP) which are the grinded and freeze-dried silkworm on the 3rd day in the fifth developing stage containing protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids were determined with international standard analyzing methods in this study. The results showed that SP was rich in protein and amino acids. There were twelve kinds of essential vitamins, nine kinds of minerals and twelve kinds of fatty acids in SP. In contrast, SP had much better nutrient components than snail, fish, chicken, beef and pork as animal food for crew members. Moreover, 359 kCal can be generated per 100g of SP (dry weight). The respirations of silkworm during its whole growing process under two main physiological statuses which were eating and non-eating leaves were studied. According to the results measured by the animal respiration measuring system, there were much difference among the respirations of silkworms under the two main physiological statuses. The amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms when they were eating leaves were more than those under the non-eating status. Even under the same status, the respiration characteristics of silkworms in five different developing stages were also different from one an-other. The respiratory quotients of silkworms under two

  4. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    PubMed

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. PMID:20580887

  5. Mutation of a Cuticular Protein, BmorCPR2, Alters Larval Body Shape and Adaptability in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-01-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

  6. Mutation of a cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, alters larval body shape and adaptability in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-04-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

  7. Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), β-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  8. Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), β-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

  9. Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

  10. Genetic variability and genetic structure of wild and semi-domestic populations of tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta ) ecorace Daba as revealed through ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Vijayan, K; Mohandas, T P; Nair, C V; Saratchandra, B; Thangavelu, K

    2005-11-01

    The genetic diversity in the wild and semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace of Antheraea mylitta was studied to ascertain the distribution of variability within and among populations of semi-domestic bivoltine (DB), trivoltine (DT) and nature grown wild populations (DN) with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 138 markers were produced among 56 individuals of the three populations, of which 98% were polymorphic. For the individual populations, the percentage polymorphism was 58.69, 52.9 and 77.54 for DB, DT and DN, respectively. Average number of observed (1.791+/- 0.408) and effective alleles (1.389+/-0.348) was also high in the wild populations in comparison to the bivoltine and trivoltine semi-domestic populations. Genetic diversity (H(t)) in DB, DT and DN was 0.180+/- 0.033, 0.153+/- 0.032 and 0.235+/- 0.033, respectively and within-population genetic diversity (H(s)) ranged from 0.166 to 0.259 with a mean of 0.189. Mean gene differentiation (G(ST)) was found to be 0.25. Shanon's diversity index was 0.278, 0.237 and 0.361 for DB, DT and DN and overall it was 0.391. Gene flow (N(m)) among the populations was 1.509. The dendrogram produced by UPGMA with Dice's genetic distance matrices resulted in the formation of three major clusters separating the three populations. Considerable intra- and inter-population variability is found in all three populations. The population structure analysis further suggests that the semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace are at the threshold of differentiating themselves. The high genetic variability present within wild Daba population of A. mylitta is of much importance for conservation as well as utilization in systematic breeding program. PMID:16247690

  11. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  12. Modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by mulberry leaf diet in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Ma, Meilei; Giridharan, Vijayasree V.; Arozal, Wawaimuli; Sari, Flori R.; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Lakshmanan, Arunprasath; Soetikno, Vivian; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Mulberry is commonly used as silkworm diet and an alternative medicine in Japan and China, has recently reported to contain many antioxidative flavanoid compounds and having the free radical scavenging effects. Antioxidants reduce cardiac oxidative stress and attenuate cardiac dysfunction in animals with pacing-induced congestive heart failure. Hence we investigated the cardioprotective effect of mulberry leaf powder in rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Eight-week-old Lewis rats immunized with cardiac myosin were fed with either normal chow or a diet containing 5% mulberry leaf powder and were examined on day 21. ML significantly decreased oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis, cellular infiltration, cardiac fibrosis, mast cell density, myocardial levels of sarco/endo-plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase2, p22phox, receptor for advanced glycation end products, phospho-p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase, glucose regulated protein78, caspase12 and osteopontin levels in EAM rats. These results may suggest that mulberry diet can preserve the cardiac function in experimental autoimmune myocarditis by modulating oxidative stress induced MAPK activation and further afford protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated apoptosis. PMID:22448095

  13. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26343778

  14. Mulberry anthocyanin biotransformation by intestinal probiotics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, You-Sheng; Zhang, Ye-Hui

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate mulberry anthocyanins bioconversion traits for intestinal probiotics. Five intestinal beneficial bacteria were incubated with mulberry anthocyanins under anaerobic conditions at 37°C, and bacterial β-glucosidase activity and anthocyanin level were determined. Results demonstrated that all strains could convert mulberry anthocyanins to some extent. With high β-glucosidase production capacity, Streptococcus thermophiles GIM 1.321 and Lactobacillus plantarum GIM 1.35 degraded mulberry anthocyanins by 46.17% and 43.62%, respectively. Mulberry anthocyanins were mainly biotransformed to chlorogenic acid, crypto-chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid during the anaerobic process. Non-enzymatic deglycosylation of anthocyanins also occurred and approximately 19.42% of the anthocyanins were degraded within 48h by this method. PMID:27451240

  15. Soil fungal community comparison of different mulberry genotypes and the relationship with mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cui; Hu, Xingming; Deng, Wen; Li, Yong; Han, Guangming; Ye, Chuhua

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis is a common soil-borne disease. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the incidence of mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis and the soil fungal community. Therefore four mulberry genotypes with different resistance to sclerotiniosis were selected to study their soil fungal community under the same condition. A total of 6 phyla and 93 genera were identified from all mulberry samples. Genera affected by genotype, cover, and genotype by cover interactions, were 23, 20, and 11, respectively. There were 10 genera that differed between the resistant cultivars and the susceptible cultivars. In addition, the relative abundances of Humicola and Mortierella in the resistant mulberry cultivars with the cover treatments were significantly higher than that of in the susceptible cultivars. However, the relative abundance of Sclerotiniaceae and Scleromitrula that may cause sclerotiniosis in the uncover treatments were significantly higher compared with the cover treatments. The results suggested that the genotype of mulberry has a significant impact on the soil microbial community that may result in differences in resistance to sclerotiniosis, and covering could reduce the relative abundance of Sclerotiniaceae or Scleromitrula. PMID:27324308

  16. Soil fungal community comparison of different mulberry genotypes and the relationship with mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cui; Hu, Xingming; Deng, Wen; Li, Yong; Han, Guangming; Ye, Chuhua

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis is a common soil-borne disease. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the incidence of mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis and the soil fungal community. Therefore four mulberry genotypes with different resistance to sclerotiniosis were selected to study their soil fungal community under the same condition. A total of 6 phyla and 93 genera were identified from all mulberry samples. Genera affected by genotype, cover, and genotype by cover interactions, were 23, 20, and 11, respectively. There were 10 genera that differed between the resistant cultivars and the susceptible cultivars. In addition, the relative abundances of Humicola and Mortierella in the resistant mulberry cultivars with the cover treatments were significantly higher than that of in the susceptible cultivars. However, the relative abundance of Sclerotiniaceae and Scleromitrula that may cause sclerotiniosis in the uncover treatments were significantly higher compared with the cover treatments. The results suggested that the genotype of mulberry has a significant impact on the soil microbial community that may result in differences in resistance to sclerotiniosis, and covering could reduce the relative abundance of Sclerotiniaceae or Scleromitrula. PMID:27324308

  17. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming

    2004-01-01

    Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46 mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91 mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

  18. A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ming-Jie; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Qiu-Ting; Wen, De-Fu; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xian-Qin; Gao, Hong-Chang; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity. PMID:26148185

  19. [Effects of sub-lethal dosages abamectin on food intake and digestive enzyme activities of silkworm Bombyx mori L].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiu-sheng; Wang, Jing; Gao, Hai-yan; Qin, Shu; Qiao, Xiong-wu; Han, Ju-cai

    2008-11-01

    Mulberry leaves treated with sub-lethal dosages (LC5, LC10 and LC20) abameetin were fed to the 5th instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.), and the food intake and digestive enzyme activities of the larvae were studied by using gravimetric method and measuring enzyme activities. The results showed that sub-lethal dosages abameetin significantly inhibited the growth and food intake of the larvae, with their body mass and its increase rate as well as their relative growth rate being significantly lower than the control, and accompanied with the decreases of food intake, its relative consumption rate, and feces amount. The efficiency of the conversion of ingested food (ECI) and that of the conversion of digested food (EDI) also reduced, but the approximate digestibility (AD) increased significantly. The amylase and sucrase activities in the midgut of the larvae treated with abameetin decreased significantly for a longer time at the beginning, and then recovered to the same as or a higher level than the control, whereas the trehalase activity decreased significantly for a shorter time at the beginning, then increased significantly, and finally recovered to the normal. It was suggested that sub-lethal dosages abameetin had definite toxicity to the silkworm, and the toxic effect was increased with increasing dosage, which could result in the turbulence of silkworm's digestive system, and further, affect its food intake and its growth and development. PMID:19238858

  20. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Neety; Pal, Shilpa; Sapru, Sunaina; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Singh, N. Ibotambi; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins. PMID:27517047

  1. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Neety; Pal, Shilpa; Sapru, Sunaina; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Singh, N Ibotambi; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C

    2016-01-01

    Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins. PMID:27517047

  2. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs) in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Dhanyalakshmi, K. H.; Naika, Mahantesha B. N.; Sajeevan, R. S.; Mathew, Oommen K.; Shafi, K. Mohamed; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; N. Nataraja, Karaba

    2016-01-01

    The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs). Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS), which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface) for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pufas/ and the web service is accessible at http://capservices.ncbs.res.in/help/pufas. PMID:26982336

  3. [Occurrence of Nosema bombycis (Naegeli, 1857) in silkworms in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Aydin, Levent; Güleğen, Ender; Girişgin, Oya; Kurtaraner, Levent

    2007-01-01

    Nosema bombycis (Naegeli, 1857) is the causative agent of the "Pebrine disease" in silkworms. N. bombycis spores were found in silkworm samples originating from the Hatay, Bursa and Bilecik provinces. Clinical signs were observed in the infected silkworm larvae. Because of the transovarial transmission risk, all the infected silkworm colonies were destroyed. PMID:17471418

  4. Identification of ISSR markers associated with productivity traits in silkworm, Bombyx moni L.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Mohandas, T P

    2003-06-01

    Bombyx mori L., commonly recognised around the world as the mulberry silkworm, is characterized by a wide variability in yield and developmental traits, which have been proven through conventional genetic analysis to be of polygenic nature. A large number of morpho-biochemical traits and RFLP and RAPD markers are mapped on different linkage groups, but to this point very little attention has been given to unravelling the genetics of yield traits. To address this issue, polymorphic profiles of 147 markers generated with 12 ISSR primers on the genomic DNA of 20 silkworm stocks of diverse yield status were subjected to multiple regression and discriminant function analyses (DFA). This led to the identification of eight markers generated by six primers, which demonstrated high beta-coefficient indices of -0.451 to -0.940. Furthermore, a significant difference between the yield traits for stocks with and without the specific marker could also be established. The inheritance pattern of one marker, L13800bp, identified at the first step of selection of markers through stepwise regression analyses for five yield parameters is discussed in the context of applying multiple regression analysis for establishing association, if not linkage, between a group of DNA markers and a particular yield trait of polygenic nature and using such markers in molecular marker-assisted breeding programs. PMID:12834060

  5. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  6. Spectral imaging analysis for silkworm gender classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sa-Ngiamsak, Chiranut

    2013-05-01

    We examine the effect of different wavelength spectra in the performance of our optical penetration-based silkworm pupa sex identification system. With available low-cost light emitting diodes (LEDs), each emitting different wavelength spectra at 468 nm, 565 nm, 639 nm, 940 nm, and broad white light, we find that the body of the silkworm pupa can block blue and near infrared light while allowing green and red light pass through. In particular, the red light can clearly highlight an important organ called "chitin gland" of the female, leading to high accuracy of silkworm gender identification. In our experiment with 120 silkworm pupae, measured high average 92.8% and lower average 87.5% accuracies in identifying silkworm gender are obtained under red and white light LEDs, respectively.

  7. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

    2009-12-01

    Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure. PMID:24779598

  10. Silkworm protein: its possibility as an actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Myung, Seung Jun; Kim, Heung Soo; Jung, Woochul; Kim, Jaehwan

    2006-03-01

    The possibility of silkworm (Bombyx mori) protein as a base material of biomimetic actuator was investigated in this paper. Silkworm films were prepared from high concentrations of regenerated fibroin in aqueous solution. Films with thickness of about 100 μm were prepared for coating electrodes. The cast silk films were coated by very thin gold electrode on both sides of the film. Tensile test of cast film showed bi-modal trend, which is typical stress-strain relation of polymeric film. As the test of a possible biomimetic actuator, silkworm film actuator provides bending deformations according to the magnitude and frequency of the applied electric filed. Although the present bending deformation of silkworm film actuator is smaller than that of Electro-Active Paper actuator, it provides the possibility of biomimetic actuator.

  11. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  12. Free and bound volatile chemicals in mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ≥ 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas. PMID:25817411

  13. Transcriptome analysis of integument differentially expressed genes in the pigment mutant (quail) during molting of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Integument Differentially Expressed Genes in the Pigment Mutant (quail) during Molting of Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

  15. Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of a spider silk manufacturing process is of great interest. piggyBac vectors were used to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk prote...

  16. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  17. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  18. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Peñailillo, Johany; Olivares, Gabriela; Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Chang, Chi-Shan; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Matthews, Peter J.; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent) is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: the tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia. Methodology We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity. Results In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant. Conclusions Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania. PMID

  19. Silk Spinning in Silkworms and Spiders.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marlene; Johansson, Jan; Rising, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and silkworms spin silks that outcompete the toughness of all natural and manmade fibers. Herein, we compare and contrast the spinning of silk in silkworms and spiders, with the aim of identifying features that are important for fiber formation. Although spiders and silkworms are very distantly related, some features of spinning silk seem to be universal. Both spiders and silkworms produce large silk proteins that are highly repetitive and extremely soluble at high pH, likely due to the globular terminal domains that flank an intermediate repetitive region. The silk proteins are produced and stored at a very high concentration in glands, and then transported along a narrowing tube in which they change conformation in response primarily to a pH gradient generated by carbonic anhydrase and proton pumps, as well as to ions and shear forces. The silk proteins thereby convert from random coil and alpha helical soluble conformations to beta sheet fibers. We suggest that factors that need to be optimized for successful production of artificial silk proteins capable of forming tough fibers include protein solubility, pH sensitivity, and preservation of natively folded proteins throughout the purification and initial spinning processes. PMID:27517908

  20. Silk Spinning in Silkworms and Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Marlene; Johansson, Jan; Rising, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and silkworms spin silks that outcompete the toughness of all natural and manmade fibers. Herein, we compare and contrast the spinning of silk in silkworms and spiders, with the aim of identifying features that are important for fiber formation. Although spiders and silkworms are very distantly related, some features of spinning silk seem to be universal. Both spiders and silkworms produce large silk proteins that are highly repetitive and extremely soluble at high pH, likely due to the globular terminal domains that flank an intermediate repetitive region. The silk proteins are produced and stored at a very high concentration in glands, and then transported along a narrowing tube in which they change conformation in response primarily to a pH gradient generated by carbonic anhydrase and proton pumps, as well as to ions and shear forces. The silk proteins thereby convert from random coil and alpha helical soluble conformations to beta sheet fibers. We suggest that factors that need to be optimized for successful production of artificial silk proteins capable of forming tough fibers include protein solubility, pH sensitivity, and preservation of natively folded proteins throughout the purification and initial spinning processes. PMID:27517908

  1. Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house

    SciTech Connect

    Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of RPS3a gene from mulberry under abiotic stresses and among different mulberry varieties.

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Zhou, H; Zhao, M D; Wang, H; Li, F; Wang, Y H; Fang, R J; Zhao, W G; Kim, H J

    2016-01-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence coding ribosomal protein S3a of mulberry tree, which we designated MmRPS3a (GenBank accession No. KR610331), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags. Sequence analysis showed that the MmRPS3a is 1089 bp long and contains a 80-bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) and a 220-bp 3'-UTR. Its open reading frame consists of a 789-bp encoding 262 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 30.053 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.84. Homology analysis revealed that MmRPS3a gene is highly conservative in mulberry and other species including Morus notabilis, Theobroma cacao, and Ricinus communis. Phylogenetic analysis based on MmRPS3a of other species showed that mulberry had a closer relationship with Prunus persica, Arabidopsis thaliana, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Vitis vinifera. The results of quantitative PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional level of MmRPS3a mRNA changed significantly under the conditions of hypothermia, aridity, salt stress, and varieties of differing resistances. PMID:27173298

  3. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. PMID:25529706

  4. An Evaluation of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Oral Administration in Eri Silkworm through Fat Body Metabolomics Based on 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chao-wei; Lin, Xiao-dong; Dong, Min-jian; Deng, Ming-jie

    2016-01-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), the main hypoglycemic constituent in mulberry (Morus alba) latex, has been extensively researched. Although there is considerable interest in the biological effects of DNJ, the roles of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in glycometabolism and energy metabolism in insects have received little attention. In this paper, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomic was performed to study the effects of the oral supplementation of 0.25% DNJ, 0.5% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1 : 1) on the fat body glycometabolism and energy metabolism of the fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworms, Samia cynthia ricini. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis (partial least square-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) of fat body extracts indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, 0.5% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1 : 1) were significantly different from the control group. Further, compared to the control group, the metabolites levels of lactate, trehalose, succinate, malate, and fumarate were remarkably changed in experimental groups, which were involved in glycolysis, hydrolysis of trehalose, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Our results indicate that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse energy metabolism of Eri silkworms and metabonomic analysis based on NMR can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers. PMID:27294120

  5. An Evaluation of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Oral Administration in Eri Silkworm through Fat Body Metabolomics Based on (1) H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao-Wei; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Dong, Min-Jian; Deng, Ming-Jie

    2016-01-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), the main hypoglycemic constituent in mulberry (Morus alba) latex, has been extensively researched. Although there is considerable interest in the biological effects of DNJ, the roles of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in glycometabolism and energy metabolism in insects have received little attention. In this paper, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) based metabonomic was performed to study the effects of the oral supplementation of 0.25% DNJ, 0.5% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1 : 1) on the fat body glycometabolism and energy metabolism of the fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworms, Samia cynthia ricini. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis (partial least square-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) of fat body extracts indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, 0.5% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1 : 1) were significantly different from the control group. Further, compared to the control group, the metabolites levels of lactate, trehalose, succinate, malate, and fumarate were remarkably changed in experimental groups, which were involved in glycolysis, hydrolysis of trehalose, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Our results indicate that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse energy metabolism of Eri silkworms and metabonomic analysis based on NMR can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers. PMID:27294120

  6. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  7. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  8. Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

  9. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals. PMID:26971557

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Mulberry Vein Banding Associated Virus, a New Tospovirus Infecting Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiaorong; Liu, Pingping; Zhu, Liling; Zou, Chengwu; Li, Jieqiu; Chen, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry vein banding associated virus (MVBaV) that infects mulberry plants with typical vein banding symptoms had been identified as a tentative species of the genus Tospovirus based on the homology of N gene sequence to those of tospoviruses. In this study, the complete sequence of the tripartite RNA genome of MVBaV was determined and analyzed. The L RNA has 8905 nucleotides (nt) and encodes the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 2877 aa amino acids (aa) in the viral complementary (vc) strand. The RdRp of MVBaV shares the highest aa sequence identity (85.9%) with that of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), and contains conserved motifs shared with those of the species of the genus Tospovirus. The M RNA contains 4731 nt and codes in ambisense arrangement for the NSm protein of 309 aa in the sense strand and the Gn/Gc glycoprotein precursor (GP) of 1,124 aa in the vc strand. The NSm and GP of MVBaV share the highest aa sequence identities with those of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (83.2% and 84.3%, respectively). The S RNA is 3294 nt in length and contains two open reading frames (ORFs) in an ambisense coding strategy, encoding a 439-aa non-structural protein (NSs) and the 277-aa nucleocapsid protein (N), respectively. The NSs and N also share the highest aa sequence identity (71.1% and 74.4%, respectively) with those of CaCV. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, NSm, GP, NSs, and N proteins showed that MVBaV is most closely related to CaCV and GBNV and that these proteins cluster with those of the WSMoV serogroup, and that MVBaV seems to be a species bridging the two subgroups within the WSMoV serogroup of tospoviruses in evolutionary aspect, suggesting that MVBaV represents a distinct tospovirus. Analysis of S RNA sequence uncovered the highly conserved 5’-/3’-ends and the coding regions, and the variable region of IGR with divergent patterns among MVBaV isolates. PMID:26291718

  11. Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Mizuho; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3-6 months). The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori shuttle vector, has eliminated the conventional tedious procedures required to identify and isolate recombinant viruses. Several technical improvements, including a cysteine protease or chitinase deletion bacmid and chaperone-assisted expression and coexpression, have led to significantly increased protein yields and reduced costs for large-scale production. Terminal N-acetyl glucosamine and galactose residues were found in the N-glycan structures produced by silkworms, which are different from those generated by insect cells. Genomic elucidation of silkworm has opened a new chapter in utilization of silkworm. Transgenic silkworm technology provides a stable production of recombinant protein. Baculovirus surface display expression is one of the low-cost approaches toward silkworm larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccines. The expression of pharmaceutically relevant proteins, including cell/viral surface proteins, membrane proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors, using silkworm larvae or cocoons has become very attractive. Silkworm biotechnology is an innovative and easy approach to achieve high protein expression levels and is a very promising platform technology in the field of life science. Like the "Silkroad," we expect that the "Bioroad" from Asia to Europe will be established by the silkworm expression system. PMID:19830419

  12. Molecular mapping and characterization of the silkworm apodal mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Fu, Ming-Yue; Hu, Hai; Song, Jiang-Bo; He, Song-Zhen; Gai, Ting-Ting; Dai, Fang-Yin; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is important for their survival; in essence, it results from the differential expression of genes during development of the insect body. The silkworm apodal (ap) mutant has degraded thoracic legs making crawling and eating difficult and the female is sterile, which is an ideal subject for studying the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis. Here, we confirmed that the infertility of ap female moths is a result of the degradation of the bursa copulatrix. Positional cloning of ap locus and expression analyses reveal that the Bombyx mori sister of odd and bowl (Bmsob) gene is a strong candidate for the ap mutant. The expression of Bmsob is down-regulated, while the corresponding Hox genes are up-regulated in the ap mutant compared to the wild type. Analyses with the dual luciferase assay present a declined activity of the Bmsob promoter in the ap mutant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Bmsob can inhibit Hox gene expression directly and by suppressing the expression of other genes, including the BmDsp gene. The results of this study are an important contribution to our understanding of the diversification of insect body plan. PMID:26738847

  13. Molecular mapping and characterization of the silkworm apodal mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Fu, Ming-Yue; Hu, Hai; Song, Jiang-Bo; He, Song-Zhen; Gai, Ting-Ting; Dai, Fang-Yin; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is important for their survival; in essence, it results from the differential expression of genes during development of the insect body. The silkworm apodal (ap) mutant has degraded thoracic legs making crawling and eating difficult and the female is sterile, which is an ideal subject for studying the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis. Here, we confirmed that the infertility of ap female moths is a result of the degradation of the bursa copulatrix. Positional cloning of ap locus and expression analyses reveal that the Bombyx mori sister of odd and bowl (Bmsob) gene is a strong candidate for the ap mutant. The expression of Bmsob is down-regulated, while the corresponding Hox genes are up-regulated in the ap mutant compared to the wild type. Analyses with the dual luciferase assay present a declined activity of the Bmsob promoter in the ap mutant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Bmsob can inhibit Hox gene expression directly and by suppressing the expression of other genes, including the BmDsp gene. The results of this study are an important contribution to our understanding of the diversification of insect body plan. PMID:26738847

  14. Functional Loss of Bmsei Causes Thermosensitive Epilepsy in Contractile Mutant Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Hongyi; Cheng, Tingcai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Dai, Fangyin; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qingyou; Liu, Chun

    2015-07-01

    The thermoprotective mechanisms of insects remain largely unknown. We reported the Bombyx mori contractile (cot) behavioral mutant with thermo-sensitive seizures phenotype. At elevated temperatures, the cot mutant exhibit seizures associated with strong contractions, rolling, vomiting, and a temporary lack of movement. We narrowed a region containing cot to ~268 kb by positional cloning and identified the mutant gene as Bmsei which encoded a potassium channel protein. Bmsei was present in both the cell membrane and cytoplasm in wild-type ganglia but faint in cot. Furthermore, Bmsei was markedly decreased upon high temperature treatment in cot mutant. With the RNAi method and injecting potassium channel blockers, the wild type silkworm was induced the cot phenotype. These results demonstrated that Bmsei was responsible for the cot mutant phenotype and played an important role in thermoprotection in silkworm. Meanwhile, comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomic differences. The results showed that the protein of Hsp-1 and Tn1 were significantly decreased and increased on protein level in cot mutant after thermo-stimulus, respectively. Our data provide insights into the mechanism of thermoprotection in insect. As cot phenotype closely resembles human epilepsy, cot might be a potential model for the mechanism of epilepsy in future.

  15. Functional Loss of Bmsei Causes Thermosensitive Epilepsy in Contractile Mutant Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Hongyi; Cheng, Tingcai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Dai, Fangyin; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qingyou; Liu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    The thermoprotective mechanisms of insects remain largely unknown. We reported the Bombyx mori contractile (cot) behavioral mutant with thermo-sensitive seizures phenotype. At elevated temperatures, the cot mutant exhibit seizures associated with strong contractions, rolling, vomiting, and a temporary lack of movement. We narrowed a region containing cot to ~268 kb by positional cloning and identified the mutant gene as Bmsei which encoded a potassium channel protein. Bmsei was present in both the cell membrane and cytoplasm in wild-type ganglia but faint in cot. Furthermore, Bmsei was markedly decreased upon high temperature treatment in cot mutant. With the RNAi method and injecting potassium channel blockers, the wild type silkworm was induced the cot phenotype. These results demonstrated that Bmsei was responsible for the cot mutant phenotype and played an important role in thermoprotection in silkworm. Meanwhile, comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomic differences. The results showed that the protein of Hsp-1 and Tn1 were significantly decreased and increased on protein level in cot mutant after thermo-stimulus, respectively. Our data provide insights into the mechanism of thermoprotection in insect. As cot phenotype closely resembles human epilepsy, cot might be a potential model for the mechanism of epilepsy in future. PMID:26198671

  16. Enterobacter morus sp. nov., a novel Enterobacter species associated with bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mulberry pathogenetic bacterial strain R18-2T isolated from the diseased mulberry root was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the strain R18-2T to the genus Enterobacter. The strain was Gram nega...

  17. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

  18. Cloning and expression analyses of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in mulberry plants.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiwu; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Hu; Fan, Li; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

    2014-10-01

    Anthocyanins are natural food colorants produced by plants that play important roles in their growth and development. Mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are the most important active components of mulberry and have many potentially beneficial effects on human health. The study of anthocyanin biosynthesis will bring benefits for quality improvement and industrial exploration of mulberry fruits. In the present study, nine putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants were identified and cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the mulberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were conserved and had counterparts in other plants. Spatial transcriptional analysis showed detectable expression of eight of these genes in different tissues. The results of expression and UPLC analyses in two mulberry cultivars with differently colored fruit indicated that anthocyanin concentrations correlated with the expression levels of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis including CHS1, CHI, F3H1, F3'H1, and ANS during the fruit ripening process. The present studies provide insight into anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants and may facilitate genetic engineering for improvement of the anthocyanin content in mulberry fruit. PMID:24748075

  19. Mimicking Form and Function of Native Small Diameter Vascular Conduits Using Mulberry and Non-mulberry Patterned Silk Films.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prerak; Kumar, Manishekhar; Bhardwaj, Nandana; Kumar, Jadi Praveen; Krishnamurthy, C S; Nandi, Samit Kumar; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-06-29

    Autologous graft replacement as a strategy to treat diseased peripheral small diameter (≤6 mm) blood vessel is often challenged by prior vein harvesting. To address this issue, we fabricated native-tissue mimicking multilayered small diameter vascular graft (SDVG) using mulberry (Bombyx mori) and Indian endemic non-mulberry (Antheraea assama and Philosamia ricini) silk. Patterned silk films were fabricated on microgrooved PDMS mold, casted by soft lithography. The biodegradable patterned film templates with aligned cell sheets were rolled onto an inert mandrel to mimic vascular conduit. The hemocompatible and mechanically strong non-mulberry films with RGD motif supported ∼1.2 folds greater proliferation of vascular cells with aligned anchorage. Elicitation of minimal immune response on subcutaneous implantation of the films in mice was complemented by ∼45% lower TNF α secretion by in vitro macrophage culture post 7 days. Pattern-induced alignment favored the functional contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), expressing the signature markers-calponin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibited a typical punctuated pattern of von Willebrand factor (vWF). Deposition of collagen and elastin by the SMCs substantiated the aptness of the graft with desired biomechanical attributes. Furthermore, the burst strength of the fabricated conduit was in the range of ∼915-1260 mmHg, a prerequisite to withstand physiological pressure. This novel fabrication approach may eliminate the need of maturation in a pulsatile bioreactor for obtaining functional cellular phenotype. This work is thereby an attestation to the immense prospects of exploring non-mulberry silk for bioengineering a multilayered vascular conduit similar to a native vessel in "form and function", befitting for in vivo transplantation. PMID:27269821

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of a 70 kDa sericin from tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.

    PubMed

    Dash, Rupesh; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kaplan, David L; Kundu, S C

    2007-05-01

    Sericin isolated from the cocoon of the tropical tasar silkmoth Antheraea mylitta showed three major bands, with the lowest 70 kDa. This band was purified by anion exchange chromatography. Immunoblotting with concanavalin-A suggests a glycoprotein and CD analysis of secondary structure includes beta-sheet. Amino acid analysis shows that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine while the mole percentages of these two amino acids are different from sericin of mulberry silkworm. An anti A. mylitta sericin antibody was able to cross-react with sericin from A. assamensis but not the sericin of Bombyx mori and Philosamia ricini. Immunoblot analysis with proteins isolated from middle silk gland of A. mylitta at different developmental stages of larva showed that the 70 kDa sericin is developmentally regulated. These data extend the range of biochemical features found in this unusual family of proteins and may help in developing an improved understanding of their role in forming environmentally stable fibroin fiber-sericin composite structures (cocoons). PMID:17350301

  1. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M3) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M3 mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M3 locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M3 and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm. PMID:26540044

  2. Advanced silk material spun by a transgenic silkworm promotes cell proliferation for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Song, Chunnuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Peng, Zhixin; Peng, Zhangchuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    Natural silk fiber spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori is widely used not only for textile materials, but also for biofunctional materials. In the present study, we genetically engineered an advanced silk material, named hSFSV, using a transgenic silkworm, in which the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) protein was specifically synthesized in the middle silk gland and secreted into the sericin layer to surround the silk fiber using our previously optimized sericin1 expression system. The content of the recombinant hFGF1 in the hSFSV silk was estimated to be approximate 0.07% of the cocoon shell weight. The mechanical properties of hSFSV raw silk fiber were enhanced slightly compared to those of the wild-type raw silk fiber, probably due to the presence of the recombinant of hFGF1 in the sericin layer. Remarkably, the hSFSV raw silk significantly stimulated the cell growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the mitogenic activity of recombinant hFGF1 was well maintained and functioned in the sericin layer of hSFSV raw silk. These results show that the genetically engineered raw silk hSFSV could be used directly as a fine biomedical material for mass application. In addition, the strategy whereby functional recombinant proteins are expressed in the sericin layer of silk might be used to create more genetically engineered silks with various biofunctions and applications. PMID:24980060

  3. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent. PMID:25957753

  4. A comparison of virus genome sequences with their host silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xu-Dong; Yue, Ya-Jie; Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Shen, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-15

    With the recent availability of the genomes of many viruses and the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as well as a variety of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) programs, a new opportunity to gain insight into the interaction of viruses with the silkworm is possible. This study aims to determine the possible existence of sequence identities between the genomes of viruses and the silkworm and attempts to explain this phenomenon. BLAST searches of the genomes of viruses against the silkworm genome were performed using the resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. All studied viruses contained variable numbers of short regions with sequence identity to the genome of the silkworm. The short regions of sequence identity in the genome of the silkworm may be derived from the genomes of viruses in the long history of silkworm-virus interaction. This study is the first to compare these genomes, and may contribute to research on the interaction between viruses and the silkworm. PMID:26432002

  5. Usefulness of silkworm as a host animal for understanding pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masaki; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    We propose Cryptococcus neoformans infection model using silkworm for understanding cryptococcosis and screening of therapeutically effective antibiotics. Silkworm is an insect whose rearing methods were established through a long history of the sericulture industry. Silkworm facilitates experiments using a large number of individuals because of low cost for rearing and few ethical problems caused by killing animals. Silkworm can be reared at 37˚C to perform infection experiments at same temperature to human body. Injection of accurate amounts of samples into hemolymph of silkworm by usual syringes is easy to be done since silkworm has an appropriate size to handle. Moreover two injection methods, injection into hemolymph and intestine, are distinguishable for silkworms. The former is correspondent to intravenous injection, and the latter is to oral administration in humans. Taking these advantages of silkworms as host animals, it is possible to evaluate the virulence factors in C. neoformans and the therapeutic efficacy of antifungal agents. PMID:26902902

  6. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  7. Survey and Analysis of Microsatellites in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M.; Madhu, M.; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K.; Nagaraju, J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of ≥15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and ≥5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2–14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

  8. A hyperglycemic silkworm model for evaluating hypoglycemic activity of Rehmanniae Radix, an herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm shows hyperglycemia after intake of diet containing large amount of glucose. The hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs. A hot water extract of Rehmanniae Radix, an herbal medicine, showed hypoglycemic effect against the hyperglycemic silkworms. This method is applicable for quick and simple evaluation of the hypoglycemic activities of different batches of Rehmanniae Radix. Our findings suggest that silkworms have a lot of merit as experimental animals for evaluation of various herbal medicines. PMID:26902904

  9. LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Awh is a key component activating all three fibroin genes, fibH, fibL and fhx, in the silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Mai; Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takiya, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, three fibroin genes, fibroin-heavy-chain (fibH), fibroin-light-chain (fibL) and fibrohexamerin (fhx), are coexpressed only in the posterior silk gland (PSG) cells, while the sericin genes encoding silk glue proteins are expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) cells. Silk gland factor-2 (SGF-2) is a PSG-specific activator complex of fibH, composed of a LIM-homeodomain protein, Awh, and its cofactors, Ldb and Lcaf. We investigated whether SGF-2 can activate other fibroin genes using transgenic silkworms. The genes for Ldb and Lcaf were expressed ubiquitously in various tissues, while the gene for Awh was expressed strictly specific in PSG of the wild type silkworms. Misexpression of Awh in transgenic silkworms induced ectopic expression of fibL and fhx as well as fibH in MSG. Coincidently with the induction of fibL and fhx by Awh, binding of SGF-2 to the promoter of fibL and fhx was detected in vitro, and SGF-2 binds directly to the fhx core promoter. Ectopic expression of the fibroin genes was observed at high levels in the middle part of MSG. Moreover, fibL and fhx were induced in the anterior silk gland (ASG) of the transgenic silkworms, but fibH was not. These results indicate that Awh is a key activator of all three fibroin genes, and the activity is probably regulated in conjunction with additional factors. PMID:25449130

  10. Non-mulberry Silk Fibroin Biomaterial for Corneal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Sarbani; Nandi, Sudip; Naskar, Deboki; Guha, Rajdeep; Chowdhury, Sushovan; Pradhan, Nirparaj; Kundu, Subhas C.; Konar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Successful repair of a damaged corneal surface is a great challenge and may require the use of a scaffold that supports cell growth and differentiation. Amniotic membrane is currently used for this purpose, in spite of its limitations. A thin transparent silk fibroin film from non-mulberry Antheraea mylitta (Am) has been developed which offers to be a promising alternative. The silk scaffolds provide sufficient rigidity for easy handling, the scaffolds support the sprouting, migration, attachment and growth of epithelial cells and keratocytes from rat corneal explants; the cells form a cell sheet, preserve their phenotypes, express cytokeratin3 and vimentin respectively. The films also support growth of limbal stem cell evidenced by expression of ABCG2. The cell growth on the silk film and the amniotic membrane is comparable. The implanted film within the rabbit cornea remains transparent, stable. The clinical examination as well as histology shows absence of any inflammatory response or neovascularization. The corneal surface integrity is maintained; tear formation, intraocular pressure and electroretinography of implanted eyes show no adverse changes. The silk fibroin film from non-mulberry silk worms may be a worthy candidate for use as a corneal scaffold. PMID:26908015

  11. Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

  12. DISPOSITION OF MULBERRY POLLEN IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, mulberry pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: i.e., oronasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. redictive model vali...

  13. Mulberry Transcription Factor MnDREB4A Confers Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Cao, Bo-Ning; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhao, Ai-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors have been reported to be involved in stress responses. Most studies have focused on DREB genes in subgroups A-1 and A-2 in herbaceous plants, but there have been few reports on the functions of DREBs from the A-3–A-6 subgroups and in woody plants. Moreover, mulberry trees are ecologically and economically important perennial woody plants, but there has been little research on its stress physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. In this study, a DREB gene from the mulberry tree, designated as MnDREB4A, classified into the A-4 subgroup by our previous study, was selected for further characterization. Our results showed that the MnDREB4A protein was localized to the nucleus where it activated transcription. The promoter of MnDREB4A can direct prominent expression downstream of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under heat, cold, drought and salt stress, and GUS staining was deepest after 12 h of stress treatment. The MnDREB4A-overexpression transgenic tobacco showed the improved growth phenotype under untreated conditions, such as greener leaves, longer roots, and lower water loss and senescence rates. Overexpression of MnDREB4A in tobacco can significantly enhance tolerance to heat, cold, drought, and salt stresses in transgenic plants. The leaf discs and seedlings of transgenic plants reduced leaf wilting and senescence rates compared to the wild type plants under the different stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also had higher water contents and proline contents, and lower malondialdehyde contents under untreated condition and stress conditions. Our results indicate that the MnDREB4A protein plays an important role in plant stress tolerance. PMID:26695076

  14. Mulberry Transcription Factor MnDREB4A Confers Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Qin; Liu, Chang-Ying; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Cao, Bo-Ning; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhao, Ai-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors have been reported to be involved in stress responses. Most studies have focused on DREB genes in subgroups A-1 and A-2 in herbaceous plants, but there have been few reports on the functions of DREBs from the A-3-A-6 subgroups and in woody plants. Moreover, mulberry trees are ecologically and economically important perennial woody plants, but there has been little research on its stress physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. In this study, a DREB gene from the mulberry tree, designated as MnDREB4A, classified into the A-4 subgroup by our previous study, was selected for further characterization. Our results showed that the MnDREB4A protein was localized to the nucleus where it activated transcription. The promoter of MnDREB4A can direct prominent expression downstream of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under heat, cold, drought and salt stress, and GUS staining was deepest after 12 h of stress treatment. The MnDREB4A-overexpression transgenic tobacco showed the improved growth phenotype under untreated conditions, such as greener leaves, longer roots, and lower water loss and senescence rates. Overexpression of MnDREB4A in tobacco can significantly enhance tolerance to heat, cold, drought, and salt stresses in transgenic plants. The leaf discs and seedlings of transgenic plants reduced leaf wilting and senescence rates compared to the wild type plants under the different stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also had higher water contents and proline contents, and lower malondialdehyde contents under untreated condition and stress conditions. Our results indicate that the MnDREB4A protein plays an important role in plant stress tolerance. PMID:26695076

  15. The Mulberry Cogeneration Facility: Design features and operating success

    SciTech Connect

    Jasper, W.M.; Wierschem, R.A.; Gray, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mulberry Cogeneration Facility is in successful, reliable, and profitable service, with the complex requirements of zero discharge, extensive water treatment, process steam supply, and inlet chillers having been reduced to routine, automated operation. What was initially visualized by the developer as a straightforward combined cycle plant became much more than that as the various requirements for environmental and regulatory compliance became necessities, along with the desire to maximize output and revenues in response to growing power demands. A delicate balance exists between a financially successful cogeneration project and the Owners` obligation to the community and the environment. As competitive pressures grow and expectations of investors, insurers, operators, and the public increase, still more creativity will be required to provide a safe, reliable, cost-effective plant on ever shorter schedules.

  16. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  17. Effect of gossypol and gossypol related compounds on mulberry pyralid (diaphania pyloalis walker, lepidoptera: pyralidae), a pest of the Mulberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypol, gossypurpurin and diaminogossypol were tested for inhibitory effects against feeding mulberry pyralid larvae (Diaphania pyloalis Walker, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The inclusion of very low concentrations of these compounds (10, 50 or 100 µmoles/g) in artificial diets increased the number of...

  18. Diabetic silkworms for evaluation of therapeutically effective drugs against type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Hayashi, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shinya; Sugita, Takuya; Sumiya, Eriko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that sugar levels in the silkworm hemolymph, i.e., blood, increase immediately (within 1 h) after intake of a high-glucose diet, and that the administration of human insulin decreases elevated hemolymph sugar levels in silkworms. In this hyperglycemic silkworm model, however, administration of pioglitazone or metformin, drugs used clinically for the treatment of type II diabetes, have no effect. Therefore, here we established a silkworm model of type II diabetes for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs such as pioglitazone and metformin. Silkworms fed a high-glucose diet over a long time-period (18 h) exhibited a hyperlipidemic phenotype. In these hyperlipidemic silkworms, phosphorylation of JNK, a stress-responsive protein kinase, was enhanced in the fat body, an organ that functionally resembles the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. Fat bodies isolated from hyperlipidemic silkworms exhibited decreased sensitivity to human insulin. The hyperlipidemic silkworms have impaired glucose tolerance, characterized by high fasting hemolymph sugar levels and higher hemolymph sugar levels in a glucose tolerance test. Administration of pioglitazone or metformin improved the glucose tolerance of the hyperlipidemic silkworms. These findings suggest that the hyperlipidemic silkworms are useful for evaluating the hypoglycemic activities of candidate drugs against type II diabetes. PMID:26024298

  19. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  20. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  1. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  2. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  3. 33 CFR 334.280 - James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false James River between the entrance to Skiffes Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. 334.280 Section... Creek and Mulberry Point, Va.; army training and small craft testing area. (a) The restricted...

  4. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene’s structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7—dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  5. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene's structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  6. From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

  7. Mulberry hypertrophy and accompanying sinonasal pathologies: A review of 68 cases.

    PubMed

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Yanilmaz, Muhammed; Solmaz, Fevzi

    2016-08-01

    Mulberry hypertrophy occasionally coexists with sinonasal pathologies. There are very few reports in the literature on this clinical entity. We conducted a retrospective study to draw attention to this condition in the context of accompanying sinonasal pathologies. Our study group was made up of 68 patients-51 males and 17 females, aged 13 to 57 years (mean: 34.9)-who had been diagnosed with mulberry hypertrophy and at least one accompanying sinonasal pathology. All patients had a long-standing chronic discharge. Forty-nine of these patients (72.1%) had unilateral mulberry hypertrophy. The most common concomitant pathologies were chronic rhinosinusitis and ostiomeatal complex disease; others included septal deviation, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, and concha bullosa. Thirty-six patients (52.9%) with varying degrees of choanal/nasal obstruction were operated on with endoscopic excision to treat the mulberry hypertrophy. In all, most patients underwent some sort of surgery to treat either the mulberry hypertrophy or the accompanying sinonasal pathology. Based on our findings, we suggest a clinical staging system to serve as a way to standardize management and guide future basic and clinical research. PMID:27551846

  8. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  9. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  10. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  11. Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Leaves Depend on Cultivar and Harvest Month in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuxiao; Liao, Shentai; Shen, Weizhi; Liu, Fan; Tang, Cuiming; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Sun, Yuanming

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of cultivar and harvest month on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves, four major phenolics, including chlorogenic acid (ChA), benzoic acid (BeA), rutin (Rut) and astragalin (Ast), were quantified using an HPLC-UV method. Leaves from six mulberry cultivars, collected from April to October, were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaves was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HSA) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (SSA) assays. The results showed that the total values of the four phenolic compounds ranged from 2.3 dry weight (DW) to 4.2 mg/g DW, with ChA being the major compound. The mean total phenol (TP) content of the six cultivars ranged from 30.4 equivalents (GAE) mg/g DW to 44.7 GAE mg/g DW. Mulberry leaves harvested in May had the highest TP content. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves harvested from April to October differed noticeably. In general, Kq 10 and May were considered to be a better cultivar and harvest month concerning phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. PMID:23443117

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transient MaFT expression in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Li; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Li-Qun; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Hai; Su, Chao; Qian, Yong-Hua; Jiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation assay in mulberry (Morus alba L.), various infiltration methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strains, and bacterial concentrations were tested in mulberry seedlings. Compared with LBA4404, GV3101 harboring pBE2133 plasmids presented stronger GUS signals at 3 days post infiltration using syringe. Recombinant plasmids pBE2133:GFP and pBE2133:GFP:MaFT were successfully constructed. Transient expression of MaFT:GFP protein was found in leaves, petiole (cross section), and shoot apical meristem (SAM) of mulberry according to the GFP signal. Moreover, MaFT:GFP mRNA was also detected in leaves and SAM via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. An efficient transient transformation system could be achieved in mulberry seedlings by syringe using A. tumefaciens GV3101 at the OD600 of 0.5. The movement of MaFT expression from leaves to SAM might trigger the precocious flowering of mulberry. PMID:26024368

  13. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young’s modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  14. Strain Rate and Anisotropic Microstructure Dependent Mechanical Behaviors of Silkworm Cocoon Shells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Meng, Wanlin; Guan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons are multi-layered composite structures comprised of high strength silk fiber and sericin, and their mechanical properties have been naturally selected to protect pupas during metamorphosis from various types of external attacks. The present study attempts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of cocoon shell materials from wild silkworm species Antheraea pernyi under dynamic loading rates. Five dynamic strain rates from 0.00625 s-1 to 12.5 s-1 are tested to show the strain rate sensitivity of the cocoon shell material. In the meantime, the anisotropy of the cocoon shell is considered and the cocoon shell specimens are cut along 0°, 45° and 90° orientation to the short axis of cocoons. Typical mechanical properties including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain are extracted and analyzed from the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, the fracture morphologies of the cocoon shell specimens are observed under scanning electron microscopy to help understand the relationship between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the cocoon material. A discussion on the dynamic strain rate effect on the mechanical properties of cocoon shell material is followed by fitting our experimental results to two previous models, and the effect could be well explained. We also compare natural and dried cocoon materials for the dynamic strain rate effect and interestingly the dried cocoon shells show better overall mechanical properties. This study provides a different perspective on the mechanical properties of cocoon material as a composite material, and provides some insight for bio-inspired engineering materials. PMID:26939063

  15. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Bmsage PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN SILK GLAND GENERATION IN SILKWORM, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hu-hu; Zhang, Deng-pan; Chen, Rui-ting; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Liang, Shuang; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland secretion is altered in Drosophila embryos with loss of function of the sage gene. Saliva has a reduced volume and an increased electron density according to transmission electron microscopy, resulting in regions of tube dilation and constriction with intermittent tube closure. However, the precise functions of Bmsage in silkworm (Bombyx mori) are unknown, although its sequence had been deposited in SilkDB. From this, Bmsage is inferred to be a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of silk fibroin and interacts with another silk gland-specific transcription factor, namely, silk gland factor-1. In this study, we introduced a germline mutation of Bmsage using the Cas9/sgRNA system, a genome-editing technology, resulting in deletion of Bmsage from the genome of B. mori. Of the 15 tested samples, seven displayed alterations at the target site. The mutagenesis efficiency was about 46.7% and there were no obvious off-target effects. In the screened homozygous mutants, silk glands developed poorly and the middle and posterior silk glands (MSG and PSG) were absent, which was significantly different from the wild type. The offspring of G0 mosaic silkworms had indel mutations causing 2- or 9-bp deletions at the target site, but exhibited the same abnormal silk gland structure. Mutant larvae containing different open-reading frames of Bmsage had the same silk gland phenotype. This illustrated that the mutant phenotype was due to Bmsage knockout. We conclude that Bmsage participates in embryonic development of the silk gland. PMID:25917878

  16. Transgenic silkworms expressing human insulin receptors for evaluation of therapeutically active insulin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Ishii, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Wataru; Horie, Ryo; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Tatematsu, Ken-ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    We established a transgenic silkworm strain expressing the human insulin receptor (hIR) using the GAL4/UAS system. Administration of human insulin to transgenic silkworms expressing hIR decreased hemolymph sugar levels and facilitated Akt phosphorylation in the fat body. The decrease in hemolymph sugar levels induced by injection of human insulin in the transgenic silkworms expressing hIR was blocked by co-injection of wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Administration of bovine insulin, an hIR ligand, also effectively decreased sugar levels in the transgenic silkworms. These findings indicate that functional hIRs that respond to human insulin were successfully induced in the transgenic silkworms. We propose that the humanized silkworm expressing hIR is useful for in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic activities of insulin receptor agonists. PMID:25449269

  17. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-01-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp. PMID:27014591

  18. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  19. Identification and characterization of Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain genes in mulberry, Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiwei; Ma, Bi; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-06-01

    Genes from the plant specific Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) family encode transcriptional regulators that have a variety of functions in various physiological and developmental processes. In the present study, 31 LBD genes were identified in the mulberry genome. The genome features of all MnLBD genes and phylogenetic studies with Arabidopsis LBD protein sequences, accompanied by the expression analysis of each of the Morus LBD genes provide insights into the functional prediction of mulberry LBDs. The genome-wide surveys of the current mulberry genome have resulted in the identification of catalogs of MnLBD genes that may function in the development of leaf, root, and secondary metabolism in Morus sp. PMID:27014591

  20. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  1. Effects of different Bombyx mori silkworm varieties on the structural characteristics and properties of silk.

    PubMed

    Chung, Da Eun; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Moo Kon; Lee, Ki Hoon; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2015-08-01

    Silk has attracted the attention of biomedical researchers because of its good biocompatibility. Although various characteristics of silk are needed for its successful application in biomedical fields, the performance of silk material is limited. Although there are many varieties of Bombyx mori silkworm, the effect of different silkworm varieties on regenerated silk has not been considered in detail. That is, the use of a diverse variety of silkworms has not been considered in non-textile applications resulting in limited performance of silk materials. In this study, the effects of different silkworm varieties on the structural characteristics and properties of silk cocoon and regenerated silk fibroin (SF) were examined. Structural characteristics of silk cocoon including color, fiber diameter, and porosity, differed depending on the silkworm variety. Furthermore, molecular weight, solution viscosity, and mechanical properties of regenerated SF were influenced by the variety of silkworm, while the amino acid composition, β-sheet crystallization by formic acid, and cyto-compatibility of regenerated SF did not differ between the samples from different varieties of silkworm. These results imply that diverse performance of silk can be obtained by controlling the silkworm variety, and that the use of different varieties of silkworm might be a good way to strengthen the performance of silk in biomedical fields. PMID:26072984

  2. A new method of pebrine inspection of silkworm egg using multiprimer PCR.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Yoshinori; Hayasaka, Shoji

    2003-03-01

    Using a mixture of several PCR primers, we evaluated whether multiprimer PCR is practically useful for the early and simultaneous detection of several kinds of microsporidia that cause silkworm pebrine. When genomic DNA extracted from silkworm eggs infected with Nosema bombycis was used as the DNA template, the specific DNA sequences were amplified by multiprimer PCR. In addition, similar results were obtained even when genomic DNA extracted from silkworms infected with N. bombycis was used as the DNA template. These findings suggest that multiprimer PCR using several primers designed for this study is practically useful for pebrine inspection of silkworm eggs. PMID:12676550

  3. Results of deep-well injection testing at Mulberry, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.; Wilson, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Fla., high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. In 1975, a satellite monitor well was drilled 2,291 feet from the injection well and a series of three injection tests were performed. Duration of the tests ranged from 240 to 10,020 minutes and injection rates ranged from 110 to 230 gallons per minute. Based on an evaluation of factors that affect hydraulic response, water-level data suitable for interpretation of hydraulic characteristics of the injection zone were identified to occur from 200 to 1,000 minutes during the 10,020-minute test. Transmissivity of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from 700 to 1,000 feet squared per day and storage coefficient of the injection zone was computed to be within the range from .00001 to .00005. The confining bed accepting most of the leakage appears to be the underlying bed. Also, it appears that the overlying beds are probably relatively impermeable and significantly retard the vertical movement of neutralized waste effluent. (USGS)

  4. Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

    2010-09-01

    Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

  5. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yiming; Liu, Min; Ouyang, Yanan; Zhao, Xianfang; Ju, Yanlun; Fang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Background Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs) and relative odor contributions (ROCs) were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types) of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54%) and mulberry wines (2.08%) were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%), and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was superior to

  6. Establishment of the BacMam system using silkworm baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Imai, Atsutoshi; Tadokoro, Takashi; Kita, Shunsuke; Horiuchi, Masataka; Fukuhara, Hideo; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2016-09-16

    The BacMam system uses modified insect viruses (baculoviruses) as vehicles to efficiently deliver genes for expression in mammalian cells. The technique can be widely applied to large-scale recombinant protein production with appropriate modifications, high-throughput screening platforms for cell-based assays, and the delivery of large genes. The silkworm system is often employed as a rapid and cost-effective approach for recombinant baculovirus generation. Here we have developed the novel BacMam system using silkworm baculovirus, and shown the successful expression of EGFP in mammalian cells. The transduction to mammalian cells via the BacMam system was improved by adding phosphate-buffered saline and sodium butyrate to the culture medium and lowering the temperature after viral infection. This study provides an alternative gene delivery system for mammalian cells, which has various potential applications, including efficient native protein production and gene therapy. PMID:27480929

  7. [Proteolytic enzymes as markers of productivity and heterosis of silkworm].

    PubMed

    Krylova, I D; Iarygin, D V; Filippovich, Iu B

    2005-01-01

    A positive correlation between the activity level of cysteine proteinases in developing eggs of common silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.), on the one hand, and a set of commercial characteristics, on the other, was found. This allows the determination of cysteine proteinase activities (pH optima of 3.0, 3.6, and 8.6) to be recommended as a biochemical test for an early prediction of potential productivity of silkworm breeds. A positive correlation between the activity level of acid cysteine proteinases in eggs of parental breeds and a set of commercial characteristics of their hybrids was detected, indicating a principal possibility of predicting the degree of heterosis. PMID:15810740

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Thermal Parthenogenesis of the Domesticated Silkworm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peigang; Wang, Yongqiang; Du, Xin; Yao, Lusong; Li, Fengbo; Meng, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    Thermal induction of parthenogenesis (also known as thermal parthenogenesis) in silkworms is an important technique that has been used in artificial insemination, expansion of hybridization, transgenesis and sericultural production; however, the exact mechanisms of this induction remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the gene expression profile in silkworms undergoing thermal parthenogenesis using RNA-seq analysis. The transcriptome profiles indicated that in non-induced and induced eggs, the numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the parthenogenetic line (PL) and amphigenetic line (AL) were 538 and 545, respectively, as determined by fold-change ≥ 2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that DEGs between two lines were mainly involved in reproduction, formation of chorion, female gamete generation and cell development pathways. Upregulation of many chorion genes in AL suggests that the maturation rate of AL eggs was slower than PL eggs. Some DEGs related to reactive oxygen species removal, DNA repair and heat shock response were differentially expressed between the two lines, such as MPV-17, REV1 and HSP68. These results supported the view that a large fraction of genes are differentially expressed between PL and AL, which offers a new approach to identifying the molecular mechanism of silkworm thermal parthenogenesis. PMID:26274803

  9. Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masahiro; Munetsuna, Hiroto; Sato, Tsutomu; Adachi, Takahiro; Hino, Rika; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Namiko; Tamura, Toshiki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2003-01-01

    We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac vector. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vectors, producing worms displaying EGFP fluorescence in their silk glands. The cocoons emitted EGFP fluorescence, indicating that the promoter and fibroin L-chain cDNAs directed the synthesized products to be secreted into cocoons. The presence of fusion proteins in cocoons was demonstrated by immunoblotting, collagenase-sensitivity tests, and amino acid sequencing. The fusion proteins from cocoons were purified to a single electrophoretic band. This study demonstrates the viability of transgenic silkworms as a tool for producing useful proteins in bulk. PMID:12483223

  10. Isolation and identification of a pathogen of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tao, Heng-Ping; Shen, Zhong-Yuan; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Li

    2011-03-01

    A pathogenic bacterial strain, ST-1, was isolated from a naturally infected silkworm. The strain was identified on the basis of its physiological and biochemical properties and the results of sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA gene. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that ST-1 shared the highest sequence identity (more than 99%) with Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca. ST-1 bacteria were gram-negative and 0.7-0.9 × 1.3-1.5 μm long, short rods with rounded ends. The strain could utilize sodium citrate, malonate, D-glucose, sucrose, D-fructose, D-mannose, and L-arabinose. Pathogenicity of ST-1 for silkworm could be depicted as a linear regression of the logarithm (y) of ST-1 concentration against probability (x) (y = 0.4040 + 0.0600x). The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) was 2.12 × 10(4) cfu/ml. In conclusion, ST-1 was identified as Ps. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca. This is the first report that Ps. aurantiaca is a pathogen for silkworm Bombyx mori. PMID:21046395

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Thermal Parthenogenesis of the Domesticated Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xin; Yao, Lusong; Li, Fengbo; Meng, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    Thermal induction of parthenogenesis (also known as thermal parthenogenesis) in silkworms is an important technique that has been used in artificial insemination, expansion of hybridization, transgenesis and sericultural production; however, the exact mechanisms of this induction remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the gene expression profile in silkworms undergoing thermal parthenogenesis using RNA-seq analysis. The transcriptome profiles indicated that in non-induced and induced eggs, the numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the parthenogenetic line (PL) and amphigenetic line (AL) were 538 and 545, respectively, as determined by fold-change ≥ 2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that DEGs between two lines were mainly involved in reproduction, formation of chorion, female gamete generation and cell development pathways. Upregulation of many chorion genes in AL suggests that the maturation rate of AL eggs was slower than PL eggs. Some DEGs related to reactive oxygen species removal, DNA repair and heat shock response were differentially expressed between the two lines, such as MPV-17, REV1 and HSP68. These results supported the view that a large fraction of genes are differentially expressed between PL and AL, which offers a new approach to identifying the molecular mechanism of silkworm thermal parthenogenesis. PMID:26274803

  12. Genome-wide Identification and Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Analysis of WRKY Components of Mulberry.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Negi, Nisha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry is known to be sensitive to several biotic and abiotic stresses, which in turn have a direct impact on the yield of silk, because it is the sole food source for the silk worm. WRKYs are a family of transcription factors, which play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 54 genes with conserved WRKY motifs in the Morus notabilis genome. Motif searches coupled with a phylogenetic analysis revealed seven sub-groups as well as the absence of members of Group Ib in mulberry. Analyses of the 2K upstream region in addition to a gene ontology terms enrichment analysis revealed putative functions of mulberry WRKYs under biotic and abiotic stresses. An RNA-seq-based analysis showed that several of the identified WRKYs have shown preferential expression in the leaf, bark, root, male flower, and winter bud of M. notabilis. Finally, expression analysis by qPCR under different stress and hormone treatments revealed genotype-specific responses. Taken together, our results briefs about the genome-wide identification of WRKYs as well as their differential response to stresses and hormones. Importantly, these data can also be utilized to identify potential molecular targets for conferring tolerance to various stresses in mulberry. PMID:27477686

  13. Genome-wide Identification and Structural, Functional and Evolutionary Analysis of WRKY Components of Mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Negi, Nisha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry is known to be sensitive to several biotic and abiotic stresses, which in turn have a direct impact on the yield of silk, because it is the sole food source for the silk worm. WRKYs are a family of transcription factors, which play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 54 genes with conserved WRKY motifs in the Morus notabilis genome. Motif searches coupled with a phylogenetic analysis revealed seven sub-groups as well as the absence of members of Group Ib in mulberry. Analyses of the 2K upstream region in addition to a gene ontology terms enrichment analysis revealed putative functions of mulberry WRKYs under biotic and abiotic stresses. An RNA-seq-based analysis showed that several of the identified WRKYs have shown preferential expression in the leaf, bark, root, male flower, and winter bud of M. notabilis. Finally, expression analysis by qPCR under different stress and hormone treatments revealed genotype-specific responses. Taken together, our results briefs about the genome-wide identification of WRKYs as well as their differential response to stresses and hormones. Importantly, these data can also be utilized to identify potential molecular targets for conferring tolerance to various stresses in mulberry. PMID:27477686

  14. Specific detection and identification of mulberry-infecting strains of Xylella fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X. fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular land...

  15. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17-carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the "out of Taiwan" hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China "into North Taiwan," the "out of South China-Indochina" expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  16. Improved 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) production in mulberry leaves fermented by microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun-Gang; Wang, Chu-Yan; Jin, Chao; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Xijie; Zhang, Guo-Zheng; Gui, Zhong-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    DNJ, an inhibitor of α-glucosidase, is used to suppress the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we focus on screening an appropriate microorganism for performing fermentation to improve DNJ content in mulberry leaf. Results showed that Ganoderma lucidum was selected from 8 species and shown to be the most effective in improvement of DNJ production from mulberry leaves through fermentation. Based on single factor and three factor influence level tests by following the Plackett-Burman design, the optimum extraction yield was analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). The extracted DNJ was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The results of RSM showed that the optimal condition for mulberry fermentation was defined as pH 6.97, potassium nitrate content 0.81% and inoculums volume 2 mL. The extraction efficiency reached to 0.548% in maximum which is 2.74 fold of those in mulberry leaf. PMID:25242964

  17. Lactic acid bacteria activating innate immunity improve survival in bacterial infection model of silkworm.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Satoshi; Ono, Yasuo; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been thought to be helpful for human heath in the gut as probiotics. It recently was noted that activity of LAB stimulating immune systems is important. Innate immune systems are conserved in mammals and insects. Silkworm has innate immunity in response to microbes. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (ex. peptidoglycan and β-glucan) induces a muscle contraction of silkworm larva. In this study, we established an efficient method to isolate lactic acid bacteria derived from natural products. We selected a highly active LAB to activate the innate immunity in silkworm by using the silkworm muscle contraction assay, as well. The assay revealed that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 was highly active on the stimulation of the innate immunity in silkworm. L. lactis 11/19-B1 solely fermented milk with casamino acid and glucose. This strain would be a starter strain to make yogurt. Compared to commercially available yogurt LAB, L. lactis 11/19-B1 has higher activity on silkworm contraction. Silkworm normally ingested an artificial diet mixed with L. lactis 11/19-B1 or a yogurt fermented with L. lactis 11/19-B1. Interestingly, silkworms that ingested the LAB showed tolerance against the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These data suggest that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 would be expected to be useful for making yogurt and probiotics to activate innate immunity. PMID:26971556

  18. Using silkworms as a laboratory animal to evaluate medicines and foods.

    PubMed

    Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Hamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    For this special issue, we, the Editors of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, have asked researchers who are using silkworms to actively develop drugs and study foods to summarize their recent work. Our profound hope is that this special issue encourages researchers who are helping to develop the new field of "using silkworms as a laboratory animal to evaluate medicines and foods". PMID:26971551

  19. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  20. The properties of monoclonal antibody against sepiapterin reductase from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Iino, T; Sawada, H; Gyure, W L; Tsusué, M

    1992-12-01

    A specific monoclonal antibody prepared for the 29-kDa a subunit of silkworm fat body sepiapterin reductase (SPR) was able to recognize the subunit in crude extract of fat body after SDS treatment. Although SPR from the silkworm fat body has biochemical properties similar to those reported for SPR from mammalian sources, especially rat erythrocytes, the antibody failed to recognize the 28-kDa subunit of rat erythrocyte SPR. This result indicates that SPR from silkworm fat body has a different amino-acid sequence from that of the rat erythrocyte enzyme. Sepiapterin reductase activity has not been found in crude extract of fat body from the silkworm mutant lemon. Although the antibody recognized only 29-kDa protein in the crude extract of silkworm fat body from normal strain after SDS-treatment, the antibody recognized only an approximately 80-kDa protein in the crude extract of the lemon mutant after SDS-treatment. PMID:1292509

  1. Symbiosis with Francisella tularensis provides resistance to pathogens in the silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jin; Uda, Akihiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen found in a wide range of animals, including arthropods, and environments. This bacterium has been known for over 100 years, but the lifestyle of F. tularensis in natural reservoirs remains largely unknown. Thus, we established a novel natural host model for F. tularensis using the silkworm (Bombyx mori), which is an insect model for infection by pathogens. F. tularensis established a symbiosis with silkworms, and bacteria were observed in the hemolymph. After infection with F. tularensis, the induction of melanization and nodulation, which are immune responses to bacterial infection, were inhibited in silkworms. Pre-inoculation of silkworms with F. tularensis enhanced the expression of antimicrobial peptides and resistance to infection by pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that silkworms acquire host resistance via their symbiosis with F. tularensis, which may have important fitness benefits in natural reservoirs. PMID:27507264

  2. Highly accurate and fast optical penetration-based silkworm gender separation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-07-01

    Based on our research work in the last five years, this paper highlights our innovative optical sensing system that can identify and separate silkworm gender highly suitable for sericulture industry. The key idea relies on our proposed optical penetration concepts and once combined with simple image processing operations leads to high accuracy in identifying of silkworm gender. Inside the system, there are electronic and mechanical parts that assist in controlling the overall system operation, processing the optical signal, and separating the female from male silkworm pupae. With current system performance, we achieve a very highly accurate more than 95% in identifying gender of silkworm pupae with an average system operational speed of 30 silkworm pupae/minute. Three of our systems are already in operation at Thailand's Queen Sirikit Sericulture Centers.

  3. Symbiosis with Francisella tularensis provides resistance to pathogens in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jin; Uda, Akihiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen found in a wide range of animals, including arthropods, and environments. This bacterium has been known for over 100 years, but the lifestyle of F. tularensis in natural reservoirs remains largely unknown. Thus, we established a novel natural host model for F. tularensis using the silkworm (Bombyx mori), which is an insect model for infection by pathogens. F. tularensis established a symbiosis with silkworms, and bacteria were observed in the hemolymph. After infection with F. tularensis, the induction of melanization and nodulation, which are immune responses to bacterial infection, were inhibited in silkworms. Pre-inoculation of silkworms with F. tularensis enhanced the expression of antimicrobial peptides and resistance to infection by pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that silkworms acquire host resistance via their symbiosis with F. tularensis, which may have important fitness benefits in natural reservoirs. PMID:27507264

  4. Wild yam

    MedlinePlus

    ... premenstrual syndrome), menstrual cramps, weak bones (osteoporosis), increasing energy and sexual drive in men and women, and ... diverticulosis, gallbladder pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and for increasing energy. Some women apply wild yam creams to the ...

  5. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  6. Mulberry trees conserved soil and protected water quality in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin; Wan, Pan; Xiong, Xing-Zheng; Ou, Yang; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Jingchun; Zhou, Hao; Xu, Qiao; Chen, Guohui; Xili, Yuanzi; Nie, Jiasheng

    2016-03-01

    China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) was designed to restore perennial plant cover on sloping land in western China, in part to protect the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we examined use of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) in the SLCP to protect water quality and conserve soil. We established nine runoff monitoring plots divided among three categories (vegetable farming, fallow control, and mulberry plantation) on a bank of the Liangtan River situated at the western margin of the TGR. The land had been used previously by farmers for growing vegetables. We found that soil loss and surface water runoff were lowest in the mulberry plots and highest in the vegetable plots. We used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to assess the concentration of selected heavy metal pollution indicators (Zn, Hg, As, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Cu) in the monitoring plot soils at the beginning of the experiment in May 2009. The heavy metals were assessed again at the end of the experiment in October 2012, and we found that the concentrations of these pollutants had been reduced in all fallow and mulberry plots, and to the greatest extent in the mulberry plots. We found that levels of Hg, Pb, and Cu increased in the vegetable plots. For these reasons, we conclude that riparian mulberry plantations are useful for reducing rapid runoff of storm water, conserving soil, and sequestering heavy metal pollutants in the TGR region. PMID:26564183

  7. Effect of Cultivar, Temperature, and Environmental Conditions on the Dynamic Change of Melatonin in Mulberry Fruit Development and Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Yin, Li-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Ying; Xiao, Hua; Kang, Kun; Liu, Xing-Yan; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    High levels of melatonin have been reported in various foods but not in mulberry or its wine. This study investigated the dynamic changes of melatonin levels during mulberry fruit development and ethanol fermentation of 2 different colored mulberry cultivars ("Hongguo2ˮ Morus nigra, black and "Baiyuwangˮ Morus alba, white) at 2 fermentation temperatures (16 and 25 °C). Our results showed that the melatonin level increased in the beginning of mulberry development but decreased in the end. The MnTDC gene expression level correlated with melatonin production, which implied that TDC may be the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthetic process in mulberries. During mulberry fermentation, the melatonin concentration increased rapidly in the beginning and then decreased gradually. Low temperature delayed the melatonin production during fermentation. A relatively high level of melatonin was found in "Hongguo2ˮ compared with "Baiyuwangˮ during fruit development and fermentation. The variation of melatonin correlated with the ethanol production rate, suggesting that melatonin may participate in physiological regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation stage. PMID:26953927

  8. Melanin pigmentation gives rise to black spots on the wings of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Several mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori show body color variation at the larval and adult stages. The Wild wing spot (Ws) mutant exhibits a phenotype in which the moth has a spot on the apex of the forewing. In this study, we investigated this trait to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the color pattern. Microscopy of the black spot of Ws mutants showed that the pigment emerges in the scales of the wing, and accumulation of the pigment becomes strong just before eclosion. We next examined the relationship between the black spot of the Ws mutant and melanin. The spectrophotometry using alkaline extracts from the black spot in the wing showed the highest absorption intensity at 405nm, which is the absorbance wavelength of melanin. Moreover, inhibition assays for enzymes implicated in melanin synthesis using 3-iodo-l-tyrosine (a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) and L-α-methyl-DOPA (a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor) revealed that treatment with each inhibitor disrupted the pigmentation of the wing of the Ws mutant. On the basis of these results, we analyzed the expression pattern of five genes involved in melanin formation, and found that the expression levels of yellow and laccase2 were increased just before pigmentation, whereas those of DDC, tan, and TH were increased when the apex of the wing turned black. These results showed that melanin pigmentation gives rise to the black spot on the wing. PMID:27405010

  9. The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. Results From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Conclusions Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori. PMID:21040523

  10. Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidoglycans induce excessive activation of the innate immune system in silkworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2010-10-22

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen that causes inflammation in human periodontal tissue, killed silkworm (Bombyx mori, Lepidoptera) larvae when injected into the blood (hemolymph). Silkworm lethality was not rescued by antibiotic treatment, and heat-killed bacteria were also lethal. Heat-killed bacteria of mutant P. gingivalis strains lacking virulence factors also killed silkworms. Silkworms died after injection of peptidoglycans purified from P. gingivalis (pPG), and pPG toxicity was blocked by treatment with mutanolysin, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme. pPG induced silkworm hemolymph melanization at the same dose as that required to kill the animal. pPG injection increased caspase activity in silkworm tissues. pPG-induced silkworm death was delayed by injecting melanization-inhibiting reagents (a serine protease inhibitor and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea), antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, glutathione, and catalase), and a caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Thus, pPG induces excessive activation of the innate immune response, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death in the host tissue. PMID:20702417

  11. Biological Effects of Low Energy Ar+ Ion Bombardment on Silkworm Eggs: a Novel Animal Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiaping; Wu, Yuejin; Liu, Xuelan; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we found for the first time that silkworm eggs were able to survive in vacuum for a long period of time. Subsequently, low energy Ar+ ions with different energies and fluences were used to bombard silkworm eggs so as to explore the resulting biological effects. Results showed that (i) the exposure of silkworm eggs to vacuum within 10 min did not cause significant impact on the hatching rates, while the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 25 keV or 30 keV with fluences ranging from 2.6×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 to 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 caused a significant impact on the hatching rates, and the hatching rates decreased with the increase in the fluence and energy level; (ii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 or 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 resulted in a noticeable etching on the egg shell surface which could be observed by a scanning electron microscope; and (iii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 generated several mutant phenotypes which were observed in the 5th instar silkworms and a moth.

  12. Using silkworms to establish alternative animal models for evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of tissue injury induced by chemicals is crucial to drug development. Mice and rats, which are effectively used to analyze drug-induced tissue injury, present problems in terms of cost and ethical issues. Although alternative methods have been developed using in vitro techniques or invertebrates, evaluation of ADME and the size of animals are still issues that need to be addressed. Use of silkworms can resolve these problems. Silkworms have pharmacokinetic characteristics similar to those of mammals. Injection of various hepatotoxic chemicals also leads to elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the hemolymph of silkworms. Furthermore, transparent transgenic silkworms expressing GFP have been produced to facilitate continuous analysis without the need to collect hemolymph. Analyses using this silkworm have indicated that the intensity of GFP fluorescence observed on the body surface of the silkworm decreases in a time- and dose-dependent manner when hepatotoxic chemicals are injected. These results suggest that the silkworms can serve as alternative animal model for evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury. PMID:26971554

  13. Microarray analysis of New Green Cocoon associated genes in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Ru; He, Song-Zhen; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Han, Min-Jin; Li, Chun-Lin; Li, Zhi-Quan; Dai, Fang-Yin

    2016-06-01

    Green cocoons in silkworm, Bombyx mori, are caused by flavonoids accumulation in the silk proteins, fibroin and sericin. Despite the economic value of natural green cocoon and medical value of flavonoids, there is limited understanding of the molecular mechanism regulating flavonoids uptake in silkworm, which is tightly associated with the trait of green cocoon. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive analysis to understand the molecular mechanisms of flavonoids uptake in silkworm based on microarray analyses. The study subject was the New Green Cocoon from the silkworm strains, G200 and N100, a new spontaneous dominant green cocoon trait identified in the 2000s. The genes regulating this trait are independent of other green cocoon genes previously reported. Genome-wide gene expression was compared between the New Green Cocoon producing silkworm strains, G200 and N100, and the control sample, which is the white cocoon producing strain 872B. Among these strains, N100 and 872B are near-isogenic lines. The results showed that 130 genes have consistently changing expression patterns in the green cocoon strains when compared with the white cocoon strain. Among these, we focused on the genes related to flavonoids metabolism and absorption, such as sugar transporter genes and UDP-glucosyltransferase genes. Based on our findings, we propose the potential mechanisms for flavonoids absorption and metabolism in silkworm. Our results imply that silkworm might be used as an underlying model for flavonoids in pharmaceutical research. PMID:26936509

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidoglycans Induce Excessive Activation of the Innate Immune System in Silkworm Larvae*

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen that causes inflammation in human periodontal tissue, killed silkworm (Bombyx mori, Lepidoptera) larvae when injected into the blood (hemolymph). Silkworm lethality was not rescued by antibiotic treatment, and heat-killed bacteria were also lethal. Heat-killed bacteria of mutant P. gingivalis strains lacking virulence factors also killed silkworms. Silkworms died after injection of peptidoglycans purified from P. gingivalis (pPG), and pPG toxicity was blocked by treatment with mutanolysin, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme. pPG induced silkworm hemolymph melanization at the same dose as that required to kill the animal. pPG injection increased caspase activity in silkworm tissues. pPG-induced silkworm death was delayed by injecting melanization-inhibiting reagents (a serine protease inhibitor and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea), antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, glutathione, and catalase), and a caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Thus, pPG induces excessive activation of the innate immune response, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death in the host tissue. PMID:20702417

  15. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-15

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  16. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  17. Wild Marshmallows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  19. Growth and changes of endogenous hormones of mulberry roots in a simulated rocky desertification area.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dalan; Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2016-06-01

    We studied the growth of roots of white mulberry (Morus alba) trees in response to different water and nutrient conditions in sets of three or five containers connected via small pipes and arranged so as to simulate the heterogeneous soil conditions associated with rocky desertification. The experiment was conducted to improve understanding of the adaptation of M. alba to this stressful environment. The trees were grown for a year under constant water and nutrient conditions in the soils within each container of any set of containers. Differences in root activity and endogenous hormones within root tips were measured at the end of the experiment. We compared four treatment groups: H (variable moisture among containers), F (variable nutrients among containers), HF (both moisture and nutrients varied among containers), and CK (non-varied control). Results showed the following: (1) Mulberry roots showed obvious hydrotropic and chemotropic growth patterns, but chemotropism did not occur in the condition of water shortage. (2) Measurement of growth indices (root surface area, total root length, number of root tips, root biomass) showed that growth status was best in group HF once the roots were able to access containers with sufficient water and nutrients, followed by group H. The indices were significantly poorer in groups F and CK. (3) The content of auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellins in roots under soil drought conditions were lower than under wetter soil conditions. In contrast, abscisic acid content and root activity were higher under soil drought conditions than under wetter soil conditions. The results indicated that water is the key factor restricting growth of white mulberry trees in areas of rocky desertification but that the trees adjust endogenous hormones in their roots to promote tropic growth and obtain sufficient moisture and nutrients over the long term. Moreover, under long-term drought stress conditions, mulberry trees retained high root activity

  20. A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Shan; Liu, Hsiao-Lei; Moncada, Ximena; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17–carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the “out of Taiwan” hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China “into North Taiwan,” the “out of South China–Indochina” expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania. PMID:26438853

  1. Quantification of Changes in Mulberry Silk Fabrics due to Different Laundering: Using WAXS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswara, P.; Nivedita, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2011-07-01

    Loom finished mulberry silk fabrics (Taffeta) were machine laundered and hand laundered several times. X-ray diffractograms of pure and laundered fabrics were used to calculate microstructural parameters like average crystallite size (D) and lattice strain (Vegr) employing Williamson-Hall plot. Microstructural parameters were compared with measured mechanical properties like breaking load, tenacity, and elongation of warp yarns unraveled from fabrics. Surface morphology and texture of silk fabrics changed upon washing is evident from SEM images.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the wild silkworm moth, Actias selene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Actias selene (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined to be 15,236 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The arrangement of 13 PCGs was similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans. The AT skew of the mitogenome of A. selene was slightly negative, indicating a higher number of T compared to A nucleotides. The nucleotide composition of the mitogenome of A. selene was also biased toward A+T nucleotides (78.91%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for the gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), which may be initiated by the TTAG, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three genes, including cox1, cox2, and nad5, had incomplete stop codons consisting of just a T. With an exception for trnS1(AGN), all the other tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region of the mitogenome of A. selene was 339 bp in length, and contains several features common to the Lepidopteras, including non-repetitive sequences, a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and an 18-bp poly-T stretch and a poly-A element upstream of trnM gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that A. selene was close to Saturniidae. PMID:22688122

  3. Optimization for ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry fruits with antioxidant and hyperglycemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69°C, ultrasonic power 190W and extraction time 75 min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions. PMID:26076608

  4. Expression profile of cuticular genes of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insect cuticle plays essential roles in many physiological functions. During molting and metamorphosis tremendous changes occur in silkworm cuticle where multiple proteins exist and genes encoding them constitute about 1.5% of all Bombyx mori genes. Results In an effort to determine their expression profiles, a microarray-based investigation was carried out using mRNA collected from larvae to pupae. The results showed that a total of 6676 genes involved in various functions and physiological pathways were activated. The vast majority (93%) of cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected stages with varying expression patterns. There was no correlation between expression patterns and the presence of conserved motifs. Twenty-six RR genes distributed in chromosome 22 were co-expressed at the larval and wandering stages. The 2 kb upstream regions of these genes were further analyzed and three putative elements were identified. Conclusions Data from the present study provide, for the first time, a comprehensive expression profile of genes in silkworm epidermal tissues and evidence that putative elements exist to allow massive production of mRNAs from specific cuticular protein genes. PMID:20226095

  5. Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

  6. Genetic analysis of the electrophysiological response to salicin, a bitter substance, in a polyphagous strain of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+(pph)) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose-response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F(1) generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF(1) progeny between F(1) females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF(1) progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus. PMID:22649537

  7. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  8. Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. PMID:23137391

  9. Mechanical behavior comparison of spider and silkworm silks using molecular dynamics at atomic scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeongsang; Kwon, Junpyo; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-02-14

    Spider and silkworm silk proteins have received much attention owing to their inherent structural stability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. These silk protein materials have various mechanical characteristics such as elastic modulus, ultimate strength and fracture toughness. While the considerable mechanical characteristics of the core crystalline regions of spider silk proteins at the atomistic scale have been investigated through several experimental techniques and computational studies, there is a lack of comparison between spider and silkworm fibroins in the atomistic scale. In this study, we investigated the differences between the mechanical characteristics of spider and silkworm fibroin structures by applying molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics. We found that serine amino acids in silkworm fibroins not only increased the number of hydrogen bonds, but also altered their structural characteristics and mechanical properties. PMID:26806791

  10. The adverse effects of phoxim exposure in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gu, ZhiYa; Zhou, YiJun; Xie, Yi; Li, FanChi; Ma, Lie; Sun, ShanShan; Wu, Yu; Wang, BinBin; Wang, JuMei; Hong, Fashui; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2014-02-01

    The silkworm is an important economic insect. Poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. In this study, Solexa sequencing technology was performed to profile the gene expression changes in the midgut of silkworms in response to 24h of phoxim exposure and the impact on detoxification, apoptosis and immune defense were addressed. The results showed that 254 genes displayed at least 2.0-fold changes in expression levels, with 148 genes up-regulated and 106 genes down-regulated. Cytochrome P450 played an important role in detoxification. Histopathology examination and transmission electron microscope revealed swollen mitochondria and disappearance of the cristae of mitochondria, which are the important features in insect apoptotic cells. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was confirmed. In addition, the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways were all inhibited using qRT-PCR. Our results could help better understand the impact of phoxim exposure on silkworm. PMID:23899924

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380–1030 nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  12. Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

  13. Identification and Determination of the Polyhydroxylated Alkaloids Compounds with α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Activity in Mulberry Leaves of Different Origins.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tao; Li, Jun; Su, Shu-Lan; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry leaves have commonly been utilized in China as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes for thousands of years. To evaluate the quality, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed for identification of polyhydroxylated alkaloids with α-glucosidase inhibitor activity in mulberry leaf. As a result, five alkaloid compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Among them, the compound 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was selected as the most typical and active chemical marker and quantified using an improved high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) normal phase coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) method. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision and repeatability, as well as recovery, and subsequently applied to evaluate twenty-nine batches of mulberry leaves from different collections. From the analytical data it was discovered that the average content of DNJ is 1.53 mg/g, while the total contents of DNJ in the 29 mulberry leaf sample ranged from 0.20 to 3.88 mg/g, which suggested remarkable differences, although it reached the highest levels in early August. These data may provide an important reference for the quality of mulberry leaves used as herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes or as a material to obtain the DNJ of α-glucosidase inhibitor or as a functional food. PMID:26867190

  14. The Quality Changes of Postharvest Mulberry Fruit Treated by Chitosan-g-Caffeic Acid During Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Han, Beibei; Zheng, Yu; Liu, Lili; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of chitosan-g-caffeic acid (CTS-g-CA) on improving the quality and extending the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during storage at 4 °C for 18 d. CTS-g-CA was enzymatically synthesized using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The synergistic effects of CTS-g-CA treatment on mulberry fruit were evaluated using a co-toxicity factor (cf). The results showed that the rotting rate of CTS-g-CA-treated fruit was 37.67% (compared with that of the control at 97.67%) on day 18. The weight loss and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the CTS-g-CA-treated mulberry fruit were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control, CA, CTS, and CA+CTS treatments. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the CTS-g-CA treatment were both higher than those of the control. Furthermore, the CTS-g-CA treatment also maintained higher levels of main active substances, such as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and flavones, in mulberry fruit than the other treatments. Therefore, CTS-g-CA could be used to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during cold storage. PMID:26992122

  15. Mulberry leaf polyphenols delay aging and regulate fat metabolism via the germline signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shanqing; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao; Qu, Zhi; Shen, Weizhi; Shi, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry leaves are an important ingredient in some traditional Chinese medicinal formulas and has been developed for use in functional food products. The antioxidant activity of mulberry leaf extract has been reported to have beneficial effects on diseases in vitro; however, it is not clear which components in mulberry leaf extracts have these functions. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of these ingredients have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we extracted total mulberry leaf polyphenols (MLP) and identified its 13 phenolic monomers. Our results, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, indicated that MLPs delayed aging, improved oxidative stress resistance, and reduced fatty acid storage in vivo. Subsequent genetic screens and gene expression analyses demonstrated that the functions of MLP mainly depended on the germline signaling pathway, thus influencing the activities of downstream transcription factors (DAF-12, DAF-16, PHA-4, and NHR-80) as well as the expression levels of their target genes (fat-6, lipl-4, sod-3, unc-51, and fard-1). Our study determined that diverse modes of action on longevity were promoted by MLP exposure. These observations provide the first insight into MLP's multifaceted functions on aging, fat accumulation, and reproduction in vivo and indicate a specific model for the mechanism of action of MLP. This is a significant finding that lends support to the hypotheses that mulberry leaf extracts can have an impact on human health. PMID:25323576

  16. Mechanism of Enhanced Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus-Resistance by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Ni, Min; Hong, Fashui; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The infection of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) in silkworms is often lethal. It is difficult to prevent, and its lethality is correlated with both viral particle characteristics and silkworm strains. Low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can promote silkworm growth and improve its resistance to organophosphate pesticides. In this study, TiO2 NPs’ effect on BmNPV resistance was investigated by analyzing the characteristics of BmNPV proliferation and transcriptional differences in silkworm midgut and the transcriptional changes of immunity related genes after feeding with TiO2 NPs. We found that low doses of TiO2 NPs improved the resistance of silkworm against BmNPV by 14.88-fold, with the mortalities of the experimental group and control group being 0.56% and 8.33% at 144 h, respectively. The proliferation of BmNPV in the midgut was significantly increased 72 h after infection in both experimental and control groups; the control group reached the peak at 120 h, while the experimental group took 24 more hours to reach the maximal value that was 12.63 times lower than the control, indicating that TiO2 NPs can inhibit BmNPV proliferation in the midgut. Consistently, the expression of the BmNPV-resistant gene Bmlipase-1 had the same increase pattern as the proliferation changes. Immune signaling pathway analysis revealed that TiO2 NPs inhibited the proliferation of silkworm BmNPV to reduce the activation levels of janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, while promoting the expression of Bmakt to improve the immunity. Overall, our results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs increase silkworm resistance against BmNPV by inhibiting virus proliferation and improving immunity in silkworms. PMID:25692869

  17. Evaluating efficacy of bacteriophage therapy against Staphylococcus aureus infections using a silkworm larval infection model.

    PubMed

    Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Ujihara, Takako; Ohara, Naoya; Daibata, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu

    2013-10-01

    Silkworm larva has recently been recognized as an alternative model animal for higher mammals to evaluate the effects of antibiotics. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which harnesses phages as antibacterial agents, against Staphylococcus aureus infections, using the silkworm larval infection model. Two newly isolated staphylococcal phages, S25-3 and S13', were used as therapeutic phage candidates. They were assigned to two different lytic phage genera, Twort-like and AHJD-like viruses, based on their morphologies and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major capsid proteins. Both had a broad host range and strong lytic activity and showed preservative quality. Administration of these phages alone caused no adverse effects in the silkworm larvae. Moreover, the viruses showed life-prolonging effects in the silkworm larval infection model 10 min, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h following infection. Such phage effects in the silkworm larval model were almost paralleled to the therapeutic efficacies in mouse models. These results suggest that phages S25-3 and S13' are eligible as therapeutic candidates and that the silkworm larval model is valid for the evaluation of phage therapy as well as mouse models. PMID:23869440

  18. Rhodiola rosea extends lifespan and improves stress tolerance in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Song, Jiangbo; Chen, Min; Li, Zhiquan; Tong, Xiaoling; Hu, Hai; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fangyin

    2016-04-01

    The root of Rhodiola rosea is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The extract from R. rosea is reported to extend the lifespan of yeast, nematode, and fruit fly. However, the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we tested whether R. rosea extends the lifespan of the silkworm. An aqueous extract of R. rosea significantly prolonged the lifespan of the silkworm, without affecting its daily food intake, body weight, or fecundity, suggesting that R. rosea did not exhibit obvious side effects. Rhodiola rosea extract also enhanced the stress resistance in the silkworm, against heat stress (37 °C) and starvation. The R. rosea extract increased the activity of the major antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and catalase, and altered the content of glutathione and malondialdehyde. Rhodiola rosea increased the expression of BmFoxO, which is a downstream regulator of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway in the silkworm. Our results showed that R. rosea extends lifespan, in which IIS pathway might be involved, and enhances stress resistance in the silkworm. Thus, the silkworm might be used as a novel animal model for lifespan study and efficacy evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicines. PMID:26497336

  19. Proteomic and immunological identification of two new allergens from silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiangjie; Li, Lin; Kuang, Zheshi; Luo, Guoqing; Li, BING

    2015-01-01

    This study explored food allergy caused by eating silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae, a traditionally accepted food and animal feed in East and Southeast Asia, and identified two new allergens by proteomic and immunological methods. Proteins isolated from silkworm pupae were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE); pooled sera from patients allergic to silkworm pupa proteins were used to detect immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding proteins by western blotting, and allergens specific for silkworm pupa consumption-caused allergy were visualised with the ECL reagents. The selected allergen proteins were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Finally, chitinase and paramyosin were identified as silkworm pupa proteins showing strong immunoglobulin (IgE)-binding reaction. Analysis of the sequence homology of the two proteins using the AllergenOnline database indicated that chitinase and paramyosin shared 24.8% and 62.8% sequence homology with known allergens Der f 18 (Dermatophagoides farinae) and Der p 11 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), respectively. Our results shed light on the understanding and treatment of silkworm pupa allergy. PMID:26155181

  20. Improvement of light penetration based silkworm gender identification with confined regions of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Sa-ngiamsak, Chiranut

    2013-06-01

    Based on our previous work on light penetration-based silkworm gender identification, we find that unwanted optical noises scattering from the surrounding area near the silkworm pupa and the transparent support are sometimes analyzed and misinterpreted leading to incorrect silkworm gender identification. To alleviate this issue, we place a small rectangular hole on a transparent support so that it not only helps the user precisely place the silkworm pupa but also functions as a region of interest (ROI) for blocking unwanted optical noises and for roughly locating the abdomen region in the image for ease of image processing. Apart from the external ROI, we also assign a smaller ROI inside the image in order to remove strong scattering light from all edges of the external ROI and at the same time speed up our image processing operations. With only the external ROI in function, our experiment shows a measured 86% total accuracy in identifying gender of 120 silkworm pupae with a measured average processing time of 38 ms. Combining the external ROI and the image ROI together revamps the total accuracy in identifying the silkworm gender to 95% with a measured faster 18 ms processing time.

  1. Changes in 30K protein synthesis during delayed degeneration of the silk gland by a caspase-dependent pathway in a Bombyx (silkworm) mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Yulong; Wu, Chengjia; Tao, Hui; Chen, Xuedong; Yin, Weimin; Sima, Yanghu; Wang, Yujun; Xu, Shiqing

    2016-08-01

    The silk gland in silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a highly specialized organ that specifically synthesizes silk proteins. A function shift to the synthesis of large quantities of 30K proteins occurs in the degenerating silk gland cells during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The posterior silk gland developmental mutant model of silkworm was used in this study and changes in the programmed cell death (PCD) regulatory signals and 30K protein synthesis during silk gland degeneration were investigated. The results showed that PCD induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone was initiated early during larval-pupal metamorphosis in the mutant, but PCD proceeded slowly, resulting in the degeneration process of the silk gland being extended and took almost twice the time compared with the wild type. Caspase-dependent pathway signals regulated by Dronc in the silk gland cells of the mutant were significantly reduced, while the PCD initiation signal regulated by the Atg family was not delayed or reduced, and PCD-related epigenetic modification such as lysine methylation, acetylation, and succinylation, and tyrosine phosphorylation changed significantly. During the degeneration process in the mutant, 30K proteins were efficiently synthesized in the silk gland cells in stage PP1 even when no caspase protein was detected. Degeneration of the silk gland is a PCD process in which autophagy and apoptosis may participate. The degeneration process was regulated by a caspase-dependent pathway, while the synthesis of 30K proteins along with silk gland degeneration may not be entirely dependent on caspase signals. PMID:27107566

  2. Proteome identification of the silkworm middle silk gland.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ying; Ye, Lu-Peng; Che, Jia-Qian; Song, Jia; You, Zheng-Ying; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Bo-Xiong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the functional differentiation among the anterior (A), middle (M), and posterior (P) regions of silkworm middle silk gland (MSG), their proteomes were characterized by shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis with a LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. To get better proteome identification and quantification, triplicate replicates of mass spectrometry analysis were performed for each sample. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2014) [1] via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaino, 2013) [2] with the dataset identifier PXD003371. The peptide identifications that were further processed by PeptideProphet program in Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) after database search with Mascot software were also available in .XML format files. Data presented here are related to a research article published in Journal of Proteomics by Li et al. (2015) [3]. PMID:26937469

  3. Proteome identification of the silkworm middle silk gland

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ying; Ye, Lu-peng; Che, Jia-qian; Song, Jia; You, Zheng-ying; Wang, Shao-hua; Zhong, Bo-xiong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the functional differentiation among the anterior (A), middle (M), and posterior (P) regions of silkworm middle silk gland (MSG), their proteomes were characterized by shotgun LC–MS/MS analysis with a LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. To get better proteome identification and quantification, triplicate replicates of mass spectrometry analysis were performed for each sample. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2014) [1] via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaino, 2013) [2] with the dataset identifier PXD003371. The peptide identifications that were further processed by PeptideProphet program in Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) after database search with Mascot software were also available in .XML format files. Data presented here are related to a research article published in Journal of Proteomics by Li et al. (2015) [3]. PMID:26937469

  4. Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope.

    PubMed

    Holland, C; Terry, A E; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

    2006-11-01

    Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species. PMID:17057700

  5. Immunolocalization of prophenoloxidase among hemocytes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ashida, M; Ochiai, M; Niki, T

    1988-01-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemocytes were fixed immediately after collection. Thin sections of the hemocytes were stained by an indirect immunogold staining method using rabbit anti-prophenoloxidase/IgG as a primary antibody and colloidal gold coated with goat anti-rabbit/IgG as a secondary antibody. Electron micrographs of the sections revealed that only plasmatocytes and oenocytoids have prophenoloxidase both in cytoplasm and nucleus whereas granulocytes, spherulocytes and prohemocytes do not have appreciable amounts of the proenzyme. Cytoplasmic inclusions of oenocytoids also contain the proenzyme. A wide variety of concentrations of prophenoloxidase was observed among oenocytoids. Plasmatocytes appeared to have less prophenoloxidase than any oenocytoids. Once materials in the granules of granulocyte were discharged into the plasma and formed coagula, they cross-reacted with antiprophenoloxidase/IgG, suggesting that prophenoloxidase was trapped in the coagula by unknown mechanisms. This observation is discussed in relation to the dispute concerning the presence of prophenoloxidase or phenoloxidase in the granulocyte. PMID:18620238

  6. Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

    2006-11-01

    Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

  7. Effects of white mulberry (Morus alba) leaf tea investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rachel Dorothy; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of a low (0.25%) and a high (0.5%) dose of white mulberry leaf tea in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Normal control (NC), Diabetic control (DBC), Diabetic mulberry tea low (DMTL, 0.25%) and Diabetic mulberry tea high (DMTH, 0.50%). T2D was induced by feeding a 10% fructose solution in drinking water for 2 weeks to induce insulin resistance, followed by a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) to induce partial pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in all groups except the NC group, which only received a normal drinking water and citrate buffer (pH 4.4) instead of fructose solution and STZ injection, respectively. After 4 weeks feeding of brewed mulberry leaf tea, there were no significant improvements in polyphagia, polydipsia, body weight gain, blood glucose, glucose intolerance, serum insulin, fructosamine, AST, ALT, creatinine, albumin and uric acid levels and liver parameters when serum total cholesterol was significantly and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were markedly decreased in the DMTH group compared to the DBC and DMTL groups. Serum total proteins were significantly reduced in DMTL and DMTH groups compared to the DBC group. These results suggest that brewed white mulberry leaf tea has hypolipidemic rather than antidiabetic effects at least in this experimental condition. However, the effects of the different brands of white mulberry leaf tea may be varied due to various factors. PMID:25850211

  8. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  9. Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone–Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

  10. Precocious metamorphosis in the juvenile hormone-deficient mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several "moltinism" mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval-larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval-pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH-deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

  11. ISSR profiling of genetic variability in the ecotypes of Antheraea mylitta Drury, the tropical Tasar silkworm.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S N; Vijayan, K; Roy, G C; Nair, C V

    2004-02-01

    Antheraea mylitta, Drury, the semi-wild silk-producing lepidopteran insect commonly known as tasar silkworm is unique to India and is distributed over a wide tropical forest range covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madnya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttaranchal. The populations found in different areas are know by their specific local names and are considered as different ecotypes, but it is difficult to separate the populations on the basis of morphological and life-cycle traits and thus molecular characterization was attempted. The present communication relates to the results obtained from the analysis of polymorphism unraveled by twelve ISSR primers for 11 populations of A. mylitta belonging to six ecotypes and 41 individuals of "Railey"--ecotype collected from five zones of Dandakarnya forest in Madnya Pradesh. This communication, further, presents molecular evidences on genetic differences between eleven ecotype populations and highlights the genotypic diversification of a single ecotype into further separate discrete gene pools. The canonical discriminant function analysis revealed grouping of the five populations of Railey ecotype into two "clumps", while accessions of other ecotypes stood separated from each other. Thr "Railey" populations on detailed study, further, revealed separation of two (Tokapal and Nangur) populations into discrete gene pools and the other three (Kondagaon, Darba and Tongpal) populations, in spite of larger geographic distance between them, overlapped one on the other. The analysis also identified nine markers, which can be utilized to characterize specific population and will be of help to follow the ongoing genetic changes triggered by various ecological factors and human influences on the "Railey" ecotype. PMID:15065428

  12. Effect of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0±16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID

  13. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenming; Zhou, Bo; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg) were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR) with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP). Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and metabolizable energy (ME). Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT), 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI), was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks). There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743), ADG (P = 0.425), DMI (P = 0.642), or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236) between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024) in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076) in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098). No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513), tenderness (P = 0.844), adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149), and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400); however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034). In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content. PMID:24427304

  14. Characterization of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody produced by transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori)

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Minoru; Tatematsu, Ken-Ichiro; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Harazono, Akira; Takakura, Daisuke; Hashii, Noritaka; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kawasaki, Nana

    2015-01-01

    In response to the successful use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the treatment of various diseases, systems for expressing recombinant mAbs using transgenic animals or plants have been widely developed. The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a highly domesticated insect that has recently been used for the production of recombinant proteins. Because of their cost-effective breeding and relatively easy production scale-up, transgenic silkworms show great promise as a novel production system for mAbs. In this study, we established a transgenic silkworm stably expressing a human-mouse chimeric anti-CD20 mAb having the same amino acid sequence as rituximab, and compared its characteristics with rituximab produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (MabThera®). The anti-CD20 mAb produced in the transgenic silkworm showed a similar antigen-binding property, but stronger antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and weaker complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) compared to MabThera. Post-translational modification analysis was performed by peptide mapping using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. There was a significant difference in the N-glycosylation profile between the CHO− and the silkworm-derived mAbs, but not in other post-translational modifications including oxidation and deamidation. The mass spectra of the N-glycosylated peptide revealed that the observed biological properties were attributable to the characteristic N-glycan structures of the anti-CD20 mAbs produced in the transgenic silkworms, i.e., the lack of the core-fucose and galactose at the non-reducing terminal. These results suggest that the transgenic silkworm may be a promising expression system for the tumor-targeting mAbs with higher ADCC activity. PMID:26261057

  15. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel monopartite geminivirus associated with mulberry mosaic dwarf disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Navarro, Beatriz; Zhang, Zhixiang; Lu, Meiguang; Zhou, Xueping; Chi, Shengqi; Di Serio, Francesco; Li, Shifang

    2015-08-01

    High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs allowed the identification of a novel DNA virus in a Chinese mulberry tree affected by a disease showing mosaic and dwarfing symptoms. Rolling-circle amplification and PCR with specific primers, followed by sequencing of eleven independent full-length clones, showed that this virus has a monopartite circular DNA genome (∼ 2.95 kb) containing ORFs in both polarity strands, as reported previously for geminiviruses. A field survey showed the close association of the virus with diseased mulberries, so we tentatively named the virus mulberry mosaic dwarf-associated virus (MMDaV). The MMDaV genome codes for five and two putative proteins in the virion-sense and in the complementary-sense strands, respectively. Although three MMDaV virion-sense putative proteins did not share sequence homology with any protein in the databases, functional domains [coiled-coil and transmembrane (TM) domains] were identified in two of them. In addition, the protein containing a TM domain was encoded by an ORF located in a similar genomic position in MMDaV and in several other geminiviruses. As reported for members of the genera Mastrevirus and Becurtovirus, MMDaV replication-associated proteins are expressed through the alternative splicing of an intron, which was shown to be functional in vivo. A similar intron was found in the genome of citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV), a divergent geminivirus found recently in citrus. On the basis of pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, CCDaV and MMDaV appear to be closely related to each other, thus supporting their inclusion in a putative novel genus in the family Geminiviridae. PMID:25953916

  16. Identification and Evolution of the Silkworm Helitrons and their Contribution to Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min-Jin; Shen, Yi-Hong; Xu, Meng-Shu; Liang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Zhang, Ze

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a structure-based approach to identify Helitrons in four lepidopterans and systematically analysed Helitrons in the silkworm genome. We found that the content of Helitrons varied greatly among genomes. The silkworm genome harboured 67 555 Helitron-related sequences that could be classified into 21 families and accounted for ∼4.23% of the genome. Thirteen of the families were new. Three families were putatively autonomous and included the replication initiator motif and helicase domain. The silkworm Helitrons were widely and randomly distributed in the genome. Most Helitron families radiated within the past 2 million years and experienced a single burst of expansion. These Helitron families captured 3724 gene fragments and contributed to at least 1.4% of the silkworm full-length cDNAs, suggesting important roles of Helitrons in the evolution of the silkworm genes. In addition, we found that some new Helitrons were generated by combinations of other Helitrons. Overall, the results presented in this study provided insights into the generation and evolution of Helitron transposons and their contribution to transcripts. PMID:23771679

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Carboxypeptidase Genes in Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Junhong; Li, Yi; Liu, Hua-Wei; Li, Jifu; Dong, Zhaoming; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically-important insect that can secrete silk. Carboxypeptidases have been found in various metazoan species and play important roles in physiological and biochemical reactions. Here, we analyzed the silkworm genome database and characterized 48 carboxypeptidases, including 34 metal carboxypeptidases (BmMCP1–BmMCP34) and 14 serine carboxypeptidases (BmSCP1–BmSCP14), to better understand their diverse functions. Compared to other insects, our results indicated that carboxypeptidases from silkworm have more family members. These silkworm carboxypeptidases could be divided into four families: Peptidase_M2 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_M14 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_S10 carboxypeptidases and Peptidase_S28 carboxypeptidases. Microarray analysis showed that the carboxypeptidases had distinct expression patterns, whereas quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the expression level of 13 carboxypeptidases significantly decreased after starvation and restored after re-feeding. Overall, our study provides new insights into the functional and evolutionary features of silkworm carboxypeptidases. PMID:27483237

  18. Early responses of silkworm midgut to microsporidium infection--A Digital Gene Expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ya-Jie; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Li; Yan, Wei; Li, Qian-Long; Xiao, Sheng-Yan; Fu, Xu-Liang; Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Shen, Zhong-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex processes, which have been studied extensively in recent years. In insects, the midgut is a vital organ of digestion and nutrient absorption, and also serves as the first physiological and immune barrier against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Our focus is on Nosema bombycis, which is a pathogen of silkworm pebrine and causes great economic losses to the silk industry. A complete understanding of the host response to infection by N. bombycis and the interaction between them is necessary to prevent this disease. Silkworm midgut infected with N. bombycis is a good model to investigate the early host responses to microsporidia infection and the interaction between the silkworm and the microsporidium. Using Digital Gene Expression analysis, we investigated the midgut transcriptome profile of P50 silkworm larvae orally inoculated with N. bombycis. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-infection (hpi), 247, 95, 168, 450, 89, 80, and 773 DEGs were identified, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis showed the influence of N. bombycis infection on many biological processes including folate biosynthesis, spliceosome, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, biosynthesis of amino acids, ribosome, and RNA degradation. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes involved in the immune response were identified. Overall, the results of this study provide an understanding of the strategy used by silkworm as a defense against the invasion by N. bombycis. Similar interactions between hosts and pathogens infection may exist in other species. PMID:25315610

  19. Isozymic variations in specific and nonspecific esterase and its thermostability in silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Biswas, Tapati Datta; Nayak, Sandeepta Kumar; Saha, A K; Majumdar, M K

    2012-09-01

    Esterase isozymic variations were documented in the haemolymph of developed multivoltine and bivoltine silkworm breeds during unfavorable seed crop seasons of May - September using á- and â- napthylacetate separately to identify specific and nonspecific esterase having thermotolerant potentiality. Variations existed in the isozyme pattern with three bands (Est-2, 3 and 4) in pure Nistari race and other developed multivoltine and bivoltine breeds. Est-2 and Est-3 were non-specific esterases as they were observed when both á- and â-napthylacetate was used as substrates separately. Est-4 band was observed only with á-napthylacetate as substrate and was therefore confirmed to be specific á-esterase band in the haemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Zymograms showed that the non-specific esterase band (Est-3) with R1 of 0.43 and specific á-esterase band (Est-4) with R(f) of 0.32 predominately withstood a temperature of 70 +/- 2 degrees C for a duration of 10 min and were confirmed as thermostable esterases in haemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. This also categorized the presence of thermostable esterases in developed multivoltine and bivoltine breeds of silkworm, even though the qualitative activity was more in the former than the latter. The qualitative presence of thermostable esterases and their activity could be adopted as an indicative biochemical marker in relation to thermotolerance in silkworm. PMID:23734447

  20. SilkDB v2.0: a platform for silkworm (Bombyx mori ) genome biology.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Li, Ruiqiang; Cheng, Daojun; Fan, Wei; Zha, Xingfu; Cheng, Tingcai; Wu, Yuqian; Wang, Jun; Mita, Kazuei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2010-01-01

    The SilkDB is an open-access database for genome biology of the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Since the draft sequence was completed and the SilkDB was first released 5 years ago, we have collaborated with other groups to make much remarkable progress on silkworm genome research, such as the completion of a new high-quality assembly of the silkworm genome sequence as well as the construction of a genome-wide microarray to survey gene expression profiles. To accommodate these new genomic data and house more comprehensive genomic information, we have reconstructed SilkDB database with new web interfaces. In the new version (v2.0) of SilkDB, we updated the genomic data, including genome assembly, gene annotation, chromosomal mapping, orthologous relationship and experiment data, such as microarray expression data, Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and corresponding references. Several new tools, including SilkMap, Silkworm Chromosome Browser (SCB) and BmArray, are developed to access silkworm genomic data conveniently. SilkDB is publicly available at the new URL of http://www.silkdb.org. PMID:19793867

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Carboxypeptidase Genes in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Ye, Junhong; Li, Yi; Liu, Hua-Wei; Li, Jifu; Dong, Zhaoming; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically-important insect that can secrete silk. Carboxypeptidases have been found in various metazoan species and play important roles in physiological and biochemical reactions. Here, we analyzed the silkworm genome database and characterized 48 carboxypeptidases, including 34 metal carboxypeptidases (BmMCP1-BmMCP34) and 14 serine carboxypeptidases (BmSCP1-BmSCP14), to better understand their diverse functions. Compared to other insects, our results indicated that carboxypeptidases from silkworm have more family members. These silkworm carboxypeptidases could be divided into four families: Peptidase_M2 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_M14 carboxypeptidases, Peptidase_S10 carboxypeptidases and Peptidase_S28 carboxypeptidases. Microarray analysis showed that the carboxypeptidases had distinct expression patterns, whereas quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the expression level of 13 carboxypeptidases significantly decreased after starvation and restored after re-feeding. Overall, our study provides new insights into the functional and evolutionary features of silkworm carboxypeptidases. PMID:27483237

  2. Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Tomoko; Shimojima, Tsukasa; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y

    2005-01-21

    Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system directly applicable for the protein expression of silkworm. By using this system, the green fluorescence protein was successfully expressed in silkworm larvae and pupae not only by infection of its recombinant virus but also by direct injection of its bacmid DNA. This method provides the rapid protein production in silkworm as long as 10 days, is free from biohazard, thus will be a powerful tool for the future production factory of recombinant eukaryotic proteins and baculoviruses. PMID:15596136

  3. Effects of mulberry ethanol extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Rae; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ki Rim; Kim, Young Eon; Baek, Nam In; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of mammalian cellular damage and are associated with diseases such as aging, arteriosclerosis, inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops upon the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, which is partly due to ROS activity. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective and anti-oxidative effects of fractionated mulberry extracts in mouse insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells (MIN6N cells). Treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced significant cell death and increased intracellular ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in the MIN6N cells. Fractionated mulberry extracts significantly reduced the H2O2-dependent production of intracellular ROS, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and lipid peroxidation. In addition, mulberry extracts inhibited DNA fragmentation induced by H2O2. Thus, the antioxidant properties of mulberry extracts in pancreatic β-cells may be exploited for the prevention or treatment of type 1 diabetes. PMID:24154764

  4. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  5. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

  6. Genome-wide identification of abiotic stress-regulated and novel microRNAs in mulberry leaf.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Han, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiguo; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Jiachun; Li, Long

    2015-10-01

    As the most important food plant for sericultural industry, mulberry trees have to suffer from a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses, such as drought and high salinity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to play important roles in abiotic stresses regulation in many plants. However, there are seldom reports on the miRNAs expression profiles upon abiotic challenges in mulberry. In this study, three small RNA libraries from mulberry leaf tissue with or without drought or salt treatment were constructed and deep sequenced. Total of 48 conserved miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 162 novel miRNAs were identified (processing precision value>0.1). A total of 270 and 1963 target genes were predicted for conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs, respectively. 13 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected under drought or salt stresses by deep sequencing and qRT-PCR. 5' RLM-RACE validated Morus 013341 to be the target gene of miR-395a. Our results provided initial clue to further study molecular mechanism on abiotic stresses regulation in mulberry. PMID:26188501

  7. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  8. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials. PMID:24906782

  9. Adsorption properties of macroporous adsorbent resins for separation of anthocyanins from mulberry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zhang, Min; Li, Jing; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Cobbina, Samuel J; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of mulberry anthocyanins (MA) on five types of macroporous resins (XAD-7HP, AB-8, HP-20, D-101 and X-5) were evaluated, XAD-7HP and AB-8 showed higher adsorption/desorption capacities. On the basis of static adsorption test, XAD-7HP and AB-8 resins were selected for kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics. The adsorption mechanism indicated that the process was better explained by pseudo-first-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the thermodynamics tests showed that the processes were exothermic, spontaneous and thermodynamically feasible. Dynamic tests were performed on a column packed with XAD-7HP and AB-8, and breakthrough volume was reached at 15 and 14 bed volumes of MA solution, respectively. The purity of the fraction by 40% ethanol elution on XAD-7HP reached 93.6%, from which cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The method could be used to prepare high purity anthocyanins from mulberry fruits as well as other plants. PMID:26471611

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in mulberry cells of Saccoglossus and Ptychodera (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta).

    PubMed

    Cameron, C B; Mackie, G O; Powell, J F; Lescheid, D W; Sherwood, N M

    1999-04-01

    Mulberry cells are epidermal gland cells bearing a long basal process resembling a neurite and are tentatively regarded as neurosecretory cells. They occur scattered through the ectoderm of the proboscis, collar, and anterior trunk regions of the acorn worms Saccoglossus, usually in association with concentrations of nervous tissue. They contain secretion granules that appear from electron micrographs to be released to the exterior. The granules are immunoreactive with antisera raised against mammalian and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Similar results were obtained with another enteropneust, Ptychodera bahamensis, using antisera raised against tunicate-1 and mammalian GnRH. Mulberry cells were not found in either Cephalodiscus or Rhabdopleura (Hemichordata: Pterobranchia). Extracts of tissues from 4200 Saccoglossus contain an area of immunoreactive GnRH that is detected by an antiserum raised against lamprey GnRH when characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. This is the first report of the occurrence of GnRH in hemichordates, probably the most primitive group clearly belonging to the chordate lineage. The physiological function of GnRH in enteropneusts is unknown, but an exocrine function appears more likely than an endocrine or neurotransmitter role. PMID:10094853

  11. Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity

    PubMed Central

    Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

  12. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry. PMID:26686153

  13. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  14. A new source of whitening agent from a Thai Mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation.

    PubMed

    Nattapong, Snitmatjaro; Omboon, Luanratana

    2008-06-15

    Protection of human body against the harmful ultraviolet exposure is nowadays more important and interesting. Melanin, a group of bio-pigments, acts as a natural solar filter absorbing and reflecting most of the UV radiation passing through the layer of skin. Over production of the pigments can create a health problem, hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyalanine (L-Dopa), therefore tyrosinase inhibitors are used in various skin preparations due to its pronounced effect on anti-hyperpigment. In this study, an in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity study of the extracts from a hybrid Mulberry plant obtained from Morus alba L. and Morus rotundiloba Koidz, is shown to prove as new source of Thai whitening agent. The presence of betulinic acid, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity agent, is also reported. The study develops the technique of HPLC quantitation of betulinic acid and its relation to anti-tyrosinase activity of the whole parts of Thai Mulberry. PMID:18569714

  15. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Yue, Yang; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment. PMID:26404374

  16. Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

    2009-04-01

    This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

  17. The advances and perspectives of recombinant protein production in the silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu

    2014-10-01

    The silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori, is one of the most important organs that has been fully studied and utilized so far. It contributes finest silk fibers to humankind. The silk gland has excellent ability of synthesizing silk proteins and is a kind tool to produce some useful recombinant proteins, which can be widely used in the biological, biotechnical and pharmaceutical application fields. It's a very active area to express recombinant proteins using the silk gland as a bioreactor, and great progress has been achieved recently. This review recapitulates the progress of producing recombinant proteins and silk-based biomaterials in the silk gland of silkworm in addition to the construction of expression systems. Current challenges and future trends in the production of valuable recombinant proteins using transgenic silkworms are also discussed. PMID:25113390

  18. Genome fingerprinting of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using random arbitrary primers.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, G M; Nagaraju, J

    1995-09-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to study DNA profiling of thirteen silkworm genotypes. The genotypes included six diapausing and seven nondiapausing varieties that represent a high degree of divergence with respect to geographic origin, and morphological, qualitative, quantitative and biochemical characters. Two hundred sixteen amplified products were generated using 40 random primers. Genotype-specific amplification products were identified. Amplification products specific to diapausing genotypes were also identified. Segregation of the RAPD marker was analyzed in a backcross population and found to be inherited as dominant Mendelian traits. Based on pairwise comparison of amplified products, the genetic similarity was performed by a hierarchical clustering technique. Silkworm genotypes were clustered into two groups, one consisting of six diapausing and the other of seven nondiapausing genotypes. The results of our study suggest that the RAPD technique could be used as a powerful tool to generate genetic markers that are linked to traits of interest in the silkworm. PMID:8582347

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of a hybrid strain of the domesticated silkworm (Qiufeng × Baiyu).

    PubMed

    Li, Fengbo; Zhang, Huixian; Liu, Peigang; Wang, Yongqiang; Meng, Zhiqi

    2016-05-01

    The hybrid strain of the domesticated silkworm (Qiufeng × Baiyu) is one of the most popular commercial silkworm varieties in China. In this study, we reported its complete mitochondrial genome sequence for the first time. The 15,680 bp long genome contains 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. All PCGs started with typical ATN codons except for COI, which began with CGA. Eleven PCGs have complete stop codons, whereas COI and COII end with a single T. The 495 bp long A + T-rich region harbors the conserved sequence features typically found in lepidopteran insects. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Qiufeng × Baiyu provides an important data source for further study on the mechanism of silkworm domestication. PMID:25319289

  20. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Yue, Yang; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-10-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment. PMID:26404374

  1. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated female-specific sterility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; James, A A; Tan, A; Huang, Y

    2014-12-01

    Engineering sex-specific sterility is critical for developing transgene-based sterile insect technology. Targeted genome engineering achieved by customized zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) or clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems has been exploited extensively in a variety of model organisms; however, screening mutated individuals without a detectable phenotype is still challenging. In addition, genetically recessive mutations only detectable in homozygotes make the experiments time-consuming. In the present study, we model a novel genetic system in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, that results in female-specific sterility by combining transgenesis with TALEN technologies. This system induces sex-specific sterility at a high efficiency by targeting the female-specific exon of the B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) gene, which has sex-specific splicing isoforms regulating somatic sexual development. Transgenic animals co-expressing TALEN left and right arms targeting the female-specific Bmdsx exon resulted in somatic mutations and female mutants lost fecundity because of lack of egg storage and abnormal external genitalia. The wild-type sexual dimorphism of abdominal segment was not evident in mutant females. In contrast, there were no deleterious effects in mutant male moths. The current somatic TALEN technologies provide a promising approach for future insect functional genetics, thus providing the basis for the development of attractive genetic alternatives for insect population management. PMID:25125145

  2. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated female-specific sterility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wang, Yueqiang; Li, Zhiqian; Ling, Lin; Zeng, Baosheng; James, Anthony A.; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Engineering sex-specific sterility is critical for developing transgene-based Sterile Insect Technology. Targeted genome engineering achieved by customized ZFN, TALENs or CRIPSPR/Cas9 systems has been exploited extensively in a variety of model organisms. However, screening mutated individuals without a detectable phenotype is still challenging. In addition, genetically recessive mutations only detectable in homozygotes make the experiments time-consuming. Here we model a novel genetic system in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, that results in female-specific sterility by combining transgenesis with transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) technologies. This system induces sex-specific sterility at a high efficiency by targeting the female-specific exon of the B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) gene, which has sex-specific splicing isoforms regulating somatic sexual development. Transgenic animals co-expressing TALEN left and right arms targeting the female-specific Bmdsx exon resulted in somatic mutations and female mutants lost fecundity due to lack of egg storage and abnormal external genitalia. The wild-type sexual dimorphism of abdominal segment was not evident in mutant females. In contrast, there were no deleterious effects in mutant male moths. The current somatic TALEN technologies provide a promising approach in future insect functional genetics, thus providing the basis for the development of attractive genetic alternatives for insect population management. PMID:25125145

  3. (Poly)phenolic fingerprint and chemometric analysis of white (Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry leaves by using a non-targeted UHPLC-MS approach.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Tassotti, Michele; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca; Martínez, Juan José; Mena, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the (poly)phenolic fingerprinting and chemometric discrimination of leaves of eight mulberry clones from Morus alba and Morus nigra cultivated in Spain. UHPLC-MS(n) (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) high-throughput analysis allowed the tentative identification of a total of 31 compounds. The phenolic profile of mulberry leaf was characterized by the presence of a high number of flavonol derivatives, mainly glycosylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol. Caffeoylquinic acids, simple phenolic acids, and some organic acids were also detected. Seven compounds were identified for the first time in mulberry leaves. The chemometric analysis (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of the chromatographic data allowed the characterization of the different mulberry clones and served to explain the great intraspecific variability in mulberry secondary metabolism. This screening of the complete phenolic profile of mulberry leaves can assist the increasing interest for purposes related to quality control, germplasm screening, and bioactivity evaluation. PMID:27374530

  4. Transcriptome analysis of interactions between silkworm and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liang; Peng, Zhengwen; Guo, Youbing; Cheng, Tingcai; Guo, Huizhen; Sun, Qiang; Huang, Chunlin; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) specifically infects silkworm midgut (MG) and multiplication occurs mainly in posterior midgut (PM). In this study, MG and fat body (FB) were extracted at 0, 3, 24, and 72 h after BmCPV infection. The total sequence reads of each sample were more than 1510000, and the mapping ratio exceeded 95.3%. Upregulated transcripts increased in MG during the infection process. Gene ontology (GO) categories showed that antioxidants were all upregulated in FB but not in MG. BGI001299, BGI014434, BGI012068, and BGI009201 were MG-specific genes with transmembrane transport function, the expression of which were induced by BmCPV. BGI001299, BGI014434, and BGI012068 expressed in entire MG and may be involved in BmCPV invasion. BGI009201 expressed only in PM and may be necessary for BmCPV proliferation. BmPGRP-S2 and BGI012452 (a putative serine protease) were induced by BmCPV and may be involved in immune defense against BmCPV. The expression level of BmCPV S1, S2, S3, S6, and S7 was high and there was no expression of S9 in MG 72 h, implying that the expression time of structural protein coding genes is earlier. These results provide insights into the mechanism of BmCPV infection and host defense. PMID:27118345

  5. The effects of diphtheria toxin on the Cecropia silkworm.

    PubMed

    PAPPENHEIMER, A M; WILLIAMS, C M

    1952-05-01

    1. The metamorphosis of the Cecropia silkworm is accompanied by large and systematic changes in the insect's sensitivity to diphtheria toxin. 2. Injection of less than 1 gamma of toxin into mature caterpillars, prepupae, or developing adults causes cessation of development followed by delayed death 1 to 5 weeks later. 3. Dormant pupae, on the contrary, are resistant to 70 gamma of toxin and may survive even this enormous dose for over 4 weeks. One-hundredth of this dose, however, prevents pupae from initiating adult development. 4. Tetanus toxin, to which the insect is insensitive, failed to duplicate any of these effects. 5. Maximal sensitivity to diphtheria toxin is characteristic of those stages in the life history which depend on the presence and function of the cytochrome system. Resistance to the toxin, as in the case of the diapausing pupa, is correlated with the existence and utilization of metabolic pathways other than the usual cytochrome system. 6. This correlation persists within the individual insect. Thus, within the diapausing pupa, the toxin fails to affect the heart in which a normal cytochrome system is absent, but, within the same insect, causes a degeneration of the intersegmental muscles in which an intact cytochrome system is present. 7. These several lines of evidence are interpreted in support of the conclusion that diphtheria toxin acts by blocking the synthesis of one or more components in the cytochrome system. PMID:14955616

  6. Two Hemocyte Lineages Exist in Silkworm Larval Hematopoietic Organ

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    Background Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. Conclusions/Significance From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori. PMID:20676370

  7. Retrotransposon "Qian" mediated segmental duplication in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunmin; Jiang, Ning; Zou, Ziliang; Tu, Zhijian; Chen, Anli; Zhao, Qiaoling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-03-01

    Transposable elements constitute a large fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. They have the potential to alter genome structure and play a major role in genome evolution. Here, we report a segmental duplication mediated by a novel long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon as the cause of an egg-shell recessive lethal mutant (l-em mutant) in silkworm (Bombyx mori). The segmental duplication resulted in the duplication of six genes and the disruption of two genes. Disruption of BmEP80 (B. mori egg protein 80), a gene encoding a major egg-shell structure protein, is likely responsible for the lethal water-loss phenotype in the l-em/l-em mutant. Our data revealed that BmEP80 is present in the inner egg-shell layer and plays important roles in resistance to water efflux form eggs. A novel LTR retrotransposon (named as "Qian") was identified and the model for the Qian-mediated chromosomal segmental duplication was proposed. Detail biochemical and genomic analyses on the l-em mutant offer an opportunity to demonstrate that an LTR retrotransposon could trigger duplication of a chromosomal segment (∼96.3 kb) and confer novel phenotype. PMID:24462715

  8. Silkworm (Bombyx mori) cryopreservation: embryonic development as revealed by microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Jingade, A H; Srinivasa Babu, G K; Lehka, G; Nair, C V; Ananda Rao, A; Manjula, A

    2013-01-01

    Embryo cryopreservation offers a way to safeguard against unwelcome mutations and inadvertent selection that can change its unique genetic makeup. Having a genetic repository of the silkworm genetic resources would ensure preservation of original genetic makeup and will permit to study what genes may have been lost in the selection process. For cryopreservation of eggs and embryos of silkworm, the determination of embryonic stages is a prerequisite. This study reports microscopic observations on embryonic development. The embryonic stages in the dechorionated eggs were determined in parallel comparison with the embryos isolated from intact eggs of different developmental ages. PMID:23435713

  9. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  10. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840